Intermediate German Grammar 3: zero article, indefinite and possessive pronouns & 'welche/r/s/n/m' | Esther Hartwig | Skillshare

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Intermediate German Grammar 3: zero article, indefinite and possessive pronouns & 'welche/r/s/n/m'

teacher avatar Esther Hartwig, Take your German to the next level!

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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

5 Lessons (27m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Using adjectives when not using articles (zero-article)

    • 3. Using adjectives when not using a noun (an old one, old ones)

    • 4. Indefinite & possessive pronouns

    • 5. Welcher, welche, welches, welchen & welchem

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About This Class

Learn how to say very commonplace things in commonplace situations in German using indefinite and possessive pronouns, adjectives with the zero article (no article) and adjectives without nouns. Learn how to use welche/r/s/n/m as a question word but also as a pronoun. Be able to say things like 'the blue one', 'We'll buy some.', 'This is mine.' , 'This one.' or 'That one.' These phrases require many changes to word endings in German, but at this stage you are probably able to recognize most of them from other contexts.

This is the third part of a German grammar course on a higher beginner and intermediate level (A2/B1), following 'Your German Grammar Course' for beginners.

All topics will be introduced step-by-step and built up on one another, so you can use your previously gained knowledge in later classes. You can either get the full explanation throughout all the chapters or just pick out the material you need to fill some gaps, refresh your memory, or complement your studies.

The course contains easy to follow explanations in English, examples in German, and in-course exercises.

I designed this course to provide a good understanding of how German as a language works. This knowledge should give you an advantage as you go on with your studies because many rules or exceptions will seem less random. Instead of spending too much time on rules as such, you will learn to see the underlying patterns of the German language. Many different topics will rely on the same patterns, so being able to see those, will make studying German a lot easier.

Meet Your Teacher

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Esther Hartwig

Take your German to the next level!


I have been a language instructor since 2007. I have taught German and English to private students as well as in a business environment in Argentina and Germany. In 2017 I started teaching online. My goal is to provide useful, understandable, compact information and create aha! moments for people who study German. I hold a degree in Educational Science from the University of Hagen, Germany.

