Intro to UX Research: Running studies and getting results | Cameron Steer | Skillshare

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Intro to UX Research: Running studies and getting results

teacher avatar Cameron Steer, UX Researcher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (1h 6m)
    • 1. Trailer

    • 2. It's Not Just Common Sense

    • 3. User Observations

    • 4. Asking Users

    • 5. Data and Analysis

    • 6. Running Full Studies

    • 7. Whats Next?

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About This Class

On this course you will learn:

  • Overview of the different methods you can use to run user studies.
  • The main advantages and disadvantages of each method.
  • Understand how to ask the right questions when designing a study and how to collect data to answer the question.
  • An awareness of Ethics in UX research.

Meet Your Teacher

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Cameron Steer

UX Researcher


Hello, I'm Cameron. I am a user experience researcher. My current research involves working with artists to develop new tangible technologies to aid the way they express their art in digital mediums.

On SkillShare, I teach classes about how you can start conducting your out user experience research to develop better products.

See full profile

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1. Trailer: Hi, I am Cameron Steer you X researcher. I've constructed a course that's going to give you an overview of all the different techniques that you ex researches use do conduct studies with users. This could be to build a new product to test a existing product that you have or to kind of test one that's in the works. The aim of this more joke or course is to give you a flavor of the different techniques on the key advantages and disadvantages of using each one. It's useful to anybody that's interested in getting into user experience research or for anybody that's developing a product at the moment and just needs to kind of get out there and use a few techniques to give the test. By the end of the course, you will be able to construct a small little study. Will you be able to test a few things, gather some data and understand what your collected So where you wait in four click the next video, I'm going to give you an overview of my background. What we're gonna be doing on get started on this coast 2. It's Not Just Common Sense : Hey, guys, welcome to my skill share class. I'm Cameron. I'm gonna be taking you through an intro to you. X research, you Experian user experience for those you know, quite keyed in yet on this course is gonna be about running studies. So user studies with actual users to find out about their experiences and getting results that you can use to inform improving your products on building better technology, better services, a better world. So who am I? I'm Cameron. My background is in computer science, so I have a computer science degree on online course. I learned all about human computer interaction, you x program in all kinds of things about technology and users and all that I now do a PhD at my focus is on you ex hate. See, I more specifically, I do less program. In these days, I focused on running user studies, find out about people in the use of technology. My research focuses, actually on developing after interfaces for a digital artist should really interesting. I'm going to interject some of those experiences into this course as we move along. So doing my PhD, I've bean doing teaching, and I've been teaching this sort of stuff for a while, so I want to share some of it on skill show. If you guys I have experiences run in these workshops, I have experiences. Yeah, teaching you x on bond teaching a lot of the techniques that were gonna be covering. Hopefully, uh, it's gonna be good for you guys. Uh, on my work eyes quite recognized. I had it published in conferences before I've gone and given talks off all around the world , engaging in workshops, talks We have different academics in universities on I've been able to learn from people that Microsoft Google on collaborate with the BBC on again academics from around the world , different universities, people at the forefront of you. X research. So hopefully I can embark a lot of this stuff onto you guys on. You can gain quite a good rounded intro to what you x research involves. What is your Why is you extra search important? So is a way of finding out about new products, new ideas that solve people's problems. So when you come up with an idea, you might think it's the best happen the world. You might take it to the 1st 5 people, and they can't even use it. So that's where you X research comes into play. It's a way of being able to kind of almost test and sample. If your ideas are working to kind of get evidence of whether they are good essentially on DSO. Both of these will help me make better software APS and design better interfaces and services. Because if you understand what your users want or what your users think of your idea, then you're in. You're gonna be on, like a good track to be able to, like, deliver what you want to them and actually solve these problems. So what are we gonna learn? So we're gonna learn the different methods and you can use to run user studies. Be these question is interview techniques like the broader implications of it, what kind of data you're collecting, how you analyze it on then what's key then is built to deduce the main advantages and disadvantages. They all have advantages, they will have disadvantages. And the idea is that we want to know how to write how to ask the right questions in order to know which methods to use when to deploy them on when to use them when collecting these kinds of data on. Then finally, I'm gonna close on talking a little bit about the ethics of you extra search Andi about recruiting and making sure you're doing it in a safe on sort of security is way one interacting with these users. So who should take this course? So anybody who was obviously interested in a career in New X So whether you're thinking of taking a course on it on Dr later in life or whether you've kind of maybe just finished a computer science degree and you know a lot more about software development, this might be useful. There is a way of being able to take ideas testing with users. So anybody who is interested in doing that I've kind of highlighted your software developers because I think it will help you be able to interact with the design team better . I've heard that. Did you? I design issue because I think it will. If you're very good at making user interfaces, it's very useful to them. Be able to kind of test those ideas. So though maybe the textbook good, you never know what use is gonna actually do on then? Finally, then. And I think this is quite an interesting one Is that I think you'll be good for a tech startup. Entrepreneurs, People who need to gather like quick user feedback because you're working in kind of a time on resource constrained environment are the ideas are going to be showing you you can do without any fancy equipment and you So if you are a textile looking for low cost ways of testing your ventures and your ideas, this might give you some great tips of how to do that. So how are we gonna learn? I simply learn, then do. So I'm gonna tell you a bunch of stuff, a bunch of different techniques about how to do something on. Then we're going to go away and do two tasks. The 1st 1 is gonna be an evaluation. You can deploy it anytime anywhere s Oh, this will be a diary study. I'm gonna show you how you do that. How will start thinking about data? We're gonna start thinking like aux a researcher for collecting information on the second part. Then it's going towards the end where I'm actually going to give you a brief on you're gonna actually design and run your own study. Web riel users. In this case, it's more likely going to be your friends and family that you recruit. But you can take this further and further and felt like so the first part will be about you actually in general s. So I hope you stay tuned for that. I hope you enjoyed less than one. Hope to see you in the next lesson. 