Introduction To Stained Glass | Frannie Shaw | Skillshare

Introduction To Stained Glass

Frannie Shaw, Artist

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11 Lessons (1h 20m)
    • 1. Introduction to Stained Glass

    • 2. Class Overview and Information

    • 3. Preparing Your Pattern

    • 4. About Glass & Pattern Transfer

    • 5. Cutting Glass

    • 6. Grinding Glass

    • 7. Copper Foiling

    • 8. Soldering

    • 9. Using Patina

    • 10. Embellishing & Waxing Your Project

    • 11. Finished Project

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About This Class

Welcome to Introduction to Stained Glass! In this class we are going to cover all the materials, tools and procedures to create Tiffany stained glass or also known as copper foiled stained glass. This a beginners class and no experience is needed. By the class end you will know the basics of what is needed to go on and create your own projects in this method of stained glass. We will be creating a butterfly in this class that can be hung in a window or outside, you can display it in any way you wish! I am providing a list under the project section for you that has a full materials list and a safety sheet for reminders. Future classes will expand on this basics class as we get into my advanced classes!

This basics class will be longer than future classes as it will have more information needed to give you the proper tools to do future projects.



1. Introduction to Stained Glass : welcome to introduction to saying glass and this class we're going to cover the copper foil method of stained glass. It's also noticed Tiffany stained glass. For this project. We're going to be completing a butterfly, and by the end of the project you will understand all the basic tools, materials and procedures to creature and stained glass and future projects. We're going to cover things that are a little more advanced. Three dimensional objects will be covered and later courses. I hope you follow along with me for future classes as we get into more advanced projects. 2. Class Overview and Information: Welcome back to introduction to staying glass. Today we're going to be working on a butterfly pattern, and by the time that we're done, we're going to end up with a piece that is very similar to how this looks provided in this class. I have given you a full materials list in tools and a general safety reminders list that I will make available to you. As we go through the class, we will go over each one of these sections as we get to them. I'm talking about the tools and the different procedures of using all of these different tools and creating our project along with 3. Preparing Your Pattern: in this section of the class. We're going to discuss what it takes to create your pattern and get your pattern transferred over to glass. So to start off, you're going to need a copy of the design I've provided for you. A sheet of poster paper, some kind of transfer paper. This is carbon paper, but you can also use just graphite on on paper and traced your image. Um, we're gonna need that to transfer this pattern. Teoh, this cardboard paper, this is the just normal standard poster paper with the shiny side. And then I'm not so shiny side. We're going to need some Ah, glue stick. A pencil, some thumbtacks, just standard thumbtacks. Either a piece of old ceiling tile or so corkboard. Then we will need to cut the pattern out a pair of what we call pattern shears. These are not normal shares. They look like normal scissors until you open them and you see that there is, in fact, three Wade's. The purpose of these scissors is to cut out a thin piece of paper in between the pieces of your pattern to allow for later steps. When you go to solve this together now that we have all of our materials to create the pattern. What we're first going to Dio Let's take our panel and we're gonna take our carbon paper. Put it underneath the pattern. We're going to trace this onto. All right, Mr Paper. Now we're gonna pin this down onto the court board or the ceiling tile, whichever you prefer. We're just gonna use a pencil to trace along the pattern. I'm gonna make sure that you get a lines. Take your time. We don't have to trace the little. And tennis here is those were going to be creative with wire later on. It's now what we want to do is we want to lift up these 1st 2 pieces of paper. Since we have this pin, we want to make sure that we have the basic pieces of our butterfly. These lines don't have to be super dark, just as long as you can see with where they are for cutting it out. Now, what we're going to do is we're gonna number each piece on the pattern. Seven, give each piece a number. The reason that we want a number are pieces is if you decide to do another piece, for instance, one that has many pieces like this. It's nice to have the number as you work a longer piece. So you know exactly where they go back on this pattern after we're done cutting, grinding. Now that we've got this done, we're gonna lift it again. Make sure we have a good copy. And now we're going to move on to the next step of the process. We have our pattern transferred over to the poster paper. We're gonna undo everything. We're gonna set this aside for later because we're gonna need this. And then we're going. Teoh, cut out using our pattern. Shears are happy now. Pattern shears, like I said before, have three different blades and the center blade. What it does is it cuts out a fine script. It's of paper in between your pattern pieces. This allows for later. When you go to put your copper foil on your glass pieces, it allows for the space that oil itself takes up. So we're gonna cut our pattern, and it's easier I find to actually turn your scissors upside down because you can see where your Linus working with these scissors. It's best to do short little bursts moving your scissors along the way. Sometimes what you get. Is it fold of underneath? It's hard to see between all those little blades. Continue cutting out our pattern. It's removing best small, thin strip of paper. You can see I got a little bit off right here and I just rounded that off. And that's perfectly fine, because this will match up to this just sometimes. It helps