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1. Introduction: you know that subjects and objects can consist of an article and a noun or often article and an adjective and a noun. But what happens if you don't use an article and only the adjective and the now or what happens if you use an article and an adjective and no now or what happens? If you only use an article, you will learn how to do that. And you will, of course, also Lord, Why you need that? And I can tell you it's a very practical use. It's something that you can use in everyday life. At the end of the lesson, you will know how to point out things, how to speak about very specific things, and you will also know a new W question. 2. Using adjectives when not using articles (zero-article): When studying basic grammar, you learn that adjectives get declined when you use them before the now or in other words, when they become part off a subject or object. Here are some examples Put Caesar in formats. Yonan isn't an a note. Fiendish kite. Precise informations are a necessity. Is power pred Caesar in formats Union, the health and even made cred season informants. Yonan. One of the things that have to be considered in this is what type of article is used. One type is the definite article, and another type is the indefinite article. But sometimes there is no article. You have seen that with pure announce that cannot carry an indefinite article. For example, Deion Format Soon in a in format, Soon in the singular and D in formats, your none. And then in formats. Yonan In the plural, there are other now ones that don't carry an indefinite article such as Decca fie de loft. Does NASA, coffee, air and water things that we cannot count if we use an indefinite article with them. We mean something else. When we say I am Vasa, we mean I'm glass bassa, A glass of water. I'm coffee is really in a tassel coffee. A cup of coffee. You can use these words, for example, as an a quiz. Atif Object with Falcon and simply use no article at all. It's powerful. Kaffee is power left. Using those now owns without an article does not mean you cannot use them with an adjective . Here's what that looks like. Hi, sir. Coffee, Math. MMA. Hot coffee makes you awake. Is will Hyson coffee? I want hot coffee. I'm Ghouta Morgan, begin to mid high. Cem cafe. A good morning starts with hot coffee. So you see that there is no article but the adjectives get declined. What do we base that declines in on? We will study the masculine singular noun First coffee. By the way, you can say coffee or coffee both. It's fine. This is coffee in three different cases with its definite article First, the new mean Atif dear coffee. Then the Yakuza Chief Deane coffee. And finally the dot If dame coffee on the left, you can see the adjective declines in for a masculine noun. Another Meskill announce one that is countable Donatella the plate on the right. You can see the adjective decl engine for cafe without an article. Also called the zero article Normal article. The Norman Atif is they're blower teller I in Blower Teller. And then without the article high PSA coffee. If you have done my beginner's course, you might remember this pattern that I pointed out. The M has to come up once before the now either in the article or in the adjective you can see that high sec AFI follows the same pattern. There is no article and therefore no air in the article. So it has to be in the adjective Theokoles. Atif is Dean blowin Teller I in a blowin teller and then Hyson Cassie here you can see the common e n pattern on both sides, all articles and all adjectives and an e n Hyson. Cuffy has no article, but the adjective still ends in e. And now the dot teeth deem blowing teller. I am blowing teller end heis um, coffee. The M has to come up once before the noun same principle as in the nominative, just with a different letter as high. Some coffee does not have an article that could carry the m. The adjective gets it that has now see how the famine in now works. Thresher loft is good for this. It's with this aloft. I'm Ghouta Morgan, begin. Mitt Fisher left. Fresh air left carries the definite article D in the nominative and in the acquisitive in the dot. If the article changes to DEA here, you can compare it to accountable feminine. Now, D. Tessa, the company, the adjective decl engine in the nominative and acquisitive is very straightforward. Everything ends in E just like the articles. You can see that this pattern also applies to the zero article version Fisher left in the dot If you can see the same pattern that I described before in the masculine version on Lee that this time the letter we're looking at isn't other The feminine dot ive ever has to come up once before the now either in the article or in the adjective on the right. As there is no article, the adjective carries the ever fresh ever left. Of course, you don't over pronounce it like that. You just say fuchsia. Look now the new turn now Buscetta Caritas Besa Matt ish Al Hokkaido Massa on ghouta Morgan begins mid Kyle TEM Bassa here again. The definite article is the same in the Norman Atif and the Acquisitive. Thus, in the data of case, it is deem and here can see Bassa in comparison to the Neutra. Accountable! Now that's tool, which is a cloth on the left. You can see a familiar principal Onley this time with M s that Zelda would cool. I'm Zelda has to The s comes up once before the now. So we also get Kyle Curtis Bassa. Same for the Norman, Atif and the acquisitive. The quiz Atif does not induce any changes to the neutral object compared to the no mean Atif. So in the acquis Atif, it is just exactly the same as in the Norman Atif. The data beef is the same as in the masculine with E m coming up as the word ending once before the now deems Alban Tool. Bynum's Albelin too. We don't have an article for the water. So it's kind of Tim Bassa Mitt Keita Mombassa isn't exercise to practise the adjective decline jobs with uncountable mountains. The trick here is, of course, to know the correct articles. You can pause this video now and write down the solutions. And here it is. It's mark fresh, a sport. It's mark domestic and keys. It's Mac Zeus in your ward. It's Mark Kaya to miss its mark High social colada. Its name it in fishnet gaming system is a lot its name it in order met Hella. 