Introduction to 3D Animation With Blender | EduCraft Ideas | Skillshare

Introduction to 3D Animation With Blender

EduCraft Ideas, 3D Animation with your imagination!

Introduction to 3D Animation With Blender

EduCraft Ideas, 3D Animation with your imagination!

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13 Lessons (2h 60m)
    • 1. Course Trailer

    • 2. What you can do with Blender Animation

    • 3. Blender Basics

    • 4. Blender Animation Basics

    • 5. Project 1-1: Modeling

    • 6. Project 1-2: Animation

    • 7. Project 1-3: Render

    • 8. Project 2-1: Modeling the Moon and Stars

    • 9. Project 2-2:Modeling the Land

    • 10. Project 2-3: Animation

    • 11. Project 3-1: Modeling

    • 12. Project 3-2: Rigging

    • 13. Project 3- 3: Animation

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About This Class

This class is the easiest and quickest way to learning the most important tools and techniques for 3D animation.  You’ll learn how to animate complex movements with rotations by creating your very own solar system.  You’ll learn how to make a cool cartoon scene with moving clouds and a rising moon when you learn how to animate object with translation.  Finally, you’ll learn to quickly create and animate a character with only a few steps.  This is all done with the absolutely free Blender 3D software.


This class does not assume any prior knowledge.  You simply need a reasonably up to date computer.  It can be Mac, PC, or Linux.

Start by Downloading and installing Blender Here.

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EduCraft Ideas

3D Animation with your imagination!


Modeling and animation are all about your imagination.  Here at EduCraft Ideas, It's our pleasure to teach you how to bring everything in your imagination to life.

In the pic above you'll find Linda.  She's the next subject of our upcoming classes.  William, one of the EduCraft Ideas team learned to do character modeling in a very reasonable amount of time.  Coming soon, I'll show you where I started and you'll be amazed at how far I've come and how you can do the same even faster.

It doesn't stop there either.  We're going to cover many facets of modeling and animation and it'll always be on free software.