to have a normal period of scissors to cut out around the edge with the pattern first, which is what I typically like to dio. But we're not working in the studio today, and I did not bring my normal scissors were actually working inside today. Since it's such a lovely day, I may have to get around for this. Go and get rid of some of the bulk of his paper. If you don't use these scissors to get this little strip of paper out a long way, don't create problems when you get a put your pieces of glass together because they won't fit quite where they're supposed to, and they won't line up quite were supposed to just gonna continue cutting out for butterfly wings, he says. It was like I said, Work better for you. Your short little bursts, verses. Long cuts People visible. These little pieces that takes out. Sometimes you have to pull those out your scissors. Continue cooking. - Great . Lastly, were cut these two little pieces apart. Okay, so there we have our five pieces already. Two, move onto the next step, which is going to be glass selection in the next video. We want to go over how to select your glass and put your pattern onto the the glass that you choose, and then we can cutting. 4. About Glass & Pattern Transfer: in this section, we're gonna talk about picking your glass and a few little safety tips on handling glass. You're handling big sheets of glass like this. These edges are very, very, very sharp. Says always good to have a pair of like river guarding gloves on hand, especially when you're handling these big pieces if you're not used to handle. These are also very good for later steps that we will cover in the sauntering. So when you're picking out glass, there's 1st 2 types of glass this piece of glass, as you can see you can see through. So this is typically what they would call and more cathedral type glass or transparent glass. When you hold this up to the light, you'll be able to see straight through it. The next type of glass. We're gonna talk about opaque glass. This is a sheet of a pig glass. When you hold it up to the light, you can still see shadow through it. But for the most part, you can't make out anything on the other side. Only just a shadow. Um, pick glasses, basically like what you would consider like a pink paint I can't see through it very well, You know, here's another piece of cathedral where you can see through it where you cannot see through this one. So transparent, opaque. Now One of the other things that were going to talk about right now is texture. This piece of glass you can see has a ridged, bumpy texture. But that ridge bumpy texture was only on one side. When you flip this piece of glass over, you will see that this side of the glass, even though it is little wavy, has much less texture on it. This is always going to be your cutting side of your piece of glass. Every piece of glass has a cutting side and a non cutting self. This would be the cutting side on this piece. On this piece of glass, you'll notice there's a fair bit of texture on the side, and when you flip it over, there's also a fair bit of texture. On. This side could be a little difficult to tell the difference on some glasses on this one. In particular, this side has got ever so slightly more bump and texture in this side where it's one levelled and has a sheen. So this again would be. You're cutting side on some pieces of glass. It's not really going to matter what side you cut on, depending on how the glasses made, which we'll get into minutes. This saw a piece of glass as well. Just another example. See slightly, Richie. It's a little bumps, but when you flip it over, the texture is more predominant. So this would definitely be your non cutting side. And that would be your cutting side for this project. I have picked up these two pieces of glass. This piece of glass, if you look at it, is smooth on both sides. The side has just a little bit of cracking and things where it was poured. You can see right here these little corners, so I would still probably choose to cut on this side. This would be the cutting side of this glass. Now you'll notice that this is a broken piece of glass, has some painting things on it. This was a piece of glass that was salvaged from a broken church when so we're going to recycle this so it does not get a waste. We're gonna use this for our pattern on our butterfly's wings. So and we've also picked this piece, which is another piece that has a a little bit of texture to it on this side, the side that's a little dusty, this side. It was perfectly Smith. So this is gonna be our cutting side. So now that we've chosen are pieces that were going to use, we need to adhere our pattern to the glass for cutting. So we already know that these two pieces are the body, so they're gonna go up here on the green. We'll set them up there for now. So we have these three pieces of the butterfly's wings. Now, another thing that we're gonna talk about really fast is a lot of glass has a direction. You can see in this one that the pattern goes this way I talked about and some glass it making a side to side. And in some, it may swirl around and not really have a great direction, but we're cutting glass. We also want to think about what we want our piece toe look like. So we're hanging our glue stick out here. We're gonna lay up or butterfly wings. I want to on three. We can refer back to her a piece here. Make sure they're in the right order so you can see how they're going away and we can take . And we can find the parts that we must like. This is just a little piece of paint will take off later. But I really would like to have this this purple in here. So we're gonna take our patterns. We're gonna lay it on there and see if we have enough room. Now, you can take this right up to the edge of the glass so you can turn it. However you wish to get it there so that what we're gonna do is just take our bleu stick and these air just dollar store ugly six. And I like the ones that, um, change color as they dry because they seem to be a little easier to work with. So we're gonna flipper pattern over. We're going, Teoh, give it a good dose of glue. After we get that on one to flip the server and we're going Teoh, position our glass. We're gonna