Introduce yourself to Indian Classical Music in 55 Min! | Simple 5 Min. Exercise for Mindful Living | Ankur Jadhav | Skillshare

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Introduce yourself to Indian Classical Music in 55 Min! | Simple 5 Min. Exercise for Mindful Living

teacher avatar Ankur Jadhav, Musician, photographer & filmmaker.

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (55m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Listening (Part 1)

    • 3. Listening (Part 2)

    • 4. Singing with Tanpura

    • 5. Introduction to "Om"

    • 6. Practicing "Sa, Pa, Sa' "

    • 7. Finding our Vocal Range

    • 8. Introduction to "Sur" or "Musical Notes"

    • 9. Seven Sur

    • 10. 5 Min. Daily Routine

    • 11. Practicing & improvising with "Palta's"

    • 12. "Lay" or "Rhythm"

    • 13. "Taal" - Introduction to "Teentaal"

    • 14. Concept of "Raag"

    • 15. Raag Kafi

    • 16. Raag Yaman

    • 17. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

If you have never heard of Indian classical music or got much into music theory, this class is for you! Or you may have always wanted to know more about Indian music but didn’t have time or a way to access it, this is a great way to understand and practice the fundamentals! These are very simple ways of practicing music that is very easy to learn and apply in your daily life.

Even if you have never sung or touched an instrument, you will be getting to know a creative way of relaxation and a worthy accompaniment to your Yoga routine.

Ankur has been learning and performing music for many years. He has been experimenting with simple and effective ways to incorporate the fundamentals of Indian classical music into his daily life, and his career as a photographer and filmmaker.


  • Music-based techniques you can adapt into your own streams of work!
  • How to carefully listen to music.
  • How to control your breath through reciting a simple sound.
  • Raag’s (Scales) & Lay (Rhythm) in Indian music.
  • Self-practice by improvising through the concept of “Palta”.



  • Android:
  1. iShala (Paid, with Tabla/Rhythm instrument)
  2. Tanpura Droid (Free)
  3. Metronome Beats or any Metronome app.
  4. Vocal Pitch Monitor (Free)
  • iOS
  1. iTabla Pro
  2. iShala for iOS
  3. Any Metronome app.
  4. Vocal Pitch Monitor or Nail the Pitch (Free)

Meet Your Teacher

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Ankur Jadhav

Musician, photographer & filmmaker.


Hello, I'm Ankur.