3. User Observations: I hope that intra got you excited and a little bit of a flavor. Who I am on, what we're gonna be learning This is gonna be the first proper lesson. You're gonna learn a little bit about how to actually gather information on a little bit more about what you x research actually is. So it's not just common sense is what part one is called. And it's a reason why that is the case. Because a lot of engineers are a lot of students that I've taught in the past always come up to me and said, Oh, but isn't it just common sense And no, basically, because when what you think is usable on what you think is often a usable interface or product or a great service isn't necessarily what other people think is I'm gonna go into that in a little bit more detail now. So why do we need you? X research took your research. Is this way of being able to understand users understand how they interact with things that we build? Andi also gather new data that can help inform future ideas. So what? Like I was saying that the in the introduction. What's usable for you is not necessarily unusable for everyone. For example, they give how you use your phone compared to how, say your parents, use your phone or even your grand parents. If your conference even use a phone. So how you interact with something, It's not necessarily the same as how somebody else and tracks or something. The same goes the other way. Say, if you have a youngest sibling or an even younger little cousin, Awesome in that that think of how they grasp and tried to use a phone commit how you do it's very different. Another good example of this is how engineers interact compared to business people or doctors or something. Right. Engineers tend to have this very like technical background, so maybe they understand how it works because they know what's going on in the background, where somebody who is Ah, business person has a different set of skills on DNA. Maybe don't necessarily know what's going on in the end, a layer. So therefore, if your device is not usable, then they might be confused by it. Essentially, different people use different things in different ways, and then finally, people with disabilities or people that are have some kind of impairment ALS These diverse , different user groups have different ways of using and interacting with things compared to ourselves. Basically, everyone is different and everyone has their own way of doing things. So how do we account for this? So if we have all these different people here, So this is the population of the world, so we can now do research. So this year Ah, microscope. We can put the population under the microscope on. We can call it, invite participants into our lab. We can show them our things on. We can gather new ideas from it because we can learn how they use it and we can start together insights of saying well out of a population of 100 people, you know, the majority of them used it in this way or found this on then in reverse weekend with these new ideas. Then go back and test back and test on what this cycle does. It kind of allows us to reiterate of taken a population research in some kind of idea, some kind of interface and kind of service gathering some ideas and insights. Maybe then applying them to a new vision of the product on, then sending them back in on iterated and test. It's a constant iteration and test that we can do with you ex research methods. So they think of the different ways the week and observe this how we can go out with our users on Loon from them in different methods. So one of the one of the key ways of doing this is diary studies, ethnographic studies and contextual enquiries. So these airways and we can actually go out engage reviews is and learn. I'm developed new ideas, so this one would be a diary study so you would use a diary study if you want to kind of understand data and habits of users over time so you could personally conduct these studies so you could go out with your diary. So that could be a collection method of just an app on your phone. That kind of saved things like dates and times on then specific things you're looking. It's like maybe habits of how people use social media on. You can observe a population so say you go on and conduct this story. Study classroom with teenagers or something that that you can then collect this data, interrogate the data afterwards and you have it over, say, a couple of months, maybe a year, or maybe even only a couple of days. The type of information you can gather here is like I said, habits, Time of days. Um, what people are doing at certain times a day tracking those back toe habits, all that kind of stuff. So anything that you can observe and see, and then map to say a time. And how would we conduct this? Well, I I already mentioned a couple of ways. You can do it with pen and paper like this pyramid like traditional looking Indiana Jones diary here. Or you could use some kind of app that you develop where you can quickly enter exactly what you want. Um, disadvantage sure is that it might bias the data. So if your personal indefinite you might miss things you might know necessarily on DSI. Certain things also, if you're not directly engaging with the user, you might know actually get their feelings. You're only kind of seeing them on the subjective level. Ethnographic studies. So ethnographic studies is when you go out into the wild and actually interview, engage of users and you're actually kind of live in amongst them in a way you would maybe go into, for example, I've gone into art classes before. You kind of have discussions observer What they do see how they are using things that already exist in the environments on. Then you take all this data away, and then you can draw some conclusions from it. So what you would gather from this is kind of observations. You'd write down what people are doing. You'd go in and ask questions, people. So I get their forts, opinions in different kinds of information that that how would you conduct it? So you kind of identify the population that you want to work with on. Then you would try and go and sort of live amongst them in a very sort of un disruptive way , just kind of like being almost like a fly on the wall. If those of you have a watched a Louis Fru documentary, although that is already in a documentary, context is kind of that idea of being able to kind of going to environment with a little disruption as possible observed and see what's going on. A disadvantage to this is that often it's very hard to collect. Maybe some kind of like quantitative data, and I'll explain what content data is later. But coming very statistical data. A lot of the time you're collecting kind of people's thoughts people's opinions, so that might be harder to draw more scientific conclusions. And then the final step of the final kind of method that I discuss is contextual enquiries , and these are very, very similar to ethnography studies, but they have a little bit more structure to them. Often you go in and maybe like, one a workshop like you can see here. This is actually me here on. I'm running this with the BBC on this time. I like I've gone in and taken in prototypes year. We've kind of had a bit of a workshop discussion, so it's a little bit more destructive than ah contextual inquiry, and you tend to go in with the specific purpose and with specific group very similar disadvantages to ah contextual inquiry because it's very easy for YouTube biased conclusions. Uh, but you kind of gather very similar information but you might have a more specific structure to it. So given this now, I'm gonna give you your first task. So I think it's important to kind of start having the mind of the U X researcher early because I'm gonna bombard you with probably a lot of information over the next sort of a couple of lessons. So we're going to go into and do a diary study. So this is a way that you can observe. And, like I said, a way of observing people personally a way of collecting information without needing to actually do, like a lab set up of a study. So what we're gonna do is you are going to make your own data capture form so it could just be like a pen and paper note pad. It