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1. Course Trailer: modeling and animation are some of the most valuable, expressive skills you can have. And if you can just imagine something, you can make it real. Hi, My name is William Harrison, and I'm gonna be your teacher for learning three D animation with Blender. I came to Blender not as an artist. Like some of the people out there. I came just as a c gener. I've grown up watching movies like Toy Story and then later on Wally and Big Hero six. And I fell in love with this idea of creating an entire universe completely from my imagination. And ever since I learned about this new program, it was new. Back then called Blender, I found and look for every opportunity to integrate it into what I was doing when I was an undergrad. I used it for classes. When I was in grad school, I used it from our research, and later on, when I got a job, I used it there. And let me tell you, every time I've used it, I've turned heads. I'm dropped jaws. I'm impressed, people. And to be honest with you and a lot of ways, Blender has changed My life. I hope that when you watch this, even if you're not an artist, that you will be in. You think of yourself that wearing your find ways to utilize this in your everyday life, even if your everyday life doesn't involve creating art for other people, and there's no limit to what you can do with blender, you can take Power Point presentations and make them more captivating. You can take report visualizations and make them all inspiring. You can make YouTube presentations and whatever format you can even clone yourself. What's up, people? My name is Trey. You can think of me as this guy's older, better looking brother do. I thought we said we were going to do this. You're embarrassing me in front of everyone. We said that if I didn't think things were going well, I was gonna wink at the camera and then you come in, not just barge in the middle of my presentation. I mean, I was on a roll. What are they gonna be? You know me, baby. I gotta give the people what they want, but I let you get back to it now that they're not sleeping before now, that everything is all messed up and you're probably thinking I'm not very professional. Let me tell you what we're going to cover. We're going to start by going over How? See G I and animation are linked just briefly. Next thing we're gonna cover translational animation. That's how things can move back and forth up and down in straight lines. After that, we're gonna cover rotational animation. So what you can do, make thing what you can do to make things rotate and from complex things, You probably didn't realize that you can do from just rotations. Lastly, we're going to cover character animation. We're gonna briefly do some character ringing and character modeling just so you'll have a character, and then I'll show you how to animate it. And I do it in a way that will save you lots of times. So if you have no experience with blender whatsoever or drawing or any of that stuff, don't worry. I got you. I see you inside 2. What you can do with Blender Animation: Now let's talk about two D animation from the perspective of a least, what we've been watching for the last 100 or so years by Disney and Warner Brothers and other companies like that. Initially, when an artist wants to making animation, they start with the single John. They then make another drawing that's slightly different from that. They show that to you in order at a certain rate and was done correctly. You end up with a movie, one take your canoe and go, and this same idea is what we're going to apply and blended. We make a single picture, and then from that picture we can make different pictures and then show them, in a certain rate at a certain order. Now the power of three D is that a lot of this congee automated. We'll talk a lot about that in the future. I know you want to make three D movies, and I'm sure your way of movies like Frozen or Marijuana or, if you're old enough Toy Story. But it turns out you can make movies on just as good quality with blending. Now you're looking at here on the left. This movie is called Cosmos Laundromat, and it was made almost entirely, if not entirely with blended. The movie on the right was called Operation Barbershop, also made in blended. Now, after watching this tutorial, and you're not going to necessarily be able to create something this amazing, but it does give you something to reach for. What you may not be aware of is that you can also do animations and modeling for video games we're looking at here is to really popular video games. The one on the left is Assassin's Creed, and the one on the right is Mario Odyssey, that you can do simulations inside of game engines or you can do them inside a blender. This is just another example to show you what you could possibly do with what you learn. Well, you might not realize, is that even though Blender can do three D animation, it can also do two D animation. And that's what you're looking at. Here. You're looking at Blunder doing two D animations, and you could use this for ah webpage. You could use it for cut scenes to go from one video to the next. There's a lot of different ways you can use this. You can create an entire two D animation if you so please. But I want you to realize that you're not completely confined toe only working in three D when you're doing animations and blended memory overriding progress. So the last thing I want to talk to you about is what they call virtual effects. And that's what you're looking at here. Yes, blunder can do to de things. It can do three D things, but you can also mix live action footage with three D footage, and you can see in this picture here the people in this case are really and in this particular shot, even the background Israel. But the text, the robot, the lights for the robot. All of that is vfx, and this shot is much the same. When the robot comes on, you can see. But that's a mix of three D assets and three D models and animations, along with the live action. Once again, this is not something you unnecessary be able to do from just watching this tutorial, but it does give you an idea of what's possible 3. Blender Basics: If you're born in new to blender, One of the most frustrating things is to learn how to select with the right mouse button. Yes, you heard me Correctly Bundled default is to select with the right mouse button. But a couple years after I learned how to use Blunder, I realized that it doesn't really have to be that way. So I'm gonna show you how to select the left mouse button. That way, everything else is going to be much simpler. And the learning curve won't be a steep. So in order to do that, you're going to go to file user preferences and under user preferences, you're gonna go to inputs here and then under inputs, you're gonna say, select with the left mouse button. From there, you're going to save your user settings. You can close, and now you can select everything with the left mouse button, which is probably what you're used to. Now let's talk about how to navigate around in three dimensions. So you couldn't see here that I have the boot up screen. This is what loads when you first start up blender. And, like before I can click on different things but because I'm working in three dimensions, I need to be able to move the environment. So I need to be able to rotate, and I need to be able to shift things right. So that's called. So one is rotating. The other is panic. Now you can rotate by using the middle mouse button on Mike. In my case, the middle mouse button is a wheels. If I hold down the middle mouse button mouse button and move my mouse around, you can see that it rotates about the environment. Now if I want to shift around in the environment, I pulled down shift and I hold down the middle mouse button as well. And then when I move the mouse around, you can see that it shifts it without rotating. And I could do that left to right or up and down. So that's how you move around the environment when you're trying to model it. Now let me show you something that's useful when you're trying to do a lot of modeling with a lot of different objects. So let's say that you have a lot of different objects and don't worry about how I'm doing this I'll show you how to do this later, but we have lots of different objects that we might be working right. So I'm doing this with Shift D, which is duplicate, but that's really not important right now. So let's say that I want to work on this object and you can see if I rotate around. It's kind of hard for me to get it at just the right location, because I'm centered on this center cute here. But when I haven't selected, if I meant hit period on my numb pad, you can see now that it acts like it's the center of the environment. So now, as I'm working on it, I've been trying to ignore this stuff in the background, and I can work specifically on this object. But it doesn't just work for objects that also works for Verdecia. So if I select avert asi, I hit period on the num pad. Now I'm centered on that object. So as I rotate around, you can see that that point kind of remains station stationary. Now, as soon as I pan, I undo that. So when I pan around, the center is some place to the side based on how it how how I panned. But the moment I select something I hit, period, then it's back in the center and hopefully that'll make things a lot easier as you're trying to move around the environment. Now let's talk about zooming. Zooming is what allows you to go in and out of the scene. And right now, because I have three mouse buttons, I'm using the middle mouse button to do this. Another way you can zoom out is on the num pad to use plus and minus. This allows you to come in and out of the screen. Another way you can still do. This is if your object is selected, you can hit period on the num pad and that will take you in, and it will sense her the view on the environment. Yet still another way to do zooming is to take shit plus B, and you can make a box and you can see that it selects or it zooms into the area you're talking about. Now let me show you a quick change in user preferences that you can make to make your life a lot easier. So if you go to file user preferences, and then on interface, you click. Zoom to mouse position and rotate around selection. Save user settings. Now, whatever you select, it will rotate about and even more useful to that. It'll doom toe where the mouse pointer is so you don't have to do those things. Typically, I don't do them. I just recently kind of learned that that was an option, but you can certainly do that. It will make getting around the environment a little bit easier. 4. Blender Animation Basics: Now, finally, we're going to start talking about actually doing some animation and the first type of animation we're going to talk about his rotation. So in order to do a rotation, we first need to select our object. So I'm gonna left click gives. We change that early on on the object. And now that it's selected, I can hit the R key. And that was I hit the R key. I can then rotate it around. But as you can see here, if I rotated around, its really, really unpredictable. So what I can then specify is the access. So by X, you can see that the red line is the X axis. And if I then move my mouse around, it rotates about this x axis. I could do the same thing for the why access and I can do the same thing for the Z access. Another good way to rotate things is with this panel here. If you end, it opens up this panel, and from here you can actually change the rotation here so you can do the X. You can do the why, and you can do the Z. It allows you to also be able to do it from a much more specific and exact bases. You can do the same thing when you are, you can type in 90 degrees and it will rotate it. That's the same thing. If you actually hit the axes, I rotate about Z and I hit 45 it rose takes it 45 degrees. Now let's talk about some things that are specific to animation. So you're gonna notice down here at the bottom of your view port or just below your report ? There's what we call the timeline. Now. If you've never done animation, you probably never pay too much attention to this. But this is the number of frames and the line by which time progresses. So here you can see it starts at frame one, and it ends at Brain 250 that you can change this to whatever you like. If I want to stop it, 100 frames I can type in 100 times. I can leave it at 250 I can hit this button here to make it play. I can also, if I want to play hit control a and this goes through the animation that I have. So let's make a really quick animation. So we have our cute here that's been rotated. Let's put it back to its original orientation. I want this to rotate just 90 degrees. So I need to go to the first frame, and I'm gonna use what's called a Keefe right here. So I'm going to type Hi, right. And I allows me to lock a certain key fame, so I'm gonna lock the rotation. In this case, you can lock a bunch of different things here, but we're gonna specifically look at rotation. So I left the rotation, and what this means is that this block will be this rotation at this point in time. So no, if you look down on a timeline, you can see at frame one. There is now a little yellow line here, and that's I came from. And key frames in general don't mean rotation or translation in specific. They just mean value in time. So now if we go to frame 10 and I could click on it or I could just type 10 directly fear and I rotate my block in the Z So are Z 90 degrees and because it's a black When I rotated 90 it's really hard to see it. So why don't we rotate it slightly? Estimate rotated 45 45 degrees about Z and I'm going to again hit I lock rotation. And now I have another key friends. So if I go back and forth, you can see that the box moves. Now, if I hit play, you can see that it starts to spin, and then it stops. And since that goes for the first time frames, if we want only look at that we can change our in frame to 11 and we can play it. And you can see that it keeps rotating over and over again. Congratulations. You just did your first rotational animation. Now what I want to talk about a little bit more specifically is how come we control this animation? So I'm going to introduce you to the curb editor in order to do that, I just went down to the left hand corner here, and you see these sideways stripes and I opened it up and I'm not gonna look for the graph editor, And if you look at the graph editor. You can see if we expand this here under rotation. I have X Oiler. Why Oiler and Z Oiler And yes, I did pronounce that right It Even though it's build, Euler is actually pronounced Oiler. And if you look at this curve, you can see that this is the rotation about Z. And if you remember, this is the access we rotated it about. So now I can actually look at what I'm doing here, and I can see that this is how it's rotating. I'm gonna talk more in depth about the animation curves a little bit later when we talk about translations because it's much easier to see some of the things I'm gonna be talking about. But let's say hypothetically that we have this cute, I guess not pathetic because we actually do have a cute And if I hit play, you see that the Cube turns a little bit and then stops. But there's a lot of circumstances where we might want the Cube to continue spending. So if we want that to happen, we want to make sure that the channel, which is this entire curve here for rotation we want to go to channel extrapolation and shoes. Linear extrapolation. So now if you look at the Cube, it continues to spend. And that's because the computer figured out at what it has to do to keep the curve going at the same slope it was going before. And if you everything about your high school or college physics, you know that the slope of position and rotation defines the velocity. So let's say that we wanted to speed it up there a couple of ways we could do that. One is to pick the actual key that we have here and G for grab, and then we can move it around. Now you can see as we move it around, it increases or decreases the speed. And if you look down at our timeline, you can see that it's moving. All right, we're adding a timeline. We're adding a key frame, and the key frame is moving because removing it across different frames. So let's put that back to where it waas. Another way to change it if we just stop it here, is to put it precisely on the frame that we had before, which is the 10 frame and change how much was rotated. So like we did before I can hit r Z. I can change this rotation here, or I can go over here to the panel on the right side neck and change it. This time I'm gonna do it different. I'm going to change it to the panel here. I'm gonna increase it. Now if we increase it here, it means that we're increasing the speed because in these 10 frames, it's gonna rotate more than it did before. But instead of hitting I in this one, though, I'm going to a slightly different I'm going to hover over these values and I'm going to hit high. And if you look down here, you can see that some things have changed because, in fact, we did create a key frame. Now I do this because I want you to know that with any of these values, almost any of the values and blender you can do the key frame for them, but hovering over them and hitting the key. I now this is really powerful because not just can you animate different locations and rotations, but there's lots of different values that you can change, and you can get the computer to interpret late between the points 5. Project 1-1: Modeling: now, the project we're gonna do is to create a solar system. So not necessarily our solar system. But I have a picture here just to give you some ideas about how you might create your own solar system. We're gonna have materials, we're gonna use the camera, and we're gonna do the orbital mechanics completely using rotations in parenting. Are you ready? Let's get started. Now, I want you to go ahead and boot up blender, But before we get started, I want to make sure that you watch those first videos. So you're set up to be able to do everything that we were going toe Want to be able to do so If you have a laptop, it sets it up so you'll be able to use the same keys that I'll be able to use or at least similar ones. And it allows you to be able to select with being let mouse button So you can't do that. Go back and look at that video and then meet back up with me here now. So here we go. We're gonna create our solar system. So a lot of times when you're doing a model, you need a reference, but in this case, we're told something that's really geometrically simple. So we're gonna get rid of my default cube by hitting X and I'm going to add a sphere. So if I hit shift A, I get the admin you an admin, you. I'm going to choose UV sphere, and if you look here on the left, you can see that a UV sphere has been has been created, and I can specify how many segments it hasn't. As I do this, you can look and see that my planet gets more and more simpler, depending on how many divisions I have. Segments and rings do much the same thing that once you click away from this and you start