Intro to UX Research: Creating a User Research Plan | Nikki Anderson | Skillshare

Intro to UX Research: Creating a User Research Plan

Nikki Anderson, User Experience Researcher & Instructor

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9 Lessons (47m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:43
    • 2. What is UX Research?

      7:02
    • 3. What is a User Research Plan?

      3:08
    • 4. Research Methodologies

      4:38
    • 5. Defining Background and Objectives

      7:40
    • 6. Choosing Participants

      4:27
    • 7. Generative Interview Script

      7:25
    • 8. Usability Test Script

      9:25
    • 9. Conclusion

      1:51
19 students are watching this class

About This Class

Do you want to find out what your customers really want and need from your product?

User experience research is becoming more popular in the product and design fields, as a way to gain deep empathy for customers, as well as understanding user’s goals, pain points or needs. User research helps product managers prioritize their backlogs, developers prioritize product improvements, UX designers design the best prototypes and also allows the company to succeed and innovate. But, when tasked with conducting user experience research, where do you start?

There are many articles and videos explaining why user research is important, and common methodologies surrounding the practice, but I want to give you something more actionable. In this class, we will be completing a research plan. What do these bite-sized lessons include?

  • Defining research goals and objectives, and tying them back to company goals (very important for stakeholder buy-in!)
  • Choosing your target user base for research
  • Deciding on research methodologies, based on the aforementioned goals
  • Creating a discussion/interview guide (including how to formulate unbiased questions)
  • Methods on capturing and sharing results

I will fully explain each step, and why it is important. Examples will be discussed along the way!

This class is ideal for anyone who is currently in a role (or who wants to get into a role) that focuses on creating excellent customer experiences, such as product managers, developers, designers, marketing, innovation teams, and more. No prior experience is necessary.

I would like all students to come out of this class with a better understanding of user research, as well as the confidence and resources to conduct sessions. During this course, we will be working together to complete a full research plan, which will equip you with the knowledge to correctly, and effectively, conduct your own user research sessions. With this, you can start to improve your own product, or help a company solve their user’s problems!

Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hi everyone. I'm Nikki Anderson, user experience researcher and instructor, and I'm super excited to welcome you to this class on how to construct a user research plan. By the end of this course you will have a fully completed research plan, which will enable you to go out and actually conduct your own user research sessions. Research plans generally consist of things like setting objectives, choosing the best participants, deciding on a research methodology, and also crafting a discussion guide. We will cover all of these during the class. This course is really for anybody who's interested in better understanding what their customers really want and need. So whether you are a fellow user, researcher, product manager, designer, developer, even in sales and marketing at this course, will give you the opportunity to research your customer base in order to make better decisions moving forward. No prior experience with UX is necessary in order to understand or complete this course. I created an assignment for you to follow if you choose to, it's in the text below, or you can feel free to use your own project. For this class, I posted two examples of user research plans. I'm going to be referencing them during the video. So it's best if you download them and you're able to pull them up during the videos and fill out the corresponding sections during those videos. But you can also feel free to wait until the end to complete the entire thing. Also, finally, please use this community post questions, draft your final projects in the workspace and ask for feedback. It is one of the best ways to learn. Let's get started by first learning more about user experience. 2. What is UX Research? : First we have to answer the question, what is user experience research? I know that there are a lot of different terms floating around with user experience, user Interface, UX UI, user research. The basic definition that I like to use is, user experience research is the act of truly understanding your users, in order to create designs and experiences that enhance or make their lives easier. That's a very broad definition of what user experience is and what user experience attempts to achieve. As we go through this class, I will talk a little bit about some terms of user research and types of user research. First off, by conducting user research, it allows us to connect with user's problems on an empathetic level and impact the success of a design, a product, or service. In order for us to actually understand our users and to walk in their shoes, we have to talk to them and we have to get them to tell us stories. The things that we are most focused on is users needs, goals, pain points, and tasks. Needs are things like, in order for me to get a coffee, I might need the Starbucks app, or something like a goal of mine is to send out as many emails as fast as I can. Maybe I need an e-mail provider service. A pain point that I might have is standing in line and waiting for my coffee and Starbucks released the, the buy-in advance and pick up app feature. Then finally tasks. These are things that I do on a day-to-day basis. If we focus on these four areas, we can get a really true understanding of who the people are that are using our products and this will allow us to actually curate the experiences in the designs, so that we make their lives easier by helping them get to their goals and needs and help alleviate their pain points, and make their day-to-day tasks more easy. How do we go about doing this? There are a few different ways that we can actually do this. One of the most easy and basic ways is actually observing people, watching them in their day-to-day environment, watching them at work, watching them use products. This is something that I do quite often if I'm trying to research how people are actually using products. My absolute favorite way of doing this, is by having interviews and actually talking to people. In order to understand them, we have to be able to talk to them and ask them questions. Then finally, looking at data. This is something like Google Analytics and looking at how people are actually using the app in terms of numbers. There are three main components that I like to talk about in user research. The first one is compassion. We have to have compassion for our users. Second is storytelling, so being able to tell the user's story and the third one is spotting patterns or trends. Seeing different patterns across a bunch of different users. There are many people actually who should and can do user research and it's really anybody who is interested in better understanding their customers. Ideally, you can conduct your user research at anytime. We'll talk a little bit more about this later. But it can be anywhere from thinking about an idea and thinking that you have a good idea, all the way to something concrete like a website, or a product that you already have. User research is really all about just talking to people as much as you can. But it won't give you an exact answer. It's not an exact science and it's not used to convince people to like certain ideas. Why it's really important is, it allows us to build a product that is tailored to the audience and the user base. We are able to solve problems that actually exist in people's lives and problems that people actually have, instead of just maybe adding to their frustration. Now I just want to briefly go over the most common user research methods. There are two types generally, of user research. The first one is Generative Research and the second one is Evaluative Research. These are the two types that we will focus on for this course. Generative research is when you perform those in-depth interviews with your user. My favorite is one-on-one qualitative interviews. What's really great about this is you can do generative research pretty much all the time at any point in your product and it's really just about truly understanding the people, so you'll have a conversation with your users. It's very flexible, very open-ended, answers the why behind behaviors and thoughts. This is really important. It's understanding why people have certain goals, why they have certain needs, pain points, and why they actually do certain things. This is a really great way to start a project, is by understanding how your users or your potential users are thinking about your idea. The second one, as I mentioned, is evaluative research. Another term for evaluative research is usability testing. This is actually when you ask people to complete tasks with a product. Typically, you're looking at three different areas: effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. You're asking your users, "Hey, if you wanted to buy a shirt on this app, how would you go about doing that?" We'll delve a little bit more in-depth into how you write those types of tasks to ask people, but it's in that realm. Here's an overview of user research methods. This is also in the resource section. Again, for this class, we will be focusing on qualitative research, interviews and or usability testing, depending on where you are in terms of your product. If you just have an idea, a concept, it's better to start off with generative research, since you can talk to people and understand how your users are thinking about your idea or your concept or your product. Then if you have an actual app, or a product website or a service, it's really helpful to do usability testing to truly understand how people are using your app and maybe where they're having some trouble using the app, or where they really enjoy using your app. Next, we will talk more about user research methodologies. 