Intro to Cinema 4D Vol. 3: Fun Factory | Aaron Bartlett | Skillshare

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Intro to Cinema 4D Vol. 3: Fun Factory

teacher avatar Aaron Bartlett, Motion/Graphic Designer

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Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 57m)
    • 1. Introduction

      0:34
    • 2. Setting the Stage

      9:59
    • 3. Building a Pipe

      11:28
    • 4. Conveyor Belt

      9:10
    • 5. Slide, Press & Push

      8:07
    • 6. Making the Cart

      11:37
    • 7. The Claw!

      4:52
    • 8. Building ANOTHER Pipe

      7:12
    • 9. Adding Textures

      3:29
    • 10. Lighting & Render Settings

      6:52
    • 11. Animation!

      39:55
    • 12. Final Renders

      2:49
    • 13. Animation Congratulation

      0:27
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About This Class

Welcome to lesson 3 in my Intro to Cinema 4D series! This time we'll build an animated factory! We'll model the whole thing from scratch, texture, light and animate it. If you’ve never worked with the software before, I’d recommend checking out my first Intro to Cinema 4D class and then moving on to this one. If you’re ready to build your own factory then let’s get started!

Meet Your Teacher

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Aaron Bartlett

Motion/Graphic Designer

Teacher

I'm designer who works in LA and I've spent much of my career in entertainment marketing creating promos and ads for TV, movies and video games. I've got a fairly broad background in a variety of media. I love cartoons and comics books.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: One of the most fun things and there is to do in 3D is animation. In this lesson, we're going to build a tiny factory that is processing material in an infinite loop, will build the scene from scratch, texture, and light it and then animate. You can create this scene in the full version of Cinema 4D or Cinema 4D Lite, which is included with your Adobe CC subscription. When you're done, you'll have a video all set to post the social media ready when you are, let's get started. 2. Setting the Stage: Okay, so the first thing that I want to do before we get started is show you what we're going to be making. So we have this whole factory set up a ball drop into this tube. This slide will move along. The ball will turn into a coin that'll pop out, land on this conveyor belt, move along the belt, fall down this slide. Pop over here, land on this block where this press will come down and smash it and turn it into a box shape. Then this will push it off where it will land in the cart. Cart will go to the end of the track and then flip up and throw the box onto this x. And then the chloride will come down and grab it, pull it off frame, come back, and that will reset the whole loop. Let's see what that looks like. So as I mentioned, we're going to be able to do this lesson in cinema 4D light as well as the full version. If you're using Cinema 4D Lite, there's going to be at least one place where we're just going to skip a step since it's a little too complicated to pull off. But you will be able to do the vast majority of this lesson. So just in case it's new to you to use Cinema 4D Lite, you need to start up Adobe After Effects. Come up to File, new Maxon Cinema 4D file. Then when you click that, it will launch Cinema 4D Lite and it will drop your new Cinema 4D file into your project in After Effects. We'll work our way through. Then when you're done, you'll save that project and come back to after effects where it'll get treated like a video asset and we can render it out from there. Otherwise, if you're using the full version, just start Cinema 4D up. As we go along. I do want to let you know that you have the freedom to customize just about anything in this setup. But I've planned out all the measurements and placements fairly carefully. So I'm going to be throwing a lot of specific numbers at you, but that's just to make sure that everything lines up properly in our final. So the first thing I'm gonna do is create a cube that's going to be our floor. I'm going to change the height to 10. And I'm going to turn on fill it and knock that down to one centimeter. Now part of what makes this thing look interesting is that we're using what's called an isometric camera. That just gives us kind of a cool looking but somewhat unnatural, perfect geometric view. So we're going to make a new camera by clicking here. I'm going to drag this to the bottom. Click this little icon so that the view port will be displaying the camera. And then down here, the projection, I'm going to change it from perspective all the way down here to isometric. Now, isometric is a little strange because the direction of cameras pointing isn't exactly lining up with what we're seeing. So I'm going to zoom out. I can either do that by grabbing here and clicking and dragging, or I can hold down my alt key and my right-click. Another thing I'd need to do right now is changed the project Render Settings. I'm going to render this out to a square format, so it'll be good to post on social media. So if I hit Control or Command B, I'll see my render settings. It defaults to an HD resolution. I'm actually going to change it to 1080. By 1080, which is a good size for social media. Now I'm going to zoom in a bit so that this fits pretty well in my render area. I'd like this to be mathematically perfect. So with the cameras selected, I'm gonna come down here and change my position on the x and the z to 85. That way I know it's centered. As we go along, I'm going to try to name and organize everything so that we don't get confused about what's what. So I'm going to change the name of this cube to floor. Then I'm going to Control or Command, click and drag. To duplicate it. I'm going to rename this one round. Now I'm going to use a cloner to make duplicates of this. We'll be using a lot of cloners in this exercise. And it's worth noting that Cinema 4D light does not have a cloner. So I'm going to show you what tools to use in its absence. But first let's show how the cloner works. I'm going to hold down alter option on a Mac and then click the cloner button. Non-goal these duplicates. Then the ground, I'm going to change the measurements. So I'm going to make this much smaller, 50 by 50 by 50. But I'm going to change the radius to 2.5 so they're more rounded. Then I'm going to click the cloner object and change it on the x and z so that we have 20 copies. And we will space them out 50 centimeters, so they're spaced evenly. Now if I hit Control or Command R and get a quick render of the way things look, which obviously isn't that different. I think it would be nice if there was just a little bit of extra detail in between the tiles. So I'm gonna go back to my ground box and actually change it to 49 by 49. I will also rename that ground. Now how do we do this same function and light? I'm going to grab this ground box. Control, click and drag. I'm going to turn these two off so I don't see them. In fact, I'll turn the floor off as well. Now, I'm going to go up to Tools, duplicate. This is just a manual duplication process. It's not quite as cool because it's not dynamic, but it will let us do what we need to do. So I want 19 copies of this, so that I'll end up with 20. And I want to do a linear change. And I'm only going to change it in position. I don't want Y to change, so I'll put that at 0 and I'm going to change the x 250 centimeters, then I'll hit apply. And that worked. I'd like to see my other views. So I'm going to use my middle mouse button to click in the middle of this window. Alternatively, you can click this little icon in the corner to switch between being full screen on a window. If you don't have a middle mouse button, I'll come over here to the top holding alter option and my middle mouse button. And I can scroll over or I can use this icon. Just because I'm not really interested in seeing my camera. I'm gonna go ahead and click this little dot twice to turn it red. That way I won't be able to see it. These two dots determine whether something displays or renders. If the dot is gray, It's unaffected. If it's red, that means it won't be there. Green. That means it'll be forced on even if it's parents and under something that's red. Now a camera doesn't render, so it doesn't really matter what the bottom one looks like. But for normal items like the floor visibility rendering, I can also hold down alter option when I click these and it will toggle both at the same time. So now if I click my copies, you can see that I've got those 19 plus the original. Each one has a copy of the original. So I'm actually going to delete these and do it again. I'll click around. If I look up here, I can still see that my duplicate tool is in the list. Instead of making copies, I want to make instances that just applied. Now if I open this up, each one of these is an instance object that's referencing the original. So that way, if I want to change something like say the size of this, it will affect all of them. So I'll just move this in here with the rest of the group. I'll select my null, go back to my duplicate key. And this time, instead of moving 50 on the x, I'm going to be 50 on the Z. Hit Apply. Now I've got a big grin. And each of these is an instance as well. So I'm going to close that down, close this down. The only other thing I need is for all of these to be centered. So I'll select both. My pivot point is way off center. So I'm just going to organize little bit. I'm going to select everything underneath this null, but not the null. And then change its x value to 0. And you'll notice it was at 475. So I'm going to change the Z value to minus 475. Now if I hit H to fit everything centered, now I'm going to click to make a new null. I'm going to call it light. And then I'm going to grab these two and drag them under it. And you can see I've got the same setup. I'm going to close this down, hold down alter option. Click this twice to turn it off, and I'll turn the others back on. So now we're going to create the ball that will drop in. Click on our primitives, go to Sphere, going to set the radius to eight centimeters. I'm also going to move it over here in the corner. There are a few points. We're going to be using some exact measurements just to keep things organized. So I want this to be on 75 minus 75. Hit Enter to apply, or click this button. Then I'm just going to drag it up. We'll be animating these later, but for now I'm just positioning of some will be able to see where they are. Going to rename this