actually using your spear, you won't be able to get back to this. So make sure that this is set to exactly the way you want it. I'm gonna keep Thesiger mints kind of high because this is going to be the center of our universe. So I want to make sure that it looks smooth. So from here, if I hit Tab, this takes us into edit mode. Animal allows us to be able to like individual vergis ease. That's what these little dots are called that make up the object that we're talking about. And I can grab it, like to move him around. I can make these changes, but I can only make them while I'm in edit mode. So right now, I think we're all set. We want to have one planet in the center will worry about scaling and doing other things later. So the next thing I want to do is at an orbital path for our next planet. So when you're modeling and blender, a lot of times you want to create something but other things there in the way. Now the best way to do that is to use high. You can also use layers, and I'll cover layers, maybe a little bit later. But for right now we're going to actually hide this centrepiece. So I'm going to a church and not to worry. It's still there. If I hit all age, it comes back. But for right now it's selected a H because I want to use this center space. Somebody sift a and I'm going to create a circle. Now I'm gonna hit tab to go back into edit moment and s for scale. I'm going to scale it up now I'm gonna hit back to Tad. And now that I'm out of the edit mode for the specific circle I was talking about or that we were just working, working with, I'm gonna hit all age and you can see now that our sphere is back. So if I select the circle and I'm going to go back into edit mode because I want to do specific things to this particular object So I hit Tab to take me back in, I had extrude and this allows me to create I can extrude it up or down, but in this case, I'm gonna hit escape, and then I'm going to hit scale. So this is what gives me of running. So now that it hit Tab, I have a ring that's around my first planet. Now let's put another planet on this ring. So as you're learning to model, something that's gonna be really useful to you is the ability to put things in exact locations. And one way to do this is to use the three D cursor. So this is the three d cursor right here. And I want to shift it to be exactly on the edge of this orbital path. So I'm gonna hit shift s and I'm gonna say selection to actually minutes a cursor to select it. Now that places the three D cursor right there. Now you'll see why that's useful in a second. So let's do shift D for duplicate, which is gonna allow me to create an exact double. And I hit wise on a moving exactly on the y axis, which wasn't really necessary. I'm gonna going to be edit mode. I'm gonna hit a to select the entire thing. I'm gonna hit scale, and I'm going to take it down in size because this planet is going to be smaller than our other plans. Now I want to move it exactly right here. So I'm gonna hit shit as again, and I'm gonna say selection to person, and you can now see that this has placed it exactly at that three d cursor. Now we're gonna do this same exact process again, But this time we're gonna say shift D to duplicate, and we're gonna scale it out. But in this case, I don't actually want to scale it at its center. I don't actually want to scale in the Z, so I'm gonna hit CIT Xe. Strangely enough, that makes it so that it's a little bit flat, so we don't actually want that. So let's scale it again. Now it's bigger. And what's interesting about this is this circle is not about its center, which is fine. All of the orbital mechanics that we're gonna do some are not quite centered on the center of the earth or, in this case, the center of our planet. So it's slightly askew, which is okay, so let's go ahead, and we're going to make sense. This has a larger orbit. We're gonna leave it bigger than our other planet, but we're still going to make it a little bit smaller. That's something I want to bring your attention to is when we did this scale down, you realize that it's scaled at this center here, right, and that's because it's set up to scale at the object center. So if we go here and we see that it's set up to skill at the medium point, which is the middle of all the points that are selected. If we wanted to scale it about a different point. There some other options here that we can talk about later. Now let's create one more. So I'm just gonna select the path. This time I'm gonna hit shift D for a duplicate. I'm gonna hit winter so that it stays this way. I'm gonna select all of them, and then I'm gonna scale it. So this time I'm gonna skill in to be smaller. I'm gonna leave it so that it centered around our planet and I'm gonna take this globe here . I'm gonna shifty and duplicated again. I'm going to just put it in space because it doesn't matter. We're going to put it at a location using a three D person that we were just talking about . So I'm gonna hit shift s to put person to selected. Then I'm going to select the ocular we care about, and I'm going to say ship us again and then say selection to cursor. Now, As you can see, it doesn't quite make sense to have an object this big next to another one. Some guanaco and just scale that down. So now we have three planets, right? But this isn't completely what we want, right? You When you do this for your own project, you can make as many planets as you want. But I want to also make a moon for the planet. So let's just say that this planet here is going to have a move. So I'm going to duplicate again, shift A Actually, let's just duplicate ship D and let's make it a move. So we're gonna make it small. We're gonna go into edit mode by hitting Tad, make it smaller, and that's still maybe kind of big. Let's make it a little bit smaller. Someone hit shift. I'm gonna hit Tab again to go back into edit mode, scale it down a little bit more and let me put it a little bit closer. So when you're moving in three D space Ah, lot of times it's hard to know exactly how things are moving in order to combat that. The best thing to do is to constantly move and then rotate. The good thing about blender is things tend to move intuitively where you think they did. So when I move this in three d space, you can see that it actually goes kind of where you thought it was gonna go. The other thing you can do is to use the arrow somewhere around. That way, you can be sure that it moves in the plane that you think it's Clinton. So that's it. Right now, I would like you to create your own solar system doing exactly what we did. So mostly just shifty to duplicate, using the three cursor to move it around and then placing the rings so that you can actually see the path that it moves on. All right. Good luck. I can't wait to see what you do. 6. Project 1-2: Animation: not a big ladder, a model. Let's actually make some animation. So the first thing we're gonna do is we're gonna make these planets go around this center point. But before we do that, let's give something some names. So it's always good when you're doing modeling and animation that you give your objects names. That allows you to be able to find them over here on the right side in the tree. Me, I think it's called an object tree, and it allows you to be able to just differentiate them when they're very, very similar things like we're trying to do here. So if we go to this fear or the first fear we could see that is called Sphere, we can see the 2nd 1 is called Spear Points here, 1.3 And as you can see, it's kind of confusing as to what's what. So let's start giving them some names. So in the center of my universe, let's call this thin, teary on Let's spell it will be you because I think that makes more sense. Century on, I'm gonna hit enter, and now I have the name of my sense of planet now for the inside planet. Let's give that a name like Omega FIC. Let's call it will make a 72 since making sixes, actually, something you can eat. So Omega 72 Let's call the next one Tiny. And let's call this one clear. I think I probably could have done a better job with those names, but whatever. So one other planets trusted name and we're gonna call this room three or moon, too. So now that they all have names, it will be easier to specify them now. We could give and you should give names to these orbital paths. But for but in the interest of time, why don't go ahead and leave that? And you can add that on in your own model. So let's go ahead into our omega 72 flight. So the interesting thing, and probably the more useful thing about rotations is that they're typically about a point so things can rotate. If you remember the rotating the rotation video that was before. This can rotate about any access, and we can specify rotation by hitting our first and then the access that we care about. In this case, everything is going to be rotating about the Z axis. But if you look at this object as it moves around, you can see that it moves about its center. Now, if we take the innermost planet and we hit, rotate about Z, you can see that it rotates about its center. And while that is also accurate, what we want initially is for it to move around this center planet, our century on planet. It is a bunch of ways we can do this. The easiest way is to pick something that has a sensor at the point we care about. And then parents are object to it. So when you parent an object, it moves as if they are connected when you pick its parent. So let's say that, for example, this inner circle is the parent. So in order to do that, it's the parent of the smaller planet. I select the planet. First I hit shift and then I saw, like, the inner orbital path, and from there I hit 50. Sorry, control P and set parent to object. Now, if I move this object, if I moved the big object, which is this inner path and I G for crab. The planet moves, but what makes it a parent is that when I move the actual planet G for grab, then only the planet move. So when you make changes to our move around the parent, it affects the child, but not vice versa. So because the orbital path for this planet is centered at its own center, if I hit rotate about Z, we can see that the planet moves as well. And that's really what we're looking for here. So now if you remember, I need to I need a special a special screen here, So I need to open the current editor. So I went to with these little horizontal lines were on the side on the left, I dragged up. That opens another window, and I'm going to pick graph editor The graph other grab editor will allow me to see the motion of my objects from a graphical perspective. So now I'm going to go to the first brain. Actually, I'm gonna open up my panel here. I hit the plus sign I could have also hit, and I'm going to go to the first frame and similar to what we did before I'm going to hit I and I allows me to create that key frame, which is that value in time. So I'm going toe lock rotation. So rotation is locked at zero degrees on the very first spring now similar to the way we did it before. We're going to go to the 10th frame so I can do that by typing 10 here at the bottom. Now on the 10th frame and I'm going to rotate about the so are Z that gonna rotate. I'm just going to type this in 45 degrees. Now that's hard to see because it's a sphere. But in fact did rotate 45 degrees because you can see that the planet moved. And this time I'm gonna do it slightly differently. But it's going to do the same thing. I'm going to hit I, which is gonna lock that rotation in. So now if we scrub back and forth, you can see that our planet moves about this center. Now, if you remember, there is a way to make sure that it continues to move. And in order to do that, if we look at our graph editor, something that's going to make this easier is if I get rid of X Oiler rotation and why oil rotation? Because I'm only rotating about disease so the other two don't matter now I can go down here active, so let the entire channel by hitting a and then from here. If you remember, I go to extrapolation mode and I hit linear. Now if I play, we can see that our planet goes around the center, so that gives us the orbit of at least one planet. So something I don't like is the is the bumpiness of this circle. So there's a few things we could do. We could first we could hide it right. And then if I play it again, hitting all A, you can see that the planet goes around the center. But let's say that I wanted to actually see that. So all h to undo that and I want to get rid of these jagged edges so something I can do with this object selected. I can go to my modifier panel that's here on the right side. It's the picture of the rich. I add modifier, and I do subdivisions surface. Now you can see that that has already made my sphere made my orbital pad much smoother, and I won't go into the specifics of that. But we're gonna go ahead and apply that to our sphere here subdivision surface. We're gonna up in a little bit so that it's moved. Now, when you're doing this, typically when you're modeling, you want to be. You want to be careful with this because you can increase your render times, but we're going. We're going to use the blender render instead of cycles render because we're not this more about the animation than the render. So we way we want it to be as quick as possible. So you made that we made those changes. Now, if we hit play by going down here are hitting out a You can see that it's a smooth object that moves around a smooth pat. You can't, and you won't be able to tell that. Actually, the path is also rotating. So we're gonna go ahead and apply that to these other objects as well. So I'm gonna select this planet. I'm gonna slight it's orbital path. Uh, I'm gonna hit control P object set. Parents object. Now, if I select this bottle on a rotating Z, we can see that the planet moves from there. I'm going, Teoh, add subdivision surfaces. I'm gonna do the same thing for the planet. So now that it's smooth, I'm gonna up this subdivisions by one. So that was even smoother. And to do the animation for this, I'm gonna go to the first frame again. And now I'm going toe Add that frame in the rotation so quick awaited. One quick way to do this is just over at the rotations that's available. That I'm going to go to the 10 frame by just clicking it there. I'm gonna rotate this about Z. I wanted to go in the opposite direction. So the other one did 45 degrees in 10 frames. While we have this 1 to 12 it's up negative. So I 12 negative run after him. Are I enter and I'm gonna go over here. I And now if I play this one, we can see that they it goes in the opposite direction. But in order to make sure that it continues to go without stopping, if you remember, we're gonna go to channel extrapolated and we're gonna hit you in here. Now, if I play, we can see that they go in opposite directions. I think this is actually probably not possible from an orbital much head. It's perspective. Planets tend to go in the same direction, but just to make things more interesting so you can see what it looks like. This is how we're gonna do it. So now let's go back to our very first frame. And I did that by hitting our rewind, but in the all the way to the beginning, and I'm going to select it. So now I want to be able to have this small moon rotate about are bigger planets. So how do we do that? Well, we're gonna use the same idea that we did before in order to get these smaller balls with Sorry, the small plate is to move around the center. We did that through parenting, and we're going to do the same thing here. But before I do that, when I move this planet a little bit closer to the center, so I'm gonna select the planet. Actually, when it's like the moon first, because the second being you select will be the parent. So I'm gonna hit control. People sit parent to object. Now, if I rotate this plan about Z, we can see that the actual moon rotates as well. So now, now. So now we want the planet to rotate about its own access. So in order to do that rebound, select the planet. And even though the planet is parented to the larger orbital path, which is here, if we look at the planet, we can see that that are no keys for. And that's because we put the key frames on the object on its parent, which means as far as the computer is concerned, it's still it's just parented to a moving reference frame. So let's add a key friend here at zero. I'll go over here, I I and then we go to the 10th frame and we're gonna rotate about its center and let's go ahead into something smaller than that was. Do let's do 45 degrees again and see what that looks like. And I'm gonna hit. I think the Senate's are now. I'm doing it just differently so you can see the different ways to do that. And now we struck back before you can see that the planet is moving and the moon is rotating about the planet. And we want to do the exact same thing we did before so that it continues to rotate. Sora barnacle to channel extrapolated moan constant expert started linear extrapolation And then by the boom by that thing There we go. Now, if I play this, you can see that the planets moved in opposite directions, which I realize is probably not accurate. But you can also see that the moon revolves around this of that plan. Now, just to make things look right, let's go ahead and do that for this last piece. So I'm gonna add the subdivisions to go up the subdivisions a little bit because it's bigger. We're going to do the same thing to this planet so that it looks like this up again. I'm gonna make it so that this is the the orbital path is the planet's control. P the object and we're gonna do the exact same thing we did before. We're gonna go to the first frame I rotation and then 10 frame run a rotated about Z just a little bit. We're gonna do this Super So? So we're gonna fight eight degrees here, partly due minus eight degrees minus eight. So at least two of the planet two of the big planets will be moving in the same plane. I just like I did before, and I wanted to keep going. So you guessed it. Winner linear extrapolation so that it keeps going. Now when we hit play, we have it moving around and just like rial. You can see that because it has a longer orbital path that it ends up taking longer for it to go around the center when compared to the other side. You know what, but let's add one thing. Let's make this planet in the center. Let's make it rotate. So I'm gonna do this same thing again here, cause I think it'll just look better that way. So let's first of all, let's give it some subdivisions, and we don't have to parents it to anything. So all I need to do is that I creating their go to 10. The 10 frame put in a different escape. Let's say only five degrees here and let's go ahead. And that a key we're gonna extrapolated linear. Now, when we hit play, everything is moving. So when we put if we decide to put anything on the planet or on the central on century and I think that's what I called it, you'll see that it's actually also spending. So I want you to take this idea, and you don't have to create what I created. But I want you to create something completely different and keep in mind these don't have to move in the same plane. Solar systems tend to move in the same plane, but