could be using, like, some kind of spreadsheet app on your phone on. Think about the different that the candidate you want to collect, like what's important on what kind of information you need to be able to observe people using technology on public transport. So it I don't know if you guys, um a lot of people catch public transport, but if you kind of take a train journey over the next couple of days or like a bus junior, something that that observed what's going on and how people are using the technology on try and capture. It may be over a couple of days. Or maybe if you only take, like, one bus junior week, maybe just do it for, like, a couple of weeks, uh, and see what you observe and what you see on then try to at the end of it, analyze some data and draw some conclusions. So, like, you see that somebody is kind of always using instagram first thing in the morning. But then you see that same person on the bus in the afternoon and they play in a game instead. You could draw some conclusions from that they over when we're not looking for, like, super scientific is about training your mind to be observant of how people using technology Andi, what kind of data you can collect from that Andi, then looking at the conclusions you can draw from it. So it's a very basic task, but it's going to give you the mindset of being an observer on being somebody who is basically a professional. People watch. So go away and do that and then come back to the next lesson. Then where we're gonna look about how we actually ask and directly work of users. I hope you enjoyed this lesson. I hope you learn something useful and go away and enjoy doing the task. It's fun to observe users, and I hope you enjoy it. Do. 4. Asking Users: Okay, Welcome back. So I hope you've had time to kind of go away. Andi, have a go at that first task. Even if you didn't do it on a bus, you just maybe did it in a class or work or somewhere somewhere, like a public place where you could watch on people, use technology, gadison data and get your first can a chance to be a researcher looking at people observe looking at people use technology. It's very important to kind of get these skills early because that's essentially all we're doing. And there's gonna be lots of different ways we're going to do it. But the key thing is having this open mind and being able to kind of look at things in different ways and draw conclusions from how you're looking at people using technology in the night section. Now, we're gonna go through different ways that you can ask, uses and gathering feedback. So the key ways that, um, I tend to ask a look at this is that you're gonna be looking at using interviews. These are places where you have, like, one on one situations, much like our friendship where you can kind of go deep on a topic Andi really kind of discuss and hammer things out. And other contacts, then, is actual focus groups. So focus groups is basically very similar to an interview, Except you're gonna have a group of people together. So it's a chance for people to kind of bounce off each other and bring new ideas together. And then the final way, then is questioning is so. This is when you actually have, like, a form, whether it's on paper, whether you're sending it by email or it's on your website on, you can gather, sort of. Maybe people can answer questions on there and kind of do it in their own time. Let's go through each one of these individually on, maybe look at some of the advantages and disadvantages, so why would we conduct user interviews? So, like I said, this is a chance to really go deep on a topic and really talk to an individual user. Asking lots of questions on when you when you get feedback off them, is why you can kind of probe a bit mawr and kind of like asked follow up questions and really kind of go deep on what you are discussing. And the information you gather here is often often people take a Dictaphone along and they kind of just record the whole interview on. You will be able to then go away, then and, like, really pick out some of the key themes that you need. Interviews. Really, Really great. If you kind of have something, you want to sit down with somebody, I'm gonna show it to them and kind of ask these questions where you want to, like, follow up to what they're saying. The disadvantage of a interview might be that you are. This may be slightly bias in the outcome. Maybe if you kind of hear something that you like offer user, You're going to kind of asking more questions about that and try and fit your worldview. It's very important to kind of when you're conducting an interview to listen. Um, but don't ask them in a way that's gonna just bias your results. So and then following on from interviews is focus groups, so focus groups are essentially like interviews, except they're conducted with groups of people s. So this means you cannot have opportunity to have more of Ah, lively conversation. You can gather mawr information on. You can kind of have this compare and contrast where people will bounce off of each other. So if someone says something, somebody else might follow up with something. Eso then you concoct start to infer mawr information from that because two people are agreeing on something free people agreements of five people agree on something. A disadvantage to conduct in a focus group, though, is that that also might buy us the data. Right? So a lot of these reasons why you wouldn't use something or why you should be weary of something is because you're gonna buy us the information you collect. So somebody in a focus group pipes up and says, Well, I didn't like the fact that that button was over there and then somebody else who didn't really necessarily think that you asked them. Do you agree with that? And they want to kind of be seen is kind of like part of the group on. They might buy us the information by just agreeing with something. Another disadvantage of focus groups Pan interviews is that, of course, if somebody's not very confident as well that you might not get a lot of information off them because they might be a bit kind of intimidated by talking to you or criticizing or something along those lines. Question is then, another great way to kind of combat. That question is obviously done in private, so you don't have to ask anyone anything. They can just kind of fill them out without you looking at them. Or you can even send them remotely by email on and the types of information you can gather here is. Obviously, you can kind of get some quality days. You could give people boxes to kind of just write things out, something similar to what they would answer in interview on. But a great opportunity did give questions like this where you kind of answer on a liquid scale where you would answer between 11 and seven, or you could give rating we use kind of like rank the interface. So here, this is kind of a this is what's called a NASA TLX. I think so. Yeah, accuracy. So, like hacker were using the interface, people consider that very accurate. So this is this is data now weaken statistically analysis at a Nana analyze much quite different to maybe some of the our recordings we would collect from focus groups or interviews. So how would you conduct these already mentioned? You can kind of go through, send them by email. But when your website, or if you're actually in the room with the person, you can kind of give them a booklet to fill out, say, at the start of my assets and demographics or like, you know, the agenda, their age. And they know where they went to school or something like that. And then afterwards, then they might use an interface, and then they might feel like these kind of questions. And then at the end, they might be asked to rank near to face. And how about the they would use it. A disadvantage to this is obviously why the interviews A good is because you get this kind of long form going deep on a topic, be able to kind of like ask follow up questions, people's responses. This is kind of a one time you've gone in and you've collected all this information. You don't really get a follow up in the moment. Eso That's why it's good to kind of use a mixture of these techniques that