3. Using adjectives when not using a noun (an old one, old ones): you have seen how to use adjectives and now owns without an article. Now we will look at articles and adjectives without a noun. We commonly used a structure to avoid repetition. Take these dialogues for example happy on annoying fans Here nine systems are a tough hand . Zia that system compatible Excavate buster anger Latest US and combativeness give aid Instead of stating the noun over and over, we can just drop it. Everything else stays the same. This is how we say it. Have you an annoyance, fans? Yeah, nine systems iota. That system combativeness carried muster anger Latest us I'm combativeness. What happens if we don't use an article either? Because we are referring to the plural or to an uncountable. Now we do the same thing. Everything. Meaning the adjective stays the same. And we dropped the Now this is what it looks like. Have to annoy your four. Hangar nine doesn't ICTR The translation for that is Do you have new curtains? No, these are the old ones. But in German we don't use the word like one or once we just drop it altogether. Max to dauntless beer nine is twinkly by Hellas Here are three more dialogues that you can practice with is the US Dina toy Woza Are these air expensive trousers happy and glorious? A spot to have a big bathroom, Mr. Still talking and bine. Would you like dry wine? Pause the video to write down your answers. And here the complete dialogues is thus Dina Toyota, who's a nine assist on a bill. Ego happy I'm causes bat nine. You have my Sinus, Mr. Still talking on vine nine. It's much to hide talkin. 4. Indefinite & possessive pronouns: after having seen how to drop the article, and the noun will now look at dropping everything but the article specifically the indefinite article. When do we need that? For example, in this situation, it's have a kind of big assume. I don't have an umbrella kind problem hissed China. No problem here is one kind problem is Harbour Island. No problem. I have one. When we use the article alone To avoid repetition, we have to turn it into its pronoun version. The indefinite article now gets the ending that the definite article off the noun in the same case has So in the Lumina TIF for a masculine noun, it is China. And in the acquisitive. In here you can see the feminine version is have a kind of camera hind problem. Yes, Dina kind probably, um is Harbor Aina the article has it's usually e ending. In both cases, the new turnaround gets A s ending. In both cases, let's have a kind hendi kind problem. Fierstein's kind of blame the cab eyes. The additionally that I put in brackets here is optional. Without the e, it sounds a bit more informal. Of course, we cannot use an indefinite article as a pronoun. If we use an uncountable or a plural now, in this case, we use a completely different word. The cab kind and coffee kind for blame here is very sure kind. Problem is, have a vision. Basia, in its different forms, means an unspecified quantity off a noun. In this context, the endings are according to gender and case and agree with those applied to the indefinite article. You can see how it is used for a famine and now is have a kind of mish kind problem here. Special kind problem is have of initial and one more time with a new turn on is have a kind , sham pool. Kind problem here is vicious kind whole Blame is have a vicious here. He is not optional, as that would contradict German pronunciation rules, since plural mounds always carry the same article as the feminine noun. The same definite article that is the same ending applies here. It's have a kinda Xueqin kind. Problem isn't special kind. Problem is have official. Here's an exercise for you to practice and extensive exercise. Really pause the video and write down the missing pro. Now hear the full Diallo's caba kind glass. I don't have a glass kind, probably. Here's Dinos. It's have a cops. Mattson on kind of tablets. I have a headache and no pill kind, probably SK Video. Isla. It's have a kind of leaf. Michael. I don't have stems kind. Probably using facial have a kind of fast shine. I don't have a ticket kind for blame. Big house and island. It's have a kind Get. I don't have any money. Kind for blame is giving me a vicious You haven't kind board. We don't have any bread kind problem. Big. How often villages it's have a kind of love for I don't have spoons. Kind problem. He isn't. Let's have a kind and leather. I don't have a spoon kind for blame here. Steiner. You haven't kind of so call. We don't have any sugar kind of limb. Big health invasion From here to the possessive pronouns, it is only a small step. Take this sentence. He's have a kind llegan shill. The possessive articles are transformed in the exact same way as the indefinite articles. When you turn them into pronounce kind Goblin. Here's minor kind for blame Nim minor so that would be I don't have an umbrella. No problem here is mine. Or take mine. All the possessive pronouns take on the same ending. It's have a kind of a game show is Nema Dinan. I'll take yours. Zimmerman's That's a Guy would Be Zion. Liza's would be even con ish Toyland. Neiman, Can I take yours? Do const. Nzealand name and you can take hours. This is the famine inversion is thus Liza's camera nine Assist Minor. Is it Lisa's camera? No, it's mine, but the camera is feminine, so it has to be mine and the neuter noun. It's have a kind, handy kind for blame. Nim minus or nim mines Here. The additional B is optional. No mines is informal. Minus sounds more formal. Here's an example for the Dottie's you found in the stats. Sandy amid Minamoto nine. Simmons Auto is closer. You five admit Zayn. Um so we're going to town. Are we taking my car? No. Simon's car is bigger. We'll take his as in the acquisitive. You're adding the case specific ending to the pro now. So in the dotty for the masculine and Utor, it is all with him. Mine um, Dina, Mum's Einem, Yalom and so on. And for the feminine, it would be minor Dina Zeina era and so on. So it's exactly the same as the ending that use with the indefinite article when you use it in such sentences. 