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1. Introduction: Hay everyone, I am Ankur, and I am an Indian classical vocalist based in Mumbai, India. I have been practicing this music since my childhood and my regular practice and exploration in music has helped me in my career as a photographer and filmmaker. When the famous photographer Chase Jarvis says “Creativity is the new literacy”, it connects with me a lot, and makes complete sense. I believe getting familiar with this uncharted territory of Indian classical music will add a new flavor to your life, and also a completely different way to look at music compared to the Western point of view. I have developed this class for each one of you who may or may not have learned any kind of music before, or not even thought of learning about music at all till now. We will take a practical approach to learn by doing simple listening and singing exercises. In this class, I have covered the fundamentals of "North Indian classical music", which is also called "Hindusthani classical music". Traditionally, this music is learned face to face from a Guru, and similarly to Yoga, is a way of life. But with today’s technology, we can start learning at least the basics of this music by self-practice and get the psychological and spiritual benefits it offers. We will be creating a simple 5 minutes routine and we will also learn vocal exercises called “Palta’s" in this class which is very simple to follow. Along with all the videos, we have been working on a simple website called “” which will act as a resource and a great accompaniment with this class. 2. Listening (Part 1): The most fundamental part of music is listening, which is often overlooked and we generally look forward to directly jump on to the singing exercises. I have created a special playlist on Spotify and YouTube for you to get an overview of this music. Where I have tried to include both vocal and instrumental recordings. Please do not try to analyze too much while listening on the first go. Just go with the flow and try to feel the music. You may have experienced that when we learn any new language, listening and talking in that new language might seem a little weird or even boring at the beginning. But as we learn more and we are drawn to it, it becomes a second nature to us. I request you to please be patient while listening, especially to the longer recordings. And there's a chance, you may even go completely into a trance. 3. Listening (Part 2): Now we come to our first practical exercise in listening. Before communicating everything, I would like to request you to please check the included PDF file for setting up the Tanpura app. Please adjust the pitch to "C", which may already be the default in the app. Use only an external speaker for the "Tanpura" while practicing. Avoid using earphones as they block external sounds. I'm using a simple $20 Bluetooth speaker, like this. Once you're ready with this setup, please sit like the way I'm sitting right now. It is called "Sukhasan", which is “the easy pose” in Yoga. Basically, I'm just sitting cross-legged on the floor. Using a simple chair is also okay for those of you who may have trouble with this pose. Now pause this video and take a deep breath. And carefully listen to your own surroundings. You may have noticed the sound of the wind, a car driving on the road, the birds, even the sound of your own breath. Now, gradually turn up the volume on the speaker. Keep it loud enough to blend in with the surrounding. Adjust the volume so we can effortlessly listen to our own voice with the Tanpura. Tanpura is a stringed instrument and acts as a drone. You can notice the real instrument standing on the right side of me. Now, don’t try to analyze each and every sound coming from the speaker. Just concentrate on the overall sound. You can see the change in the overall environment. Now, keep on listening for a few minutes. Keep it on, as we are near to sing our first note in the next video. 4. Singing with Tanpura: Now we are going to attempt to match our voice to the Tanpura. Let me sing it for you. This is known as “Aakar” or simply “Aa”. Now listen with complete awareness as we discussed in the last video. Now, you give it a try. Also, remember to listen to your own voice. Nice. Now, there is a chance that you may have sung sharp, like - Aa... (sharp) or flat, like Aa... (flat) It doesn't matter for now. let me try to explain: Remember the first time you tried to ride the bicycle. there was someone who was always there to support you. But once you learned to ride it by yourself, there was never a time you forgot to balance the cycle. It just gradually becomes second nature to us. Being in tune is similar to this. Just think of the tanpura as a "bicycle handle", which is your "basic support". We just have to keep on listening and singing till the tanpura and we sound "alike". Till the moment we can confidently say, that we are singing in the "pitch". Once we learn to be in tune, we will always come to the exact note and the vocal pitch. Tanpura will always be the guide in our musical journey. Let me share a few tips with you from my own experience: Always use your natural voice while singing. Each one of us has a distinct quality to our voice, so we are, on a journey to fully embrace it. There is never a difference between a “talking voice” and a “singing voice". With practice, we will slowly get to our most natural vocal tones. So let's try again. First, hear the tanpura. Now; let's sing together again. While practicing at your home, There are a couple of things you can try. You can just record yourselves from time to time and see how you're doing. Also, there are apps like "Vocal Pitch Monitor", which can almost "visually translate" your voice and will try to show you if you are in tune. But take this only as a suggestion. We need to be mindful that we are also refining our listening skills along with singing. So, keep on building trust for your ears, and to the tanpura. 