kind of combat these disadvantages of either one, something that will go into when we designed a whole study. So another way then to gather feedback we've covered on observing. So when we go in and do ethnography ease diary studies, you guys might have had some hands on experience of that since the last lesson. We just went over asking, So you can kind of conduct these interviews These focus groups give people question is now on to probe in. And that may sound like aliens coming and visiting planet if, but it's not. It's just giving people things like prototypes, facilitating co design or doing things called magic objects. That a sessions, they're not that magic there, quite simple to understand that worry so prototypes. Very. I hope designers, anyone coming here is a designer is familiar with this concept. Oh, or even software developers. It's essentially a mock of the real thing. It's kind of like this first vision, but we know we know it's not quite polished, not quite finished on. This is the perfect time to gather feedback. I will highlight that prototypes of the perfect time together Feedback because you're no invested in it. You haven't spent much on this prototype, and you can give it to somebody and they will feel comfortable criticizing it. So there's lots of different ways and you can do this. A pen and paper is a fantastic way because it's do cheap, right so you can get a piece of paper. You could scribble some interface on it, and you can show it to somebody, and you can gather feedback instantly. Other examples of software like sketch and envision. Essentially, these allow you to mock up a really like, realistic looking into face, even at a little bit emotional stuff to it. But you don't have to go away and program the whole thing. You can even send this, remove me to uses, and you could gather feedback very fast way. If you're making a hardware product like this image here are green. Oh is a fantastic way in a way that I use a lot of. I use this a lot in my hardware projects where you can kind of quickly first women together on a bread board on, and that is also quite low cost, Considering how hard it is to make a hardware product, This is a self reported, so probably like two really powerful. They're cheap. You don't invest a lot of time in them on. People feel a lot more comfortable criticizing a prototype co design. SOCO design is kind of like building a prototype except where the using is part of the design process. So if you were, for example, making a new game aimed act 16 year olds to learn math, then you could actually involve them in the process. You can build the prototype collaborated together. You can gather the feedback along the way, and it gives you there a stake in the outcome. So instead of now building something surely doing user and then maybe doing a few two weeks based on the feedback and then releasing it the product this is kind of a constant kind of check in. They maybe even get involved inducing the coding review on it really involves the user in the design process. And then finally, the magic objects study. So this is when you don't even build a prototype, you say, pick up A I'll show you so see I picked up this mug here. So this mark now I can say it's a magic object that you can do anything to interact with computer with it. What would you do? Well, somebody might say, Well, I'm going to do that to kind of swipe my email away. Okay? Like big. It could be anything right? And it could be a bit fancier than you just grabbing my mug. But it's a way of saying, Well, we don't want to invest the time in Bill even building a paper prototype. We just want to give somebody some circle object, and we want to see how they would use it in VR. And then from that, then you can in for new product ideas. This is a really great way of getting on early insights. If you want to develop a product, maybe it might not work so well later on, when you actually need to show something that's habitable functional. One of the other disadvantages to this is that it requires quite creative participants. So obviously I wasn't very created then, figure of in love with the email that if you have a particularly creative participant that comes along they can offer fantastic insights on really accelerate your design process. Okay, so that's it for the lesson. I hope you now understand the different ways that we can go away and ask people Be that an interview or designing your own question it and then ways that we can actually probe and gather really deep inside by actually showing people prototypes, showing people magic objects and getting people involved with the design process. I got gone over for out this. There's many advantages and disadvantages to this technique on learning when to use them on how to kind of combine mint together is really important. We're going to go over in the next session about the different data and the different ways that we're gonna measure on. Then that's going to kind of draw out thes reasons why maybe you wouldn't use one over the other. So stay tuned for the next lesson. I don't see you there 5. Data and Analysis: Oh, welcome back. So this is lesson free now? Yes. Lesson free on today, we're gonna be going about thinking about the data. So we're going away, and we've learned a little bit about the different ways that we can observe users and ask, uses and even show them prototypes and do a bit of acts. Came in a bit of show in on a bit of observe and kind of getting it all together. But doing all that is almost pointless if we don't actually collect any data. So if you did the diary study, task asked, then you would have collected some data along the way being a spreadsheet or, you know, example, Just don't paper. I would have bean some observations when you wrote down the road on the time. Maybe you were done. I was on the bus and I saw a man check instagram on his phone. Right. That is some data. We have a time. We have a sort of a context for that on then we have an actual activity to a simple, very basic data. But data nonetheless, in this lesson, we'll talk about data in a little bit more depth and how we actually analyze that data to gather some insights from it. So let's jump into it. I don't measuring feedback. So what is data? What what types of data can we have? What, what war exactly We were talking about when we say data. So there's two time today that we have quality of data. You have quantitative data, so quality of data is a sort of thing we collect when we may be conducted. Interview on it tends to be people's for people's opinions, kind of like white like Woody information that we can go through and kind of draws and insights from want to update You, on the other hand, tends to be more on sort of value based. So that might be like the time it takes somebody to do a task. Or it might be the date that you observing in your diary. Or it might be the number of times somebody checked instagram in a day on, and the other bit then is you having this these different times of data. We need to know the different ways that we can analyze it. So I'm gonna briefly go over a few techniques to be very brief and I hope that maybe a future skill kicks skill. Kids skip skill share courses. I can jump more into debt on how we do analysis, because that is a whole topic in itself. So because it type today, so quality of data times accuracies, ratings lick it scales. Stephan, you maybe get from The question is that you do where you have very value based, you can camped it up. We can do statistical analysis on it or camped it up or just kind of get values. Standard deviations means things. That quality of then is the stuff we collect from our interviews or focus groups of videos . This is kind of more grown out information on very different to our quantity. So quantitative analysis so you can get averages Relations significance is so, you know, if you want to work out the average time it takes some dio do posting instagram post, you get 10 people to do it the new time. Each person you can then average those times you know, insights about how you you know how long it takes somebody to post me to instagram Ah, using your new posting interface and I want to