Intermediate German Grammar 4: Prepositional Phrases & Genitiv and n-Declension | Esther Hartwig | Skillshare

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Intermediate German Grammar 4: Prepositional Phrases & Genitiv and n-Declension

teacher avatar Esther Hartwig, Take your German to the next level!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (49m)
    • 1. Intro: Prepositional phrases

    • 2. Asking for prepositional phrases

    • 3. Prepositional objects: people & places

    • 4. Prepositional objects: things

    • 5. Intro: Genitiv & n-declension

    • 6. Genitiv and its changes

    • 7. Genitiv alternative: Dativ

    • 8. Prepositions with the Genitiv

    • 9. The n-declension: weak nouns

    • 10. Seemingly weak nouns

    • 11. The reverse Genitiv

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About This Class

Learn how and when to use words like 'darauf', 'daran', 'dazu' and other prepositional pronouns as well as how to ask for prepositional objects - people,places and everything else.

Learn how and when to use the Genitiv case.

Learn what the n-Declension is, what weak nouns are and what you need to know about that in connection with all four German cases. Find out how to tell weak nouns from another type of noun.

This is the fourth part of a German grammar course on a higher beginner and intermediate level (A2/B1), following 'Your German Grammar Course' for beginners.

All topics will be introduced step-by-step and built up on one another, so you can use your previously gained knowledge in later classes. You can either get the full explanation throughout all the chapters or just pick out the material you need to fill some gaps, refresh your memory, or complement your studies.

The course contains easy to follow explanations in English, examples in German, and in-course exercises.

I designed this course to provide a good understanding of how German as a language works. This knowledge should give you an advantage as you go on with your studies because many rules or exceptions will seem less random. Instead of spending too much time on rules as such, you will learn to see the underlying patterns of the German language. Many different topics will rely on the same patterns, so being able to see those, will make studying German a lot easier.

Meet Your Teacher

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Esther Hartwig

Take your German to the next level!


I have been a language instructor since 2007. I have taught German and English to private students as well as in a business environment in Argentina and Germany. In 2017 I started teaching online. My goal is to provide useful, understandable, compact information and create aha! moments for people who study German. I hold a degree in Educational Science from the University of Hagen, Germany.