press the pattern. Ours. We're gonna hold that pattern there for a few minutes. They're just a get down. Now. I look at her second ring here, and I think that I would like to have some of these pretty colors down in here now, in this pattern, because I'm using her piece of scrap glass. I'm not going to worry too much about my direction. Is this isn't it instructional video? I'm not going. Teoh, donate this piece, Teoh Overlook work Gallery for them too. Sell and make a few dollars after we get that on there. Really? Like this little section here? Someone tried to get much of that as I can take it right up to the edge, right down here to the edge. It's okay. And for this piece here, I would like to have a little bit of this gold. Now we're gonna try to serve some pieces of glass here, so and trying to conserve some pieces of glass. Um, if this was a bigger sheet, like the sheet above here, which we'll get to in a minute, um, I may only put these pieces going in the same direction over in the corner of the piece of glass. Since this is a scrap piece and I'm gonna break it down. I can kind of fit in. However, I want Let's come down here a little bit. Get this pink. So put that piece about there. I must still have some pretty big chunks of this left ever. Actually, we have a lot of this leftover because it was an entire window. So we're gonna It doesn't matter if you get a good bit of glue on there. That's actually better. Okay, several Tonto. All right, so we're gonna try to get this piece of pink here, so I put that down. We're gonna set this aside to dry for a few minutes out of the way, Then we're going to get more piece of breaking now. This is a big sheet of green. It's, ah, fairly good piece. So what I would like to do is try to conserve as much glasses possible. So I'm going to come down here in this little Kelowna, or even better yet, since we have this Nick in this piece here, we'll come over here into this corner, a little dusty dusted off. It doesn't matter if you get glue all over the glass. It's not gonna heard it any this rushes off and it will not affect your cutting. Place this down here in the Kelowna. See? And I got as close as I can to that corner. Bring it down to here, okay? And then we're gonna put the head right there, and you actually save yourself a cut by putting it on edge like that. Especially have straight lines. If you put it right against the edge there, then you only have to do part of the cut because part of cuts made for you, so you don't have to cut this edge. Okay, so we're gonna set this aside to dry for a minute number. Going to start moving on to cutting, see in the next video. 5. Cutting Glass: Now that we have completed putting the pattern onto glass, we're going to begin cutting glass, and that is going to require tools that will get over here in just a moment. But we're also gonna talk about safety for a second. You can wear your rubber gloves if you choose to, so you don't get any nicks or cuts. But after a while you get a pretty good feel for glass and how to handle it. And with some experience, you don't really need those at this stage. One of the other big safety things for cutting glass at this moment. Um, is I protection? I actually have glasses on that. Allow me to cut glass without needing these because they are rated for safety. So we're on center pattern aside now, this is the pattern. We're gonna set our pieces on this as we go so we can keep track. So the first tools that we're gonna go over is your cutter. Now, these cutters are actually made to holds oil in them cutting oil and the purpose of cutting oil is to help make the glass run. I'm sure you've seen pieces of glass that have a crack in them, and if you put pressure on them, it causes the run in the glass with a crack in the glass to continue going. Well, that's what we're going to do with some of these tools today, But we're going to use the cutter to score little ass. Now. This little tiny wheel is what we're going to be cutting with. That's what's actually going to score the glass, just that tiny little wheel. So we're going to first Dio is we're going Teoh make thes pieces a little easier to manage now, cutting oil you can purchase or we've taken we use our studio is we use thes this little glass jars of any kind. This was was a chicken boy on base one and what we have in here, we haven't marked cutting oil. What this is is low odor lamp oil, the kind that goes and kerosene lamps with a wick in it. This actually works a lot better than cutting oil. Most of us in our studios and in the workshop do not put our oil in these cutters because over time it will leak out. It's designed to come down through and keep this blade lubricated and keep the oil in the cutter so it can get down into that crack to help the run. But we do not like putting it in their last time. What? We tried to fill these up. It went all over the box that we store these in. So to start off with, we're gonna start off with and I'm gonna show you how to make a straight cut. Get this dust off. Now, the reason that I have this piece of cork here's what's going to serve a za few different things. This is going Teoh. When I'm creating pressure and I get off the edge of the glass, it keeps me from damaging the tip of my cutter or gouging the table or whatever surface I'm working on. The other thing that we're going to use that for later is for sauntering so it can help absorb some of the heat. So to make a straight cut in glass using a counter, and you can also use standard cutters like the ones that you see in hardware stores and things like that. Glass cutters all function about the same, but you want to dip them down into your oil. Give it a tap of off and we're going to our tool here. So it's at an angle. Find where we want to cut. We're gonna get us close to this, is we can and you're going to want to listen for this sound saying, When I went off the edge of the glass, it didn't damage my tip. So now that we have a score in the glass and it has a little bit of this cutting oil in it , you always want to make sure that when you're making these cuts that you get it from the edge toe edge. You wanna have a straight cut. Now what we're buying used next or he's air running flyers