3. What is a User Research Plan? : In this video, I'm going to talk a little bit more about what actually makes up a user research plan. Before we dive into that, we need to figure out what we're trying to find out from our users. There are a few important things that we want to understand about our users. First off, when are they using our product? Second is, where are they using our product? The third is how they're using our product, and the fourth is why they're using our product. As I mentioned before, both generative research and evaluative research are great tools in understanding all of these questions and teasing apart all of these different concepts, the when, the how, the where, and the why. Where do we actually start with things? Well, we have to create a user research plan, which is why you are here in the first place. I'm going to go a little bit more in-depth in terms of what actually makes up a user research plan. The great thing about user research plans is they give a great explanation about the research initiative which is going to be taking place. That means you can spell out why you're actually doing the research. What are your goals that you're trying to achieve with this user research? You can share that with your team members, such as product managers, designers, and developers, and it makes it a lot easier for everybody to get involved in research and also keeps you on track when you're talking to the participants. That way, you can walk out of all of your user research interviews knowing that you stuck to your plan. Talk about what these plans actually consist of. Will they include the research methodologies used? What type of methods did you use in this project? Little bit about the project background, and why you're interested in doing this project and doing this research. The objectives of the project, this is what you're hoping to get out of the research. You talk about your target or sample participants. You include your interview guide or your usability testing script. Then, it's really helpful for people if you're able to give an approximate timelines. For example, this research, from recruiting participants all the way to the end of analyzing the results, will take about four or five weeks, if we're lucky. That's an overview, but a little bit more in-depth of what a research plan actually consists of and why we actually write research plans. I'm going to cut up the videos and go through each part on its own, so we'll go through each section. As we go through each section, you'll be able to fill out your own user research plan based on the example project that I gave, which is helping people reach their goals, or your own project. 4. Research Methodologies : So in this video, we're going to talk about what research methodology you should use for your project. So you have your idea, you're super excited to do research and you're starting to create your user research plan. And then you realize, oh, there's a lot of different methodologies. So as you have for your research methodology chart, you can look over and see all the different research methodologies there are to use. But for this class we're going to focus on either than Generative research that we talked about before or we're going to focus on Usability testing. So as I mentioned, Generative research is really those one-on-one deep conversations that you have with your users in which you uncover things like their needs, their goals, their tasks, and they're different pinpoints. This really helps you answer the why behind their actions and their behaviors and their thoughts and opinions. As I also mentioned, Usability testing is asking your audience to actually perform tasks on a product such as an app or a website. So again, you're focusing on effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. So how fast somebody can complete a given task if they can even complete it. Also, how good they thought the design and the experience towards of the app. Those are the two methodologies we're going to focus on for this course. So how do you choose? The most important thing to look at is what stage is your product at? So if your product is in the beginning stages, so whether that's an idea or a concept, or even maybe some sketches that you might have and you're not entirely sure about your customers and the direction that your product is going into, or the direction that your product will be going in. It's super great to start with Generative research. And this will give you a holistic picture of your customers. How they think about your idea, how they might use your product and might give you some really, really great information and ideas on how to actually design or help somebody else design your product. On the flip side, if you already have a product and you're interested in evaluating how that product is performing and what users actually think of an already existing product. A great tool to use is Evaluative research. So this is again, asking people to perform tasks on your product. So if you're an e-commerce or a shopping app, you might ask people, Hey, how would you buy a shirt or how would you even add that to your cart? So this is assessing the most important tasks that users would be performing on your app. And this is super important in understanding if people can actually perform those tasks. If it's easy for them, difficult for them, or they just get completely lost. And what they actually think about the experience going all the way through. The great thing is you can always do both. And I highly recommend doing both. So for example, even if you have an existing product already, that doesn't mean that you shouldn't be doing Generative research. In