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1. Intro: Prepositional phrases: Do you remember the proposition? All phrases. Those are the ones where you have a proposition, followed by an object, and that object can be a time or a place or a person or anything else. Now, when you want to ask about that, it's pretty easy if it's a time or a place, because you can just ask one and wolf or ruin or bohemia, you probably remember those. But what happens if that proposition is actually a thing? How do you ask about that? So that is something that you will learn in the following few lectures, and I will also tell you how to ask for sub clauses. So when you have a main clause and then a suppose and you want the whole sub close to be the answer to your question, how do you ask about that? You will learn that, and I will also give you the pronounce for the proposition. All phrases as well as for the whole sup laws is 2. Asking for prepositional phrases: When you have a proposition of phrase in a sentence, you can ask about specifications off the object by using a proposition and a question word . In this scenario, you're going to take a train with somebody else. Option one is via five in mid, amassed in Suk, and Option two is the five on Madame SOG on Zim Wolfensohn. So first option. We're taking the first train. And 2nd 1 we're taking the train at 7 15 You ask for more detailed information about the train by saying Mitt Vision Suk five. Via which train are we going to take? The answer can then be midem asked him for Option one or medium Home Z, even Wolfensohn for option two. So with the 1st 1 or with the one at 7 15? What we haven't talked about at this stage is how to ask a question in order to get Midan Suk as an answer. In other words, how do we ask for the proposition? All phrase? In order to understand how that works, we have to look at different categories off proposition. All phrases, the object and those can be a person, an item or a place if it is a person, it's fairly straightforward. We use the proposition and the question word for a person. The only thing we have to watch out for is the case that the person is in, so we cannot just use via since we're looking at Proposition all phrases three cases likely on a quiz Atif or Dottie's In this example, the person is in the dot eve this year. Mitt Mine, um, Munn in ski. Nor I'm going to the cinema with my husband, Mitt VM gay students Kino Mitt Mine, um, Munn Or if you use a pronoun MIT team And here's an example in the Yakuza TIF dusk, a shank is if you're a minor. Mista. The present is for my niece. You remember that few always goes with an acquisitive object Food wien. His desk a shank is therefore the question through mine in Isha or using a pronoun Fu Zi. You will also recognize the question words for a place as an object war for him voy here other than with a person, we don't use the proposition here. If the statement refers to a static situation not moving in or out off the place, we simply ask Bull Moving into the place initiates the question. Will him? Whereas coming from a place produces ah boy hair? Question ist by item. Find he's at a friend's voice there. Get so Einem find he's going to of friends. Boo him, Get air and comment House in Spoke he's coming from in. Spoke well here come down. And now the last category. The object off the proposition All phrase is neither a person nor a place. It's for you, miss else Minor will love. I'm looking forward to my vacation if you want to ask a question that produces the answer else Mining Willow, This is what you do. You make a question word, starting with Vore, and then you add the proposition to create one new question. Word. If the proposition starts with a vowel, you ed in em before you add the proposition. This is what those question words look like for some propositions for the proposition. Elf voor health. The proposition on Borhan The Proposition Voi va. The proposition Fun, which is not starting with a vowel, vole, fun and mitt, also not starting with a vowel wool mint that's apply that to our vacation sentence if I am ish off mine and well up and the question is, roll off for students. You can practice this now by asking for the proposition. All phrases in thes sentences Hey, you never mission on Minor asked a present had soon. I remember my first presentation we're having on Seubert Inflation Service Special. Yet we complained about the bad service. See, Harbin's funny about Isa had seared. They told us about that trip. If Hackett's amount, Madam, I know hot sauce abide. He's now always going to work by Younis Cycle. Pause the video and write down your questions. And here the correct questions. Bogan in a studio, a movie about the always bullshit Wolfram happens. He always had said moment for today. It's tomorrow, so I'll bite. 3. Prepositional objects: people & places: you have learned how to ask for proposition all phrases in the answers. You can either use the full proposition all phrase, or you can substitute the object. For example, if you want to avoid repetition when speaking, there's also the possibility off pointing at the object instead of naming it. Who will first look at Proposition all phrases that carry a person as an object this year. Mitt minor flour instead. IATA. I'm going to the theater with my wife. Mid beam is, too and stay outta mitt eel. Here's an example where the pronoun is used in the second sentence to avoid repetition. Kabir Ghada Mid minus point telephone yet Whiter album GH Mitt M and Stay Outta. I just talked to my friend or to my boyfriend on the phone. Tonight I'm going to the theater with him. The principle is fairly simple. If the object is a person, we use the proposition