running players. If you noticed they had a little not cheering in the front. This is going to line up with your cut when we put these on the glass in a minute. And if you look at them face on, you'll notice that you've got, like, a frowny face here. So what this does is when you put the glass in it, it creates downward force ever so slightly to create pressure on the glass to create the run now, it doesn't require a lot of pressure. So what I like to do is I line it up. Come in. About How about that? For you're just going toe lightly. This hearing saying it's a light amount of pressure that creates your break so we can get rid of this piece of last now works service. Now, with these next pieces here, we're gonna break these down a little bit and make some more straight cuts. So you can much we're gonna start at the edge. I'm just gonna from edge to edge, I'm gonna find or crack or score, Mark. And just like pressure, we also have empty coffee can hear. And we like to save these big pieces of last for later use for ornaments or we use them for mosaics or a number of different projects. So we like to save this. We put these coffee cans and then we sort them out later. Cut again. Now with this piece because I want to try to get as close to this peace is possible. I'm actually gonna turn it so I know where to start. I'm gonna make just a slight curve right up against that butterfly wing, you do have to get a little bit of pressure on them now, since we have a curve now, curves are a little bit more difficult to break. So what, we're gonna dio his work, going to come back over here on this straight side? We're going to put just a little bit of pressure until we hear a slight sound. Just a little. Sometimes it helps to move the pliers. Perfect break. Sometimes that works. And sometimes that doesn't. Sometimes you want to put a little bit of pressure here just until you hear a little pop in the glass. And then you would come at it from the other side with these pliers and just give it a little bit more pressure so there's two runs can meet. I said this a sign and we'll cut down someone. So for this one, we're gonna cut down. We're just gonna go ahead and cut this down. You're going to get right up to the edge of your pattern, places you can and make a straight run off. You want to try to keep these a straight as possible, so this cut's gonna have to be done in two pieces. You always want to cut your first piece and break it off before you make your second piece scored and break it up. The reason is that you cannot intersect to lines. When you are scoring X quests, you never want to overlap. So if you're cutting a piece of glass, we're told in the street the moment if you're cutting a piece of glass and you miss getting your score in your last piece, what you want to do is go right beside it and cut another line. You don't ever want to run your tool over the same line twice, right up against the ground, and we're gonna follow the curves. Okay, We're gonna try to put just a little bit of pressure. Just a little. I like to pulse my hand just a little bit. I think created a nice little break, seeing there's only a little piece here, which I'll show you what we do with those here in a moment. All right, let's break down the third. We're gonna take off this piece first, pick up her running players. Little bits of pressure. Little pulses comes right off. Now, sometimes glasses. Not always going to break his easy is this pieces. There's certain types of glass that are a lot more difficult to break, and it may break right through the middle of your pattern. What you want to do with that, then is just gently peel your pattern off and glue it down into another section and then just cut again. Sometimes you may end up cutting the same piece of glass three or four times, especially when you get into more difficult shapes. So now we've got two more cuts we have to make. We have to make this cut, and we also have to make this cut If we make this cut first, we would come down and come straight down through here. So let's do that, because then it'll make it easier for us to try to get this curve out. Curves are always going to be more difficult. Then straight line. Follow a pattern so you can see our scoreline. Fall is the pattern doesn't quite get it. This close is you'd like sometimes, but now we're going to gently pressure because this is going to be difficult cut. I was trying from the other side. Maybe heard a little pop. Little hops. It's always better to be gentle. Here we go and you have less chance of breakage. You also want to be careful. You can see there's little pieces of glass on my finger that you wanna be very careful about. You'll see a lot of these on your work surface. This is your next safety tip here. Like with pencil eraser. A lot of us would want to dust our work suit. Surface off, please. Please. We always remember never to dust off your work surface or Oh, these little shards of glass window in your hand And you definitely don't want that. Take that from someone who knows. Be very careful. Okay, so now we're gonna cut this curve. We're gonna get right up against the edge of this wing, and we're going Teoh and make the curve. OK, so a little bit of pressure. It was a little crack there, A little bit of pressure. It could be a little tricky at times air. We get it. Okay, so now that we have these broken down into smaller, more manageable pieces, start cutting this one down just a little bit more. Sorry, Don't you get the hang of it? You can moved a little bit faster. I still want to pay attention to your curves. Give them won t of ginger care on breaking them. See? Don't have to cut your piece over. Okay, so you didn't quite make it all the way around. I'll show you how we're going to handle this next. Now, when you get into a piece this big, it's it's very tiny. You're gonna make your first cuts. We'll get this big piece off here. We can use these players. But now you only want to use these players when you have enough glass to put in the middle . This is a good example about half of a hat of pressure any smaller than then about this. Then you need to switch over to what we call the grocer players. Persia pliers are actually two pairs of pliers and