talk about significance. I took on relations, were talking about stap tests. So a way to do this is kind of with T tests and overs Pearson's ours. This is to kind of work out relations soon. Maybe you want to look at the relation between on people who are photographers on. Maybe we're better at doing the INSTAGRAM posting because they were used to on photo based APS. Okay, so that would make me of relation. It might be important to know that because it might be influencing your data when you're looking at significance is things like T tests and an overs will actually show whether it was significant that people were faster using the new interface over the previous interface . These are deep topics in themselves. If you want to find out, some information about the now recommend may be searching for other courses on them, but we're not gonna go go into them in this course because they are quite like I said, quite deep, quite advanced topics require a little bit of mathematical background, very, very powerful for answering information from data. So while we've kind of maybe checking out and then for quality of analysis. We're looking at themes again. Relations kind of gain some stories out of it. So how people maybe like you ask questions about how they do something, you might be able to gather some kind of like users. Story be. So we'll go from this to this. To this on ways to do this is things that grounded theory where you kind of read through. So of all your transcripts of interviews is something that that and you kind of have this idea of what you're looking for and you're trying to find things that fit, that grounded theory that you've come up with and then another way is on. This is the most common way on the way. I kind of have always done Quality of analysis is dramatic and assets. So you're looking for key themes, right? So as you're reading your transcripts from interviews or focus groups, if you start to note esteems, you might draw one out, and then you might find more things dropped. This theme this year is a dramatic announces. I did when I did a study with some artists on. We draw out some themes year and we kind of put some post it notes up of the different themes that we found out different techniques people use in on. Then this is kind of a way then that you can kind of draw out these stories, these insights and stuff. Okay, so part the second part of this, then, is actually the measuring equipment on the location that you're doing it right, so this kind of have a effect, and we're gonna go over that now. So lot based studies obviously allow you to do something in a controlled environment so you can kind of minimize outside influences on it makes things very easy to measure and observe because you can set up the equipment in the exactly You want it, you can bring people into this environment on its it's unless Messi and grateful finding out very specific things that you are looking for. But then feel based studies already have that advantage. They are a realistic environment, but it's a lot harder to control those outside influences. Those variables that might might make it harder to find out the fine things that that answer your specific questions that you're looking for. As for equipment, obviously, video and audio equipment is very easy to use wherever you are. Hopefully you can kind of set up a tripod, a doing a field study to kind of stabs and video dictaphone kind of stick. You can kind of stick anywhere record on your phone s. Oh, they're quite useful in both situations, but obviously you're gonna have added control when you're in a lab based environment. Prototypes of log in. So if you are of course, building a prototype two minutes really useful to add there is extra layers of log in it. Log in information. So whether that's time from when you've started a task to end in a task or how many times somebody does something or maybe you want to kind of collect where they touched on the screen. So log in This kind of information is really going to, like, draw a lot of information that you wouldn't otherwise be able to observe and say if you were just with a stopwatch trying to time things because then you're gonna add kind of on outside influence over somebody. No, kind of quite clicking the stop. Watch on properly. Build that into your prototypes and you're gonna flight a lot more accurate tater observation rooms. So a lab a study your, uh you can kind of be outside of the room. Right? So when we say an observation room, it's a room maybe adjacent to the study room, where you can kind of have a one way glass. You can look through it and see your participant working, working on doing the task. But you're not in the room, maybe intimidating them again. This is an advantage key to lab A studies. This might be very hard to set up if you're kind of doing something out in the field. For example, on your diary study, you were in a separate room to the people you were observing. This might have had an effect, like Nora patent that it's hard to tell. And in the final, a little bit of extra equipment is quite fun. I'm gonna mention you is eye tracking on these again smaller and smaller, so it could be used out in the field. But you would have obviously give them to the participant toe where on they would obviously get in the way. But they tend to be glasses, and you can kind of see where you're uses gays. Ah, where There. Where they're looking on the screen on. You could infer some information from this to the key thing to think about is the analysis . So, like when you when you get in this data, So like, say you are logging something from a prototype, you might log too much information, and then that's going to overwhelm me when you come to the actual analysis. So always be careful to make sure you have in mind the question. The thing you're trying to ask, you haven't bear in mind what you're going to do in the analysis afterwards. Eso then you're actually collecting data that matters. There's no recording the user using whole the whole time during the study. If you there never use that video to actually draw anything out, you're actually were more interested in the audio conversation on, and sometimes at the prototypes log in. So always be careful and weary of that. So in the next part, I'm gonna go through bringing this all together on we're going to go over the task where you're actually gonna build your own study building up from all the building blocks. So I've given you of how Teoh kind of observe users how to use probes, how to ask users stuff and then thinking about the data that you want to collect, we'll look at how it all comes together, and then you're going to go away and build your own. Study yourself. So look forward to seeing you there. See you in the next lesson. 6. Running Full Studies: Okay, So welcome part to the one before last part of this whole class on the giving you an overview of you X research in the different techniques you can use. This final part is where the task is going to be. And then the follow up to this is going to be a bit more about the logistics of the course and getting feedback off me. So this is the final part where we're gonna be kind of learning about new types of content . So And it's called bringing it all together on because because I've kind of bombarded you with lots of different techniques. I'm gonna show you how you can structural these techniques together and actually design a full study that's going to get you some really good feedback with any prototype you build in the future. So that's jumping to it, bringing it all together. So one of the best things to do is build a hypothesis. First on, this is all about asking good questions. You want to be able to kind of come up with an idea that you want to test that super specific, and you could actually tell whether it's working. You don't want to be, say, the developer of a new camera, Afrin. Think, um, your hypothesis useless hypothesis would be my camera advices. My camera device is really, really good, right? That's not a very good hypothesis. Whereas if you kind of said something like my camera device is going to be faster on my camera, app is gonna be faster than the default