from the proposition all phrase and then the object pronoun in the case that the object takes on. When you substitute a place, it works a bit differently. First of all, we have to distinguish between the action happening in a place or if something is moving to the place or coming from the place we have to think about. If the question would be full bore him or or here first, we will look at vole, which presents a static situation. Nothing is moving to or away from that place. The hook Sac State, under their got over the backpack, is standing at the whole stand. Voice Mononoke sack. The answers can be hell. Duh or don't here dot and dot adverbs, Even though we used them to substitute proposition all phrases, they're simply adverbs off place here means here and thought there that is unspecific and can be translated as either here or there. It is also the most informal off the three following the question voyage in the three adverbs. Turn into hear him dyin on dot Him literally two here and two. There you have a dining hooks ak Andi got a whole book instead. Bore him hostile minor knocks Iker Stead Hear him dyin, Dotan. The reverse direction produces the question war here, literally from where the safest way to reply to this with the three adverbs is to combine them with the proposition. Fun fun here Fonda fun dot It is also possible to say Dahir and dot here, But you cannot use here. Here, here here has a different meaning. It refers to the speaker's perspective off the place the speaker is in. It means undies And what here, here, to this place. So if I am in one place and say to another person, Come here here I mean, come to the place where I am right now. The other person would call the same place dot and tell me that they do or don't want to go there using dot Hinn. Let's practice replace the proposition all phrases with the correct word, a word combination. It's telephone museum at mine and Buddha. I'm talking to my brother on the phone. I'm him afflict and floats like there is a plane flying in the sky. English Zin feared. So how was a Finally, we're at home. Mus Hostile Sudan Aspirin exact. What did you say to the neighbor? Their oil outdoors for foot spa is we needed A and e's Ousland farm. The vacation over there was awful. I never want to go to that country again. It's been in the official come still bitter indie Krisha, I'm in the kitchen. Will you please come to the kitchen? Well here. Calm despot. Soy pasties. Ariston. Where did the vehicle come from? From that direction you can pause the video now and write down your solutions. And here it is. It's still a for Neelam. A team dot flicked and flutes like it has to be thought as the sky is usually in the distance endless in via here And also entry sent via data that would be more informal. It has to be hell or da because the speaker is in the place they're referring to. That's has stood so exact That will up dot before SBA is we need a dhaen or Dotan farm. Hint is given with the daughter in the first sentence. The speaker is not in the place at the moment of speaking, so it can only be dyin or Dotan. It's been in their Christian comes still bitter. Here here, the speaker wants another person to come from another place to the place where the speaker is. So this is a typical here here situation boy Candace found slug fun dot Also fun here Fonda Dahir or dot Here it's a from where? Question? So these answers are all possible. Here's an overview off what to use with which proposition Alaa object. This last one refers to objects that are things the pronoun you use for those is called the People's It's United, Potent Woman, and we will have a closer look at it in the next lecture. 4. Prepositional objects: things: you have learned how to ask for Proposition all phrases that carry an item as an object, a tangible or abstract thing by creating Proposition Aled Question words for ALF Johan fun and so on. Before you miss, we were forced to this. If I am issue about us sooner. That Tom, I'm happy. What are you happy about? I'm happy about the nice weather. Now you will see how to create the shortest answer to such a question. The substitute for the proposition of phrase. This is how you make it. That does look familiar, right? You do the same as before with a question word on Lee that now you start with data which somehow makes sense when considering that boy and dot our complimentary question and answer . So you take down, then ed em If the proposition starts with a vowel and then you add the proposition off the proposition all phrase that you want to substitute. This is what some proposition will pronounce Look like else. Dag als on does on uber w va fun Dar Fun Mitt Dammit! They're emphasized on the first syllable, by the way, which has a certain importance that I will explain at the end of this lecture. But don't be surprised if you hear Germans emphasized them incorrectly. At times it happens. Here's a real life example. It must advice column council mere Beim Cohan heaven We would not say Cohen twice here, although one is a verb and the other one now on one of those nominal ized verbs that we often use for activities, it sounds like the same word and is therefore repetitive. The proper way to say it would be if I said Bus, colon cancer Muda by heaven, I want to cook something. Can you help me with that? Here's another one. They have a Lindsay nor kind of politic. You pull it, exploration being finished. Just don't mention politics. We don't speak about politics here. Heavy nuns in nor kind of politic that we both play should be finished. Here's your practice sheet, Seamus. Imprint. Caesar Al Biden. Few put Seizes Al Abidin Bansi. But sod. You have to work precisely. You're