one this side here with this very straight edge here or the breaking side. And I'll share what that means in a minute. These on the other side, when you flip them over this rounded side, which I like to call the alligators show, is er meant for biting and chewing glass little pieces off. We're gonna demonstrate how to use both of these sides of these players next. So first off, we'll go ahead and cut the butterfly, his head away from the body, which we can use. Her runners were quick and just pop. And we can also use it because it's wide enough to cut this less glass that you have outside of your pattern. The more you save yourself time and grinding later. So have that. Now we can't use these runners on this anymore as it's to smoke. And these is going to be too small. So don't put these aside because we're done with these for this project. So now what we need to dio has break down these small pieces. So we're going Teoh, start here the body on our way, all the way across that arch with our counters. We're going Teoh, take these on the breaking side up. I'm gonna get right next to that piece, take her hand and position it in a safe position and you're going to break down. You just want to break down a little bit and it helps make that run sometimes this might break off in more than one piece. So here we've got another little piece here. Just make a quick notch breaker side and just break. All right? Now we're gonna do an inside occur inside. Curves are always more difficult to do than outside curves. So fresh, a little trick with that. Make your cut. We're going to try to be really easy with this. You're gonna get right up next to the lime on your break down a little bit. Come over down a little bit. I see it created your run. So now this piece is ready for grinding. Now, if we wanted to save ourselves some time here, this were running. Show you the what I call the chewing side of the fires what they dio as you line up where you want it to be taken off. It's like this you can see and you pull down, and it literally bites little pieces or choose pieces of glass off. So here we can chew these excess pieces you don't want to go into for because they have a tendency to create a slant where it breaks the glass. So you don't want that slant to come into where your pattern is. But it helps getting some of these little tiny pieces off that you don't have to get later . So now that one's ready for grinding. See, we can take these off. This little guy here. Right? This one here. Right. These little guys here. Okay, Now take a short break, and I'm going to get my just pan out, and I'm gonna clean up all of these, and then we're going to move on to the next part of the process. See them? 6. Grinding Glass: Okay, We've got our work surface dusted off here. Corkboard at all the glass shards off of it. We're gonna take her pattern now I'm gonna pin it down. He's some tax to the board to keep it in place. And we're gonna take our pieces. I'm gonna set him in place where they go, and then we're gonna set up our grinder. Are grinders gonna help us get all the sharp edges off and get all these little pieces off ? So our pattern will fit together just perfectly. A word of caution. Never operate your grinder without water. Okay, so this is our grinder. We have our own and off switch here in the front. And this here is a water well, so we're going to Dio. I was going to fill up this water well with some water. And what the water does is the water keeps this sponge back here in the back, which we want to make sure it's wet, make sure it's good and went on up against this bit. What it's going to dio is it's going to keep this bit cool as it runs the glass. It's going to spin. This is a diamond. And And if you stick your finger on this when you're grinding, do not be afraid of this wheel. It might take your fingernails off, you know, file them. But it feels very soft, like a promise stone. Almost so I'm gonna turn the machine on so it may get loud here for a moment. Don't be afraid to accidentally touch this. Worst it'll do is file your nails. So what we're gonna do with each piece of glass? That's because we're going to take all these sharp edges off and grind it down right to the edge of the paper. You can come at it from the side, the front, This way. You always want to make sure that your sponge staying wet against your you're drilled saying that we have a nice, smooth edge that doesn't have any short pieces on it. - Okay , it's me. We have it all down to the edges of our pattern. You hear your other piece, See how grab the next, even on some of these parts where it's perfect on the pattern, you still want to hit it with a grinder just to make sure there's no sharp readjust. Here, get water. I want peace. Well, okay, alright. Bring the project of here. No, Push all your pieces together. Line them up on your pattern. See how well they all fit together. Now you may notice that there's a little spot here and there, which this piece doesn't seem to have that problem this time. Um, where you may have, like a little gap or a spot that's uneven, that you can hit again. And the fine tuning to make sure that all of this is going to be nice and snug you wanted is snug in together as possible. The sin, As you see, little spots like this don't panic. Little spots and things in pieces and even much bigger spots could be fixed relatively easy easily in the sauntering phase of this project. So now what we're going to do is we're going to take these pieces in the house and we're going Teoh, peel off the paper, which is should be kind of wet from the grinder. You're gonna wash each piece off and dry it with paper towel, and we're gonna set it back on this paper and then I'll meet you back in the next video 7. Copper Foiling: Okay, now that we've got are pieces washed off, we're gonna put them back on our pattern here. We're going to prepare for the next step of this process. Ideally, when you goto wash these off and drive them, make sure there's no ref edges. It almost feels like a sanded surface after this. Not very short, but ideally, you would want put this back on the paper as you washed it. Scene of what? Orientation on place that go. But with a project, this small is pretty