one ball. Now we'll build the pipe. 3. Building a Pipe: So first we need to create a spline that the pipe is going to move along. We'll come in here to our vector objects and grab a rectangle and then change it to a 100 by 60. I'm going to turn on rounding and change that to 25. Move this up so I can see it. It s zoom in. I'm going to hit C to convert it so it won't be dynamic anymore. I'll click this to go into point mode. And then I'll uncheck closed spline so that it's open. And I can see over here that it opened on the wrong side because I'd like it to be opened over here. So I'm going to click this right-click and then say point order suffers point. So now my gaps on the opposite side, I'll hit 0 for my selection tool. I'm going to delete these points and this one as well. So now I've got the curve that the pipeline system, I'm going to rename this pipe spline. Go back to my model mode. I'd like to center my axis just for the heck of it. So I'm willing to go to Mesh Axis, Center Axis two. Now it's in the middle. I'm going to slide this over, so it's lining up roughly the center of this tile. Move it up a bit. And then o on my z value to be exactly minus 75. I'm going to grab my floor and then hit S swelling over this window to zoom to the floor area. In fact, I'm going to change this toggle to read on my ground. That way I won't see it in the viewport, but it will still render. Next, we're going to create the pipe. We're going to show you two different methods, one for the full version and one for light full version. First, we're going to come in here and make a new tube object. I'm going to rename this and call it pipe. I'm going to make my inner radius eight, my outer radius 10. My rotation segments. I'm going to kick up to 90 so that it's very round 19. I just like picking a number that I know works well and rotations, it's somewhat arbitrary. You just want to make sure it's high enough. Change the height to 75. And normally I wouldn't worry about height segments, but because this is going to get wrapped around that spline, I'm going to need more polygons to make it a smooth transition. So the height segments, I'm going to kick up to 36 and they'll turn on fill it. So now I've got a smooth, rounded edge tube. So I'm going to come up here to my deformers. I'm going to choose spline ramp and I'm going to hold down Shift while I've got the tube selected. That will make it a child of the pipe, which means it will affect it. Spline ramp does kinda what it sounds like. It wraps things around a spline. So I need a spline in this field for it to work. So I'm gonna grab my pipe spine and drag it in here. And just like that, it's wrapped around, but it's facing the wrong direction. So we're going to click the pipe instead of plus y, I'm going to change it to plus x. Now I've got my pipe shape. If you're using semaphore D light, we're going to use some other functions. So I'm going to create a new circle. I'm going to set the radius to 10. I'm going to select my pipe spline. Then I'm going to come in here to get a sweep. But I'm also going to hold down control or command, which will put my sweep into the same spot as the spline is a move that to the top. I'm also going to grab my pipe spline and make an instance, which again is just a copy. We can see it's referencing it. So I'll put the circle into the sweep and then I will put these spline instance under that in a sweep. Now I've got something closer to my pipe. Now I'm going to duplicate this one on the bottom one, I'm going to change the circle to eight. Now I need to edit this spline so it's a little bit different. So if I click this instance and hit C, Now it's its own unique spline. And I go into point mode. I'm going to grab the top, move it up just slightly. I'm going to grab the end. Move it over just slightly because I needed it to be a little bit bigger. Now again, I'm going to grab my pipe spline. Go back to object mode. I'm going to click here, hold down Control or Command, and choose bool. Move out all the way to the top, grab a sweep, grab the other sweep, drag them both in. And I can see it's cutting a hole. It's set up to a subtract B. So this larger one is being cut out by the smaller one. The one last thing I'll do is grab the top larger one and go to CAPSA. And then I'm going to set the rounding size to one. And that way at least it'll be rounded on the outside edge. We can't do the same on the inside, but it looks pretty good. So I'll rename this pipe light. Close that down. I'll turn this off, turn this one back on. Now we need to make the spout. So I'm going to grab the pipe controller command, drag it to the top of the list, open it up and delete the spline ramp. Now this pipe, I want to go back to plus y. I can reset the height segments back to the default because I don't need so many. And to change the height down to 18, I'm actually going to use this one to line things up carefully again. So I'll set that to 75 by minus 75. Then I'm going to move it up. Wanna make sure I'm doing it just right so that it's touching there. And now I have a good point of reference to carefully move my pipe where I want it to be. So I'm going to grab my spline and slide it over. So this lines up. I'm going to rename this spout. Then I'm going to go into my deformers. If you're using light, you have way less, but on the ones you do have is taper. So we're going to hold down Shift. And then that's going to pop up as a child of the spout and it's got automatically size it to the spout, which you can see from these dimensions. I'm going to change the strength up to 50. Wrong direction. We will change it to minus 50. And I don't want it to be curves, so I'm going to turn the curvature all the way down to 0. Now I've got my spout. Now I want to make some support. So this thing is anchored off screen. So I'm going to Control or Command drag the spout. And I'm going to delete the taper. And I'll call this ring. I'm going to change the height to five. And I want it to fit around the outside. So I'm going to bump each of these up to centimeters. Then I will slide it down. And I'm going to hold down Control or Command and come up here and make a cylinder. Going to change it to plus x. By the way, if you keep your eye on the reference that's in the corner of each of these panels. You can always tell which direction is which in terms of axes. And to turn the radius all the way down to actually let's go to 1.5. I'm going to slide it all the way over. Now, I'll make this a child of the ring. Here's another moment where we can use a cloner or not. If you're doing light once you've built this first section, just make a copy of it by controller command dragging or copying and pasting and then manually positioning and at the other end of the tube and rotating it around. So the cloner method, I'm going to grab the ring, hold down Alt or Option. Click the cloner. I'm going to change it from a grid array to an object clone. And the object I want to clone to is the pipes wine. So I'm going to drag that in. I am going to change this to even startup count. I'm going to change the count down to two because that's all I need. And I'm going to uncheck loop. So now I've got them at both ends, which is where I want them to be, but the facing the wrong direction. So I'm going to go into my transform. I'm going to rotate them a 180 on the heading and 90 degrees on the pitch. Which is great, except I wanted to support to be pointing up. No need to make this too complicated. So I'm going to come back to my object. The only thing that I wanted to change is where the start and end is. So I didn't want it to go all the way. I'm just going to tweak these a little bit. And culture I going ten. So I'll change the end to 90. Then I'm going to just hit C on the cloner to convert it. So now I've got two different objects. I'm gonna grab this one. Hit R for rotate, click this circle, hold down Shift while I'm dragging. So it's in units of five, go up to a 180. So I'm going to rename this supports. And we just need one more element. So I'm going to select an individual ring, bring it up here, delete the cylinder. If I call this slide. And then I'm going to right-click, go to animation tags and add align to spline, similar to the spline ramp. This is going to align the object to a spline, which is you guessed it, the pipe spline. So I'll drag that into the spline path and now it's attached. Now if I drag this slider, you can see it moves along the pipe. But you'll also notice it's not rotating around the pipe like we would want. So I'll click tangential, and now it is doing that, but it's facing the wrong direction. So I'm going to click on my slide and change it from plus y, two plus z. Now if I go back to my line of spline, it's moving the right way. Now the interesting thing is you notice that it does snap because you can see the rotation change once it gets past a certain point. But since this object is perfectly symmetrical, doesn't really matter. So I'm going to move the slide down a little bit lower. But you know what, I don't like that it's sitting at this weird angle. So I'm actually going to go back to my supports and hit E for my move tool. And I'm just going to change their position a bit closer to the edges. Now I'll click back here and just move this up to a starting position. Now, I am going to grab everything that fits as part of this. I'm going to hit Alt or Option G, which will create a new null and parent everything underneath it. And I'm going to that to pipe. Now we'll build the conveyor belt. 4. Conveyor Belt: So to create the conveyor belt, first, we're going to make a couple of rectangles. I'm going to set the first one to two by 30. I'll turn on the rounding. Now I'm going to command or control click and drag this. And this one I'm going to change to be 75 by eight. With the rounding of four. I'm going to create a sweep object and drag these two in under it. I have a big disk instead of a conveyor belt, so they're in the wrong order. Now grab the sweep and move it up so I can see it. And I've got a bulb. I'm going to come over my front view so I can line this up. And I want to move it down here that the ball will come out of the pipe and then land on the conveyor belt. I'll change the Z to minus 75 to line it up with the pipe. Now we'll create the rollers. So I'll make a new oil tank. Going to change this to a radius of three, a height of 30. And now I'm going to put it in a cloner, which again we can't do in light, so we'll do the duplicate after we try this way. Holding down Alt or Option, click the corner. We'll make five, count on the x, change the Z back to one, set the distance