camera app to use. Right? Okay, that is a good hypothesis to test. And you could give it to user if they use it faster than you being able to kind of prove your hypothesis. The second part is being able to kind of define clear tasks and clean measures. So we talked about the different techniques you can use to measure users and the data you can collect on. Then you you want to think of this in conjunction with task? We want them to do so going back camera app. Example. If the task is to take a photo a share it as pretty a task, then how you gonna measure that? You're gonna take the time to take the photo time to share it the overall time where they're looking on the screen you know any hiccups you want to kind of capture who they are . They may be interviewed them about the experience afterwards. You gotta think of this in terms of pre post enduring will go for that matter. And then the final bit, then, is a little bit of detail that I want to add to this. And it's something Teoh consider when you're doing your studies. Is Finkle between group designed on with England design, and we'll explain the difference on when you would use each okay to Fitbit Hypothesis building. So ah, hypothesis is a basically a supposition or proposed explanation based on the bias of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. Not basically. It's a hunch, right? So it's an idea that right, I've come up with this kind of interpretation of the world on based on some evidence of that sores and maybe some quick little do research you did, or just some kind of idea that you have a head on. Now I want to prove that with a through their investigation. Okay, So when we need to approve or disprove our hypothesis, we need to ask good questions and her to get the answer for them, which is essentially building a study with the techniques of showed you that's gonna answer the questions and help you prove your hypothesis or question. You want to ask something you want to find out. So by doing this, we need to find that well, what do we need to know beforehand? And this is where you want to get a full consent, which is our Explain this in detail in the next bed and the demographics. Right? So you want to find out who your user is, because if part of your hypothesis is to say that, well, I've made a device and makes it easier for older adults to browse the Internet on, I want to find out if it means that they're more accurate, be able to find the information. Then you want to check the your demographics accurately fit this. So in your pre study by now a little bit about them, find out on this doesn't necessarily mean just age and gender. This could be whether they use a mobile phone on a regular basis or whether they're familiar with on desktop publishing applications or how often they browse the Internet Eso you think of that? What you want to know about your users before they actually get to the task that during the studies we kind of spoke a little bit about this. So we spoke about audio and video before, so you can record all that information. Video is good to kind of capture. Have somebody is using something, or Dio is good again during the study and also certainly post study if you're doing any form of interviewing, because it's very hard to remember exactly what people say in the interview, when you come to actually do your analysis on, then log in time and interactions again, we kind of spoke about this with in your prototype. I try to add some kind of like log in. Or maybe you're using a tool that has, like, some kind of built in law again. Think about the information you're collecting here. So during the study, during the tasks, these are stuff that was kind of spoke about before, where you kind of set up equipment to actually collect the data for you and then post study then so you might want to use. The question is mentioned question is before. This is a great way to give somebody some scales to fill in. So how accurate did they feel they were? How fast did they feel they were? What would they rate the interface? Which interface did they prefer? So you can kind of collect nice quantitative data here and then for your quality of data, Then you can conduct an interview so you might give them this question is you can quickly get some information on. Then you will conduct an interview there and to be able to kind of have a longer discussion with them. So this is kind of a good way that I like to map out how people will map out studies normally is Think we're unique, like pre study. Find out about your user we're gonna collect during study. So this is when you talk about our measures, stuff from the previous slides on them, post study, then you're looking kind of our observation techniques from ah lot earlier in the course. Okay, final bit then for this section is between groups within groups. And what's the difference? So Willing Group is, say you have to taxes. So you had one was going to use the default camera on one that was going to use your new camera. Okay, Within group study would mean a lot of the population, right? Do task one and then task to Okay, where is in a between group study? We would spit out population in two. So we now have this group and then we have this group and all of this group are going to do task one with the default app. And then all of this group are going to do task two with the new app. Okay, let's just go over that again. So you got the weaving group? Everyone does both tasks, and it may be the case that half of them will do to them one, and then the other half will do one, then two. That's really a good way to go about it. It's probably the best way to go about it. But then between group, these guys will only do tax one and these guys only going to do task two. OK, so why is that important? So the advantages of this is is going to avoid a learning effect between groups. So here now these people are not going to learn off this one. So they're not gonna learn the nature of the task so that when we come to this, they might be slightly better. Therefore, bias in your data, okay? And then there's a better control of the effects, such as fatigue. Right. So now these people are not gonna entire doing this task and then doing the steps. Who wouldn't say this task is particularly tasking, but only get to this. They might mess up here just because they're tired from doing this one, right? And then the other thing is, it's clean. All right, so you just kind of you don't have to worry about which order people are doing things in. Everyone from this groups just gonna do this task. And everyone from this group's gonna just do that tasker case. That's what I mean by cleaning. Okay, within groups, obviously, the advantage here is you have a smaller sample size. So here they're probably, you know, there should be six and six, and here then we've got six, right? So, like, everyone's doing all of it. So you you don't have to recruit as many people to do over of in group study and then affect isolations of individual difference that essentially means these people are actually comparing the to right. See, when you have a effect, you're going to see that it's not because you've only picked people to do. One of the task is because everyone has done all the task, and you can actually clearly see which one is better in, which is worse. So, therefore, leading to more powerful tests bore the disadvantages. So the disadvantages is within a big in between groups. A study. You're going to need a larger sample size because you're gonna need 1/2 them, right? So you're gonna need to recruit twice a zoo, many people compared to a living group study. There's going to be, ah, larger impact of individual difference, like one of the advantages. Russi and Euros. Obviously on they do both. Actually, you can see the difference immediately because it's going to be clear if one participant is better on another one, and that you will see that in the test where this year it could just literally be the fact that you have different populations. So therefore it's harder to get these on significant stat tests right. A disadvantage of a within group study is harder to control. The Lumen effect on one of the big advantages of