easy, Teoh. See where they go. So now this little gap here won't matter later. All right, so now we're going to get into copper. Foiling now for standard glass. What we use most of the time is this. 7 32nd copper foretell and it's a tape. So it has adhesive on one side of it that we're gonna peel off. And I want to show you my favorite little trick for doing this. Because what you want to dio Does she want to get started with a small piece? What do you want to dio? Do you want to get this piece a glass right in the middle? So you have a little bit overhang on each side. Now the way I like to do this is to hold the glass so you can see so you can see exactly where you're putting it. And if you miss that, what we have to do is just undo it. Stick it right back down. Now we're getting to the point where we already have this piece. So we want to do is we want to make sure that we overlap it that little bit. We're gonna use a piece, pair of scissors, or you can even tear it. Get that off, and then you're going to push on either side. Push this down. Now we're gonna get back and burnish this in a minute. So we're gonna go ahead and just get the foil on it, and then we'll burnish, get our next piece so we don't get our next piece here. It's always hard during these inside curves E c See where the center is. Was your run that pressure finger? No, don't. If you can see this, I I've got too much tape on one side. Silicon, just peel it off. And I could also just look at it. like that. There's another way to foil. Did you pull the tape out and you center it, You push it down. This especially works good on straight runs of glass. This curved pieces or not is easy, but it can be done right now. We want overlap just a little bit. So we're gonna very elaborate to there. Now we're gonna finish during the rest of these pieces after you get some experience with, this becomes a lot easier, much easier to dio. One runs a foil very quickly. They also make tools for this that you can purchase little handheld tools. And there's also I'm large tools. Large tools are we'll get into in a later video are meant more for doing straight large pieces. Part of the reason that we growing glass down is because in this stage we don't want the glass to break through this copper foil. And the other reason is is we also want our pieces to fit together nicely. So with these nice move pieces, we can accomplish that on this part of the process. You can sit down, watch TV or listen to the radio or relax a bit. You don't have to stand at your workstation gives you a little break. I find that cutting is a lot easier when you're standing, but a lot of my students prefer to sit. It's really all personal preference. And what do you are comfortable with doing? You always wanna make sure you push those just down. You're gonna have some wrinkles and things in it. That's not going to matter. We will address that in the next phase, which is going to be burnishing foil. Okay, it's now we haven't off world going to burnish thes furnishing. They actually make little tools that air made out of plastic that you can use to accomplish this. But we're going to use. There's just a wooden pencil wooden pencil seems to if you apply too much pressure does not seem to rip the foil as much as the plastic told us. I always like to use the one pencil. I just use this port of the pencil. You're just gonna smooth there's edges down, bringing him nice and adhered to the glass smoothed out. We're going to do that on both sides. Oh, way around. You see, it's ironing out all those little wrinkles you're still gonna have some. And you know, when you have bins in the glass, you're gonna do that. Each piece. I want to go ahead and burnish the rest of these, and then we're going to come back and begin the soldering process. See you then. Okay. Now that we have all of our pieces burnished for world ready todo, we're gonna line him up well in our paper as best as we can, where they fit as tight as they can. Let me not always wind up with your pattern, depending on if you have any little imperfections, I never wanna pin them in place so they can't move with some Pushkin's. Sometimes it takes a little adjusting. I just I don't remember that body just a little bit from Did you see all my pieces are touching minimal caps. Okay, It's no, you know, this little nice and tight fit to get here, we're going to get into soldering 8. Soldering: Now, the first thing that we have to do is we have to apply a layer of flux. This is the brand if looks that we use in our studio. When we teach classes, we just apply it with ease. Little brushes here, we only need just a little bit. Is this liquid? The thing you have to worry about with flux is when we go to Sawyer, this is going to put off a slight, um, smoke that you'll see here later. And that's why we're doing some of this project outside today. And so we consult her out here without having to ventilate the area when were at the studio . We have to open windows and ventilate the area when we're during this part. So today we're just going to do this outside. We're gonna paint this anywhere. We see copper foil does not matter if you get it on the glass, and it's kind of best to do each piece all the way around and including on the sides here. Well, once, don't worry about getting it on paper either. Now what Fox does it is a chemical cleaner that prepares the copper to take sorter. Okay, So now we have all of that completed. We're gonna bring in the salary. You can see we have a stand here with salt or iron and a little piece of a what? Sponge under here. What? We're going to dio iss. We're gonna look at your soldering iron and you're gonna see sometimes, especially ones that have been used. They're very dull looking This particular irons ones that we use in our gallery, which I have provided on the list over here for the recommendation. And we like these because they have a temperature controlled setting down to clean this. This is called Tinning. We're going toe wipe this off on this wet kitchen sponge and that's going to remove some of the impurities and things that have built up on the island. And you're gonna end up with a nice shiny too, on your fine the sauder that we use. This is the brand that