fact, it's really great to do Generative research all the time as much as you can in order to continuously understand your customers and what their day-to-day life is. And this can help with things like persona generation and customer journey maps, which can really help take a company or a product to the next level. And even if you don't have 100 percent coded website or app or something that's fully functional. You can still do Usability testing on paper prototypes, wire frames, or more interactive prototypes. So there's no excuse to not do both of these types of research. But sometimes it's better to focus on Generative research if you're super, super early in and Evaluative research if you do have an existing app that you are very interested in evaluating. Now, that we know the different methodologies and which ones to use. So for example, for your product, whether you're using Generative research or Evaluative research or both, which is great. Now, that we have that information, we should definitely get started on actually creating our user research plan. 5. Defining Background and Objectives: I have broken the research plan down into a few different sections. For this particular video, we're going to be focusing on defining the background and defining objectives. As we know, user research plan is a great way to get everybody on the same page about why we're doing the research project, the methodologies that we're using, the participants that we're talking to, the interview guide and also the approximate timeline. This is a great time for you to actually bring up and start thinking about your own project or the example project that I put in the text below. I would love it if you could open up the user research plan resource that I put for you, it's going to have a good amount of information under each section, but this will give you a skeleton in which you can fill out the information under each section as we go through the videos. Starting it off, what is the project background? This portion of the research plan, will talk about the actual project that we're going to be running and we'll be focusing on and will also answer. Why is it important to run this particular research project? Why are you doing this? Or why does the company want to do this? Do they think that there are some problems with usability or do analytic show problems with usability? Or is it something as simple as we've never really talked to our users before? This is a great opportunity for us to actually understand them. To make sure that we're making the right decisions or figure out better decisions that we can be making. This is really just the why behind the research project and the initiative. Then you can just go into some very high level expected outcomes. We just really wanted to talk to our users in order to make better decisions, may be creates some personas, creates some customer journey maps. But really to make sure that we're going in the right direction, in terms of satisfying our users. Writing the background some key points on how to do that. What's the problem you are trying to understand better? Or are you just trying to understand your users better? Why are you doing this research project? What are you trying to uncover with your research? What are some expected outcomes that you have? That really makes up the entirety of the research project background. It doesn't have to be long. As I mentioned, there's a more concrete example in the research plan examples. That's a great place to look, but it should be about a paragraph. Then we can move on to what our user research plan objectives. These are super important. You want to make sure that you define your objectives in the beginning of your research project. Because these objectives really drive all aspects of the project. If you don't know what information you're trying to actually get from your study and what goals you're trying to achieve with your project. It will be really difficult to stay on track and keep your projects structured. They help us choose the best methodologies and then also help choose the best participants that we're actually going to be talking to. Who we should be talking to in order to get to these objectives? Because if you want to understand how people are best using your particular product, it's a pretty good idea to make sure that you're talking to people who actually use your product. Those research objectives can really help on a few different levels. They usually fall into one of four categories. Understanding users thoughts, needs, and perceptions, exploring new ideas and innovations, improving the current experience and evaluating the performance of a current product. As you can see, by defining these objectives and we can choose the best methodologies. If you're just trying to understand users thoughts, needs and perceptions, or exploring new and innovative ideas, you're going to want to choose something like generative research. Those one-on-one interviews. But if you're looking to improve the current experience or evaluate the performance of a current product, you're going to want to choose something like usability testing. How do you write research objectives? These are pretty tough and they might take a few different tries in order to perfect them. But generally for this project in particular, you should have about three research objectives. Once you get to a bunch of different ones, it will be really hard to write an interview guide and really hard to answer or get to all of those goals in one research project. They should be based off the following, a question you're trying to uncover, a hypothesis you're trying to validate or disprove, or a current flow you are trying to understand better. For example, the last one, a current flow you're trying to understand better. An objective might be for a project. We're trying to understand how people are using the checkout flow in our app. We're trying to understand pain points that people are having while they're checking out in our app. That's a totally valid objective and something that can drive the project forward. By the end of the project, you will be able to answer what the pain points are that people are having when they're checking out in your app. Definitely keep the following in mind. Start writing your objectives with the project background in mind, like what's the main purpose of the project? Then actually define your objectives. Refine and specify your objectives until they are actually achievable. You're not going to be able to fix in an entire product in one go around, make sure that they're specific enough so by the time you talk to seven different people, you'll be able to uncover and understand better