the between groups was obviously the learning effect here. We're gonna lose that in effect, because save the task is to take a picture and shared on social. If both APs like both tasks are that passed you doing it with a different interface, you're going to kind of learn a little bit about the task from the first, the first task. So therefore, having that, um then in effect on, then you have the impact of fatigue again, we spoke that the between group study obviously eliminates this for teething. But you and I, are you going to do task one, then test to you know, their long tasks. You know, you could be test to test free test for any number of tasks, Andi. Eventually, the participant will get fatigued. Whereas in between group, you know, if there's like six tax, you have six groups and they will do. One task is sure you're gonna be having them do all of them in different orders for each participant. Okay, so that's a little bit of back between groups within groups. Study These are things to consider when you would use in multiple tasks. Because you don't want to have. The key thing here is to think about learning effects. You don't have a limited effect, and you don't wanna have on, like the teak for the participants, but obviously worked very mind of these sample sizes. Okay, so this is quite a advanced topic. I think it's important to add in here because when you start recruiting people you need you do need to consider about what they see in who see him, what? When you come out with your data. So I hope that all that was very clear. Okay, Right. So the task, right, your first study. So what? What I think everyone should do is take more evil into here on apply it right, Because you need the only way you're gonna learn this. Feel to apply these techniques and have a go at making your own question. Is conducting your own interviews thinking of tasks, thinking of whether you should do between within design. Okay, so we're gonna have We're gonna do a study where you're going to compare swipe type in two regular type in and swipe Typing is just when you could drive the fingers over the keyboard , the type regular type in world, very familiar wave because you just kind of tapped the buttons as you go along. So for this only to define and hypothesis and consider the follows the defendant help officers again we spoke about. It's just a question of my naps, so maybe you want to find out whether they're faster, whether it's faster, do you swipe typing over regular type in. Maybe you want to find out if people are more accurate doing regular typing over swiping, typing to think of something that you can ask me very simple to start out with. Um, maybe it's just day. Is there an improved user experience? You're gonna collect some more quality? Dare try to think it's something very simple. Just one thing that you want to ask. Think of the study procedure and the location. So what they're actually going to do so that involves, you know, you're gonna have to give them two different phones. You're gonna do it with one phone and change the settings. Then think of the think of the whole logistics of it, where you're gonna give them beforehand where you're gonna collect from them afterwards. Eso beforehand. You need to have some kind of pre study data capture, like we spoke about with demographics will see some kind of like consent forms And that some kind of debrief in what the actual task is going to be and kind of build this into your procedure. This idea of what you're gonna do before the study, then think of the actual city tasks and measures and again, or part of the procedure. Right. So what they're gonna actually do on how many times? With what? Different things? And then the measures, then. Okay. So, like, when they're doing the task, how were you gonna measure them? Is it going to be a case of your video? Them you're gonna order record anything. You're gonna have a stopwatch ready to time them think of these different things. Maybe this something you could do in the phone that's going to measure it for you. So think of that. Measures. Think of the tasks this that in your procedure and then a post study capture. So what are you going to do afterwards? So after they've done the tasks and you've measured what they've done, will you conduct an interview with them? You're gonna give them any question is build these materials. So any question is build them like, even if they just scribble down on a piece of paper to give to them. Just find some way of collecting something after the study as well. So once you've basically defined the procedure involved in all these things, you have some kind of pre study data capture a task for them to do a way to measure the tasks and then away to kind of capture something about the tasks they did. Okay, so after you outlined the plan, make the data capture materials. Now run this study were a friend, right? And it doesn't matter if things go horribly wrong. Your friend, right? Cause you say, oh, can I have, like, 20 minutes of your time to just kind of test this whole study? I did, But this is going to make it real few, right? Because you invite them in, you're gonna give them this thing to fill out. You can actually conduct the study with them, and it's gonna be brilliant practice, right, cause they're gonna fill it in, they're going to do the task. And then afterwards you gonna have some data, right? Yes. Okay. It was only then one participant and they were your friend. But you you've practiced that procedure. You've gone through these steps. So now when you go to try it with somebody that isn't your friend with an actual app, you're gonna know exactly what to expect or, you know, at least a little bit of what to expect. It's like a dress rehearsal for an actor, Okay? To present the results and compare them to your hypothesis. Did you prove or disprove it? Right. So now you've got some data from running it with your friend. You want to check it against your hypothesis, And if you find out that you found a bunch of useless data, you need to obviously adjust it and think, right. Okay. What kind do next time that's gonna help me kind of way for my hypothesis. Okay, this is what we in, you know, professionally, you would still do something like this and you would do a test to a friend or a colleague on because we call this a pilot study. Right? So it's a way of practicing before you actually do the real thing. We're really subject, I think. Finally. Right. This is very important. Write a few sentences itself, reflecting the study itself on what could be improved next time. Okay, so, you know, list a few things that you think you could do better next time, right about how the study went. You're your own performance. Ask your friend her. You did as well, whether they felt comfortable, whether you were clear and articulate and what the tasks were on, whether your question is was coherent or not. So this is really important. Um, because this is bringing everything together that we've learned. You want a kind of determine what you need on Do what you need to use from the previous lessons. Go back and watch the miss. You kind of need to check. You know whether I should use a questionnaire whether actually use interview. How would I do it? Think of all this. Okay. So swipe type in sweat. Typing is built into android phones. You should already have it enabled. If you're on an iPhone, you can download on face keyboard, G keyboard or swiftkey on these Airil alternative keyboards that could be get gotten for free off the APP store on. I think Android might have some alternatives as well, but there is one actually built in, so you're good to go with Android iPhone. Just get these if you don't have access to a mobile phone capable of swiped type, so if you don't you don't have any phones. You can't download an apple something. Try comparing, maybe like voice input with a keyboard on a computer. So if you have access to a computer, tried just using, like the voice import toenails when that that find some website that might have voice input is you try to compete basically two types of text input somehow. OK, so that's the task on Go off and do it. Share what you've done with me. I'll