to 16. Now, I want this to be centered inside of a conveyor belt. So something I can do is grab the corner, move it inside the sweep object, which obviously breaks it, but it's okay because we're going to move it back out. Then if I click this button, which is reset transform, it aligns everything to that conveyor belt. Alternatively, I could have just typed zeros into all these fields. But as you can see, using this button is faster since I had it positioned under a parent object that was exactly where I wanted it to be. So I'll pull that back out. Now. The other thing is my rollers are facing the wrong direction. So I'll grab oil tank and instead of plus y will change it to plus z. Now here we can see they're lined up nicely. So to repeat this process for light, I'm going to Control or Command drag this oil tank to make a duplicate. I'll go up to Tools. Duplicate. I would like for copies. I need it to move on the x. And just like the other one I wanted to move 16 centimeters. I'll hit Apply. Then I can grab this, bring it under the null, hit E for my move tool. And then drag this over to center it. So we'll rename some of these objects. This is vote going to turn this off. But I'll call it rollers light. I'll turn these back on. Call it rollers. Now we'll make the legs to hold it up. I'm gonna hold down Control or Command, keep this in the same spot. And then I'm going to make a new rectangle and change the orientation on this one to z, y. Change this to 40 by 100. Turn on the rounding and set that to five. Now my side view, I'm going to move this down and I'll zoom in a bit to make it easier to see. Because I want the top part of that spline to be in the middle of the roller. I'm going to hold down control or command again. Come in here, make a circle. I'm going to change the radius of the circle to 1.5. And then I'm going to make a sweep object. And I'll drag these two underneath it. Now I can see my legs are forming, but I also see it's really thin, which means the circle's oriented the wrong direction. So instead of z, Let's try x, y. And now the legs have some form to them. Now if you like, you can put this in a cloner or you could duplicate it. I'm just going to eyeball this one. So I'll grab my sweep and just slide it over. And then I'm going to hold down Control or commands on duplicating and make another copy that I will move over to the other roller. And I've got my legs. I'll select both sets. Then I'm going to hit Alt or Option G. To put them under a null and call them legs. Now on the next step, we're going to add richness to the conveyor belt that will help us to see it when it's moving. Unfortunately, trying to animate this in light is really tedious. So I think I'm just going to skip over it. But I will show you how to make the ridges so that at least they exist. Following the full version. First, we're going to start by making cube. I'm going to set the dimensions to 2.5 by eight by two. So very small. I'm going to put that inside a cloner object. Then I'm going to change the mode from grid array 2D object. And in this case I'm going to open up belt and grab the larger one. But I have to stay selected on the cloner. Click and drag. And then you can see those cubes got cloned onto the conveyor. Unfortunately, they're being distributed in an odd fashion. So I'm going to change the distribution from count to even. So now they're evenly spaced. I'm going to leave the counted 10 because I think that looks pretty good. And now I've just got some subtle texture that I will be able to animate later. I can do that by changing the offset here, which will let things move around. So to show you how to do this in light, I'm going to make myself a copy of this cube. I'll hide this temporarily. I'm gonna go back up to duplicate. Instead of linear, I'm going to say along spline. Now I have to select the spline, so I'll drag this m and the other one. I made ten. So that means I need nine copies. And then I'll hit Apply. Now this is a great time to show why instances are useful. And got all of these the same as this original Q, it's facing the wrong direction. So if I just change the measurements on this, they'll all change. Now, obviously, the y is the long measurement, and I need it to be the z. So we'll trade these last 2218. Now it's hard to see because of the texture. So I'm going to hit N. And you'll see we have a bunch of options for viewing changes. I'm going to hit B to add lines. And I can see that they are there and then hit Enter to change it back. I'll double-click here just to add a material. And I'll throw that on my original cube. Just wanted to check real quick to make sure I could see it. I can. So I'm gonna delete that and delete it from here since we don't need it right now. We've got our ridges. So I'll move this in here. Turn this on, rename it ridges. I'll rename this ridges. Light. Close that down. Turn it off. Now I'm going to grab all of these, hit Alt or Option G and rename that null. Now just for reference, we're going to add the coin shape that the ball will turn into when it comes out of the pipe. So I'm going to add a new cylinder. I'm going to change the radius to eight and the height to four. And the caps. I'll turn on fill it and set the radius to one. Switch back to my move tool. I'm going to move this up. We will animate it later. But for now I just wanted to sit over here as a visual reference. We'll call this 2. Now it's time to make the slide. 5. Slide, Press & Push: The first thing we'll need to make the slide is a profile object. So we'll come in here to our vector objects and choose profile, which is you can see, makes this sort of letter i shape. And you've got a bunch of options that will change the different sizes and sections of the shape. So for this one, instead of an H shape, we want a U-shape. So I'm going to change this to 15, 15, 15, and five. Then I'm going to move it over here so I can see it more clearly in a zoom in and move this up just because I want it to fit with the coin. That looks pretty good. But I think I'll make this just a little bit wider. So I have some more room. I'm going to hit S to zoom in close and I'll hit C to convert this into a normal spline. That way I can edit it. I'll click on this to change to point mode. I'm going to select all by hitting Control or Command a. Now I've got all my points. If I right-click, I can choose chamfer. Then if I click and drag, that'll let me round everything off a bit because I want to have rounded edges on my final slide. Now I'm going to open my pipe backup and grab my pipe spline. And then I'm going to Command or Control drag that up so that I have a copy. And I will call this slide spline. I'll switch back to my modeling mode and hit V for move. And I'm going to hit R for rotate and rotate this 90 degrees holding down Shift, so it snaps E for move. And I'm going to position it over here. Move it down so the top is right about here. But I'm going to need to do my sweep so that I can see more clearly what's happening. Okay, so I'm gonna hold down Control or Command, come up here and add a sweep. Then I'm going to move this beneath the profile and put the two of them into the sweep. And now I've got my sweep shape, but my slide is upside down. So I'm going to grab the profile. I'm gonna go into point mode, hit R, and rotate this thing a 180 degrees. Come back to the model. And I have a slide. So I'll grab my sweep, which I can see more clearly now. Move it over so that the coin will be able to fall off into it. In my sweep. Under caps, I'm going to add a little bit and Bevel. Try changing this for one. And I'll give it a two. Now I will continue editing this, but not until after I have some other objects to line it up with. I call this slide. And I'm going to add another cube and call this block. I'm going to change the size to 50, 25, 50. Turn on, fill it and leave it at three. Then I'm going to move it over into this corner. Which means all want it to be minus 75 and positive 75. And I'll move it up so it's sitting on the surface. Now I can go back to my slide, grab the spline. I'm going to point mode, and I'm going to select the end. Slide this over, so it lines up with the edge of that. And then I'm going to grab everything. But the top point, which I realize is a little bit hard to see. So I'm going to turn off my belt and I'll turn off my slide. And you can see that I have everything selected except that top point. Turn this back on. Then I'm going to move it up so that this bottom part of the slide is flush with the top. I'll go back to model mode and wind belt back on. Now I'm going to need a few more cubes to make the press that's going to come down onto this block. So I will just Control or Command drag this and create more copies. The top part I'll call press, and change these values to 50 by eight by 50 with a radius of one. The next will be 40 by 25 by 40 with a radius of one. And the last will be 12 by 250 by 12 with a radius of one. Now I'm going to parent these two underneath the press and grabbed press, slide it up a bit so it's easier to see. I'm going to grab this one and slide it up so it's almost just barely touching inside. Then I will also grab the other and move both of them so that they're just sitting on the top of the next block. Now I'm going to select just this one. Go into my deformers, hold down shift and grab taper. Going to set the strength on this one to 50. Normally I'd have to take the curvature out, but since I don't have any subdivisions, It's not curving and lets my press and since everything's parented, I can just move the press block and the rest goes with it. Now I'm going to actually duplicate this. I'm going to delete my second blocks. I don't need it. I'm going to rename the top push, which I will change to 10 by 10 by 50. Then the other one I will change to 127 by seven. I'm going to move, push down so that it's just above the top of this block. I'm going to reset the y-value on this one to 0. And I'm going to slide it back. And I'll move the push block as well. So it's just a little bit behind where the main block is. So now the coin can come down the slide, land on the block, pressed, and then get pushed off. When it is pressed, it will turn into a cube. So I'll add just one more. And I'm going to change the values on this one to 15 by three by 15 with a fill it. One. Apparent this under the block. Reset it and then just slide it up so I can see it. Rename this box. And again, that's just sitting there for now. It'll get animated later. And now we can make our cart. 6. Making the Cart: I'm going to show you two methods for making the first section of the