you don't have to be confined by that. You could have moved this all in different orientations. You could have taken this one and then rotated that to the side and done the same thing. Now, if I hit play, you can see Oh, right, I didn't fix it, but you could have done all of the same things just in different dimensions. So I can't wait to see you. I can't wait to see what you do 7. Project 1-3: Render: Now that you have all of the animation put in place, let's give a look and see what this actually looks like. So in order to do that, there is a few different ways you can click render here on the right side, or you can hit F 12 which is the way I do it most of the time so you can make sure the window was active. You hit F 12 and this is what it looks like now you can see that it's kind of small, and that's because our resolution over here is set to 50%. So we are doing HD it 1910 1920 by 10 80. But it's only rendering to 50% of it and thats helping with the speed. But we want to actually see what it looks like if we do the full thing. So I'm gonna escape. That's going to take us back to our main window. I hit F 12 again, and yes, it takes longer. But you can see this is what it looks like at its full size. So right now it looks okay. But I mean, it doesn't really look like plant, so the first thing we want to do to make it look a little bit more like planet is to make sure everything is smooth. So in order to do that, you want to select it. We want to stay in what we call object more, which is not edit mode allows you to move things around. It doesn't allow you to make Vertex changes when we talked a little bit about for Texas before. But we're gonna hit over here on the left, under tools, smooth. And we're going to do that for all of these objects we want smooth them out so they look like perfect. It's fears, even our little moon we want to look like a scared. So now if we dio render by hitting 12 you can see that everything looks really smooth. So I know you're thinking Didn't we hit subdivision surfaces to make its move? Yes, we did. And we could have done another division of sub services like if I slipped over here and then I go to our modifiers, we could have added to this, but it would have slowed down our render when we hit smooth. We don't really take a hit and render time. So we're gonna keep this the way it is. And once again, I had f 12 to render. But there are a couple thing, couple more things we want to change. First of all, we can't see the whole thing, So we haven't talked about cameras thus far. But let's talk about cameras. Cameras are what allow us to be able to see the environment, our finished product. So look at the camera. This is what it is over here on the right side, and we can also select it here in the object tree. I hit zero on my numb pad because I have a form of head and you can see that I can't see the entire environment. So we're gonna go ahead and move this out. But with the easiest way to do that, Well, one way to do that would be to hit grab, and I can move it around. But this doesn't allow me to zoom in and out. The easiest way to do this is on this panel here. And if it was, if it's not opened on yours, you can even hit this plus sign, or you can hit the end button and you go lot camera to view. Now, this allows me to treat the camera like the view port so I can make sure that it's centered . So when I have it the way I want, I unchecked that and now it's in the right location. So when I hit at 12 you can see that I can see my entire solar system. The other thing is the light. The light is really strange because this is supposed to be my center or something like a son. But then I had this light up here, and because we're using the blender render engine were somewhat restricted is what we can do with objects in the object actually lighting the environment. So we're gonna do a small little cheat here. We're gonna move the object to be removed the light to just above the planet. So we're gonna use our trick that we did before. We're gonna select just the top of this about hit shift s, and we're gonna say cursor to select it. So now three D cursor is right at the top, and we're gonna select our object by left clicking and say, selection to cursor So now it's sitting right at the top, and we're gonna move that by hitting by picking this blue arrow just a little bit. So it's it. It's just at the top. And we want all of our plan is to be lit from the top and the bottom. So we're gonna shift d while the light is selected. We're gonna hit Z so that it moves only in the Z axis and we're gonna put one on the bottom as well enter to make sure or return to make sure that's in the right place. Now, when we hit at 12 we can see our planet is now lit kind of lit like a normal planet as far as our other planets of it. But now you can see that our center are supposed son is not lit at all. So something we can do to fix that. We're going to go into material. So we have the object selected and it could honestly be selected an object mode or in edit mode. But we're gonna go to the materials, which is this little bouncy ball being here on the right side. You can see that it has no material. So we're gonna give it material about eating new, and we're gonna give it a name. That way we can understand what it is, just like we can objects, names. It's good to give materials names as well. We could enter and let's make this. Yeah, and let's not just make it yellow, but let's make it admit lights. I'm going to crank up its admission just a little bit so that it's constantly giving off his own light and doesn't ever have any shadows. We had 12 you know, I think I wanted to be even brighter than that. So let's up the mission into 2.45 12. And let's also take the speculator ity down and then take the ignition up because we really don't want it to have. It's just quick. Shameless, actually, this will make it so it doesn't have any shadows whatsoever, is just be a sphere. On second thought, let's not do that. Let's do it like this, Yeah, let's keep it like that. Now we have a son at our center, but our other objects don't really have any color, so let's go ahead and give them some color so Let's sit. Let's call this one red and let's make it read, since that's what we called it. So groups, it's everything that she was red here. Now this planet is red. Let's make this one is called this blue. Let's make this planet Blue said I must do the same thing for here. And why don't we just make it something interesting? Also, it's making green. So now we have a blue planet, a red planet. They kind of look like gumballs now, but that's OK. I just wanted a different. We don't believe this is great because the moon, but we're gonna go ahead and give it a name, Gray. We only changed it and take it down just a little bit soon after here. 12. It seems like we have planets and these plants have above a lit side in a dark side the same way they would have if they were actual planets. All right, so go ahead and give your planet's colors and feel free to give them whatever colors you want. You can also color the past. I'm not gonna call it my paths, but feel free to do the path as well. I can't wait to see what you do. Now that you've done all this work, it's time for me to show you how to actually get the video out of blender. So the first thing you're going to want to do is look at how many frames there are. So right now I have mine set up to stop at frame to 49. I can make that 2 50 And that way, all 250 frames will be showing. In your case, you might not need that much, but it in 250 frames my outermost planet still doesn't make a complete revolution. But I want a good example of what it's going to look like some going ahead and leaving it at 250 frames. Another thing I'm gonna leave is this at 50% on this. I know I mentioned that before, but I want this to go relatively quickly, so I left this at 50%. It's up to you only encourage you to do the full size so you can see what this looks like. The next thing you don't want to do is set the output location so right Now you can put this wherever you like. Vast system. You might have system bookmarks. I've never actually set mine up. So documents and desktop must be what it came. Default. But this is going to be this location. If you don't set, this blender is going to put this in the TMP folder, which is I never know where I always have to look for it. So I recommend that you pick a location that you can find easily you hit, accept, And now you want to go to the encoding. So for presets, you want to go to 8 to 6 War? It reads H to 64 MP four and then for the container you want em paid for. So once again, that was the output location. And then here I always like F f M pick video and then under the output and be including I picked the preset for age 264 and picked for an h 2640.264 Now, that's all you have to do. You are ready to actually do your animation. So in order to do that, instead of hitting this render button, you're gonna hit this animation but And you can see right now I'm gonna make this a little bit smaller businesses the size supposed size is supposed to be. You can see that it's doing its thing is actually rendering each individual part. Now I'm gonna let this run and fast board so you don't actually have to listen to me talk. But if you look down here, you can see that it's going pretty fast. And that's because I have it set at 50%. And because this is the blender Orender engine. Had we done this in cycles, we could have done something probably that was equally or probably more visually pleasing. But would it take it much longer? So I'll see what the end of this. So now you can see that my render just ended. So one way we can check to see if it works. We can't go here. It's a play. Render animation and you can see down here. This is what it looks like when it's playing. Now it's not super beautiful, but it does do what we wanted to do. You can see this inter planet here has the moon, and the moon is rotating about that planet, and this out of planet is also rotating about its own orbital path. Now, just to be sure, I can open up, I can actually open up the file. So the name of the file is this. 001-0 to 54 1 through 2 50 and it's a little bit blurry because it's not at the full 1920 by 10 80. But we were successful and creating this environment. So let's go here escape. There was one thing that I didn't like about the way book, and that was the background right now, if we hit after 12 when we do our render, we end up with this great backgrounds. The last thing I'm going to show you how to do is to make this Blackground this background black. So I went to this world tap here and I went to the horizon. I clicked on it and I'd drug it down to make it completely. Now, if I hit this, it looks like actual space space without stars. You have, but it looks like it looks more like space than it did before. So I can fully encourage you to do this on your own, but as many planets and as many dimensions as you want with an environment that's black, like space or any of the color you want and then upload that. Let me see what you've done. 8. Project 2-1: Modeling the Moon and Stars: now you're familiar with using rotations when we're doing animation. Now we're going to focus on translation. Nobody will allow you to do both translation and rotation on the same object, but I think it's important to know or at least think about what you can do with them separately. So this is the scene we're going to create now. It's a night sky, except the animation that we're going toe ad is a movement of the night sky, so it's going to start with the moon rising from behind the mountains and the clouds moving ever so slightly for to reach its apex so you can create whatever environment you want. You can create whatever mountains and trees, but I'm going to show you how to do all of it. You ready? Let's go now Go ahead and boot up blender and bring up your start up screen. The first thing we want to do when we're creating this image, which is really a image that looks two d, but we're gonna build it in three D, so the first thing we want to do is create that backdrop of the sky. There's a couple ways we could do that we could do hit, shift A and create a plane, or we could go ahead and use this deep all cube that we already had. So I hit Tab to go into edit mode, and I'm going to select these front for Vergis is so you can see inhabit their selected I'm gonna hit X for delete Vergis is, And now you can see we're left with a plane. Not if I hit one on my numb pad and to make sure and get it in Ortho graphic view, I can hit five. And this means there won't be any perspective in the environment. And you can see that I have this plane. But unfortunately, if I hit zero, which is the camera view, you can see that my view is kind of a skew. So let's fix that to start with. So we have an idea of what we're creating. So I'm gonna hit and open up this panel on the right, and if I tab out of objects out of edit view and select my camera and I can see that my camera, location and rotations are all askew, So what I can do is reset to default values for both Marv rotations and my locations. Now you can see that my camera points straight down. But in order to get the face at our canvass, all I need to do is hit. Rotate about X by 90 degrees. So now I can just pull it out. And now if I look at the camera, you can see that it's facing. The camp is facing the canvas at exactly 90 degrees. So you know what? I'm going to pull my camera back a little bit more to give us some space. And if you want to do it exactly the way I haven't my camera, we could just say is is at negative eight precisely if you wanted to do it exactly like I'm doing it. But you don't really have to and I'll show you why. So if I look at my canvas, I'm hit five and put it back in or demographic moaned. You can see that it doesn't cover the entire camera. So if I hit F 12 then I just have this black circle and it doesn't care. It doesn't cover my entire camera area. So in order to fix that, I'm going to tab out and get back into edit mode, Hit a to select all and I'm gonna scale it out. And as soon as I get to the point where I'm just outside in the white will actually in the Z direction I'm going to stop scaling, hit, enter, and then I'm gonna scale just in the X direction. So now I've completely covered my backdrop, right? So if I didn't have 12 now I get a completely black environment. So this isn't completely what we want. Let's give our night sky a material. So let's call it sky. So in order to give it a material went over here to the right and I went to this little ball here, which is the material icon, I clicked it, and then I clicked new. And then I'm gonna call this the sky. So now that this is a guy, I'm gonna pick a color for my sky. Now, yours guy can be whatever you like, but I'm gonna pick this cover here, and I can always tweak it, and I will take it right. So now the question is, why is it all black? Well, it's because there's no lamp where there's no light on it with light if you look at it right at right at the campus. So we're gonna move this forward to give you a little little lie to your scene. But this is not going to be the primary light of our scene, and you'll see why later. But now, if I hit f 12 you can see that the canvas now has the color. But this is not exactly what we want. So we're going to actually pick this light, put it back behind, and we're gonna change this material. So the material right now is a normal material for blend Orender. But we're gonna give it just a little bit of admission. Now, what admission is going to do is make it give off its own light. So that's well, now we can see that we can see that color. Now, let's make it a little bit darker because it is supposed to be a night sky. So in order to make it, doctor, we can pull it down here. Now, if you want to make your color exactly like I have mine, you can look at these numbers here. So read zero green 00.2 and boo 0.5 33 But like I said, it doesn't have to be exactly those numbers. So we looked through. That looks good to me. So now our backdrop is finished. Now that we've completed our night sky or are back canvas, let's go ahead and add a moon. So the moon is going to be really easy. We're going to hit, actually want to make sure that it's about the right location. So I'm gonna select are nice guy or a canvas. I'm gonna hit shit s Sorry, not shift shift. Okay, we're gonna add a circle. So right now you can see that the circle is not at the right angle. So we're gonna hit far for rotate about X 90 degrees. And we wanted to be just in front of our. So if we look from the side by hitting three, you can see that we can't really see it. And that's pretty much the case when you're in this solid mode. But if I goto wire frame mode, you can see that everything has a line. So we're gonna pull this a little bit closer. This line here is the canvas. This line here is the moon and only reason I know that is because we only have two objects if we had a lot more on ways to be impossible to tell from this angle. So I'm gonna hit Z to get out of wire friend mode, and now you can see that the moon doesn't have any material, doesn't have a face. So the easiest way to create a face when something when you have something like this is just like all of the perverted sees and it f that will give us a face. Now, unfortunately, this face doesn't yet have a material, so let's give it a material. So we're gonna go over some our materials. It's already selected, but if it wasn't on yours, it's this ball here on the right. I'm gonna select new toe, Open it up. It's already white. This is the moon. So let's make it. Actually, let's take it not to be pure white, but just slightly off way, and I'm going to increase the emission similar to what we did for the sun. So now by 12 and take a look. Not bad, but you know what I don't want there to be any. I don't want there to be any shadows on this. So in order for shadows and the light not really interact with the objects they were talking about. If you go into the materials panel, if you go to shading and hit shameless. So this is gonna look a lot like two D things when you do shameless, cause there's no real interaction of light. And in this case for the moon, this is what we want. So now I had escaped out of out of the UV editor. Can we go back and hit 12? You can see that it's more of a pure white, which is exactly what we're going for. So we're gonna raise it up a little bit. I'm gonna get 12 to take a look, and I think that moment is a little bit big. Maybe you'd like to keep it like that, but I think I won't mind to be a little bit smaller. So he had 12 again, and I think that looks like a movie. So congratulations. If you got a sky and we got a move, Now that we have this moon, let's go ahead and add some stars, so stars are little points of light. But unfortunately, and blender, we can't really make points of light. Everything has to have some kind of dimensionality to it. So we're going to hit shift A and we're going to add a circle. Now. What I found is that if you're circle has too many courtesies that console the computer down, that's not so much the case for this. But we want to minimize that. If you