how to reach that objective. As I mentioned before, understanding the pain points of a checkout flow in an app. After I talked to seven people, I'll be able to cite some of those pain points and maybe come up with some solutions. Keep your expected outcome in mind. This is like, hey, I would like to really improve the checkout flow. That's why we're doing this so that we can improve conversion rates on our app. That include action verbs that are specific enough to be measured and then present them in a brief and concise sentence. Now is a great time to brainstorm some objectives using the following questions. What are you trying to learn from your users? What do you assume your users are thinking or feeling? Maybe, what do you think they're having problems with? That might be a hypothesis that you're trying to figure out is right or wrong. Then finally, what are some outcomes you expect from the research? Take some time now to write that project background as well as your objectives and then we'll move on to the next steps. 6. Choosing Participants: This quick video will be based off, of choosing your target or sample participants. As part of the research plan, it's really important to put who you're going to be talking to, and a little bit about why you're going to be talking to those particular participants. As we defined before, the project background and the project objectives, both of those help us determine who we're going to be talking to. What is a target or sample of participants? Your sample of participants consists of the groups of users you're looking to include in your research project. Who do you want to talk to for your research. Then the objectives and the background of your research will really, really help in terms of you understanding who you should be talking to. In order to define the sample, you really want to look at who uses or will use your product. If you're thinking from a standpoint of generative research, then you might not have a product right now. Who do you think will be using your app or your website or your service. One great way to define this, is look at competitors and their target market. Because you're probably going to be targeting the same participants that your competitors have. That's a really great way for you to define who you are going to talk to without having an actual app that has that data. If you do have an app, and you do have access to that data of your users, definitely talk to them. If you're looking to evaluate how people are currently responding to your app or how people are currently using your app. It's really great to talk to users. If you're looking for maybe some new features to test out. Also, really important to talk to your users. In addition to talking to people who already use your app, you could talk to people who don't use your app in terms of seeing if there's something that's missing and why they're not using your app. Again, just to make it easy, let's stick with the e-commerce app. Buying clothes online. You could talk to people who are maybe using your competitors and not using your app. Or, you could talk to people who are using neither. You can ask them, hey, how do you buy clothes online? Do you buy clothes online? If they don't buy clothes online, maybe they're not the best people to talk to, but if they do and they're using your competitor, it might be really interesting to understand why they're using your competitor, and what their opinions are on that competitor, and on their experience. It's great to talk to both the people who use your app. so current users as well as people who might not use your app or might use a competitors app, you also want to maybe make sure there's a demographic mix, depends on your project, but a mix of gender, location, maybe income, and age is pretty important to make sure that you get more diverse amount of participants. Then you also want to define if the research sessions will be conducted in person, remotely, or both methods. Generally in-person conversations are the best. Can't always do that. You can also call somebody over the phone, or use video conferencing software. That's something that I use all the time when I talk to participants who are very far away. This helps get that demographic mix as well. Then finally, what devices will their research sessions actually be conducted on? Are you using a phone, a computer? This comes in handy in terms of usability testing. Are you testing on a mobile device, or are you testing something on a desktop, or a laptop, or a tablet? This just gives you an understanding of who you are going to be wanting to talk to, and the types of people you that you're going to recruit for your research projects. 7. Generative Interview Script: This video, we'll be focusing on how to create discussion guide for generative research. So if you're just focusing on usability testing for your project, I recommend skipping this for now, but definitely coming back when you're going to be doing that generative research. But, I did split them up into two different videos because it was a little bit too much to put into one video. As we have discussed, we have gone through the different parts of a user research plan. So far we've decided on our research methodology, If you're listening to this, it's generative research. We have written our project background, objectives of the project, and decided on target and sample participants. Now, we are going to tackle the user research interview guide. So what is this? First and foremost, it is a guide to a conversation, It is not necessarily a script, so you're not going to have like 20 questions boom, boom, boom interview style. I know I say it's an interview guide, but it is meant to have more open-ended conversations and focus on a list of topics that you want to bring up instead of questions. For example, if we have an E-commerce app in which people can shop at, and we're trying to do some generative research on there, some of the topics that we might bring up in an interview guide are asking them things like, how are you using the app? Bring me through how you use the app, tell me about your last experience with the app, or explain a time you had a problem with the app, or another [inaudible] is like walk me through how you used to competing app, so a competitor for us. Then you really just want to use those like big, open-ended questions so that you can get your users to actually tell you stories instead of sitting across from them and having like a job interview because sometimes that's what these can feel like. Again, it's a guide not a script. That can be very difficult at first, but in the research plan example, I do list out different ways of asking questions