cart. You can do either one in the full version, but if you're doing light will need to do the second version. So first we will create some new rectangles. The first one, I'm going to change to x, z, and then I am going to change the dimensions to 50 by 35. Control command drag to make a duplicate, this one will be 40 by 25. Now I'm going to select these and move them up so that we can see them. Essentially what I'm gonna do is use this smaller one to cut a hole on the bigger one. And then this rectangle loop will be extruded and that will create the main part of our cart. There's actually two different ways we can do this. One is destructive and one is not. The non-destructive way is if I add a spline mask, I can drag these two under it. And I can see that that created something weird. So if I click up here, it's saying the axis that it's joining these two objects along is along the z-axis. I wanted to be along the y-axis. So I'll change it to x, z. And now it's going the right direction. But the middle one just disappeared, which is because I'm using the wrong mode instead of union, I want to say a subtract B. Just kidding. I meant BY subtract a, alternatively, I could have left it there and just change the order. But now I know that it's doing what I need. Just to show you, I'll make a duplicate of those two rectangles, the old one off. Now if I come in here to my vector menu, I've got some functions that are similar to what you would find an illustrator that can subtract union and intersect different ways of merging them together, which you can judge by the icons. So in order to use those, I'm going to hit C to convert both of these into editable splines. Then I come up here and choose spline subtract. Now they'd been merged into one. If I hold down Alt or Option and then choose extrude, it, extrudes my shape. I'm going to actually delete this one and just keep my spline mask because it's something that I can still edit. So I'm gonna choose that same thing. Hold down, alter option, click Extrude. Now my extrude, I will move over here so I can see it again. Keeping everything on 75 so they're on lines. Then I'm going to come back to object and change my offset to 15. So that was the first method that will work in the full version. Now here's a second method that you can use in the full version instead if you like, but you will definitely need to use if you're doing this in Cinema 4D Lite. So I'll turn this off and I need to create two new cubes. So the first one, I want to be the same dimensions is this, which is 50 by 35. So I will change that. But of course this isn't facing the same direction as those rectangles were. So actually my z value needs to be 35. I'll move this over to 75 as well. Then I'm gonna make a duplicate of this, set it to 50 by 25. Now the other one, when I extruded it was 15 centimeters tall. So my main cube also needs to be 15 centimeters tall. And then grab both of these and move them up so that I can see them. So now we're gonna do a bool to cut this center box out of the outer box. At a bool. Drag these two in defaults to a, subtract B. And I've got the same shape. I'll just call this cart light. And I'll turn that off. And we'll call this guy card frame. Turn it back on. Now I'm going to click here, Control or Command click to make a new tube. This tube is going to be 45 by two, by 30. Then I'm just going to move it up so it's inside the base. So there's the bottom port on my car. But I'd also like my cart to be rounded. So I'm going to choose the extrude, go to caps. I'm going to set the size to two. If I were to go back into my light version, I can't do exactly the same thing. But on the larger cube, I can turn on fill it. And at least the outer edges will be rounded off. Noticing the shading looks a little weird in here. So I'm going to actually up the segments just a little bit to help smooth it out. Now we need to build the wheels and the axles. So I'm going to Control or Command, click on cylinder. Want to move this up to the top. And I'm actually going to turn my cart off so it doesn't get in the way of what I'm doing. This cylinder object gonna change to three by 35 and plus z. And I'll move it up so I can see it. Then I'll go into the caps, turn on, fill it and set it to one. I'll call this axle. Then I'm going to make a copy and call it. We'll we'll change this to five by 2.5 and then make a copy of that and call it pin. This will be 0.5 by ten and it'll be plus x. And then drag the pin under the wheel. And I want to slide it so it's just a little bit in front of the wheel. Then I will grab the wheel. This slide it so that it's close to the end. Now I need to make a copy of this. This rotated around onto the other side. I could use a cloner duplicate if I really wanted to. But to keep things simple, I'm just going to do it manually. So I'll drag this. I'm going to move it over here so it's roughly the same spot. I'm going to hit R and then rotate it a 180 degrees E to go back to move so I can slide it back to roughly where the other one is. Now I will grab both of them and parent them underneath the axle. And since I know that z value should be 75, I will type that in. And now I have a single axle setup. So I'm gonna grab that and move that down so the wheels are sitting on the floor. Then I'm going to turn my cart back on. Now the cart is still set to 0 on the x, which will make this easier to do. So I'll slide this one over. Then I'm going to Control or Command drag and make another copy over here. I will grab both of them. Make sure they're x is set to 0 so they're centered. And now I will grab the cart and the cube That's the base. Slide them both down so they're sitting just a little bit above the wheels. And I should be all set except for one thing. The idea is that this push block is going to push the box off the block and it's going to land inside the car. But right now the cart is taller than that block is. So I'm actually going to slide this down so that it's closer to flush. Going to grab this extrude and bump it up. So it's only 10. Then I can grab this cube, slide it up just a little bit. Then I can grab this whole thing and hit Alt G. So I'm going to rename this to cart. And the null that it's under is actually in a pretty good position for a pivot point that I wanted to be just a little bit more deliberate so I can hit L or just click this to enable axis. And I'm going to slide it up so it's at the bottom and line it up with the edge of the wheel. Turn that back off. Now, if I hit R for rotate, when it moves, it will move right on the edge of that wheel, which is good. So our cart needs a little bit of a track to exist on. I'm going to make a new tube. Change this to 90 by 2 by 25, turn on, fill it, change it to 0.5, the z 75. And then I'll slide it up to be just under the axon. Can see my wheels are just a little bit closer together than I meant for them to be. So I'm actually going to make it just a little bit less wide. You can adjust yours to match wherever your wheels landed. I'm gonna duplicate that one and set this to five by 30 by 30. Now the cart's final position is actually going to be word is right now. So I'm gonna move this over so that it has something to bump into and it'll stop when it gets there. I'm gonna hold down Control or Command and choose oil tank. I'm going to set that to plus x. I am going to set the values to five by ten, the cap height of three. And I'm going to move this to the top part of the box. And I'll select it as well and slide it up. So the cart's going to bump into it. And then I'll move it over so that it's just touching. Now I'll move this one over here. Control or Command drag to make two of them, grab them both. Set this to 75 to make sure that it's centered. I'll grab both of those and this cube and parent them under the other cube and call this track. So what's nice about our setup is knowing that our cards final value for x will be 0. And I can slide it over to its starting position over here. There's also one thing I forgot to do, the tracks sticking out of the edge and I meant for it to stop at the little wall. So I'll grab these three, move them back out, grab my track, slide it over so that it is intersecting in the middle there. Then I'll grab these guys, put them back on track again. Now it's time to build the claw. 7. The Claw!: So first we'll create a new cube. We will sit at 245 by 10 by 25 with a fill it up one. We will duplicate that, change it to 12 by 250 by 12. Then I'll go ahead and drag that one up. So that's just inside, parented underneath. And I'll call this claw. Now I'm going to make a cylinder, which I will set to 10 by 20. Change the orientation to Z, change the rotation segments to go to CAPSA and turn on fill it. I'm actually going to grab all these and move them up so that they're easier to see. And I'm going to slide the cylinder over so it's off to one side and move it down a bit. And I'll hold down Control or Command and choose tube. I will change that to plus z. Set it to 12. Quantity. Also set that to 90. Turn on, fill it. Set that to two. Then I'm going to go into slice, which means I'm only going to use part of the circle. And I'm going to set it to minus 90. And 90. This will be half of my claw. So I'm going to move it down so that the corner is about right in the middle. Then I'm going to hold down control or command again. Make a cube, which I will set to four by 10 by 15 and turn on, fill it and set that to one. Then I will slide it down to match up with the bottom. Now I'm going to grab these two and parent them underneath that cylinder. Just to keep things straight. I'm going to click the block for the claw. Now here's a full version only function. I'm going to hold down Shift and choose a symmetry object. Then I'll move this cylinder inside the symmetry. And you can see that it's reflected across the axis. If you're using light and you don't have symmetry, we can just make a copy, rotated a 180 degrees, and then move it over to the other side. Then you can grab both and make sure that the x value is 0. The main difference is that later when we get to the animation phase, if you're using light, you're going to have to rotate both sides of this manually. Since I'm using the full version, I'm just going to delete this term asymmetry back on. Now of course, I wasn't paying attention. And over here I can see that my tube is way too big. So I'll come over here, grab tube and an object. I'm going to set the height to 10. Now I'll grab my claw, slide it up so it's not blocking anything else. Now, later, when I want to be able to animate this, I'm going to come into my cylinder and I'm going to use rotation. And thanks to symmetry, they will both go. Another detail we need to add is the x on the ground, which is where the box will land after it gets thrown out of the cart. So I will make another cube and set the values to 10 by 2.5, 550 with a fill it of one. Hit F to zoom to this, pull back a little bit. I just want it to slide at the top, which I know would be a value of five since it's ten centimeters tall. Now I'm going to duplicate this. And rather than change the measurements, I will just rotate it 90 degrees. Nicol, both of these x. So I've got that on the ground perfectly centered. So the last thing we need to model is the decorative pipe on the floor. 