being paid for working precisely. Its power Home reading on the PlayStation made on a PlayStation finished in Ganson. Vinterberg Chef Ticked. I absolutely need a PlayStation with a PlayStation. I will be busy the whole winter. Be a man and ensuring and gladden. So I'm sure and Latin passed on Guter vine will make a nice roast with a nice roast. Good wine goes well as opposed. There is a better way to say that in English. Bob, we're studying German here, So it's my kind of a latte mayor for names A lot average Kinuko guessing I don't want any more salad. I had enough off the seller. Try to find the correct pronounce for the proposition ofr a XYZ. You can pause this video now and write them down. Hear the full sentences with the proposition. All pronounce See Misinterpret Caesar Al Beytin, Daffy Vanzi. But side it's file Hope wouldn't bidding on a PlayStation damage finished in Ganson Vinterberg Chef, Ticked human and shown in Parton. That's a pastime Go turbine which my kinds allowed male dolphin have is gonna go get him. We can also use prepositional phrases to substitute Ah, whole statement like this one. Du hast a smear fash Pothen. You've promised it. It's very radish. Donovan in on that gun is a pointer in the sentence. We use those pointers mostly in preparation off a sub. Clothes were about to ed here. You can see the sub clause version if we added this Devon in on. That's because we have had a full often hast I will remind you off the fact that you promised it to me. The thing the speaker wants to remind the other person about is too complex to peg it into an object. But proposition all phrases I used with objects. So if we want to include the whole issue subject, object verb and whatever additional information, we have to outsource it, we cannot pack it into the main sentence because that already has a subject and the verb. And in that respect, main clauses are pretty limited in available space. So we create a sub clause and the content off the sub clauses pointed at by the proposition all phrase that substitutes it. If they had a dish Dhahran in on dust was me a fresh pot. On August it is your London on Atlas air in un this at us, something can be an object. But it can also be a whole universe of issues. So we are by no means limited here. So instead of at us we use on object or we use a pointer and then the atlas is in the sub clause. Here's another example off at us veteran to bet on something is we're diminished. That off button does avoid to publish comment. I wouldn't bet on him being on time today. Tried yourself with these verbs mid at fascination to expect something off at first. Salen to count on something. Szish, Cuba. Advice for you to be happy about something fun at pacifism to know about something fun. Adverse Handan To be about something. You can pause the video now to fill in the blanks, and this is how you say it can Ishtar Medivation Dust Owen Worst Can I expect you to call? Can ish Dive off Sale Indust Owen Wolves Can I count on you? Calling is for you, Mr We Were does the endless sandal for Finished that. I'm happy about the fact that finally published his book It's Vise or, in the past, Worcester. Next stuff on duster plan. Get in that man's alter. I don't know or didn't know that the plan was supposed to be changed. The film 100 Dar phone doesn't snitched. Emma would ist been 11 sha in a furlong. Ian, The movie is about the fact that it's not always a good thing when all wishes are fulfilled . Many proposition all pronounce can be used in other contexts with a different meaning. I will show you the two most important ones. Damn, it can be a pronoun as in dust ist eine hama dammit! Conman, *** and even Schlager This is a hammer. With this you can hammer nails into the wall Damn it is here the pronoun for Mitt Dame Hama with the different emphasis it becomes dammit! Damn! It is a subjunctive in which means it introduces a sub clause this year yet slows Damn! It is published. So how's it been? I'm leaving now in order to be at home on time Dabei as a proposition all pronoun substitutes by at us, for example by rep are even and one year to the staff dab I stood stale on passage on vine . He was repairing the roof. During that he fell and broke a leg. When you say dad by it is a word that expresses a person having something on them or with them happens It's so phallic Island stiffed thereby Do you have a pen with you? Which is actually a pretty useful phrase to know 5. Intro: Genitiv & n-declension: in this section you will learn about the guinea teeth. I will tell you about the basics. What is the gannet Eve? How do we use it? When do we use it? And why do we use it? How do we use it? Off course involves all those technical details such as which changes are and used by the Gainey teeth. I will also give you propositions that take the Guinea TIF as their object. And at the end, off this chapter, you will actually have knowledge about all the cases. Which means we can finally have a look at the end. Ekl engine off announce 6. Genitiv and its changes: This is the fourth and last case you will study in German. We used the guinea teeth to express that a subject or an object is heart off or belongs to or is owned by another object. In this example, Anton is a possessor, and the dog there wouldn't is the possession. If we now want to speak about the dog, we can specify the information by adding the guinea teeth object to it, which is Anton. The Guinea TV works a bit differently from the cases we've seen before, because we don't use a verb to connect the subject or the object with its guinea TIF object the to stand directly together and work as a unit. You now know that Anton is the genna tive object