and framing questions. So an interview guide [inaudible] itself includes three different parts. I like to break it down in three different parts; The introduction, the questions, which is like the topics, and the wrap-up. Introduction is pretty straightforward, easy to write. You'll just be introducing yourself and your company. Always thank participants for participating even before they participate. It's nice to start our conversation by thanking somebody for their time and for coming into your office or picking up the phone when you call them. Also telling them how much you value their feedback is really important, giving a high-level explanation of what will take place. I'm just going to be asking you a few questions. No right or wrong answers, just about your experience and understanding a little bit more about you. Then always remember to ask them for permission to record the session. It's much easier to remember things when you have an actual recording of what happened. So I highly recommend recording all user research sessions if you get the permission from the participant. Just saw you guys have some examples, something that I usually say is this session should take about x amount of minutes, but please let me know if you need to stop anytime or take a break. There are no right or wrong answers. That's like my favorite line, everybody makes fun of me for it. Then another thing that I throw in there is like, your answers aren't going to hurt anybody's feelings, even if we are talking about my company's product, all answers are going to be completely anonymous and confidential and we're really looking for honest feedback. So you won't hurt anybody's feelings if you don't like things. Now, we get into the question portion. We wrote the introduction, now questions. It can be kind of tough to write questions and I do have some examples in the user research plan. Example that I posted for you guys. But first and foremost, be wary of priming users by asking leading questions. Try not to ask things that will lead them towards searching answers, so do you like this? Try not to use those kinds of words because people can feel pressured to say yes or no. Also try not to ask about future behavior like, would you do this in the future? Would you go to the gym? A lot of people would say that they would go to the gym, but that might not actually be the case. So you really want to be focusing on past behavior and past experiences. Then be very careful with asking two questions at once; would you use this app and how often would you use it because people can really focus on one question at a time. Just an example, kind of all the different tips that I just went over. Don't ask: "How much do you like cheeseburgers and how many times do you plan to eat them every week?" This is leading, talks about future behavior and has two questions in one. Instead; What do you think about cheeseburgers and in the past three months, have you eaten any cheeseburgers? If so, how many? That way you frame the question in a much different way and take away some of that bias and the priming. Another method that I use is the TEDW approach. TEDW stands for: T, tell me, E, explain, D, describe, W, walk me through. This leads to writing very, very open-ended questions and it's more along the lines of the topics instead of those interview questions. So tell me more about X or explain what you mean by what you just said, describe what you are feeling, walk me through how you did x, y, or z. Then some additional sample questions as I mentioned, a lot of these are based of the TEDW approach. Then finally, how to write a wrap-up up.This seems much easier compared to writing the questions.Thank the participant, talk about any compensations such as money or gift cards and any potential follow-up in the future. Then finally ask the participant if they have any questions for you, and there you go. You have written your interview guide and completed your user research plan. So now you are ready to go out and conduct your own user research interviews. 8. Usability Test Script: In this video, we're going to be focusing primarily on how to create a usability testing interview script. If you're looking to do generative research, the video right above this one will give you a better understanding of a generative research interview guide. This one is going to be focusing on usability testing in particular. As we have talked about in terms of the user research plan, we have covered the different research methodologies that we are going to be using: the project background, the objectives, our target sample participants. Now we can dive into actually writing a usability test script. As I've mentioned before, a usability test is when you ask your target audience to use parts or features of your product or service through a series of tasks in order to assess a design's effectiveness. I know that I have also mentioned efficiency and satisfaction when it comes to usability testing. What you're really trying to do is ask the participant to use your app. What the most important things or tasks they would be doing on your app, asked them to do them and just watch them. A usability test can measure the three different things we touched upon before. Effectiveness. This is whether or not somebody can actually complete a task. Efficiency is how quickly they can complete the task. If it's supposed to be a super easy task, they should be able to complete it pretty fast. Then finally, satisfaction is how they feel about completing the task, how the flow was, how the experience was of that task. What is a usability test script? This is similar to what I discussed above in terms of an interview guide. It's basically a cheat sheet which lists the different questions and tasks you will ask during the usability test. This is a really great way to list out questions that you would want to ask during the test so that you don't forget any. It also makes it a little bit more natural when you're asking a flow of questions. If you have an entire checkout or add-to-cart and then checkout flow, it helps to structure those questions in a way in which the user would naturally use the product. Then also, in order to actually observe the participants using your app, you have to give them something to do. If you just say, "Hey, how did you used my app?" While that might work and while that's a strategy of generative research, this allows you to dig a little bit deeper into certain tasks that they're doing more frequently than others or certain areas you think you can improve in. Essentially, this will give you a really nice guide in terms of how to conduct the usability test. I do have some more concrete examples and the