8. Building ANOTHER Pipe: So first we'll create a rectangle. And we will make the 180 by 155. And then turn on rounding and set that to 15 and change it to x, z. If I hit S and my top view I can see fits roughly into the floor. Now this is going to act as the spline that we will sweep a circle along to make our pipe. So I'm going to hit C to convert it. And I'm going to rename this floor. Are you spot want to be able to see what I'm doing. So I'm actually going to turn a bunch of this other stuff off. I'm just going to hold down alter option and then I can click this and then click and hold wallets red, and then drag up and it will paint over and hide all of these things. So basically now and just seeing the floor might as well turn the ball off as well. So got my spline and the floor. I'm going to go into point mode where I can edit this. I hit 0 to grab my rectangle selection tool. I actually want to open the spline up because it's not supposed to be a perfect loop. So I'll click on it and come in here and turn on closed. Now that just open this up. But that is over on the wrong side. Over here. I wanted to open on the other end. Just for the record, if I grab it and move it up, you can see that. So the way to fix that is that I will grab this point and then right-click and go to point order set first. And now I've got it open on the other end, which is what I wanted. And this part will make a little bit more sense as we're going along. It's almost difficult to explain. But essentially what I wanna do is take this section and this section and rotate them 90 degrees so that instead of curving this way, they will curve down into the ground. So I'll do this 1 first. And I'll use two functions to make this a little bit easier. I can click this button or hit L to turn on enable axis. And I can click this button or hit Shift S to turn on snap. Now with this selected enable axis means that I can move the pivot point and it won't affect anything. And since I have snap-on, it will snap to points. So I can drag it over here and then it snaps on. Now I've got it in the right place. So I'll hit L to turn enable access off, because now I do want things to change and I will hit R to go to rotate. Now this will be easier to see in this view. I'm going to grab here and start rotating and I will hold down Shift so it snaps and then goes to 90. So now it curves around and then curves downward. I'm gonna do the same thing over here. At 0. Select it L to enable axis. Click here to move it, snap it to that point, L to turn it back off. R to rotate. Rotate here, hold down, Shift, snap to 90. Now I've got my pipe coming out of the ground and going back into the ground. I'm going to hold down Alt and then click and reveal all of these again. Actually, I don't want to see ground light and I'll turn ground off again. So since I still have those two points selected, and drag this part of the pipe back over at 0, grab the other part, slide it over as well. Now you'll notice I have snap-on, so it's snapping to a bunch of stuff. I don't want that to cause me any trouble. So I'm actually going to hit Shift S and turn off. And then I'll just tighten this up. Now the other thing is I had forgotten. I need to line the whole thing up with the floor. So I'll hit Control or Command a to select all and then S so I can see everything. And then I'm just going to slide down so that the top of the floor lines up with the spline points. Now I can see what I'm doing a little better. So I'm going to grab this, tighten up just a little bit, grab this, move forward just a little bit. And the nice thing is that we'll still be able to edit this after we make the sweep. So now I'm going to create a circle. So the radius to five. Then I'm going to add a sweep and put these two into it. And I've got myself a pipe and want to add some rings to it for detail. So this is yet another cloner object moments, but we'll do it both cloner function for the full version and then we'll do the duplicate function for light. So I'm gonna create a new cloner. I'm going to create a new cylinder. The cylinder will be set to 65. I'm going to drop that into the cloner. The cloner I'm going to change from queer ray to object. And then I'm going to drop floor pipe spline into the object. Once again, we've got some issues. So I'm going to change count to even. So now they're spread out properly. I'm going to go to the cylinder and change the orientation to Z. And the other thing I would like is I like the way that this one is lined up right at the floor. I want to see that on the other end. So I'm gonna go back into the cloner and then uncheck loop. Now it starts and ends at the very beginning, in very end. I'm also going to bump it up to 12 just for the heck of it. And these cylinders, I will turn on fill it, and set it to one just for a little bit of rounding. Now for the light answer to that issue, I'm going to make a duplicate of this cylinder. I'm going to turn off the cloner. I will go to Tools. Duplicate were still set to a long spline. In this case, we need the floor pipe spline. And I made 12, so I'm going to set this to 11. I'm going to turn on enable rotation and change plus y plus z. Then I'll hit apply and they'll get the same result. Just going to drag this in here, called this light. Turn that off, turn this back on, call it. And we'll call this pipe, grab all these, hit alter option G, and call it a floor plan. Now we've finished all our modelling and we can do some quick texturing. 9. Adding Textures: One of my goals with this project was to create something that our render really fast. So I'm just planning on using a standard rendering engine. So first, I'm going to double-click here to create a new material. And this one I want to be yellow. So I'm actually going to just set the hue and the saturation all the way up and the value all the way up. And by the way, as you're doing this, feel completely free to choose any color scheme you like. I just thought this one was nice and friendly. So the other thing is I'm going to do is to go into the reflectance channel. I'm going to leave this specular layer, but I want to change the values so that the width is set to 25 and the strength is set to 75. Then I'm going to add a Beckman layer and move that underneath the default specular set to add sort of blend them together. I'm going to leave all the settings that the default, but I'm going to move the layers overall value down to 10 percent. So now I've got a shiny paint look. I'm going to double-click here and rename this yellow. And I'm going to need four more of these. So I will Control or Command drag to create five total swatches. And I'm going to rename them purple blue and dark blue. You're free to copy my values as you see them or tweak them however you like. So I'll just go in, change these values a bit. Now I have the colors I want. I just need to create one more material and then double-click called as metal. I'm actually going to turn the color off. I'm going to remove the specular layer and add another Beckman layer. And I'm going to change the roughness on this one from 10 to 50. Move that to the end of my list. And now I've created all the textures I'd like to use. You are welcome to make more if you want to use more colors or less your call. In fact, you can detail this thing anyway that you'd like. Now from here, this is purely creative aesthetic choice. So do whatever you like. I'm going to go ahead and speed things up a little bit while I add the colors the way that I like them. I'm also going to turn all of my scene on so that I can see everything that needs to get textured. Okay, so now I've got everything on bright and colorful will hit render real quick. And that looks pretty cool for something that we haven't really messed with a whole lot. So now we can move on to lighting. 10. Lighting & Render Settings: So now we're going to set our lights up. So the first thing that I'm going to do is just click here to add a normal light. I want this to have shadows. So I'm going to change it to soft shadow maps, which will render faster. I'm going to go into details under fall off. I'm going to change it to inverse square, physically accurate, which will make it behave a little bit more realistically. Now I'm going to hit H on these so that I can zoom out a bit and move this up because I want it to be like an overhead light will zoom out even further. But there's also something when a change, I want these to point right at the middle. So I'm going to right-click on this and go to animation tags and then choose target. This tells an object to point directly at something. So I need a target object, which in this case is going to be my floor since that's right in the center. Now you can Sam oriented towards it. So if I render this, I have this slightly cooler, more dramatic lighting. I think I want this overhead light to become a little bit different direction. So I'm going to move it over to this corner. Backup just a little bit. Let's render again, which is Command or Control R, or we can click the Render button. That looks pretty cool. I don't really want these huge shadows over here, but we should be able to deal with them by continuing. And while my other lights staffs and more characters. So we're going to actually introduce some color. So I will Control or Command drag this down. Now the second light, then go back to my general. And I'm going to change this light so that it is yellow. No, move it a little bit further over, a lot further over on this side. If I render that, we can see that it added some yellow highlights. And I'm going to duplicate again. And this one I'm going to make purple. Try to add fun highlights on the other side. Which looks pretty cool. Now I just need some more ambient lighting to help me with all these extra shadows that I don't like so much. So I'm going to duplicate the original. I'm going to turn the fall off pack to none. I'm going to change shadows back to