5. Welcher, welche, welches, welchen & welchem: you have seen how to use very Isha in its different forms as a pronoun. But you can also use it as a question word when we have a certain number of things and we want to know about a specific one. This is the question word we use Bache attack is Toyota Which day is today? Bhatia? Hollis Noma is dust. Which house number is that? They just start for Mr Reuter. Which date is today? Bishoff Albergo Fallon Deal Which colors do you like? You can see that the ending changes according to the announce gender, It agrees with the ending off the definite article steady dust and the plural D So these are all in the movie, not teeth. The ending off Asia also depends on the case the noun takes. Here are some examples in the quiz on TIF Evasion Suk Mostel Nayman which trained You have to take vacation format soon, Pal Kinsey, Which information do you need? They should Article has to believe in which articles have you read? And here you can see how it is used in the data teeth again, with the endings corresponding with the ending off the definite article in that specific case. Beige um politica conman fat How one Which politician can you trust? Bhatia? Outsider gloves too. Which statements do you believe? Bassem of Alba Given beauty and job to which applicant will we give the job? Vision The valve Done even getting job to which applicants will we give the job? The politician in the first sentence is masculine so it has to be in em all. Saga statement is feminine So it has to be l in the Dottie's The vein Abba is masculine again and provide them is plural If the object you're asking about is part of a proposition All phrase then we put that proposition before the question word. Then soak Fair fun item lies up for invasion Lies that took up so fast. Madonna Bon Mitt Bhatia Bomb Fair store the other The ABA is fewer Island job guy ignorant If your vacation job is step of airbag, I think not when we want to have more specific information about a subject or object. But we do not limit the pool of answering options we use thus through bus fuer ein mensch ist air. What kind of person is he? Last year, an outfall has to dig a coughed. What kind of car have you bought bus for? Raina Farber had demand. What kind of color does the wall have made Vastra and ask how has to in museum with what kind of woman have you seen him? This basically means from all off those there are in the world of all existing kinds. In many situations, you can ask either question, for example, it doesn't make a difference if you ask Buster I in a far Bahati bond or bail shofar Baha demand. Unless you limit the number off colors from which to choose yourself, like when you say they should file. Bahat evened BASE order brown. If such a question is asked, in a situation in which whatever you're talking about can be pointed at literally, then we can answer with either a demonstrative or a definite article as a pro. Now, this is often accompanied by the words here for something close by Daut for something in the distance, or DA, which can be either or somewhere in between and is quite informal beige cool, Hansi nicked investing. So you're in a bakery in the situation which cake is the best di za this one, dear Also this one. You can also say Dee's a hell or D zada or D za Don't and you can also say dear here, dada or dare dot Here's another example with a feminine now. Bhatia Bon Missing, being demon. He's a die. Here's a masculine noun in the yakuza teeth vacation vine, much the stool he's in here and the masculine noun in the Dottie's Regime. Hold hostage and hunger game deem heel toe. Which dog did you give the bone to? This one and the famine and now in the dotty, this time including a proposition which we also use in the answer. Mitt Bhatia, Cotto con ish despot's Island Mitt Diese here with which card cannot pay this with this year, you can see that the endings off those articles and pronouns always follow the same pattern that ever in the masculine no mean Atif the A in the feminine one, the s in the neuter, and then also the end in the masculine, a causative, the Dottie's em call masculine and you turnarounds and the dotty ab. For feminine owls, this pattern appears over and over, so the rial work is to study denounce with the correct article. That's the main part. And from there, once you remember that pattern, you can apply it regarding the pronouns that we used as Pointers. Theodore Dida, Desta We're not even looking at changed endings. These are actually the same endings that I used when they Adidas, Visa desired Jesus and so on are used as articles. Let's practice this a bit basis. Glass name stool. Which glass do you take? Racial? Hoser ceased one. Which trousers are you putting on for vacation? Tisch is thus Essam for Which table is the food invasion Flasher Is there zero In which bottle is the syrup this and film selling Beyonce on Which movie are we going? Toe watch. You can use either the definite or the demonstrative pronouns by themselves or with an edit here dot or dot Pause the video now to write down your answers. Here are some example solutions. As I said before, you can combine them either way, so the answer to vicious glass name still can be done. CIA. It can be desta and also dust art and also desires. Here DEAs esta or diseases dot They're all possible solutions