usability test example resource that I put up. That can give you a little bit more of a concrete idea of what we're talking about. But in general, usability test scripts are pretty much the same and they include four basic things. The metrics that you are testing, an introduction, the actual questions and tasks, and then finally, a wrap up. What are some metrics? This is a little bit of quantitative data, but it's primarily thought of as usability testing data. But the three top metrics that we can use for this particular course is task success. This is whether or not somebody successfully completed a task. It's a basic yes or no. Did somebody complete it? Yes. Did they not? No. Then a second one is time-on-task, and this is how much time it takes them to complete a task. If you ask somebody, "Hey, could you add a red shirt to your cart? " You would start timing them and you would see how long it takes them to find the shirt, find the add to cart button and then be done with the task. The final metric we can look at is the number of errors. This is the number of times a user makes a mistake during a task. If you ask them to add something to the cart and they go in a few different directions that aren't adding the shirt to the cart, you can count these as errors. Now that we got through some of the metrics, we can go on to how to write an introduction. It's pretty basic and easy. You're just going to introduce yourself, the company, thank the participants for participating in advance and how much you value their feedback. Give a high level explanation of what is to come, so you're going to ask them some basic tasks. Then finally, always ask them for permission to record the session because it's a lot easier for you to remember what happened if you have a concrete recording. Some examples that I'd like to use: this session is only going to take 30 minutes, but if you need a break or you want to stop before then just let me know; there are no right or wrong answers; and most importantly, you're not going to hurt anybody's feelings if you give feedback. We're in this to learn and we really appreciate honesty. Writing tasks. Basically, tasks are a list of goals users want to accomplish with the product. You turn these goals into actionable task scenarios. If you have an e-commerce app where people can buy clothing, a goal is for people to buy a shirt or purchase boots or buy sunglasses. You want to turn these goals into actionable tasks. Again, make the task actionable, assure users can complete the task. Make sure that these things are completable and you're not asking them to do something crazy. This includes like, if they're checking out and they have to sign into PayPal. They might not have a PayPal account. That's just something to keep in mind. Then always try to avoid giving clues are helping users, even if they're struggling. Then I wanted to give you guys some sample tasks because this can be a little bit tough to understand and come up with. There are also sample tasks on the research plan resource I posted. Looking at these, a user goal is browsing product offerings and purchasing an item. Poor task is purchase a pair of orange Nike running shoes. A better task would be buy a pair of shoes for less than $40. Why? This just gives the user more of an idea of what they're looking for. If you just you're like any pair of orange shoes, it may take them a while because they might want to scroll through them and look at them. But this gives a little bit more structure to the task. User goal; book a cruise. Your parents 30th wedding anniversary is coming up this summer and you want to surprise them with your gift. Use, there's a bunch of different sites, but kayak.com to book them a week long Caribbean cruise. This is an entire scenario in which you could actually walk through and watch your users go through booking the entire cruise. Another great scenario for adding a new payment method, and this is a little bit smaller than an entire booking a cruise flow. Imagine that you recently changed credit cards. Open up your app in your phone and add your new card. This app could be your app that you're looking to understand. They would open it and show you how they would put a new credit card in. Those are some examples of how to write some tasks. Again, there are more examples on the resource that I posted for you guys, but really you just want to take the most important things that users are trying to do in your app and turn them into tasks. If something is very important for you in terms of people signing up for an email newsletter, ask them to find how they would do something like that. "How would you sign up for our newsletter?" Then they can go about doing that and showing you the flow that they go through. Finally, how to write a wrap-up. This is much easier than writing tasks, in three simple steps. Thank the participants again, talk about any compensation such as money or gift-cards and any potential follow-up research questions you might have. Then allow them to ask you questions or see if they have any lingering thoughts on the product. Now you have completed an entire research plan and you can go out and conduct all the usability tests you can. 9. Conclusion: Thank you guys so much for being a part of this class and learning how to create your own user research plan. As we know, we went through setting objectives, defining project background, choosing the best participants, deciding on research methodologies, and finally, crafting an interview guide. Now that you have all of that done, you can actually go out and conduct your research sessions. Just some quick reminders, don't forget to take notes. It's easy to forget, especially when you're sitting in front of somebody for the first time. But try not to forget to take notes. More importantly than that, record the sessions. Get their permission, of course. But whether that's recording a screen or recording using an audio device, it doesn't matter, but it's a lot easier to go back and re-listen to things then try to remember them. Two most important things; taking notes and recording the actual interviews. Then after that, share these insights with the team. It's super important to show people the research that you did and to use this to make better decisions moving forward. Again, thank you guys so much. Please post any questions, comments, concerns, drafts, final projects in the workspace. I would love to see them. I will try to respond to as many questions and as many drafts as I possibly can, but I'm super excited for you guys to start doing your own user research and to bring your ideas into the world in order to make people's lives easier. Thanks again and I'll see you guys soon.