in the sentence that cyst Antone's hold. When we want to ask about the guinea teeth object and it is a person or an institution, we ask Vess, Um, who's Messam, who? Oldest US Antone's or Antone's hold? If the guinea tive object is not identified by name, then a few things change. First of all, the gin it'd object gets a few changes in article and noun endings as you can see here for the masculine and you turn on both end in E s. That's a stair. Wouldn't this madness that's is their world desk? Indus. That would be That is the man's dog and the third sentence here that is the child's dog for the feminine and the plural noun Onley. The article changes ending in E. L. Thus is their hunt there, Frau, does sister hold Dear Kindle? So this is the woman stock and this is the Children's dog. Second and fourth sent us here. Secondly, and you have probably noticed that already the order off the Guinea TV object and the subject or object it is connected to changes. We first state the subject or object, and then the guinea TIF object instead of Anton's hunt. If Anton is called Dammann, it is dear who owned this manners. When we look at different article types, we get the same endings. There. Here, for the indefinite article is this does Vac minus minus? It's the work of a man as systems HVAC enough. How is this dust back minus Kinder's and also the possessive articles get the same ending. Assist us back minus minus. Assist us back mine off. How? Assist us back Minus kindest. Does this bus back Minor Kingda The noun endings of you have seen on Lee Concern masculine And you turnarounds. Usually we only at an s. But there are some situations where we use an additional e. So the word ends in E s. This is mandatory after civilians in German city Schlatter literally hissing. Sounds like we used the air here for better pronunciation. We also used the E s ending frequently in one syllable mountains or announced that ended more than one continent. This is optional, though. Here you can see some examples of how this works in practice. De Luz, on Desperate blames the solution off the problem. Two syllables, one continent ending and no sibilant. This is an example where only an s can be added. That's end of the schools is the end of the course. This needs an E s because the noun ends in a sibilant. They're chef in Addis Dukes or their chef noticed Suker's. That's the conductor of the train. This is a one syllable now soup, so it can be both souks or fungus. Deport shaft disco shanks, deborde, shaft discussion. Ca's That's the message off the present. This is a noun that ends in two continents. So again, both endings are possible. Gosh, thanks. Or grishenko? Us. Here's an exercise. Rewrite the sentences with their correct guinea TIF object. That would be the transmission off. The message was no problem. The number of copies off the book has fallen. The location off the business is not ideal. The decision off the assembly was anonymous. Your brother statement is not comprehensible. The complaint off the residents was unfortunately unsuccessful. You can possibly don't know to rewrite the sentences. And here's a solution. Uber MIT loom there board shaft by kind problem. The our flag of the schools would at the schoolhouse Iscause Duncan there stand or this between leaves isn ish cereal The inside on this plenum spine Systemic. The all saga dinos pulled us this national food. Ceiba, Did Ashley Adebolajo Mona by Aleida afford loss? There is, of course, also on adjective declination involved. If the adjective is part off the guinea teeth object, you can see some examples for all genders and the plural with a definite article. All adjectives get a e n ending there. Stand out of Spokane Timber Tweeps Astonished idea their plan. They look Harland, the herder clinked will be yours. Do you inside on discourse and plenum spines to make? Give us the added. I'll turn Boehner by Leda or Foreclose. And here are some examples with the indefinite article and the same adjective endings as before there stand out on its course, and between this most good, give a good sign. The location off A big business has to be chosen well, the plane on a local and baher other cleaning off yours The plans of a local office often sound dubious. Is that song in the schools and fines ist fish stick? The statute of a big club is important, and then we have this last sentence de plena look. Holla the herd and clinging oft doobie use the plans of local offices often sound dubious. Onley The plural zero article Guinea teeth object has a different ECU engine and gets an e . L. This follows the common pattern off the defining article ending having to be present, which we have discussed in Section Fife. If there is no article, it has to be added to the adjective 7. Genitiv alternative: Dativ: you might have noticed that the example sentences in the last lecture sounded a bit more formal than usual, more like something you would read in a newspaper article. And that is indeed the area where the Ginia TV is still used frequently. In everyday situations, people often resort to the dot teeth. Instead, it can be used in the exact same place as the unity of object. It only needs Theoden Inal proposition fun. So when in writing or formal speech, the sentence is esteem, a Jesus offsets asses snitched would give it the topic off. This essay hasn't been chosen. Well, then, in a more colloquial manner, we would say, Does team a fun deism. Offsides is next, good revered. This alternative becomes especially interesting when we look at formulating questions or Proposition a pro announce related to the guinea teeth object. In these examples, we ask for a person or an institution. The inside, um desk Frein's Besson and child, all the whole saga. Dina Cool Egan Busan. Our saga. But if the object is neither of the above, we cannot ask vessel. For example, if we have the permit loom their marriage, the transmission off the message we can use Basia or Basia spacious and so on the vomit longer guest on. And we can also use the Darty version that is initiated by the proposition Fun, the permit Long fun They're not changed. Do you permit long for fun? If we want to ask for the guinea TV object alone, then we usually on Lee do that. If we haven't understood which one it waas or we need this very specific information. And if we want to ask for that, we can use the questions that I wrote down here they should permit long Do you vomit room full fun or you ask for the whole unit Bassat Gaston shot before And the answer then would be the Obama clone Dia na edged. 