want to go ahead and see what it looks like. Since it's flipped the wrong direction, you have to look what it looks like from above. But I want to change the verdict. Seize, and we're gonna take this all the way down to eight for Disease. And we have eight, and not less than that, because we wanted to appear like a circle point of light. And we don't have more than that because, frankly, we don't really need more than that. So let's get it to point in the right direction. So we're gonna rotate by hitting our then hitting X and then typing 90. So that rotates it 90 degrees and much like before with the moon it doesn't have a face. So we're gonna make sure that all the British season selected. So if I hit a for select all that once Lex them and then a select off that selects them. And then I hit F and that gives us a face. So let's move that a little bit closer to the campus. And then, as you can see, you can't really see where is. And if you remember what we did the last time we hit Z, now we can kind of see where everything is. And we know that this long line here is the canvas. So we're gonna move this closer to the canvas. You might be wondering, Why are you having it? So big train. Well, I wouldn't be able to see it initially. We're gonna make it smaller, but it's much easier to move around while it's still big. So right now that's what it looks like. If we hit Z again to take us back into our normal solid mode, that's about what we want. The next thing we want to do while it's still big is go ahead and given material. So if we go over here to our side panel and we go to our materials tab. We have sky and we have something called material. So I didn't do a good job of naming it last time. Let's go ahead. Name that. Now let's name it Moon and for the star. We're gonna call that moon for right now just to make it the same. They're gonna hit this plus here, which is gonna make a new material that's exactly like the previous one. So this time we're gonna call it star. So now our materials make sense. And if we wanted to do something in the future with one material or not with the others, we can do that because they are in back two separate materials, even though they're identical in their contents. Now, if I hit at 12 you can see that I have something that might be a moon along something that looks absolutely like nothing we care about. So let's make that something like a star. What we do that I want to move this up because I want the origin to be high. Then we're gonna tab to go into edit mode and then scale it. Uh, now I'm just doing this by I. You wanted to appear as a small point of light like this. So if I hit F 12 it should look like a small point of light. And it is so if I escape, I go back to our point of light. I tab and I period, it takes us straight in it. Zoom straight in. And now our view port is centered at that point. And that's exactly what we want. So we want lots of these. So what we're gonna do is hit sit Deke to create another one, and I'm going to make this one a little bit smaller because some stars appear smaller than others. So I had time again 12 because I want to see what this looks like. And I see that that's OK. It's OK to have to have a star that small or that dim, but this it escape. Let's make one. But still no, I'm gonna shit be again. I'm gonna make those one just a little bit smaller. So I hit Tab to get out of that and I hit. I'm hitting one, by the way, to get back to front view. And once I'm in front of you have been 12 but you don't actually have to do that. You could just sit at 12 because your camera is set. So on second. But let's make that just a little bit smaller. Was it a talk again? And I'm happy with those three different sizes for stock. So it's it escaped to get back into our edit moan. And now I'm just going to randomly in edit moan, uh, duplicate and put it in different places. So this is our smaller. Actually, that's not our smallest. This is our bigger one. I'm just putting it different places. I want this in random places. Otherwise I would do more than one or I do a different modifier modifiers. Allow me to repeat the way that I'm doing copies, but it only allows me to do it in very regular forms. Ie doing things in rows you can do things and helix form. You can do things in a circular form, but doing it completely random, I'm sure, does away. But I'm not completely upon what that is. So if you know, please drop me and don't let me know and let's take our really small in here because we want to make sure we have of a right of different stars. All right, now let's see what that looks like. It was hit our F 12 and apparently I don't see the most. So I believe what it looks like. I have done only the smaller one, so let's go ahead and do some of the bigger ones. This just double check that. Now that you've copied and paste a bunch of these around, let me tell you something that tripped me up for just a moment. So if you look at your individual stars, let's say that you select one. So let's make sure nothing Select this. Let's go. Let's select our stars. We hit Cat to get into edit mode this box select because it's too small. Now if I zoom in my hitting period and I go all the land, Actually, two things are selected, so I'm gonna box hit period go all the way and in this case, it's OK. But now if I do that from out here I saw after I hit period sometimes will happen is that one of these Vergis is actually won't be select. You go in and maybe one or two of these won't be selected. And then when you paste it, what'll happen is you won't paste the entire circle and you won't realize that until you hit F 12 and then you look at it and then your stars aren't there, but they'll appear to be there in edit mode. Let's see if I can get it to do it on its own here. So when a un select everything I had beef or box, select a sect it I select it, go in and you can see here that it did. So there's this Verdecia and this word ISI is not selected. So if I did shit through for duplicate, it makes something that doesn't have any faces. So if I've been render this, this portion here will be invisible. So you want to make sure that's not the case. Something's going to delete that really quickly. So the way that you can make sure this is not happening is when you're out this far and you box select and you hit shift D for duplicate hit period to go in, make sure it's fully selected before you hit Shift D again. Now every time you get shipped D it should look. It should look fine. So watch out for that. Because it definitely cost me some time. So if I had 12 now you can see that I have some stars, but it's not really a starry night like we want it to be. So what I'm going to do, I'm going to cheat a little bit. Instead of making the individual stars, I'm gonna select the entire object and hit shift D, and I'm just gonna bring that down. But But do you see how it left this whole with the sun is so what I'm gonna do is scale it , and then I'm going to grab it with the X and shift it over, and I'm gonna do that shift d again shifted over shift D and that is already in grab moment . I'll hit ex to move it straight over, but that really wasn't necessary. And now our entire campus is covered with stars of hit at 12 but of 12 from here Now I have many more stars to dio. So now we're completely done. We have our starry night Now we just need some land to put under it 9. Project 2-2:Modeling the Land: Now that we've got the morning stars, let's add some mountains and this is going to be easy. We're gonna start by hitting shift A and before his shift A I'm just going to click anywhere on my camp, right Click anywhere in my canvas so that I have an idea of where this thing about to create is gonna appear. So I hit shit a and I'm gonna pick plain and once again I plan is tilted into the canvas so we don't want that. So we're gonna hit tape about X. And it was a type 90 degrees. So that was our And then I just hit X and then type 90 to rotate it about the X access. Now we want this to be like mountains. So we're going to go ahead and do ourselves a favor by rotating this about the why access by 45 degrees. So I did that by selecting it, hitting our and then hitting the key, why, and then typing 45 that rotated it about the why access by 45 degrees. And now let's get rid of this bottom privacy because we're gonna create something that's gonna look like a mountain range. So we're gonna start with this one off to the side. That's fine to leave that there were gonna movies to a little bit closer, and then when I grab the last one So I'm selecting this with the left mouse button and I'm selecting Bettman also with less left mass button. But only that one. When he hit G for grab, I'm gonna move it closer. And what we let that one be our first peek. So now we're gonna hit E for extrude, and that's gonna extrude a brand new vergis e there so he e we move it around, Then we click left mouse button till place it, then extrude e again and we move it to wherever you want. It doesn't have to be exact here. This is just freehand art that we're doing, and each mountain peak can look a little bit different, right? And completely up to you. So that's my mountain range. And like I said, I did that completely free hand. But now we need to be able to create a complete closed face here. So if I hit at 12 you can see that I don't see anything and much like the stars and the moon, I have to create a face. So after I select any one of these birthdays on the end, even this one or this one I'm going to select the one on the left when I extrude it down and extruded over it is to make this easy. If I connect or a select the last two and hit now I have a closed loop. So if I select just one of the courtesies and I want all the rest of them to be selected as well, I select one. I keep my cursor over the object that I care about, and I hit L and that selects all the rest of the Verdecia. So that's a good way to kind of isolate what you're working on. Its amongst a lot of other objects. So now I want to create that so had kept to create the face. Let's see what that looks like. We're gonna hit at 12 and it's not there. So why isn't it there? Well, it turns out that when we created this because we clicked on the campus, it's precisely on the campus is sharing the same space. And whenever you're working with blender and you see this flickering going on, it means you have two surfaces occupying the same space of lender doesn't quite know which one to render in the view poor. So it's a simple fix. We're just gonna grab it. And I'm why access sausage g And then why would I move it forward? Just a here and now You can see when we hit a 12 Surprise, it's there. But you may not have set up on yours. That I think I inadvertently set upon mine is a material. So we look over here, we go to our materials, and yet we don't actually have a material. So I let's create a new material. Let's call it a mountain or I'm just gonna call mine MNT because I might miss Bell Mountain . I'm not greatest, speller. I'm gonna make it black, but I don't want it to interact with bullet. So do you remember what we said before about how to make it not interact with light? Well, if we're in the blender, render engine, we just hit shade lis. And that way we know that it won't interact with any of the light in the scenes. We want this to be a big, giant shadow and we're gonna go ahead also move that forward just a bit so that it's in front of our stars because doesn't really make any sense for us to have stars in front of the mountains when the mountains were supposed to be on earth. So we're gonna f 12 from there, and you cannot see that we have our mountain range. And I'm okay with that. So to help you out also, I'm going Teoh enable the display. That way you can see everything that I'm typing. If you don't actually hear me say itself from here. Now that I have mountains, I'm gonna go ahead and make some trees and want to make trees much the same way as we made the mountains when it shipped A and I'm going to add a plane and just like before. But before I do that, I'm gonna go ahead and grab ex moving over, so I'll be able to see it. Now we're gonna hit our for rotate X for rotate about the X, and I'm going to hit 90 some typing 90 and you can see that we're giving that same flickering. So in order to get past that, we remember we're gonna hit G and we're gonna move it, GM And why? And then move this. I had just a little bit so that we're in front of the stars and we're not sharing the same space with the canvas. Now that I'm looking straight on it, I want to rotate it so I can get a sharp side towards the top because we're going to make some everything looking kind of trees. So I'm gonna hit, rotate are for rotate. Why? For about the y axis, 45 degrees enter. And now I have this tilson 45 degrees. So let's make what would look like the silhouette of an ever great. So if I select this bottom one and I just grabbing clinic, you say that I get this line here and that's because if we look to the side and I pulled this grab and pull it out, you can see that kind off old right there. So that's not quite we're looking for Hit X. We're gonna get out of that, and we're going to just like we did before we're gonna hit E for extrude to pull this out of the side than it be for extrude again. And then this time, because we want them to kind of meet up exactly in this case. So I select this for to see, and I slept the last of her to see on the right side, and I'm gonna say merge at last. So this makes sure that this Verdecia is in the same place is this? You can see here that I didn't quite put these at precisely the same location, and we'd like them to be centered. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select both of those Burgess sees. I'm gonna say scale in the X. And now, when I skill in the X, you can see that they moved to the side. But they don't quite meet in the center. So in order to fix this so that they meet at one place, what weaken Dio is hit shit and we're going to move cursor to select it right, and that puts it in the center. But actually, we wanted to be there. So let's say it shipped us again with only that selected insight person er sorry cursor to selected. And now when we say scale weaken just picked this one because it's at the correct location , we're going to scale it according to the first or so. We go down here into our selection menu, we can pick three d cursor. So if I say scale in the X, because it's really the only way I need to do it and I scale it down to zero. So it s for scale and then zero and then that Ryan's it up. This is a really good trick for bringing everything on the same plane. So if you want to bring everything to the Y plane on a flat plane or on the Z and a flat plane, you could do this using this trick. And if I have a chance to do it again, I'll show it to you. But now you can see that we have this kind of boomerang shape or treetop. Let's skill that down just a little bit because we don't really have giant trees. Giant trees would mean they're super close when we're gonna make them quite super close. In this case, you can if you like, not a really a big deal. So from here, I'm going to add another one. So we're gonna shit d and we're gonna hold down Z because we wanted to be straight some again. And now I want to make the 2nd 1 smaller. So we're going to use that same trick we did before, where it's like one of our seats hover over, it hit, and sometimes that happens. It doesn't quite know which one to select, but I l So it's like all of the connected burgesses I'm gonna skill. Um, but I'm gonna hit Shift Z so it won't change the Z at all. But you know what? I don't like the way that looks, so let's just scale it like normal. Just a little bit. We're gonna pick the bottom line. L just like all be connected overseas. We're going to scale down just a little bit more, actually. You know, a tree gets bigger as it goes down, so let's scale it. Let's kill this one on the bottle on the scale it up. And let's pick this one here. We're gonna hit. I'm going to steal that one. Not quite as much. And we're actually scaling it down. So the one at the top should be the smallest, and the one of the bottom should be the biggest. So let's continue with that here. 10. To get out of that, we're gonna shift D Z and make sure to bring it straight down, scale it up a little bit. And now let's give them faces. So as I so like that one and I'm selecting it the same way I did before I'm click left clicking. One of the verdict sees that I'm hitting l to select all of the all be connected verses and then f in order to create that face. And I'm doing that for each one of these groups. I hit h there. So I have to do is hit. I'll Cage to undo that, and I'm doing that just one last time. The last thing we need to do for this? Well, not quite the last thing. Let's give it a trunk and trump country really simple Charles R cylinders. But in a soul, what could not actually solders there squares. So while we're in edit mode, I'm gonna create a square, and that's where he was hated. Like it always is. So I'm gonna hit, make sure it's selected, and I can see that it is. Go back to front view by hitting one. Rotate about the X by a number of techniques. Not I'm going to steal it in the eggs away s ex, and that allows us to make this itty bitty little trunk minimum G for grab Z. So it moves straight down, make sure it's dead sensor or dead center ish. And now I wanted to be a little bit longer on the bottom. So instead of scale in it, I'm just gonna grab these bottom courtesies. So I hit. Be for box select G for grab seeming Bring it straight down. And now I have this tree here. So the last thing I need to do is to give it a material. So I'm gonna make it the same material as the mountains. So it's that black shameless material and this grab it also bring it down. So it's a little bit closer. Let's see what it looks like from here. All right, I'm not so happy with this. I think that he sides are a bit too long. So let's make those a bit smaller. So what we're gonna do here, we're gonna select it by hitting be left mouse button in hitting the L button to select everything. We've got a scale it down, but only in the X. We're gonna do that for all of them. And you know what? This is a little long here. Someone make grab these two g z, bring them up, then August get it s scale and then extra cream, and it's gonna make them a little bit smaller. Let's do that for these bottom ones Skillet. And right now you can see that it's scaling kind of weird. And that's because we have miss selected a three D person. I didn't really make a difference before, but let's switch it back to median point now. If we skillet in the X, it kind of acts like we wanted to. So I had scale just now. Then I grab Z after breath, these various ease up this wedding, skill them in some more, and let's do that same thing. So we're gonna first with in this case, we're gonna grab these, Then we're gonna skill them and didn't really get X. But you could have there. No, that's it. Oh, it's grabbing. Let's move it up some. And were you doing this? You can do it however you like. I wasn't quite happy, but honestly, doesn't matter. The point of this is to show you how you can model and do it however you like with. The main point of it is to teach you some animation, but you have to have something to animate. It's not as much fun to animate nothing. So we're just making up some finishing touches. Here, pull this there. That tree looks much better, except for the fact beds, because trunk is sticking out of the top. So we're just gonna grab these emergencies so, G Grab Z, we're gonna pull it back down. And now we have something that's a little bit more like a tree. So that right now this is a little bit long, but loops h again, I tend to do that. Grab Z, bring it down. Now let's see what that looks. So I hit 12. And that, in fact, does look like a tree. Someone escaped. And now let's make some more trees. We're gonna bring entry out here. We're gonna skillet. I asked for scale, make it a little bit bigger, was down in the wind and make it a slightly scared, slightly skinny or so started not why s for skill X to make it slightly skinnier. So if that again slept everything menace feeling eggs to make it skinnier. Grab it, bring it down a little bit. Let's go ahead and make another one. Let's make this one bigger. Grab it, put it to the side a little bit And when we make another big one over here, off to the side And when we make a little tiny one smaller one right here and see how that works So now we have mountains and we have trees The only thing left is clowns. 