we use, and this is a 60 40 blend of tin and lead. Of course, with any lead product after you, any time that you handle it anytime. You just wanna wash your hands. Very well. Um, you don't have any fear. While you're handling it. You just do not want to ingest this. So you want to wash your hands? One thing to remember about this and safety as this is going to get hot, it's going to conduct heat up the rod. So I always wanna have, you know, a good little bit out, at least about there. What we're going to do first is we're going to tax sauder little put spots so we can remove these pins. Get him out of the way. Now, when we do this, you always want to use the flat ist part of your iron top or the bottom, and you're just going to a little spot Any place that two pieces of glass meet, they don't want to stand with your face hovering over this because you don't want that little bit of fume to come up and hit you in the face. We'll get into here were your eyes. So just stand back, Okay? We're gonna give that a second too cool and literally just a second. It's still hot, but it's not going. Teoh, come on. Done. See, now we can move the pins out of the way making me of the project has one piece so we can work on it. So one of the things that a lot of people have frustration with is getting nice plane. Pretty Salter lines. I want to show you a little trick. My favorite trick for doing this because you can't go fast with a soldering iron where you end up with the streaky Not very good looking lines, So I like to do. Let's take about an inch off, take my soldering iron, get it nice and heart and slowly dragged out. Sometimes you have to do twice just to get that nice Pretty. Now, when you have lines that meet here and you want them to look really nice, you just touched him. Give it that second to mount and then back away from it. Don't be concerned if it goes over the edge here because we will be starting right here in a little bit and what you're looking for when you make these lines, you're looking for a nice mound. You don't want a perfectly flat line like this. You want a nice mound which I'll show you hear from a side angle? Just a moment. No, you gotta keep in mind this is going to be very hot. So you gotta be careful picking it up for handling it. I want to make sure you given adequate time to cool off. And if it keeps running off the side like this, just give it a second to cool off. Grab your just a little bit more there, saying you can move it around. Like I said, don't worry about these Now, on these edges, you just want to take your sauterne ire. You want to do that? This is called Tinning. I just want to 10 those edges making nice shining. Sorry. No need. Just a little dot That gives a very, very long way. It's it now that we have this side. So whatever. Give it just a second to set up. Make sure it's not too hot to handle. Well, this is what you're looking for. Is this nice? Downed long? You want nice raised lines? Now, this is very hot. I'm gonna flip it over carefully. We're gonna flux this side. We're gonna sauder the opposite side, the same as we did different. And since we have all this excess, some water down here, we can just pick that up and we can get ahead. Timur edges. We could just use that's order. Timor edges Nice There. You can just pull these pieces away. You go back and pick them up, saying, get a little bit of a softer line there without I asked him to use much from the role. Yes. We're just gonna start off with it since we already have someone here. Okay, we're gonna look this cool down for just a second. Number one to get into a part of this that we need to be very careful, and that's doing the edges of this. Now, this is very hot to the touch right now. So this is where it comes in handy to have your rubber garden gloves. Typically, you may only need one, so help keep some of the heat off of her hand. No, we have to do this edge. What you want to remember about soldering edge we'll get our first are already here. Is any place that you saw her? He want to be horizontal, if you have it vertically were tilted. It's just going to run off. And you only need just a little touches of it. You go through any tech to create as much of a bead as you can. You want to be careful when you're soldering That little piece there that just rolled off the iron. You don't want those to roll back when you especially for sitting in a chair, just touch. Can you get a second to sit when you have a nice edge? Sometimes you'll see that your irons getting kind of jumped up. You just wipe it off. It's good to go typically what I like to do as I like to work in one direction, watch your hand as the Sauder control. Keep your hands away from your soldering case It does. You may want to even set the piece down and pick it up from a different angle. You can't get your hand out from under it. I always try to work on the area that the heat is behind me. So I'm not grabbing a hold of that area. If you see little spots like this, if you put too much heat on the this was the back side. We put too much heat on that. You can see that it can cause strange little spots here on the front that is due to the heat. It's melted the Sauder back through. What you want to do is you don't want to put a lot of heat on this. We'll clean off our iron here because we don't really want ads sold or we just want to smooth. So we're gonna come over here just slightly, touch it to get it nice. And your form again. I'm giving it a second. The street knows this line again. Okay, if you have a little beads of sauder on your glass, don't worry about those will come right off when we dio into washing the project. Okay, so now that we have both sides, your project sorter and nice and evened out, we're gonna take it in and we're gonna wash it down with a little bit of soup and water. Just some dish. So what you want to do those you want to make sure that your project is completely cold before you put it in water? Um, if you don't, you run the risk of the glass breaking or popping because of the extreme change in temperature. So I'm gonna call this off real quick, and then I'm going to wash it. Okay? Before we wash the project, what we're going to do is we're gonna add the hangar in the