none. And then I'm going to check ambient illumination, which means it's just going to act as a universal light that's lighting everything evenly. So if I render this, everything looks washed out. So I'm going to knock the intensity down to 50 and then render again. And that looks pretty good. Then tweak things just a little bit further, since I think some of the lighting is still little bit harsh. So grab this one and try moving it over here bit will render that. I think that's good because the big dark shadows that I was getting here, I'm not seeing as much. We also don't want to lose sight of the fact that this highlighted square is what we're actually going to render. So we're not going to really see what's happening over here as much as with the texturing, you can feel free to play with the colors of the lights or not used the colors. And try moving around. We're changing the intensity settings or forgo the use of an ambient light if you'd like, you can get as creative as you want to create the kind of lighting in the scene that you think looks cool. So now that we've got a hair, There's a rendering detail that I want to add. If you hit Control or Command B. It'll bring up the render settings. The simple effect that I want to add is called ambient occlusion. Basically what that setting does is dark and things and tight spaces where light wouldn't get in as easily if I render again. Now, you can see that areas like this, I've got more detailed shading. It just kind of punches everything up a little bit. Now from here, if we look at our picture, we can see that most of it looks pretty nice. But be expanses of flat reflected area and really reflective stuff like this metal. There's a fair bit of noise. Unfortunately, noise is something that's a side effect of quicker renders. So I'm going to show you the settings that I want to use to make this work. But I want to give you some options so that you don't necessarily have to wait as long for your render if you don't want to. So if I open Render Settings again, by default, we set up our render to be 1080 by 1080. Noise click Lock ratio. If you wanted to change this to a smaller size. For example, changing this to half size 545, 540 would speed up your render time significantly. So that's something you might want to consider when we get to that stage. And don't worry, I'll mention it again. But the setting in this case that will clean that noise up for us is anti-aliasing. Now by default, it's set to geometry, which isn't very good. If I change this to best. And then render again. You can see that those noisy areas look a fair bit smoother, but it also took longer to render on my computer in this case, before it took about two seconds. And now we can see that it took about eight seconds. I'm actually going to click this minimum level up to two-by-two. And then I'm going to render again. So we can see that that took 15 seconds. That means bumping that setting up almost doubled my render time. When we get to the end we're rendering. It's totally up to you on how long you can handle rendering for. Our final animation is probably going to be somewhere in the 150 to 200 frames range. So no matter how you set it, you still might end up wanting to render it overnight when you're done. Just to keep things simple for the rest of the lesson, I'm going to open these settings backup, change my anti-aliasing back to geometry. I'm going to hide my lights from view so that they don't get in my way. And I'm also going to move them down to the bottom of my hierarchy. And now we're ready to animate this scene. 11. Animation!: So it's time to do our animating now. But I realized I left one thing out when we're doing our modeling phase. So I want to add that in quickly. We're going to put some legs onto this slide so that it's not just floating in the air. To do that, we're going to add a cylinder. I'm going to change the values 2, 3, and 25. And I will hold down Alt or Option parent that under a cloner. I'm actually going to pull that inside my slide object and hit this button again to reset the transform. Then I'll pull it back out. So I'll go ahead and make sure I'm in model mode. Since it's off a little bit, I'll just slide it over here. Zoom in, and then slide it down. So it's just intersecting and the base, since we have to use a cloner after this, we'll also use the duplication method that will work in light. Set this back to one, knock this up to five, and set the distance to 20. Since I reset the transform underneath that spline that was rotated, my heading has a rotation of minus 90. I'll put that back to 0. I'll hit tests while my cursors over this window so I can zoom in on the legs. And then I'm just going to slide them over. So they're on the straight part. Now to use our duplication method, I'll click my cylinder controller command drag or copy. Turn this off real quick. Just going to move it over to here. Go up to Tools. Duplicate. I want four copies. I'm gonna do this in linear mode. We'll be moving 20 along the z. Hit Apply. Drag this cylinder and with the copies, hit E for my move tool and slide it over just a little bit. So we'll call this leg and the light. Turn that off, call this legs. Grab all of these, him halter Option G and rename it. Slide. Turn these back on. And then the only other thing I wanted to do was add the metal material to the legs. All right, now the entire scene is built. So we can begin the animation process. We will do this step-by-step from the beginning. So one of the first things that I want to do is change the scene so that instead of 30 frames a second, it's 24 frames a second. I'd like to do that because 24 feels more like film. It lines up with traditional animation. And that means six less frames every second that we'll have to render. So it's kind of a win all around. First I'm going to hit Command or Control D. And that'll bring up my project settings. Here, the FPS frames per second. I'm going to set to 24. Then I'm going to hit controller command B to open my render settings. And under output, I am also going to change the frame rate to 24. C. You'll notice this used to go from 0 to 90 for a 3 second range. Now it's going from 0 to 72. So the first thing that we want to animate is this ball dropping. But first let's organize things just a little bit. I'm going to grab the ball, coin and box and move them all the way to the top. These x's and floor pipe. I want to move further down. This way. All the things I want to animate her up towards the top. Since the ball goes first, I'll go to my coordinates. And the first thing I wanna do is move that off screen. Now I'm going to set the keyframe by clicking on this icon on my y, because that's the axis I'm going to be animating. Then I'm going to move forward six frames, which is one-quarter of a second. And then I'm just going to move it down the y. If you click and drag on the arrows, you can scrub up and down to change a value. I'm just going to move this far enough down that I can't see it anymore. But not so far that it breaks through the pipe. This is yellow right now because it's indicating that I've changed the value, but we haven't set a keyframe. So I'm going to click here to add another one. And since it's red, we know this keyframe there. So now if I scrub back, ball goes up. So the first part of our animation, It's the ball dropping in. The next thing that will happen is the ball will go through the pipe. And as it's doing so, this slide ring, we'll go with it. So I'm going to open up my pipe null, find my slide. And then click on my align to spline tag. And I'm going to keyframe the position. So at frame six, we want to start where we are at 67. As we go along, we're probably going to tweak things. When you're animating. Oftentimes you'll set things up and then decide that maybe they're a little too fast for a little too slow. And the nice thing is that you can just like keyframes around to edit that. So I'm going to try the same thing, six more frames. And then we will click and drag this. As far as we think it should go. 10 percent looks pretty good. So I'm going to stop there. Now if I backup and play, it goes through it seems a little quick. I'm curious if I bump that up to 18 or does it look like? I think it's better with just a little more time because that gives us the more of a feeling that it had time to change while it went through. Now the next thing that's going to happen is the coin is going to pop out. So we'll come to frame a team and we need to move it into a starting position. I want it to flip over when it comes out. So I'm actually going to rotate it 90 degrees. And then I'm going to move it just inside the pipe. Now that I've done that, I'll click here, go to my coordinates. I want to start with a keyframe on the bank. A keyframe on the Y value since it'll be moving down. And a keyframe on the X value, since it'll be moving along that axis as well. I'll jump forward another six frames. And now here I know that I'm going to change this back to 0. And I'm going to set it down here on the end of the conveyor belt. So I'll set a keyframe on each of the properties I changed and just refine them into make it bounce a little. So I'll move forward a few frames. Move it up just a bit, set the y. Now I'm going to move forward to more. I want it to bounce back to the position it was in. So I could just control, drag this keyframe and move it over. But unfortunately, it would copy everything that's in this space, not just the one property I need. So to fix this, we're going to open up the dope sheet. You can do this by hitting Shift F3, or you can go to Window Timeline Dope Sheet. Now this is a visual representation of the timeline that shows us all of our animated properties. I can see my coin here. By open this up, I can see that I've keyframe that position and rotation. If I open those up, I can see exactly which properties under those headings got animated. So the y value, I want to just that one. So if I Command or Control drag that over. I've made a copy of just that one. In case you're wondering why there's all these other little things. It's just representing the hierarchy. So on the y, these are the specific key frames that are made on the position. This is all the places where there's a keyframe, coin. This is all the places where there's a keyframe and the summary is representing everything that's been animated in all seen. And just to be totally clear, if you click and drag anything that is up higher in this hierarchy, it'll move everything that is underneath it. Now my intent is to continue this balance one more time. So I'm going to drag this over one more