10. Project 2-3: Animation: Now we've got almost every piece of this that we want. The last thing I want to add is some clouds, because even at night, the moon does illuminate some clouds, or at least the shadows of clouds. So clouds air gonna be even easier to do than the other aspects of what we did. I'm gonna make sure our three d closer is in a place that we can do. We can see when hit shit A I'm gonna add a circle. And this time my verses air up a 26. You're gonna want something kind of high because you wanted to really look circular. So 26 is gonna work. I take a look at it and see that that's fine. It's got a little bit of fascinating to it. But that's OK, cause we're gonna make it much smaller without a hit. Our for rotate about X, so hit our X 90 degrees and then we're going to scale that. Yeah, it's about what we want now, just like before. We're gonna hit F when everything is selected. So to select every big wanted un select with a and then select everything with a again to make a face and there were limits. It s for scale. And then X we're scaling it in that dimension. And then we're gonna hit shift D to duplicate. I'm gonna eat shit d again to do OK, And now we have a cloud. Now how you make your cloud the exact shape, it really doesn't matter. You can shift around these to make in me any ship that you want. And I think for Mayo many will put more peace here. And that's our cloud. You know, let's change it just a little bit more. So I'm just gonna g for grab. I'm gonna move this down just a little bit. No, I think I hated better the other way. Let's go with this. And I'm going to grab that now Now, because I'm in exactly the front view. I can be pretty sure that this is moving on Lee in the Z plane. So it's not moving towards me or away from me. But if I wanted to be sure that it wasn't doing that, I would hit shit. And then what? And you can see that the X axes in the Y axis and are visible this means I'm not moving it in the why access at all. And this is really helpful for when you're trying to do a lot of things, because when you're moving in three dimensions with the two D screen, this is useful because when you're moving in three dimensions on a two D screen, it's hard to see that third dimension or your angle is a little bit askew. It's hard to see what's happening, particularly in direction what's going right in and out of this claim. So that's an important thing to know. So now we just saw that we can see that our cloud and our campus are cool planner. So we're just gonna grab that, why I want a political or just a little bit so that it's not cool planner anymore. Now let's cover up are moving a little bit hit shift d again. While we're in object mood, we're gonna move it up just a little bit so that we have a cloudy movie night now. 12 you can see that we have clouds here and our moon with our trees and our mountains. So we're just about ready to do our animation now. Feel free to change this, however you see fit. Or you can think of something that's likely to be out and be viewable on a starry night, and you want to create that. So what? Feel free to add it. You can do what you came model like we did for the mountain where you can you circle the Sooners or whatever you like. But now let's get to be animation. Now that we've got everything in place, let's do our animation. But one quick thing. Before we start doing that, you can see that these clouds are different from everything else that's supposed to be in a shadow. And that's because we didn't give it a materials. If we hit at 12 VF 12 there black, and that's because they really don't have any material at all. But let's go ahead and make them the same material as everything else. So we're gonna pick not only pick Mountain for this, we really should give them different names and let's go ahead and do that with all the crowds from here. So now they're both cloud materials and that actually we ended up changing that. So it's called this Mountains again right And so now there are different. Actually, thes air, now called Cloud Slow was fixed these and call them trees. And we're just going to switch these this way. This way. Everything will make sense if we wanted to change any one thing in the environment without changing everything else. So now everything made sense. These air clouds, they have materials called clouds, and let's also go ahead and fix them here in their object names. That will also make things a little bit more clear. If you want to do anything else, and also when we're doing things for the animation, it will make more sense. Sometimes when you're looking at the different objects, you're only seeing their names, and if the names don't make any sense, then it's much harder to. And as I'm typing entry concede Blender is adding in a number at the end, and that's just so that it can have two objects with the same name. I'm gonna do the same thing with stars. Alright, some believe that's pretty much everything now but actually start the animation. So I want the moon to rise. So I'm gonna hit G for grab and I ve so that it stays going straight up and down and I'm gonna bring it below the mountains. And this is gonna but be my initial start point. So you can see here in the timeline if I hit play now, nothing happens. And that makes sense because we haven't created any key friends. That is a couple of different ways you can interact with animations on blender. You can do it with the and L A editor or that's nonlinear animation, or you can do it with the graph editor. But because we're dealing with very simple movements and we care more about the quality of movement than the complexity of there being lots of different movements, we're gonna use the graph editor. So that's right here. And in order to create that extra window, I went on the left side to these slanted lines and I dragged up. So every time you do that, it creates another window. And if I want to get rid of that, I go back to that same place and I pulled down and then you can see a little arrow in the center. It allows me to merge them, and I could do the same thing horizontally that I can do up and down vertically as well. So now that I have the sun down there, I'm going to create a key frame. And there's two ways I can do this. If you remember, I cant hit I and lock location Or I think over here too, where location is and I can hit. Hi, I'm gonna do that cause it's a little bit easier for you to see. So now you can see that we have this key frame locked at this position. Now, after a certain amount of frames, let's pick ah, 100 frames. Actually, let's Yeah, let's pick 100 friends and we're going to move. Grab Z, we're gonna move the moon up to its zenith clients very top, and we're gonna go over here to location or hit I. And now you can see that we have two keys to places where the location of our moon is locked. So go down. So our timeline and we can move about a timeline by using our right mouse button. You can see that the moon rises. Now, what's weird about this is that when it rises and then it stops and you'll have to decide whether that makes any sense for your animation. You might want it to rise and then quit and start again by going the same velocity the whole time. Or maybe you do want to come to a stop. But right now we have this set for 250 frames total. So right now, I'm only going 200. So we're gonna change that end to 100 let's keep it at 110. So now if we did play, we see what that looks like for the moon Cerise. And I have to say that this speed is a bit asked. So let's increase the total number of frames up to 250. And now let's take this key friend here. So it's here. We can't really move it here in the timeline, but we can move the key, appear we select it. So we're gonna take and make it so we can only see the Z key. So I did that by clicking diesel eyes. I hit G for grab, and now I'm going to move it out to the side, so we're gonna take it I'm gonna hit X so that it doesn't actually change how high we move it. We're gonna put all the way out at 90 frames. So now if I hit play down here, it rises ever so slowly until we get to its top point there. And I think this is much better for rising. The other thing that we're going Teoh, is we're gonna delete those keep frames because we don't really need them. And they don't really serve any purpose. So the only Q friends we have are in the Z. We hit play, which is also ill to eight. Now you'll see that we have a smooth rising of the moon and I but we're not done here. This is not all we want. We also want the clouds to part. So we're gonna pick this cloud. We're gonna go to the first frame and that we control what frame. But either clicking with our right mouse button here What? We did it just types first frame or whatever frame you wanna types. I'm gonna first frame down here now on the first frame and you feel noticed. The sun went down the moon. Sorry. Went down And that's because of the first frame. It's not visibly at the moon has not risen yet. So we're gonna grab this, and we're going to kind of put it on this side. Now, we're gonna walk this location, gonna create that key for this one. As the moon rises, we want it to move to the side. So by the time the moon is at its highest point and we want to see where that key is right now, So that key is exactly at 190 frame. So about 190 frames. We would like this cloud. It was like this cloud to be completely just barely clever in it. So I'm actually going to hit X so that it moves straight to the side and we're gonna do it right there. And then I hover over location to it. I now our cloud should move pretty much s slow. It it's just about the same speed as our moon. So if I hit play, we see that the cloud moves just like that. Then the next thing I want to do, I don't really want the clouds to ever stop moving, so I'm gonna get rid of my other other channels and I'm just looking X. And as I look at X, I wanted to keep going. So remember, before we wanted the plan is to keep on rotating. But in this case, we don't want it to rotate. We wanted to just keep moving so I could do that a number of different ways. I could just take this key frame and move it far enough in the pat in the future. So you never see it stop or I can go to channel it struck late mode, linear. Now, if I pull Avis, you can see that it keeps on going the whole time and we want to do that for Bull Cloud. So if we go to our first frame, I could go do that by going down to the bottom of the screen, hitting one, going to the first frame, selecting the cloud that we care about this time. So this is just cloud the next highest 10.1, and I locked the key friends. So I go over to location. I hit I I grabbed this cloud his ex, and make sure it only moves in one dimension and This is the location I put it, so I actually probably shouldn't hit. Actually, I did that backwards. Let's go back to where we were for grab the really I So lock it. Now we're gonna go to the 190th frame, and I'm gonna grab this cloud and pull it over and hit I again. So what you see now is that these two clouds move out of the way of the moon. But you know what? It would look much better if they moved in opposite direction. So it's chained. Let's change that. So let's go back to the 1st 1 first frame. Now it's on the right side. We're gonna block this key frame. Then we're gonna grab it X. So it stays in the same dimension and then go to the 190th keep banging, grab it and put it back over there because it moved back to where it was because we hadn't put the key framing yet. And I'm gonna I again now. It should move. They should move in opposite directions just like that. So if I hit play, we can see the clouds parting. And then the moon coming between just like the other cloud. We'd like this car to continue moving. So what I'm going to do is make it so. I can't see the other x, y, X, y and Z B Y and Z Channel's because I don't really care about them. But I do want to change this channel X Channel, which is the one that moves extracted, eight extrapolated and four to move. Many really Now. It'll keep moving, so we hit play. You can see that clouds continue to move. And just as the sun so sorry. Just as the moon rises, the clouds continue moves, and now you have your animation. And not only do you know how to animate something that's three dimensional, that does rotations, you can also meant you can. Also. You can also animate something that moves in two dimensions. Or you can mix the two. You can imagine that you can create any kind of seen you like with either three D or to the emotion or to the emotion. Because even though Blender is a three D program, doesn't mean that you have to only work in three dimensions. Now that we've done all the animation, the only step left is for us to do the rendering. But before we do the rendering, let's just check it really quickly. So if I look at this from the right view, I can see that everything looks to be moving just the way we thought. But actually, if I stop it, you can see that the stars are a little bit in front of the clouds now hit F 12. Yeah, and we see that that is the case that the stars are out of the clouds, and that's not what we want. So that's why it's always good to take a quick render in the middle of your animation to see if it's what you expected it to be. Because you can imagine. Even though this render may only take a few minutes, it's possible that you do a runner that takes minutes or even hours. If you're doing an animation, it's possible that you could have to render a weekend in order to just get a few minutes of animation. So you want to make sure and check it so that when you animated and when you render, it is exactly what you think it's going to be. So if we weren't doing an animation, I could simply select these clouds and move them forward a bit. But because then locked in key friends, they won't actually move unless I read to the key frames. So that's not actually be easiest way. The easiest thing is going to be it is going to be to move the stars to be slightly beat hind but clouds Because if I turn this sideways, of course you can't see anything. Lip. You remember that from earlier? If I hit Z putting us in wire friend mode and then looking at it from the side, it turns out we can see everything's with my sake by hit B from Box Select. And I flicked just this portion here. I'm gonna go down here to make sure I have all of this star selected and it looks like I do so if I go but side And these here are my clouds Zoom in. I grab I hit Why so g for grab and I'm gonna move these just behind the clouds Snap hit Z and I looked at hit zero to look at the camera view and I hit that 12 you can see it now. Those stars are behind my clouds. So if I let it continue to play escape first so that you can see it from the three D before and everything looks OK now, So we're just gonna monitor one more section 12 to see what it looks like. And I am happy with that. So now I have this set to go 250 frames, but I don't know that I really needed to go 250 frames. But you know what? I'm gonna keep it. I like the effect of be child's continuing to move even though the moon stops and that's not realistic. I'm gonna go ahead and stay with because I like the effect. So from 0 to 250 goes to the mark, right side panel, click be seen, but and in the scene. But now I have my render £2 I have animation. But before I click animation, I'm gonna make sure that it goes to the correct place. So if I click this, I wanted to go to a particular folder. I'm going to make sure and navigate that particular folder. And in this case were tough in about this nice guy program. So that's where I'm going to go. This all looks okay. I'm gonna accept. Now let's check which format it is. So right here we have P and G selected. I'm gonna go. But if I m. Pei and then from there, including I'm gonna go sit presets h 0.264 And that's the Kotick were using. I'm gonna leave all of this the same. I have this at 50% but you want to actually use yours instead of just doing a demonstration . Feel free to put this up to 100%. Or whichever aspect ratio makes sense. If you're doing this for Facebook, it should be one thing. If you're doing this for Instagram, it should be something else. So once I have all of that saved and done in the way that I like now, I'm going to hit animation and this is relatively quick, as you can see. And that's because I am using the blend Orender urine. I'm using the blender rendering engine and not cycles. And also my scene is really simple. I have a much materials that don't really have any real material there. Shameless. So the computer doesn't really have to figure out due to many calculations when it comes to trying to figure out what the scene should look like. So I'm just gonna let this run for now. I'll go ahead and speed it up and you'll see what this looks like when it's finally done. But now it's all done. And if you go to that location on your if you go to the location on your computer where you told it to be, it should be there. But let me also show you how you can check and see what happens. So if you go to the top menu, you go under, render and you say play, render animation. It takes a while, but eventually it will play the animation and you can see from here. It's nice and smooth, and we have our starry, moonlit night. So you did a really good job. I'm excited to see what your version looks like. Go ahead and upload it and let me know 11. Project 3-1: Modeling: So you finally made it. You learned animation with translation, and you learned animation with rotations. But there's a good chance if you made it this far. And if you really wanted to learn animation, one thing you were really interested in was character animation. I like to think of character animation as the holy Grail of animation. See, it's easy to just animate something if you wanted to just move left or