5. Introduction to "Om": The note which we attempted to sing in the previous video is called the root note. It is like a platform from which we build the whole architecture. You can check more details in the PDF. Now, we are going to sing the most sacred and spiritual sound in Indian music. This sound is called "Omkar" or "Om". Please listen carefully. There are three parts to this sound: O, Aou, & Umm... We start singing from the bottom of our navel to the tip of our nose. Now, let’s try to sing together. It is a good practice to sing "Om" every time at the beginning when we sit down for practice. 6. Practicing "Sa, Pa, Sa' ": Now that we tried to match our pitch with tanpura, we will start learning about the notes. The note we just sang in the previous video is called “Shadaj”, or simply “Sa”. It is believed the rest of the notes have been produced from this note. Now let’s try to sing the rest of the notes we have been hearing from the tanpura. If you have listened carefully, the first plucked string of the tanpura has a different pitch from the rest of the notes. This note is called “Pancham”, or simply “Pa”. Let me sing it for you. Now let’s hear the note on tanpura and try to sing together. Now, this is the 5th note in an Octave. We are going to learn more about Octave or "Saptak" in the upcoming video. Now, listen to this note: Sa'... This is the same "Sa" which we sang before, but now in the higher pitch. This indicates the start of a new Saptak or Octave. Let’s hear the tanpura for a bit and I will sing once again. Now let’s try to sing together. Sa'... If you’ve felt a little strain on your throat, it is completely natural. We are going to learn about finding and expanding our vocal range without damaging our throat in the next video. 7. Finding our Vocal Range: We have tuned our tanpura at “C”, so it is convenient for most of us till now. But of course, every one of us has a distinct voice quality, so if you feel too much strain on your voice, then just adjust the key of the tanpura till you feel comfortable enough. Finding our vocal range is similar to learning any new skill, so we will be learning a lot through personal experience. Just do not put too much pressure on your throat, and avoid screaming, especially singing in the higher range. Let's just remember, "If we have to scream, we will take the pitch down. And if we feel too uncomfortable while singing the lower notes, we will take the pitch a little up.” Most of us have a natural vocal range of around one and half octaves. So you should never change the naturality of your voice to adjust to the tanpura. We are on our way towards sounding "the most natural" while singing. In the beginning, it is normal to face a little discomfort with the notes above "Pa". And it’s okay if we are unsure and think ourselves out of tune. With the right practice, we will be able to sing all the notes correctly. As you start practicing more and get introduced to the "Sur" or "Musical Notes", you will be more aware of your vocal range. So for now, I am keeping the tuning of my tanpura to "C". 8. Introduction to "Sur" or "Musical Notes": Now that we are aware of Sa, Pa, Sa’... Let’s learn more about the other notes between them. There are thousands of sounds between these two Sa’s. But the sounds which can be heard and can be reproduced by the human voice are called "Shruti". There are “22 sounds” that can be dissected by the human voice. And today in Western and Indian music, we use "12 different sounds" out of these "22 Shrutis”, which are used primarily for creating music. As you can see on the keyboard, suppose we consider "C" as our root note or "Sa", all the 7 White Notes are called "Shudh Sur", and the names of these "Surs" or "Notes" are: "Sa", "Re", "Ga", "Ma", "Pa", "Dha" and "Ni". These 7 notes are called as "Saptak" that is "a group of Seven", which is the same as "Octave", in Western music. There is a repetition of these same notes in the higher octaves, like: "Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’, Re’, Ga’ " and lower octaves, like: "Sa, ‘Ni, ‘Dha, ‘Pa" and so on... And the 5 Black notes between these “Shudh Sur” are called "Vikrut sur", which are a total of 4 "Komal", or "Flat" and 1 "Tivra or Sharp" note. As you can see on the keyboard, the black notes before "Re, Ga, Dha, and Ni", are called the "Komal" notes, and the black note after "Ma", is called the "Tivra" note. I have tried to summarize and included more information about these notes in a PDF. Please check it. 9. Seven Sur: Now let’s try to sing the 7 Shudh surs. Listen carefully: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma Now let’s try to sing together: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma Now I will sing from Pa: Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Now again let’s try to sing together: Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Nice. Now, I will sing all the notes: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Now again, let’s sing together: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Nice. Now, let’s try to sing in the "Descending Order". First I will sing, then we will all repeat. Sa’, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa Now, let's sing together: Sa’, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa Now, let’s sing in both Ascending & Descending order: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Sa’, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa Now, again the key to singing in the "Proper Pitch" is to listen very carefully to ourselves, and the Tanpura. Also, in between, we can take the help of the “Vocal Pitch Monitor app” to evaluate ourselves. If you are familiar with any other instruments, you can also try to use them as a reference. But most importantly the skill of maintaining the “pitch" is a journey of self-learning and self-discovery. Now, we will try to sing these notes in Aakar. Please listen carefully: Ascending or “Aroha” in Aakar: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Descending or “Avaroha” in Aakar: Sa’, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa Now, again let’s try to sing it together. Ascending or “Aroha” in Aakar: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa’ Descending or “Avaroha” in Aakar: Sa’, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa Thank you. 10. 5 Min. Daily Routine: Now that we have learned to sing the Notes or Surs, there's a simple "5 Minute Daily Routine", where you can practice these most fundamental things. You can even make this routine a part of your meditation. First, sit straight in one place. Do not multitask for this exercise. Be aware of your surroundings. And, notice the various sounds that exist. Now, slowly turn on your Tanpura. Keep on listening for a couple of minutes. Now, sing "Om" for three times. As we discussed before, be aware of the journey of this sound from navel, to nasal. After this, sing "Sa". As you practice more, you can hold the notes for a longer duration. But if your voice shakes while singing it, immediately stop and try again. Let's try it once: Sa... Now we are going to the lower octave to sing “ ‘Pa”. Let me try to sing: ‘Pa... After this, again come back to Sa. Sa... Now sing "Sa, Pa & Sa’ " as we have learned before. We will also come back in a descending way, Like: Sa’, Pa, Sa... Now repeat these same notes in Aakar. Listen: In Aakar: Sa,'Pa, Sa In Aakar: Sa, Pa, Sa’ In Aakar: Sa’, Pa, Sa Now, if you finish successfully, take a little break. If you are having any confusion or a hard time listening and matching your voice to the Tanpura, take each note and practice it till you get it right. Also, practicing more in the "Lower Octave" will help increase your voice quality and expand your vocal range. Now, we will finish this exercise by singing "Om" again. So let's sing: Om... Be aware of your surroundings and the Tanpura, and slowly turn it down. As we start doing this routine, we can also add more things, like holding the five basic vowels "A - E - I - O - U", at various notes. Or just increasing the duration of this exercise for taking more command over your voice. I really believe, if you regularly practice this simple exercise, it will act as a head-start to your musical journey. 11. Practicing & improvising with "Palta's": Now that we have listened to our playlist and learned about Surs, we are slowly coming to learn the crux of Indian classical music, that is "Improvisation". Just the way in nature no moment of time is the same, it is believed that each practice or performance is unique. Maybe just like any sport, where each game is different and there are some very basic and fundamental rules. We are starting this journey with some small exercises which will introduce us to the "Concept of Improvisation". These are called “Palta’s”. First, let's sing the main 7 notes again in ascending and descending order. Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa', Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa. Now, let’s do a small variation by repeating the same note Two times like this: Ascending / Aroha: SaSa, ReRe, GaGa, MaMa, PaPa, DhaDha, NiNi, Sa'Sa’. Descending / Avaroha: Sa'Sa’, NiNi, DhaDha, PaPa, MaMa, GaGa, ReRe, SaSa. Now, let’s try this one: Ascending / Aroha: SaReGa, ReGaMa, GaMaPa, MaPaDha, PaDhaNi, DhaNiSa'. GaMaPa, MaPaDha, PaDhaNi, DhaNiSa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa'NiDha, NiDhaPa, DhaPaMa, PaMaGa, MaGaRe, GaReSa. Now, we can create and sing a sequence of four notes together like this. Let's sing: Ascending / Aroha: SaReGaMa, ReGaMaPa, GaMaPaDha, MaPaDhaNi, PaDhaNiSa’. Descending / Avaroha: SaNiDhaPa, NiDhaPaMa, DhaPaMaGa, PaMaGaRe, MaGaReSa. Now, let's try this one: Ascending / Aroha: SaReSaReGa, ReGaReGaMa, GaMaGaMaPa, MaPaMaPaDha, PaDhaPaDhaNi, DhaNiDhaNiSa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa'NiSa'NiDha, NiDhaNiDhaPa, DhaPaDhaPaMa, PaMaPaMaGa, MaGaMaGaRe, GaReGaReSa. We can also skip notes, and make a pattern like: "SaGa", "ReMa", "GaPa"... So now let's try to sing it. Ascending / Aroha: SaGa, ReMa, GaPa, MaDha, PaNi, DhaSa’. Descending / Avaroha: Sa’Dha, NiPa, DhaMa, PaGa, MaRe, GaSa. And finally the last palta for now: Let's hear: Ascending / Aroha: SaReGa GaReSa, ReGaMa MaGaRe, GaMaPa PaMaGa, MaPaDha DhaPaMa, PaDhaNi NiDhaPa, DhaNiSa' Sa'NiDha. Descending / Avaroha: DhaNiSa' Sa'NiDha, PaDhaNi, NiDhaPa, MaPaDha DhaPaMa, GaMaPa PaMaGa, ReGaMa MaGaRe, SaReGa GaReSa. Thank you. These are the few most fundamental paltas. There are infinite permutations and combinations like this which can be produced. For example, jumping on the fourth note from Sa, like: Ascending / Aroha: SaMa, RePa, GaDha, MaNi, PaSa’. or just repeating the same note three times, like: Ascending / Aroha: SaSaSa, ReReRe, GaGaGa, MaMaMa, PaPaPa, DhaDhaDha, NiNiNi, Sa'Sa'Sa'. Or, you can even sing it like this: Ascending / Aroha: SaSaSa, ReReRe, GaGaGa, MaMaMa, PaPaPa, DhaDhaDha, NiNiNi, Sa’Sa’Sa’. So, you can also come up and figure out your own "patterns or Palta's" like these, and practice them. The only rule is that it must sound good musically and should just not be a mathematical pattern. Please feel free to share your creations in the comments. We actually have been working on a simple online tool called "PALTAS.IN" where you can generate new Paltas, and will act as a major tool in exploring the umpteen possibilities that can be generated and can be included by you. Now while practicing yourself, once we have sung these paltas by “naming” the notes, we will also sing all of these paltas in "Aakar". I’ll give you a couple of examples: (Singing in Aakar) Ascending / Aroha: SaSa, ReRe, GaGa, MaMa, (Singing in Aakar) PaPa, DhaDha, NiNi, Sa'Sa’. or maybe, (Singing in Aakar) Ascending / Aroha: SaReGa, ReGaMa, (Singing in Aakar) GaMaPa, MaPaDha, (Singing in Aakar) PaDhaNi, DhaNiSa'. and so on. These Paltas are extremely essential to practice constantly, to get better at singing and innovating with improvisation. I have included a PDF with a daily routine which you can look at for more details about how you can incorporate these into your practice. Also, this is an excellent exercise to improve your vocal quality. 12. "Lay" or "Rhythm": Now along with Sur or “melody”, it’s time to get ourselves introduced to the concept of "lay", or "rhythm". If you notice, from our heartbeats to our walking patterns, natural sounds like raindrops and even industrial sounds, all have specific rhythm patterns. Similarly, when we hear slower and faster rhythms it affects differently to each of us. For example, when we are calm, our heartbeat is comparatively low, but when we are tense, it increases. Similar to this, different moods and effects are achieved in music, through the various rhythm patterns at different tempos. You must have noticed a lot of performances in our "Shared Playlist" include variations of tempo, from slower to faster. That is one of the aspects which gives every recital a different feel and mood. The key rhythm instrument used in Indian classical music is the "Tabla". It is primarily used as an accompaniment. But with centuries of work by great musicians, it has formed its own existence as a solo instrument and has its own language of rhythm. 13. "Taal" - Introduction to "Teentaal": There are several rhythm patterns that are prevalent in Indian classical music, each of them is called a "Taal". For example. just the way the most commonly used rhythmic patterns like "4/4" or "3/4" in popular music, there are specific rhythm patterns or "Taals" which are composed in a various number of beats. Like, 6 beats, 10 beats, 12 beats, etc. But the most widely used taal in Indian classical music is called “Teentaal”, which is composed of "16 beats". As you can see in the graphic, these 16 beats are divided into 4 groups. The language of tabla is composed of various sounds coming from both, the "bass" and "trouble" drums. Each sound coming from tabla is called a “Bol”. Like the bol’s in "Teentaal" are: Dha Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha Dha. So, to make the counting easy, at the first beat of every group, we count it either as a Taali “clap”, or "Khali", that is "empty”. So in Teentaal, the "taali" is at 1st, 5th, and 13th beat. And the Khali is at the 9th beat. We can hear this taal on the "iShala app" too, which is mentioned in the PDF. First, make sure the tempo is set to "75 bpm", then select "Teentaal Plain" as the taal. You can also enable the beat count in the upper right menu. Now let’s turn on the taal and hear it: 1, 2, 3, Start: Dha Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 1. Nice. So now, let’s try to sing "Sa, Re, Ga, Ma" from the first beat. Let's start, hear carefully: (With Taal) Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa'. (With Taal) Descending / Avaroha: Sa', Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa. So this is how we are singing "Sa, Re, Ga, Ma" in Teentaal. We are starting from the first beat and extending each note for 4 beats. We must remember to start all the Palta's from the first beat. Let’s try to sing a Palta. Now let’s take, “SaReGa, ReGaMa”. Okay, so now let's start: 1, 2, 3, Start: (With Taal) Ascending / Aroha: SaReGa, ReGaMa, (With Taal) GaMaPa, MaPaDha, (With Taal) PaDhaNi, DhaNiSa'. (With Taal) Descending / Avaroha: Sa'NiDha, NiDhaPa, (With Taal) DhaPaMa, PaMaGa, (With Taal) MaGaRe, GaReSa. So, this is the way we can practice all the paltas in this taal. I have mentioned more details in the PDF document specially dedicated to the palta. 14. Concept of "Raag": Now we are coming to the single most important concept on which the Indian classical music revolves on. That is the concept of "Raag". When you hear the recordings in the playlist, you may have wondered what is this “Raag” which is written on the title of these recordings, and "What does this exactly mean?" Well, imagine all the 12 notes as different colors. So now, there are infinite color combinations that can be derived. The strong connection of this music to nature means, we almost paint all the seasons, from spring to monsoons to winter, with these colors. So, the unique combination in which we use all the sur’s to create this environment is called a "Raag". Most of the Raags are performed at a particular time of the day. There are Raags like "Malkauns" which are performed at night, then there are Raags like "Bhairav" which are performed in the early morning. Raags such as "Bhimpalasi" and "Vrindavani Sarang" are performed in the afternoon, and so on. You may think the concept of "Raags" seems very familiar to the “scales" in Western music, but Raags are much more than just scales. For example, the ascending and descending order of the "scale" will have the same notes, but in Raag, there can be different notes in ascending and descending order. There is also a possibility of having multiple Raags which may have the same notes in its ascending and descending order. But even though they contain all the same notes in two Raags, every Raag has its own personality, nature, and its own emotions. 