time. So my coin flops out, hits, bounces up this high. It's again, I'm going to add one more small bit and keyframe it and then back. So if I watch from here, I can see my coin land. Right now the balance feels a little bit too much. It's getting a little too rubbery and unnatural for something that's supposed to be a metal. Also considering how simple the motion is coming out of the pipe. So I think what I'm actually going to do is just simplify it. So I'm going to pull that keyframe over so that it just bounces once. And I'm going to click and then delete this last keyframe. But there's another issue. It feels like it should have some forward momentum and it's kind of just magically stopping and going up. So what I'm going to do is open my dope sheet back up. Then go to my x position. I'm going to grab the last key frame and slide it over to the end. That way, it'll keep moving on the x the entire time. If I backup and play. I like that fall through motion a little bit better. One problem is now it's cutting through the pipe on its way out. So the other thing I need is for the Y to start on frame 22. Now let's see how this looks. That feels a bit more comfortable and a bit more natural for something that's supposed to be a heavier piece of metal. Watching it from this angle. It feels pretty good. So now that we've got the coin onto the conveyor belt, we need to rotate the bell. To do this, I'm going to grab my abridges cloner. As a reminder. This is the one part of the animation That's very difficult to do in light. I'm going to show you a tip after we animate this cloner on how you can try to make it work if you want to. But otherwise, you can just skip this step will go into the object and it's the offset that will be moving. So I'm going to click my coin just so that I can find where my last frame was. Because this is where I want to start my urges moving. I'll set a keyframe for offset. And I'm going to move forward 12 frames for 2.5th. I'll actually knock it down to 11 just because I prefer not breaking things up into weird odd numbers if I can avoid it. So we'll come to here. And then I'm going to set the offset to 50. If I watch that, I get a nice fast rotation. Now if you're going to try to replicate this in light, turn this off and I'll turn the ridges background. If you add an align to spline tag to each of these individually and then add the belt spline in. You can animate the position of each individual Ridge. Unfortunately, they're not going to easily go together. So you'd have to recreate the animation that I just made with one of them. And then you'd have to add that same tag and animation to each one of these individually. And then you'd have to offset them The proper distance so that each one was spaced out. If you really want to go the extra mile and make that work Be my guest. But I'm going to delete that, turn this off and turn this back on. Now, since we have this animating, we need the lineup, the coin with comparable and something else that we will take note of here. Keeping an eye on the ridge that's lined up with the coin. Once we get about halfway through, it's already made it to the end. So I'm even going to click through this slowly just so that we can keep an eye on. It. Looks like the way we have it set up. Frame 36 is the last place where the coin is going to be upright. So I'm looking again and taking note that the center of this is lined up about what, this line on the coin. So if I grab the coin right here, I can see that I've already got my keyframe set. So I'll jump to 36. Then I'm just going to move it on the x-axis to line that up again. And I will set an x keyframe. I'm going to try jumping forward four frames, which actually I need to back up. I'm also going to be moving us on the y and I'm also going to be rotating it on the bank. So now when I go to 40, I'm going to move it over here. I'm going to rotate it to minus 90. And I'll actually move it just up a little bit. Now I will set all of these keyframes. And let's see how this goes. That would pretty good. So from there, I'm going to switch my view to this side. And we're just gonna do some simple animation to get this to go through the slide. So a frame 40, I've already got a keyframe set my y-value, and I'll be moving on the y and the z. So I'll have to set a keyframe there. I'm going to go forward 12 frames on this one. Then I'm just going to move it all the way over to where I want it to land. Which in this case, once again, I know is 75 to have it lined up since my final position. But I'll actually get to the why before this moment. So I'm just going to copy this value, a key frame on my z. And I'll backup to report on the timeline where I'd hit the bottom of the slide. And that's where my y is going to change. So we'll take a look at this. No, launch it up here. That feels pretty good. Since this thing is perfectly symmetrical, I don't need to rotate it while it's going through. Now. I'm going to grab the box, slide it down so that it's inside the block. That'll get it out of our way. Plus that's going to be its starting position for animation. Now since the coin made it over here, it needs to flip over. Which I'm going to check real quick just to make sure. But yes, I'm still animating on the bank. So I'm going to set a keyframe here. And on my x and y, I'll move forward four more frames. Rotate this 90. E for move. We want to slide it down on top of the block. Also slide it forward to put it in the middle. Which of course once again mathematically lands it minus 75. And keyframes to everything that I changed. Back up. Now it looks good. Now the press is going to come down. So I will grab that. Check my coin again. And it's 56 is where it lands. But actually back up to 52. Oh, let's split the difference. Grab the press, set a keyframe for y, move forward 12 frames. And then we'll move this down so that it smashes the coin. Set another keyframe. Now a coin needs a y here, and so does the box. Then I'm going to move forward one frame, move the box up, set a keyframe, grab the coin, move it down out of the way, and set a keyframe. Now The Press lands here. I'm going to double the length of my animation, so I have more frames to look at. Gonna move forward six frames, just to imply that the press needs a moment to finish what it's doing. We'll set another y. Click on the press, set a y. In this case, this is the only property that is being animated. So I'm going to move forward 12 frames again. 84. I'm going to select this and then Control or Command drag it over, which will duplicate it. So now the press comes down and goes up to reveal the box. From the top. Now back up just a few frames. This is where I'll start my push block. It's going to move along the x. So we'll set a keyframe there. Move forward another 12 frames. And I'm just going to push this all the way to the inside edge of the cart. Set another x. One to click this command or control would drag. I'll go ahead again, which will put us at 10, 6. Select controller command drag. So pushes up, comes back. Now I just need my box to match the animation of the push block. So based on the overlap, I'll start on this frame with an X key frame. And then we're going to go a little bit past where the block is pushing and have it land roughly in the middle. But I also wanted to drop on the Y. So I'll backup to the point where that makes the most sense. Right here. Set a keyframe. And I'll set another one at the end. To have it land in the bottom of the cart. I'm going to set the beginning of this frame range to 72, so I don't have to watch the entire animation. That looks pretty good. Let's watch it here. Now there is some overlap because of the easing on the keyframes. I don't really want it to disappear inside the push block. And I can edit this. If you're used to dealing with animation curves in After Effects, then hopefully this concept will be familiar. If I go to Window Timeline F curve. This is similar to the dope sheet, but it's a different way of looking at things. As you can see, I've got all my animated objects. Now specifically, I'm gonna deal with the box. So I'm going to open that up. If I select the keyframes from the box. I can hit H over here to view everything. Now these curves represent how the values of these properties change over time. So I can see that my x value went from being minus 75 to being minus 24. These curves determine how gradual that process is. If it was a straight line, it would move in mathematically perfect steps on each frame. But I can use these handles to edit the curves so that it will smooth the ins and outs. Now this Easing happens by default when you make keyframes and cinema 4 D, which means that's what the push block was doing when it moves around. But the point when it makes contact with the boxes somewhere in the middle where the lines a lot straighter. So if I come back to the boxes x value, I can select the first keyframe and straighten out the first part of the curve so that it will move quickly right at the beginning. Now we'll back up and see what that looks like. Looked a little bit more accurate in terms of motion. But it's also, I think just a little bit ahead of the block. So I'm going to do for the box. So I'll just click here and drag to select all of these frames. And I'm going to move them one frame later. So now it will overlap just a little bit. But since it lines up, the motion feels more natural. And just for fun, I'd like to add another balance here. So I'm gonna go back to my dope sheet. And similar to what we did earlier, I'm going to grab my Y. By the way, when you're in this view, you can use the S key to zoom to a specific selection. You can use the H key to zoom to everything. But you can also use the alt key and the three buttons on your mouse for similar movement to what you get in the viewport. So if I hold down Alt or Option and click on my middle mouse button, I can drag around much the same as I could do over here. And if I alter option and then right-click and we're going to zoom in and out. Now if I click up here to Scrum, that was noticing that my y keyframes are missing, but I realized that's because I had my coin expanded, not the box. So clicking on the y-values for the box, these are the keyframes I was looking for. So I'm actually going to back the y up two frames so that it'll fall just a little bit faster. See how that looks. You see how it hits than slide's a little bit. That feels pretty good. In a similar fashion to what I did over here. I'm going to make just a tiny balance. So my box already has a Y keyframe here. I'm gonna go to the end, set another one, and then back up