right or go up and down is easier. Figure out how to make a bet, Correct. But if you're trying to do realistic human motion, it's quite sound right here. You're looking at a clip from Operation Barbershop with which was a movie completed and created completely in Blender, and they did a wonderful job of making even cartooning movement look plausible. And that's the whole key. Your I has an idea of what movement is supposed to look like because you've been watching humans move your entire life, so creating realistic movement is hard and we're gonna talk a little bit about that. But I'm gonna give you the tools to be able to do some character animation and the ability to create a really simplified character really quickly, so let's get started. So what's the basis of blender animation or Stevie G. I animation? What bones and reading. Just like with our riel body, we move it, we animated by moving our muscles, which them move our bones similar to real life and blender. We do the same thing. We create motion or the look of motion by situating our bones. And then the body comes along and blender. We do the exact same thing. And this process is called rigging, where we create a skeletal structure for our model. And then we assign parts of our model to those bones. So this is what a bone can possibly look like in blender. So there's Ah, few different options you can pick for. How bones actually looking with their geometry is But this one of the popular farms. And from there it doesn't really matter what your model looks like. It could be humanoid. It can be a monster. It can be an animal, but you create a skeletal structure that matches that. So on the left we have some kind of older or monster, and then we have a cat, and then we have a very humanoid looking rabbit, and in all cases we have a skeletal structure of bone structure. And once we put the bone structure in place, we have toe assign parts of our model to that structure. You can do that a bunch of different ways. Weight painting is one of those, and we'll talk a little bit about that. But we're not gonna go in depth into character animation because it can be its own very long project. But I am going to show you how to do some of your own character animation very quickly and have some cool and interesting projects you'll be able to do. So let's get started. Before we can do any kind of animation, we're gonna have to get a character. So I'm gonna show you the quickest and easiest way to create a character that semi realistic and then get it rigged because just modeling and rigging could potentially take hours. And I want to get you to the point where you can do the animation as fast as possible. So I want you to start a new screen like normal, and you'll have your default cube in this sentence. The first thing you're gonna want to do is pan around and then hit one on the num pad and five so one puts it in front of you five puts it in Ortho graphic view. And this is the view that you're going to use when you're doing much of the modeling. So the first thing we're gonna want to do is reduced acute to a single protects. So to go into edit mode, I select the Cube with my left mouse button. I had Tab and then I select all except for one of my verdict sees. So now you can see this one, Verdecia and I want to move it to the center. And I'll tell you why in a moment. But in order to move to the center, I had shift s selection to cursor and my cursor was set at the center cause we just now started up the file. If I wanted to double check with my three d her so was I can hit and which will open this panel here and see that my cursor is at 000 I can also see that the thing I said I have selected is also at 000 So I'm gonna close that so that we have more space to see. I'm going to go back to front view by hitting one. And I'm already still in Ortho graphic mode because I have five before and I'm gonna grab this point I have selected by hitting G them gonna hit Z to move it up. So the first thing we're going to do when we're creating this character because we're gonna use this special method called skinning along with skinning, we're also going to use the mirror modifier. That way, we only have to do half of our model, and it's really important when you're doing any kind of modelling. If you're gonna have a left on the right side or a top on the bottom and those two sides are symmetric, it's important that you go ahead and utilize the mirror modifier because it'll save you a lot of time and it will make sure there's no discrepancies between the left and the right side. So if I select mirror modifier here, you'll see in a moment when we model what we model on my right will also be on the left. Now the line that demarcates where the center is, is the origin of the object, and that's right here. It's set at the origin of our entire world, so it's easy to make is easy to see where that line is going to be. So now if I have that emergency selected by E. For extrude and now it had to go back into object mode, you can see that it's on both sides of our Z access. So the next thing I want to do is show you skinning Skinning is what's gonna allow us to save a lot of time with modeling and a lot of time from not having to do the rigging. So if you look at this now, you can see that there's a model around this line that we've created. Now I'm gonna hit Z, and it's gonna take us into a wire frame on. The next thing I'm gonna do is add the subsurface modifier that's going to create more Vergis ease without us having to model it. And that's what just kind of in layman's turns. That's what the subsurface modifier does. It gives us more detail as far as giving us increased amount overseas without us actually modeling it. If you look down here at the subsurface modify, you see the view is set the one and the render is set to two. So if I put this up to two, you can see that it increases. The verdict, sees even more off as far as what's around that line that we just created. But in a lot of cases, you wanted to render higher than what you want to model it, because putting it really high when you model will slow the computer down. And that's not something you want to do. You want to be able to move around quickly. So now breaking start creating our skeletal structure. So this is the top bracket, and this is the side of her hip, and we're just gonna quickly create are a stick figure. And I'm doing that by hitting e extrude and just putting it in a place that makes sense to me. If you really wanted to do this well, you to use a reference image, but we're just trying to get to the point where we can do some animation, so we're not gonna spend a whole lot of time on character modeling. So that's the bottom of my hit. I so like this one. I had e for extrude Z to make sure it stays in the center. And then I hit again Z to make sure it stays in the center. And that's kind of a top of my spine. Let's do a collarbone slash shoulder so I e again and drag it off to the side. Now we make the arms I mean hit be again and drag do you one more time and drive And now I'm gonna do the same thing for the next I'm gonna hit you too extreme for the neck Z and make sure it stays in the Senate. And then he again to pull it up the and you can see when I first do the extrusion, how sometimes it looks kind of weird. And if that's the case, you want to just move it past the point where it starts to do weird and crazy things in this case right about there does something funny. So I want to make sure and move it past that point when I'm actually doing the modeling, so I'm gonna go ahead and hit escape and we're gonna do the rest of the head from the side view. Do you get to the side view by hitting a three for side view and I'm saying that's the top of the neck right there. So I'm gonna move this and this is gonna kind of be chin and I'm using the arrows and you don't have to use arrows as long as you're in a completely perpendicular view. That's one where you hit one or three. You can pretty much be assured that nothing will move in and out of the planet in and out of the screen of the computer. So everything remains in the same X location is when you have it, as long as you're completely from side or front or top view. So that's kind of the chin. It's a little bit far out from right there. I'm gonna this and as well extruded one more time and doesn't look like it now, But that's gonna be our head. So if I hit one that takes us back to the center back to our front view, I'm gonna make these legs just a little bit longer. And now you see we have this very rudimentary looking humanoids stick figure, but we don't actually have to stop here. Something that skinning does allow us to do is scale at thes individual Verdecia. So let's say I want to give it. I want to give our stick guy or girl here slightly bigger hits. So I hit control A and I can make this area a little bit bigger. Now they say I want to give our person here a little bit more detail, so I select to Vergis is and I subdivide, So I w subdivide. Now I can select one of these vergis ease and have to make it smaller or bigger. In this case, I'm going to go ahead and make it bigger. I'm gonna give it a big hips because maybe I'm gonna actually try to make this a she. So let's go ahead and make this area also just a little bit digger. And because we're gonna do some animation here, I don't want everything to be completely in a line. You'll see a little bit more about that later, so I'm gonna pull those arms back a bit and let's go ahead and make them smaller somebody hit my control A and that's gonna allow me to shrink these arms down a bit. This is gonna be right at her wrist. So I'm going to shrink this down a bit as well. If I look from the front view, I would say that her arms should be just a little bit longer. Now let's give her or him some kind of rudimentary hands. So I'm gonna zoom in a little bit with the mouse wheel, the e for extrude. I'm only gonna really give it's will say at this point to like a mitten kind of hand. So that's all I'm going to give it for hand in interest of time. You can feel free to give them four or five fingers, but I'm gonna go from here and I'm gonna hit control a and I'm going to start scaling it down. So it kind of looks like a hand type attendance. And now I want to go to the wrist, scale that down, and now it looks a little bit more like a hand. So right here, I see that this whole thing is kind of like a finger, but I wanted to be a little bit flatter. So something that's really useful when you're using this kind of quick way to create a character is that after you hit control A you can scale on a particular dimension similar to when you scale normally. So I'm gonna hit X and you can see that it makes it just a little bit flatter. So scale x Sorry, not scale control. OK, X and we're just gonna open that piece up just a little bit. And I did the same thing in both cases. So now you can see that I have more, uh, open kind of multi finger appendage here. I'm gonna leave this looking kind of like a bum because that's what it is. The next thing I'm gonna do is make this shoulder a bit smaller. That also helped with our mesh up here, and you can see that we looks more like an alien than anything else. So in order to see what the actual mash looks like, I hit Z to come out of wire frame mode and I see that it really looks like alien partially because of this head, partially because there's really no neck. So, just like before I want to add some details. Why? So let the two bird sees that are above and below the place I want to add. And I hit W and subdivide. Now this will work with any model, even though we're doing skinning and didn't have to be skimming if we were just using if we were just modeling anything, even a cube, it wouldn't really matter. We could still use this saying thanks. So now everything looks a bit small so let's make this a little bit bigger for the chest area, so this looks a little bit better. I'm gonna select this. I'm gonna shift it down and scale it up to give it slightly more of a normal neck. I'm gonna make this here and I'm still hitting control a each time and then from the side, I'm gonna bring this down, and now we need to create more of a head instead of this kind of worm, like looking third arm growing out of its head. So I'm gonna go here, it control a and you see how it got bigger and it merged, and I'm gonna move this back of it. I'm gonna do the same thing here. Shift this down. I'm a scale this end. And at this point, really, you're just It doesn't really matter what your personal looks like. You can move this around in whatever way makes sense to you. I'm just giving you the tools to be able to create your own character Here. I was thinking about making a beautiful lady, but that's not quite how this is turning out. But this does look like head, so I'm okay with that. The other thing is, it's a bit ride, so I'm gonna hit control again. This time I had X and I can make this a little bit more slender and there from the side. Sometimes I just play around with the control A to see if it helps or hurts what I'm trying to dio. And in this case, yes, this is looking much better. So when you're doing this yourself, you're just playing around with the Vergis is and doing whatever is working. What you have is not gonna look exactly like what I have by no means so right now you can see that are hit area. Minding mine anyway is weight wide. Someone will pull goes hiss in a bit and see already Our character is looking much, much better. So from here, I'm actually gonna has got too much of an hourglass thing going on. So I'm going to scale this up a little bit. And then if I look from the front and the side and I did that by hitting one and three so one to go back to side here and you want to keep going back from front decided to see what everything looks like. I think the legs are just a it too. Sure. So I'm just gonna pull this bird isi down a little bit, move the knee down a little bit, and that looks much better. Now, let's give ourselves a foot. So when you're doing normal, wreaking your foot many times has a hue and it has a toe. But before you get to the toe, there's the part that goes from the ankle to the floor, and then the toe goes forward. So that's generally what we want. And right now, those feet are absolutely huge. So we're going to just reduce that size by using our favorite control A just the same as we did before. So now we have something that was a little bit more like a foot. That hell is absolutely huge. Too much, actually, The foot itself is completely big. So right now, the verdict sees not just the lines around the Verdecia, but the verdict sees themselves that employing two are too big. So I want to make them smaller, so I'm gonna select them all. And I'm gonna scale it down because I want the foot to be scaled down as a whole, not just the subsurface that makes it up. So right now it looks a lot better. But it's 22 rounds. We're gonna use that same trick that we did before we do scale, and only in the X and widen. It did skill. Sorry. Hit control s We're going to do that same thing in the Why make it just a little bit flatter. Do that same thing with this pregnancy just to make it a little bit flatter. I'm gonna go here, and that leg was really funny. So I'm gonna scale that down just a little bit with control A I can't let it get too small and that he'll with big mounds here. So this is what you're doing in your model? You're just looking at it and trying to find the best way to make it look just a little bit digger. So right now, I don't actually know what I want a bigger hell or not. So I'm going to see what happens when I make it bigger being hips, small hips, Let's go. Small hips. So right now, I think I'm okay with back for really quick, really dirty humanoid character. I think this is really good, but let's try to make this head just a little bit better. I think it protrudes too much in front. So if I select this and I want to make sure that it moves around that point if you remember , I still like the red ISI I hit, period. So he fix that. So right now, I wanted to rotate about this point, but you can see that it does not do that. So, just like before, I taught you to hit period to center it. Now it rotates about that point that I just centered on it. So if I hit three, we see what it looks like from the side and I think this protrudes a little bit too much. So I'm gonna hit, ensure a And if I hit, why, I can pull this in just a bit. So now if I look at it, I would say that the head is maybe a bit. No, I think the head is okay. I'm gonna scoop this up a little bit more, so it looks just a little bit more natural. I'm gonna reduce the size of this new day, and I'm gonna pull this back to give it a kind of straight line for the back of the head. The head doesn't protrude too much. And you know what? I think I'm okay with this. So this may take you, Ah, bunch of times to kind of do and get the hang off. But just with hitting control a and either x or Y to move it around and see what kind of makes the most sense for you, you want to make sure that you have ah, hand here and you want to make sure you have a foot in your foot. Has a hell, Annatto. So this is the hell this toe. You want to make sure that it has those verses. You also want to make sure that it hasn't me and an elbow, because that's what's going to make it. So you can actually move around because these lines are gonna make up your skeletal structure. So let's make that a little bit more evident. But just pulling this a little bit forward, so the knees air just a little bit better. I'm gonna do that same thing with the elbow. I did that before pulling back just a little bit. I'm gonna take this hip and do the same family, push it forward just a little bit. Same thing with this midsection. Push it for just a little bit more. Pull that chest forward just a little bit. Cool the back because I don't want to destroy anything that gives his spine some curvature , and that looks a little bit more realistic. Wouldn't you agree? We're not all right. So I'm really excited to see what you do with yours. Shouldn't take you that long. It took us to do everything. Looks like it took about 20 minutes, but yours could be completely faster or slower, depending on how perfect you want and get it 12. Project 3-2: Rigging: Now that you've finished your model, are you proud of it? Well, actually, now that I look at mine, I realized the head It's probably just a little bit too small for the body. But right now, I'm not gonna sweat that. My guys just gonna have to have a small head. So as I continue here, our next step is rigging. And that is simply creating bones and assigning be appropriate part of the mesh to our bones. That's what's gonna allow us to move the part or move our character around in a way that makes sense. If you have never done any kind of character animation, you don't know that rigging is probably the most tedious part of it. Like if you're modeling, at least when you're working with the model, you can see that things are changing. You can see how your model is coming to life. Even if you're doing the lighting, you can see how things are changing. But when you're doing digging, there's nothing to really