8. Prepositions with the Genitiv: just like the acquis Atif and the data TIF. The guinea teeth can also be initiated by a proposition. Here you can see all three. It has a few body crucible, Floyd. That's the acquisitive, aberrational finished Mitsuo Einem course and therefore that ive the horrendous examines hashtag absolute work. And this one is a unities v evened. This examines. This means that in this lecture, we're not looking at again it Eve that expresses ownership. Grammatically speaking, As you know, propositions carry objects and objects have to take on a case. The guinea teeth case after a proposition, is less common than the acquisitive and daddy, and often in colloquial language, people simply replace it with the Dottie's. Based on that, it is sometimes said that you don't need to study the guinea TV at all as a student off German, because sooner or later it will disappear from our language anyway, a notion that I don't agree with for two reasons. First of all, the Guinea TV is very frequently used in written language, so at least it has to be recognized and understood. And secondly, the guinea teeth is an indicator off higher language. When you write to someone and make a few mistakes, but I able to use the guinea TV. You will appear more educated than the other way around. If you intend to almost never ride and want to concentrate on speaking than off course, it makes less sense to spend a lot of time practicing the guinea. Here. You can see some examples off Unity of Propositions in four years ago, which means you two are, as a result, off torts, which is despite DeLand while Biggane because off Here's an example, Sentence with and Floy ago in for the NFL. That song contraire finished al Bytom as a result, often injury. He couldn't work one example with tots toss the Celestine Betters, firebrands, even guns and Talk 1000. Despite the bad weather, they spend the whole day outside. Here's a sentence with Be Even, is Bleiberg Beer and de fire Tiger. My sins toe Hauser. Most of the time, I stay at home during the holidays and an example with Big Gun A can vegan on a string and inter means light honest under English, please tire name. Because of a new, urgent appointment, he cannot join the conversation. Here's some more propositions that carry a guinea teeth object. I'm stucked instead off Metin Issa with the help off, then sue clich? Regarding now, according to Loud can also mean loud of used as an adjective. Now try and make sentences for the given situation, using the guinea teeth with an stat, the tufa but soup, lish and lout every time. Faggot, calcium A call, Steinmeier told Not so We're looking for you wanted to buy a bicycle, and instead he bought a motorcycle zebra and noted US Project Viloca Lead and you hire from we're looking for. She finished the project with the help all her colleagues see having you get an Antichrist shipped Cavanaugh Kinda and formats Yolanda Weaver and we're looking for regarding your request. I don't have any information about it in my article state. That's the best start Mid ee grocery even built and we're looking for. According to the article, Sylvester, which is New Year's Eve, is spelled with an I try and make sentences for the given situations using the guinea teeth . You can pause the video now to do so. And here's the solution on shut Eyeless faggots cough there I'm mortal that see the n deterred us. Protect materials, your hooligan. But Suplicy, Euros and tax harvesting all kinda and formats your loan loudest are takers. Build Sylvester Mitt E Extreme. 9. The n-declension: weak nouns: Now that all the cases are covered, it is time to introduce the endemically nuts. You're the Indyk Len gin and the end YCL engine is about adding an extra in to some mounds . In some cases, this is quite a curious topic, but first, let me show you what it looks like in practice on Huma in the Nominative turns into Ironman Human in the Yakuza TIF. It's have a einem human museum. Here's one in the Dottie's is give a deem Nast von Einem belief and one more example. In the guinea teeth. The whole saga dissed soy Egan the inch I didn't. So apparently there are some announce that get an additional end in those three cases. The end YCL engine over rised the otherwise mandatory noun endings in the guinea teeth announce that fall into this category are called Week Now owns Norman, and all but one are masculine. Meskill announced that end in e getting n in the acquisitive that if and unity Meskill announce with the ending on bond. End on end is wolf end. Certain professions getting e. N. In those three cases here, you can see examples for both groups. Humor, coddle France. Sousa Liar. That's a boy, a rave in a Frenchman and an amateur. And they all are masculine and ended E. And from the other group, Paktika Hunt, student doctor and parlayed cyst. She lows