and move it just a little bit. And watch it again. That looks pretty good except I think I moved to too high. So grab the box. Go to this middle keyframe to zoom in here so I can see what I'm doing. Move it halfway down, set the Y again. And we'll see how that looks. That feels better. And move forward just a few frames before the car starts moving. In a set, a keyframe on the X from my box. And I'm also going to grab my cart and do the same. Then I'm going to select the two of them. Move forward 12 frames and slide this forward so it's line up the middle. Okay, if it's not exactly perfect, then I'll set a keyframe for the two of those. Which looks good. And now, right when we get to 112, we're going to grab the cart and we're going to rotate. Now I just want to double-check that yes, it is the pitch. So I will set a keyframe. I want this to move fairly quick, like it's spring loaded or something. I'm going to try four frames and see how that feels. Thick. I'm gonna go ahead and move into 45. Move forward a couple of frames, set another keyframe. And set this back to 0. And just for fun, I'm going to give this little balance as well. So I'll set one more here. Backup. We'll try. It. Might be a bit much. Let's try five. Great. So now we just need to animate the box so that it's moving with the cart. So at 112, I'm going to set a keyframe for the y and for the Z. And for the PECC. I'm going to give this one a fair bit longer. But when I have a flip all the way over S1 to make sure I'm in the right direction, positive 180. And my z value is going to be 0 in for my y-value. Going to move it down just on top of the x and set my keyframes. Now if I watch, It's actually pretty good. Except that I want it to lost through the air. So I'm going to go halfway in between. And looking at it from the side. I'm going to move it up higher so that there's more of an arc to its movement. Let's see how that goes out. Looks pretty cool. The only thing is I think it's going just a little too slow. So I'm going to try moving two frames over with each. So I'm going to subtract a couple of frames from each half of that animation. That feels a little more natural. I'm going to add in one last bounce. See about giving us just a little bit more oomph. Going to go back to my dope sheet so that I can duplicate the y value. I click on this frame, I see the key value is 11.3, coming from a 0.4. So it's a difference of about three. I'm going to drag one more over and then one more tiny bounce, which I will just put nine. We'll see how this looks. Pretty good. Just want to make that first pound slightly less high. So I have a 10, 0.75. And again, these numbers are kind of arbitrary. You can do whatever feels right to you. If you want these objects to feel more like rubber, you can make them bounce a lot higher or longer. So the last thing we need to do is get the clade to drop down and pick the box up. It'll get a fair be a lead time. So I think I'm going to start it at 120. Inner grab the claw, set the y value, move forward 12 frames. And then I'm going to move it down where it will be around the box. Now the other thing is that I wanted to start off with the clause open a little wider. So as I can see here, I'm gonna go to my cylinder and rotate the bank a little bit. Two degrees is just right. As a reminder, if you are using light and don't have a symmetry object, you're just going to need to rotate two versions of the cylinder. So one of them will be two and the other will be minus 2. Bearing in mind that if you didn't build yours to line up exactly with the way I built mine. Your numbers might be slightly different. So our claw will land at two once it's grabbed onto the box, set that key frame there. Then we'll backup told frames to where we started. And I'm going to rotate this out a bit so that it's open. So now on the clock comes down and finches on the box. The only thing that I want to change is I think it'll look better at the claw pinches in towards the end. So I'm just gonna move this over quite a bit. That way it'll move down and then pinch. And once it gets towards the end. I don't see any reason for this part to hesitate. So from there, we're just gonna go straight back up. So I'm also going to set a keyframe for my box. Then I'm going to grab the box and the claw. Move forward 12 frames. I'm going to move them all the way off camera and set my y. Now I've almost completely reset my loop, except for two things. One needs to drop back into place, and two, I forgot to move my car back to where it was. In fact, that reminded me I also meant to rotate my axis when it was moving just for some added visual flavor. So first, I'm going to add 12 frames to the end of this, change it to 156. 156. I want the law to return to its original position. So I'll select this keyframe, Control or Command, drag it over. So now I can see it will come down, pick that up, go off. In. The other thing I need is for the claw to move back. So I'm going to wait till I can't see it. I'm going to select and drag this. And then select and drag this. So now we'll move back to the same position. However, if we back up, we can see that when it picks up the box, there's some inconsistency on the movement. So to figure out what's going on, Let's go back to our f curve timeline and open up my y position and click in my box Y position, then I will hit S H so that I can view everything. Now the portion that matters is here between 132 and 144. So I'm going to select those and hit S to zoom to them. And I can see there's a slight discrepancy because these curves on exactly the same. So on this end, I can see that the handle goes to about this line. So I'll grab here and I'm going to hold down Control or Command to keep it straight. Drag it over. I'll select these two. I can see that pretty good. So hopefully, that was all I needed to do to make sure that this will move correctly. Not look pretty good to me. So now let's finish up the cart. It moves, rotates, bounces slightly. I'll go just a couple of frames. Set a keyframe for the x, and then go 12 frames. And then we'll copy the first one over here. So now it slides back. So now on a hundred and one hundred twelve, 126 to 138, we're going to want the axles to rotate. So I'll go to 100 and open the card up. Select both of the axles. We want to rotate on our banks, which we can see as moving those little pins around. So we'll set a keyframe there. Move forward 12 frames. We'll change this to positive 360. Set that. Then we'll see how that looks. I like it. So we will duplicate this value and then duplicate this value. And the rollback, which looks great. So now I'm going to set 0 as my initial keyframe. And we can watch the whole thing. You'll notice there was one little visual glitch. The slide did not go back to its original position after the coin popped out. So we'll just click on that. Select the align to spline tag, which is where the keyframes are. I'll just move it up. Two keyframes. Duplicate this. Move forward 12, duplicate the first one. And now we'll watch the whole thing again. The only other thing I'm seeing is that one the box goes into the cart and then they both move. You can see there's a little bit of a slip there. So I'm going to open my f curve timeline in my boxes exposition and the carts x position of the two I want to see. So I'll hit H. And sure enough, this portion from 100 to 112 is inconsistent. So I'll select those and S on the box looks a little bit flatter than the cart. So the box, I'm going to hold down Control or Command and drag this out so that the handles in the same spot. Looking again at the cart up top, little bit before 108 is where the handle needs to be. So we'll do the same thing, controller command and drag it out. And just a little bit of our gravity is too much closer together. And we'll watch. And it's more consistent. And now we've animated the whole scene. 12. Final Renders: So the only other thing we need to do is setup our render. So if we hit Command or Control B for output, we're going to do 1080. By 1080, our frame rate is set to 24. Instead of current frame, we're going to set it to all frames. Under Save. We need to choose what format we want to save to. You could render directly to an MP4 if you like. But renderings still sequences is generally safer. I'm going to use a ping sequence. Choose a location for your render to go. One last little function I have here is if you click this drop-down and choose project name, my document, this tiny little bit of code will give your renders the same name as your file. I'm gonna copy that undo to keep the location. I had an ad that on the end. If you don't need to change any other settings here. But I do need to go back into the anti-aliasing and change it the best. Which just as a reminder, we'll make everything look nicer. It is also going to slow the render down considerably. So it's up to you to determine if you'd like to lower the Min and max levels to speed things up, or if you'd like to consider rendering it out to 545, 540 instead, which will go a lot faster because it's a smaller image. Once you've got these settings in place, you can save your document. And then if you hit Shift R, it will begin rendering your final images. If you're doing this in light, we don't actually render things out of Cinema 4D light. What you need to do is save your object once you've got the render settings in place. And then an After Effects, you're Cinema 4D file should already exist in the project window. Just drop that into a new comp as if it was a video file. Then the renderer change it to current. And then you'll be able to render this compound to the format of your choice. Just bear in mind that when After Effects is previewing this with current set in the render, it's literally going to have to render every frame as you go the same as you would have to render them in cinema 4D. So it's not going to be very quick at all relative to say, a normal video file, much the same as Cinema 4D. This will be something that you'll setup to render and let it go. Again. Very possibly something you're going to want to be doing overnight. But from here, we'll just take a look at our final render. And I'll say, congratulations, you've finished it. 13. Animation Congratulation: I really appreciate you working through this lesson and I hope you had as much fun creating your animation as I did. I hope to come up with more fun projects like this one. So be sure to let me know if there's anything you'd like to learn about. Maybe this has inspired you to try out some more animation ideas of your own. Keep trying new stuff in 3D. And I'll see you next time.