see. It's just work you got to do, and it can take a long time, depending on how you're going to create your model and what kind of model it is, but and there's a big but for us because we use something called skinning, and we use the skinning modifier to do that, and that's gonna allow us to do some really quick riggings. We're gonna let blender you the rigging for us. So now that we have our model right now, you might be in wire frame mode. Right now, I'm in solid mode, solid object mode. If I hit Z I Z, that puts me back and wire frame Modi tab to get into edit mode. So something I didn't tell you before that you want to make sure is the case is that this circle is around your hip joints. So in order to do that, you got that. First I'm gonna go ahead and move it to the side, cause I think it might be somewhere else on your model. So we wanted to be at the center of if it So you want to select that Vergis e and say mark route, that should put it at the center of your model, and that's gonna help out a lot, actually, is gonna make it possible for us to do the correct reading. The next thing we're gonna do is hit. Apply for the mirror modifier. And you could see right now by hit apply. It does not work, so don't flip out. If you're doing that, it won't work. And the reason it won't work is because I'm in edit mode. So if I come out of edit mode by hitting Tab, that puts us an object mode. Now, when I hit apply, it works. So I had tad to go back into edit mo. You can see that both sides of our model now have this skeletal structure. Now have these verses that will be our scale. So structure. So I'm going to go back into edit mode. Sorry. Back into object mode and I'm gonna create I'm gonna hit the button, create armature, and this is what does all the magic for us was gonna make it so we don't have to spend any time really with rigging so hit create armature. And now your model should look like this. I'm still in wire frame moan, but you can see a separate object which is now the armature for our mesh. Now let me show you the magic so far go to object. Sorry, not object. That's where modes menu and go into pose mode. And I select the leg and I hit a bones already had our and it rotates. Same thing is true. If I select part of our sin, I rotate and it moves arson. So now you can kind of see if I wanted to do an animation I could situated like this. How I could move my model around and the way I just did that it's called forward Kinnah Matics. That's where I moved a joint and then I moved the joint down from it and all the way till I get to the in most point where I move that. And that's kind of how we set things. But that's not the best way to do animation many times. But let's say that I want to put my model back in the position it started in I hit impose mode. I could hit a for select all, then under pose clear transform. Oh, that puts it back to read. It s so if you get it in some kind of weird pose, it will still work. What would like to have is to be able to move the foot or the hand and then have the rest of the arm kind of figure out where it's supposed to be. And that's called inverse canna Matic's. So, in order to do that, there's a few things we need to do to kind of set things up. The first thing is to give it a controlling bone. Kind of a handle will call it a target. Actually, most people call it a target. So the first day I'm gonna do is instead of being imposed mode, I'm gonna go into edit mode. Now, when you're dealing with armatures, you can only create new bones in edit mode so you can create bones imposed mode. Even though that would be nice, you're gonna have to go to edit mode now if I go to the wrist and you don't have to trust me that right now this is the place that we want to put this. I need to select this piece that's in the center. So right here these long stick like things are the bones, but they're joined by Verdecia, so if you go ahead and you click around eventually you'll be able to click on this vert asi I'm gonna make sure I'm in front of you. So I hit one and then I hit e for extrude and that's gonna allow me to put time an extreme e ists bone. What? Looks like an extraneous bone, but won't be an extraneous bone later. So I'm gonna do that same thing on the left side extrude that's gonna put it there. I'm gonna do the same thing for the ankle and you're gonna see why I'm doing this in just a moment. I'm gonna extruded again. It doesn't have to be a perfect extrusion. So if you're thinking about this, really think about it, you realize these things kind of look like handles, and for the most part, that's exactly what they are. They're handles for our model. So the next thing we're gonna do is create just a few more magic bones that I promise I will describe to you later. So I select this board now I'm still in edit mode and I hit shift D and that allowed me to duplicate it. But you see this dotted line here This means that this bone has a parent which is down here and we want to get rid of that parents. It's all Tapie for clear parents. We don't want that to actually have a parent, and I'm going to hit shifty again and another bone up here, he said. This time, if I had seven, I'm above. I want this bone to be right at the elbow, and I want this bone to be right behind the back of any. So these bones are freestanding bones that don't have a parent. And once again, to get rid of their parents, hit Ault P for clear pants and I want to do that same thing for our other handles. So all its peak for that one that pokes out clear parent. And once again, I'm going to show you why this is the case in just a moment, Clear pan. And now let's do that same thing on the right side of our model. So don't extrude out. I'm gonna hit. Why make sure it's right along this excess cooling, a weird angle going to do the same thing I did on the right side. But this time I think this hit shift D move it over hit X to make sure it stayed even I could do the same thing on the other side. I want to be in front shift D X to move it straight over and make sure it looks the same on all cases. I don't have to clear the parent in this case because I duplicated it from one that already didn't have. Apparently, this one, in fact, does have recurrence. I'm going to do all two p for clear parents and I have to do that again. Over here. Out P for clear parent. So now your model should have exactly would have before step it should have these four freestanding bones, one behind each elbow and one behind each knee thes. They're gonna make it so that the arms always bend in the correct direction and you'll see that once we set everything us up and then you need these extra bones here, which there you could think of as our handles. So go ahead and do that. And I'm gonna meet you here for the next video, and we'll actually make everything work and you'll see how everything works. Now let's see why we made all those extraneous bones like I said before we were working on creating an armature that can work for inverse can dramatic. So what does that mean exactly? In a way that you can see it. So let's go into pose moment. We do that by making sure that's actually we just go into a mode menu. We picked pose mode, and I already had this set up, but we're gonna do this from scratch, so we're gonna select the bone on its left forearm. Now. I said left because I'm assuming that this is the front. So it has the left, and the left is right here. And if you're wondering why my bone is blue and yours isn't, it's because you're not imposed mode. So if you're imposed mode, then this bone will in fact be blue. So the first thing we're gonna do is we're gonna go to our panel and we're going to go to the bones constraint menu. And that's only here because I have a armature selected and I'm impose mode so I can go to the bone constraint menu, and I can say add bone 10 strain. And then I'm gonna pick inverse Kinnah max. So when it starts off, it's at zero. Which means the root of your inverse Kinnah Matic chain is at the root of what we said before. And that's not what we want. So we wanted to be to. So this means the rule is right here at the shoulder. So let me show you what inverse canna Matics means. If I select that handle that we made before and I hit G four grab. Actually, you know I didn't finish. Let me create a target so armature and then we want this to be our target so we can see if we selected. That is bone 0.8 So I go back to the one that we're working on. I see 10.8 I could have also tight eight and it would have shown me all the ones with a in its title. And now, if I so like that particular target that we made before and I'm moving around, you can see that it makes my arm move around too. But what you can also see is the elbow does really weird stuff. There's no way your elbow should ever do that without you needing to go to the ambulance. So how do we fix that? So we're gonna put it back to its original place. I hit a for Select All. I go to pose like we did before clear transform. Oh, just to reiterate a If I picked this and it moves all the bones behind it, that's what makes it in verse can dramatics instead of forward Kinnah Matics in order to get into this polls, before I would have had the first move this bone and then move that bone and then hopefully I could have got it in the same position. But now I can just move the in bone, and that's what I end up. So once again, I want to go back to my default polls and here we go. But I want to control this elbow. So that's done by adding a poll target, and that's going to control how my elbow is oriented when I'm moving things around. So in order to do that, I'm gonna go to that same bone on the pole target. I need to add this boat, but I don't know which one it is yet, So I'm gonna highlight it, and I see it at this 0.0 bone 0.5 So go back to the forearm bone and it's a armature that we want. And within armatures, we want 0.5 So now you can see that my elbow is pointed kind of weird. There's a chance that when you did this came off absolutely perfect. But is the better chance that it did? So in order to fix that, I'm gonna go to this thing called the poll angle here, and this is to fix our orientation. And I'm gonna make sure that it points right out where I want it, too. And chances are it's some multiple of 90 right? So now if I pick this, if I select are extraneous bone here are hand handle and grab it and moving around you can see that I bone our elbow kind of always points towards here. So if I move that around and then I move this effects where the elbow is, and this allows you to make sure that your arms always doing something that makes sense. So I'm gonna select on Put that in his default polls again, my saying clear transform and I'm going to do the same thing for right side. I'm gonna say add bone can straight constraint can a Matic? I wanted to stop at the top of the hip, so I wanted to be instead of zero. I wanted to be to and I'm gonna check to see what bone this is and I see that it's 0.3 So that means I want the target to be an armature. That is 0.3 And I was sick this down just a little bit, So I make sure it's right at that angle. And what bone is that? So that says, over here, this bonus 0.4 So I go here of a poll target armature, and I go to bone 0.4 and I see it's all weird looking, So I'm gonna fix it again by going to the pole angle, and I see that if I've put it here, I'm turning it. So probably if I just put 90 in here and it does match up on yours, it could be negative. 90. It's possible it could even be 180 or negative. 180. But Now when I grab this bone and move it around, I can move it just like it's a normal dependence. And I'm going to do the exact same thing for the left side. I'm gonna speed it up and allow you to be able to do it on your own, but it's the same process. 13. Project 3- 3: Animation: now that you have everything set up to be either forward or inverse canna Matics, if you remember what that IHS the next thing we're gonna do is I'm gonna show you how to use the tools within blender to be able to do animation. Now, this is the part that could easily take hours in and of itself for me to teach you all the ins and outs of doing animation and being able to manipulate your animations. But just like before I showed you a quick way to rig and create your character, I'm gonna show you the minimum of what you need to do Interesting animations for your character. So the first thing I'm going to show you is something called the dope sheet. And in order to do that, I'm gonna use another window. And this is the first time I think that we've done this. So whenever you want another window within blender, you're gonna go to these slanted lines in the corner. You can see them all over your model. In every place you see them, you can click and drag, and you can open up a new view port. So right now, this one that you're looking at is called a three D view port. But we want the dope sheet. So I'm gonna open up. I'm gonna click here on this icon and I'm gonna open up the dope sheet now the dope. She is powerful because it remembers and gives you a visual depiction off where you put your key frames. And if you remember, when we did rotation and translation, we use key frames to their away from blended to understand a pose or position or rotation at a particular point in time. And from there blender, inter, Pilates between them and just like rotation and translation. Posing a character is the exact same fame. So there's a couple of ways that you can do this. The easiest and most straightforward is to simply move character tour particular location. So we're going to do a waving animation. So all I need to do is put our character in that post. So I'm Look, I hit one to put it in front of you. I'm gonna hit G for grab, and I'm going to grab this piece here. This was the inverse Kinnah Matic target that we made before. So want the in front of you, Jada, Grab and I'm gonna move it up to this location here. Now, elbow is a little bit weird. And if you remember, this target is help. This this is not the target. This is the whole helps control where this Elmo is. So if I move this around, you can see that it fixes that elbow joint. Now, if I wanted to, I could use for were telematics to change this shoulder joint. But I'm not going to because I don't really think that's necessary. So I am happy with this first pose, and what I can do is select this bone and this bone, because these are the two that we actually changed. I could I and I'm gonna lock rotation, location and scale. That's what lock rocked scale means. And if you look down here, you can see that we now have our keys available in the dough. See? So if I only want to see the keys for this armature, I can minimize this. I can close this. This will only show me this part of it, or I can do that. And that will only show me this part of it if I want to interact with all the keys in this armature at the same time. But I want you to go ahead and be able to see at least that we're talking about these two bones. So this is our first location. So we're gonna continue by going to our next location. So the important thing when you're doing animations is to realize that every time you move your timeline, your model is gonna snap back toe what? Whatever the keys you have said. So let's say that I move this down because I was planning on doing something like this, and then I moved my timeline, and you can see that snapped right back to where it waas. So keep that in mind when you're doing this, you want to move to the point in the timeline, you wanna put your key first and then you want to create your key. So we're doing a waving animation. So I'm gonna go ahead and put my hand a little bit out, and I'm gonna say I'm gonna hit I again or lock, rotation and scale and you can see here that it is now a lot what it did not create down here was the bone associated with our poll target this because I didn't move it, so I didn't need to change it. So now if I used my right mouse button, you can see that it weighs now. The power abusing the dope sheet is that instead of creating another location over here and then moving the arm by hitting G and Baba blah, what I can do is I can select just these keys with my left mouse button. And if I selected up here under the dope sheet summary, it will foot all the keys at this frame. So I do that. I hit Shift D for duplicate, and I drag it over to, let's say, the 15 frame. So now you can see that it automatically goes back. And that's one of drinks of doing animation with the computer is because you can copy and paste thes poses and you can create complex movements with a minimal amount of work. Not that this won't get really tedious, and you have to spend a lot of time to do about it. Interesting beings, but it does help a lot. The other thing, we're gonna do is we're gonna change the range. But I wish we play this animation. So right now it plays from start. So that's the first frame to the 250 frame. But we don't really have anything from frame 15 to frame. 250. So I'm gonna change. Are in frame to 15 now when I hit play and this is the play hit. This is the play button here. I can also hit control A and you can see that we're now waving. This is really boring. Why don't we give it just a little bit a little bit of spice? Give him some hip action just so you can see that as well. So I'm gonna select the to hip bones, and this would be forward cinematics because I'm moving the bones that I actually want. I only want these to move, so I'm gonna rotate them just a little bit for the left. I'm gonna hit I rock rotation and scale, and then I'm gonna go to my next set of frames, and I don't rotate them to be other ways. So hit art to rotate, and then I for lock, rotation and scale. So it's always good to find a check. What's happening here? So that looks okay. And once again, I don't wanna have to do anything over, So I'm just gonna go ahead and delete these key frames will be here because not exactly what we had must like all the ones that beginning hit shit d drag them over to the 15th frame just like I did before. And now I'm gonna play it. And you can see we have this kind of marine gay movement along with our model. So you can imagine that you can do a lot with this. I chose to just do something similar so I could have done something like, I make the key frame there. And then by here I change it so that it's here. And now when I play it, it's not going to make a whole lot of sense, but he's kind of moving in, moving his foot up. The same is true. I'm gonna go ahead and delete this because it doesn't make a lot of sense. The same is true. If I wanted to move his entire body. All right. I can take this. I can create the key frame I can also I can select all of these. And I can do that by selecting one bone hitting A and I can move the entire model. And I can lock rot in scale, lock, rotation and scale for the entire model. That's how you would do a running, animation or jumping animation or you name it really anything. That's how you would create it. So now I had this crazy animation because there were no doing before. But now you have the building blocks to create whatever you want. It could be running, it could be fighting, and I'm really interested to see what you do.