off. I'll detect photograph. So that's an apprentice and the student and the Post read, yet a policeman of philosopher and architect and a photographer. This is what it looks like in Context Desk, a dished, handled fun animal. Aban The poem is about a rave in affected in police system. Not in big, he asked the policeman for directions. Das ist and foretell an Esper Winton photo kalfan. This is a photo off a popular photographer. There are more week now owns that don't belong to a specific group, but work in the same way. Dana de Bawa And they get an end. That's the neighbor and the farmer. Then we have done now that Prince Dae hair that I bet it their fewest deg off their head. There come a lot. They get a e n. And they are the Joker, the prince, the master or gentleman, a rebel account or a prince on girl. Or account a hero. Know where your head. It's a hero and become a god of comrade. So with these last two, you can probably see a certain category that they fall in mainly aristocracy, historical and storytelling. Here are a few more examples with those now owns as far they wouldn't does not bomb It was the daughter of the neighbor. Diffused tough on another, Belen on ST Etienne Done dim Prince and four. The Earl met a rebel and introduced him to the prince. So far, we have spoken about week now, ones that are male living beings. There are also announce that fall into a different category. Full stop. Good Denker Nama Vida Villa Global. That's the letter, the thought, the name peace will and face. These also have a slightly different rule. They also get an extra end in the acquisitive and active. But in the guinea T, they ended E and s ends. Now this is probably a bit closer to real life conversation. Then the Joker account and rebel. As you can see in this example, Curlin's immune and ask Booth, Stop munis, Nam and sagging. Can you tell me the first letter off your name? And now the Onley Week now that is not masculine. Thus hats the heart. This one gets an e n in the dotty's and a N s in the guinea teeth. It makes sense that there is no change to the yakuza teeth, as neutral rounds are not affected by changes induced by the causative. Here you can see dust hats in those three cases and context a hat. I'm Gupta's hats. He has a good heart. Thus food them hasn't shot and soul that damages the heart. Assist on a flag does hat, since it's a question off the heart. 10. Seemingly weak nouns: some mounds. Seemingly you fall into the category week announce, but don't actually belong there. They're announced that derived from adjectives such as Dare deutsche shell. Those sounds get an adjective decl engine, which happens to coincide with the principal off the end Ekl engine. You can see it here with their Deutscher in the Norman, a tease becoming Dean Deutschen in the quiz on Teeth deem Deutschen in the dot ive and desta origin in the Guinea TIF. There is only one situation where you can formally tell that it is not a week now in the guinea teeth. If no article is used, the higher tongue feeler Deutscher. That's the attitude off many Germans. Imagine how often you're going to use that. Yes, probably not that much. This aspect might be a bit more significant. Dare deutscher eine Deutsche announce off that type act as if they were adjectives followed by a noun Onley that the noun has been dropped and the adjective is capitalized. So it's like saying they are Deutscher man or enjoy Charman. But without the month, this rarely happens with nationalities, so they're Deutscher is one that you can easily remember. Here's some more of that type. I added the adjectives or participles denounced the rival. They're understate. It'll ein understate era. That's an employee, thereby Cantor. I'm back, Kanta. That's an acquaintance. Their anger collector on anger Collector the accused There will be a cantor on own book. Hunter. An unknown person. Dear Fab Anto. I'm Franta, a relative. So there's an obvious discrepancy between the subject with an indefinite and the subject with a definite article. It is something to be confused about if you don't know where it comes from. But now you know. And here are some examples sent. This is and I am the state of their film. A definite indie, too. An employee a off the firm opened the door for him. Mind the counter. Come more before by my acquaintance will stop by tomorrow. Their anger clocked a shriek. The accused kept silent. Does go hide. Kleiner Angus data is soft. Hearing the income off small employees is often low and by kind wouldn't be counter. It wasn't An unknown person is designed. Haven't tough India. Is that a relative of yours? 11. The reverse Genitiv: you have seen two different orders off the subject or object, plus que native object combination, one that starts with a name on Johnson and one that starts with the subject or object. Deer hunt this madness. The 1st 1 is usually only used with names, but in some context you can still find it with other object types. It is used then, without the article off the subject or object. Here's an example. A high of editor de talked at the silent. That's the order that we have looked at so far. They're higher. Editor. Just Saban Tosta. That's the reverse order. You can find this last reverse positioning and older language sources in literature, poetry and sayings. For example, here's a popular German pro verb that uses the reverse guinea teeth. Yida is Sinus Clucas meat. Literally. Everybody is the forger off their own luck or less literal men. For just his own destiny. You can also find the reverse order in Germany's national anthem, Irish Kite on the National Fi Hide Zant desk. Glaucus want up Front Unity and Justice and freedom are the pledge off fortune