be happy to critique anything if you want to show me your study outlines before you actually on conducted with your friends. I'm happy to look over that, too. If you want to take this a little bit further on, not just do refrains where you've already done your practice with your friends on ethics and recruitment. I'm just gonna quickly run through. So ethical consent is important because it obviously makes your participants. You're comfortable doing it. It's so you do everything right in the eyes of the law. What we normally do is consent form, So you consent to doing it. I'm lucky that I work in the university. Environments in the university already have a code of ethics in place for us. Then part of consent is being clear. What you expect from them to obviously be clear in what you are. I'm gonna be measuring. You know, if you've taken any video, make sure they know you're recording them. Make sure they know what the actual task is because it's going to avoid confusion and get you better results. And obviously check for vulnerable people. Hopefully, if you're doing it. We're a friend, Andi. They are kind of happy working with you. But if say you were in a medical context in the future or maybe you're working with Children or older adults, then memorability is a very important thing to check for actually recruiting participants. So there's ah is a thing out on the Internet. If you search for Nielsen's five users, they say, for actually getting a very good user study in place or a way of testing an early prototype . You when you need about five users, obviously, increasing the number is going to give you better data. But start with five. To begin with is always a good measure if you're looking for special interests. So our typing example. You probably don't need special interests. But if you would say doing a banking app in the future and you wanted to target, um, high end professionals, you might want to use something like a screen inform for recruitment. So if you send out like an email to a message in board, you might wanna ask them beforehand a few questions before you actually signed them up on a good way of doing this, using things like doodle polls or something similar, like a spreadsheet to actually recruit on organized time full participants. So this is slightly more advance for our example. You probably won't need to use any of this. You can do it with friends, but in future, when you actually want to task for your prototypes, isn't going to think about recruitment and happy. You're actually gonna get an invite to participants to study. Okay, so what's next in the next video? I kept that thing about what's okay. So that kind of wraps it up, brings everything together, go away and try that task. We watch this video. If you found that was a bit too quick, there's gonna I'm gonna make sure the slides of publicly available so you can clearly see what you need to do. Have a goat running your own study. Try it with a friend. Andi is gonna give you a bunch of confidence to actually run your own study. Even if it goes horribly wrong, you'll know what to do next time. Unlike I said, contact me through skill share. I can look over any materials you build on dure. Gonna learn lots by practicing and trying this process. Don't go away, though. There's one lesson in the series. I'm just going to go over a few closing points. Uh, but I hope you've enjoyed so far. Good luck. Review studies. Talk to you, sir. 7. Whats Next?: Hey, welcome. You made it to the last video. Congratulations. I hope you've enjoyed every video so far. And I hope you've learned lots about the world of US research and allow the different techniques that you can use. This final video is just gonna wrap up on a little bit about what to do next. Andi kind of refer back to the task from the previous video. I hope everyone has had a chance to at least designer study. Hopefully, we're in a study. I look forward to seeing anyone's sort of work in the section in skill share where you can share it. I'm looking forward to giving feedback. Answering questions. Please engage Andi, keep in contact. Right. This jump into this final stretch, I won't keep you long. So Part six. What's next? Or practice? Practice? Of course. On you can. I've given you that nice little structure about how to kind of build a study that's gonna effectively get you results. Okay, so you're gonna look back over some of the other techniques that I showed. You use that structure to come mushroom together on practice, building hypothesis, running studies, asking people questions, keep observing people keep looking out for interesting ways that people use in technology, whether that's with your own prototypes or whether you're watching people out in the world join the community right, so skills share have this great platform where I can kind of connect with you guys on Ask your questions on Bond. The questions also extend to, if you want to me to dive into anything deeper that I've gone over here. This has been quite a quick crash course in everything in all, the kind of important aspects of user research that's going can get you the results. If you want me to die of anything deeper, so see whether it's stats or further analysis, or deeper things about how to structure and kind of how to actually conduct an interview in more detail, don't hesitate to ask. I would be willing to do full videos. Four courses on those things, exact Uh, and then I'm going to just close of a few recommended read ins and some places where you can find me right this video that they have had my handle down here so you can connect with me on instagram on Twitter. If you want to kind of contact me more personally will keep up to date with what I'm doing . Um, a Sfar as my own UX life goes, uh, here's in books. So for reading, I recommend the design of everyday things in Here we go, it goes, Don Woman goes into detail by user centered design How to make things on the usable on why it's important to kind of gather user feedback. This book was incredibly inspiring. Um, when I read it back when I was in university, doing my undergrad on it is probably one of the key reasons why I do what I do today. The second book, then, is creative confidence. This again is a great book for reading. Eyes full of great examples of way user research and user feedback is really informed on kind of steered the direction for projects. This is from the craze of Ideo, one of the world's most prestigious design agencies. It's a great book on, gets going to kind of give you like it says creative confidence to go out there and kind of collect research and test your ideas, then for reference then so these books you do have to recover to cover, but they're handy toe have on your shelf in case you need to look up Any details. Interaction Design is a great one is quite a big buck. Lots of information in there kind of covers everything from prototype into some users study methods and stuff, but that so it's quite a good like catchall book. But then one of my favorite ones particular is research methods for human computer interaction design actually have this on my desk at the moment because I'm using it to write something that I'm writing for my PhD at the moment on, This goes into depth of our statistical analysis on particle, the research methods and how to to kind of very in depth study design, which I might do any future skill shares. Course. Okay, so these books are quite what I would surface as essential, essential books. I could go on all day about books, but if you only pick one pick design of everyday things, it's so easy to read, it's super inspiring. Like I said is the one that got me into this world. I highly recommend it. Don't that's it from me. I hope you enjoy this course. And please, if you think this somebody that you know there's interested in this kind of stuff as well. Maybe it's a work colleague. Maybe it's somebody this kind of in your university or something that's also it's also interested in UX design UX research. Please share with them. Please keep in contact with me. Share stuff in below. Let me know how it goes. Andi. Yeah? Any feedback is appreciated. It's my first course, so thank you. Bye bye.