soldering here. What I've used here for this project and many projects when you go to add hangers to them to your works is I have saved up these little copper, um, egg dippers from Easter because they are actual copper. This is a very okay. So before we go in and wash this, let's go ahead and attach our little jumping. I'm just using my players already had my grocer flyers here. We're gonna create small jump a ring of here, that sort of place. Since this comes down in a V, I'm gonna try to get this touching, which is possible so it'll fit right down in here. That's what we're gonna do with this. First is we're going Teoh, cover this influx and it has to contain rial couples for this to work. Coat it real good. Were born Teoh. Get a little bit of sauder. You're just going Teoh coat this completely and this likes to get stuck to the iron which makes this piece very heart. We like to tap them around until they finally come off. A word of caution. Don't touch these. They're very, very hot when they come off sauntering. I am. Do you want to make sure that you could really, really well from both sides? Any copper wire will do as long as it contains real copper. So I'm gonna give that a second too cool. Take me with you. Pushpins here moving up here because it's hot. I'm gonna put it in place. It's cold down now, so put that in place right there. And when you attach hangers to your projects, you always want to make sure that you have two pieces of a glass touching that jump, trying to create stability because it's going to bear the weight of the whole project. Some will need multiple hangers. This one will. We need one. Um, some. I'm making sure that I put it in a sport that I have two pieces of glass touching you just take a little drop sorter. We're going Teoh, Just touch the sides here till it all it hears on looks. Niceness. Mare. We give it a second to cool, so we couldn't touch the back side up and it takes a second sometimes cause this little puddle will stay warm for a few minutes. So CNN on the backside, it's not quite attached. So we wanted to get just a little bit. We don't want to touch it really long. If we put too much heat to it, it will just pull back off. So I just wanna quickly touch it. Now, if you see a spot in your soldering anywhere like this where it doesn't look like it's wanting to it Here, put some more flux on it. Remember, don't stand over when you we're suffering. Say where for the fumes. You're just gonna give it that extra little touch And I got a little too hot. So we're just gonna add little duck back? My foot would ever make sure we didn't go through the other side, which we did a little was. It's fine. We can just touch that right up. Okay. All right. So we now have our sorry piece that we're going to go in and washed a little bit of soap and water after it cools down. And then we will come back for finishing it up 9. Using Patina: Okay, now we have our project dwarfed. I decided that I'm gonna change the color of the sort of this project. So put some gloves on. I'm gonna show you how to use Patina. Patina is a compound that causes a chemical reaction that will turn the sauder on this project. In this case, black patina comes and a couple of different colors, mainly brass and copper to change the silver of the sauder. We're going to wipe this on with using a Q tip. Or you can use an old toothbrush, anything to really work it into the Sauder and you'll see that it changes the color as we go. We're gonna continue this over the rest of the project, and then we're going to rinse it off again and dry it again. Keeping in mind not to go out on the outer edges with, you know, a lot of pressure because you don't wanna catch those little edges there, like right where we're putting the patina right now. Now that the project is washed and dried off, we're going to move on to the next step, which is going to be embellishing and waxing the project 10. Embellishing & Waxing Your Project : in this segment, we're going to talk about the embellishment of the intended on the butterfly and waxing your project using the same copper wire that we used before for the hangar I took and divided it into two and bent it in half and used a pair of girls suppliers to create the little swirls that you see at the end, adding a little bit of flux to the wire and coating it really well. Then I took my soldering iron, and you just want to coat it like you did the hangar and make sure that it's all evenly covered after you've made sure that it's all evenly covered with your sauder. But you're going to do next is put it in place with a tiny drop of sauder right where it needs to go on the head. And they're also going to attach a very small thought of sauder against the body to make sure that it is completely attached to good points on the butterfly. At this point, you can either leave the antenna silver, or you can put a little bit of patina on it to make it match the rest of the Sauder on the project not for the final step of this project but you're going to do is you're going to take wax, um, car wax, and in particular, in your little Waxter project, the only thing that you need to make sure is that the type of car wax that you use has to contain actual wax. This will actually help seal your project so you don't get occid ization and zinc coming up through the sauder from the flux and creating white spots on your project. You also want to make sure that when you're waxing your project that you don't push out on those very outer corners. You wanna wipe down them so not to snag on those edges after the wax has had time to dry, use paper towels. Or you can use Q tips to get into the little corners and you want to wipe down the project and just buffet a little bit, and it will be nice and shiny and ready to hang up, and that is the end of this project. I hope you join me for further projects in the future 11. Finished Project: now that we've covered all the basics of stained glass, everything from your tools and materials, your pattern and glass cutting, grinding copper, foiling and sauntering finishing embellishments and waxing your project. I hope that you will share your project in the project gallery with the rest of us. I hope to see you soon in the next one.