15. Raag Kafi: The first Raag we are going to get introduced to is called "Raag Kafi". Kafi is one of the most popular and beloved raags. It is originated from the folk music tradition of India and sung in a variety of ways in each part of the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the few raags which are sung in all the seasons, and times. It basically has all the seven notes in both ascending and descending order. The "Ga" and "Ni" are "Falt or Komal" notes in this Raag. Let me show you the basic structure of this Raag. Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, ni, Sa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa', ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, ga, Re, Sa. (Singing in Aakar) Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, ni, Sa'. (Singing in Aakar) Descending / Avaroha: Sa', ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, ga, Re, Sa. Main Phrase / Pakad: ga Re Ma Ma Pa, Ma Pa ga Re, ‘ni Sa. (Singing in Aakar) Main Phrase / Pakad: ga Re Ma Ma Pa, Ma Pa ga Re, ‘ni Sa. So this is called a "Pakad", or the most recognizable phrase in this raag. Now let’s try to sing together the ascending and descending order again. If you have tuned your tanpura at a different scale, you can listen again and try to sing it by pausing this video. So let's start: Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, ni, Sa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa', ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, ga, Re, Sa. We will also practice all the paltas which we have learned before, in this raag. Also, since it has all the 7 notes, you will find it easy to compose, create and practice more paltas. I would request you to sing this raag a few times until you get confident enough to sing "Ga" and "Ni" which are "Flat or Komal". Then you can sing in Aakar and also include the tabla when you sit for practice. 16. Raag Yaman: Raag Yaman is the 2nd Raag to which we are going to get introduced to. Like Kafi, Yaman is also an extremely popular raag in Indian classical music tradition. When you learn it for the first time, it looks simple in nature, yet there are ocean of creative possibilities. Also, this is often one of the first raags which is taught in the "Guru - Shishya", or "Teacher - Disciple" tradition of learning music. Yaman is a raag that is sung around the first quarter of the night, which is roughly from 6 to around 9 pm in the Indian subcontinent. Like Kafi, Yaman also has all the 7 notes, but what makes it different is the inclusion of "tivra Ma" or "Sharp Ma". I will sing and give you a demo. Here is the ascending and descending order when you sing paltas in this raag: Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, Ga, ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa', Ni, Dha, Pa, ma, Ga, Re, Sa. (Singing in Aakar) Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, Ga, ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa'. (Singing in Aakar) Descending / Avaroha: Sa', Ni, Dha, Pa, ma, Ga, Re, Sa. Notice the way "Tivra Ma" is included in this raag, while every other sur is "Shudh". Let’s sing it together once again. As I suggested in the earlier video, if you have tuned your tanpura to a different pitch, then please pause this video after listening and try to reproduce all the notes: Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, Ga, ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa'. Descending / Avaroha: Sa', Ni, Dha, Pa, ma, Ga, Re, Sa. Nice. Now let’s also repeat this in Aakar. Let's try: (Singing in Aakar) Ascending / Aroha: Sa, Re, Ga, ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa'. (Singing in Aakar) Descending / Avaroha: Sa', Ni, Dha, Pa, ma, Ga, Re, Sa. Now, after practicing this a few times, feel free to sing all the paltas in this raag too. Just to remind you again, hope you have checked the PDF where I have written down the practice routine, which you can use as a handbook for your daily practice. 17. Final Thoughts: So, like a lot of us do, if you have followed this class in one session, congratulate yourself! But make sure to keep on digging more in Indian classical music. And please do not forget to keep on practicing the notes and paltas which we have learned in this class. As it is said in learning anything new, it takes little time to learn the basics but a lifetime to master them. I am happy that your journey has started. The more we practice, the more we start to see the effects in our daily lives. I have tried my best to present the basics of this music in a straightforward and time-efficient manner. Please leave your feedback and share your thoughts with me and I’ll be very happy to reply and also, please do visit “PALTAS.IN” which we have parallelly been working along with this class. We are developing a special tool for you to create interesting Palta’s and developing more features from your feedback to make your musical journey simple and productive. I really wish you will continue this journey of learning Indian classical music. Namaste, & cheers!