Improve your Photography - Learn why AUTO mode can fail, and how to use MANUAL mode to TAKE CONTROL | Paul Cooper | Skillshare

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Improve your Photography - Learn why AUTO mode can fail, and how to use MANUAL mode to TAKE CONTROL

teacher avatar Paul Cooper, Professional Photographer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

18 Lessons (58m)
    • 1. TCOYC 001 Course Introduction

    • 2. TCOYC 002 Exposure Module Introduction

    • 3. TCOYC 003 The three factors that determine exposure

    • 4. TCOYC 004 Exposure modes PASM

    • 5. TCOYC 005 Metering

    • 6. TCOYC 006 iso,shutter,aperture relationship

    • 7. TCOYC 007 Switching to manual

    • 8. TCOYC 008 Exposure tips

    • 9. TCOYC 010 Lens and sharpness Module Introduction

    • 10. TCOYC 011 Lens focal Length

    • 11. TCOYC 012 Focus modes manual or auto

    • 12. TCOYC 013 What is depth of field

    • 13. TCOYC 014 How do we control depth of field

    • 14. TCOYC 016 Demonstration of Depth of Field

    • 15. TCOYC 018 Introduction to Module 3

    • 16. TCOYC 019 Backlit subjects

    • 17. TCOYC 020 Fill Flash

    • 18. TCOYC 021 White Balance

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About This Class

Designed for photographers who are using their camera's 'automatic' settings and are ready to progress to full manual control. You may be just starting out, in which case it’s a great idea to learn all about manual skills straight away - or you may have been using your camera for a while and getting great results on automatic ninety percent of the time. This course will help you fix that elusive ten percent that’s not currently working out the way you want!

The lectures in this course are clear, concise, and short! They're designed to give you maximum information in the shortest possible time - for people who want to improve their photography in a short space of time.

You’re going to learn how to set shutter speed, aperture, ISO and white balance as well as how to choose the correct lens and settings to control sharpness.

You'll finish this course with a much greater understanding of exposure and the skills to override your camera's automatic settings to improve your images.

Main areas covered by this course:

Relationship between shutter/aperture/ISO

Light readings - Incident and reflected

18% grey card readings

Depth of field and how to control it

Why the ‘auto’ settings on your camera sometimes fail

Lighting - Backlit subjects, reflectors, fill in flash.

When is auto best?

Colour temperature and White balance settings

Focus – manual or auto?

How to ‘get it right’ in camera rather than photoshop.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Paul Cooper

Professional Photographer


Since founding his own photography business in 1995 Paul has gained many awards - including the top accolades of UK Photographer of the Year from the Master Photographer's Association AND from the British Institute of Professional Photography.

Paul has served as the Commercial Sector Chairman of the MPA/BIPP's qualification team and has previously received a Presidential Award from the MPA for his services to the Photographic Industry. As a result his work is marketed worldwide and he is in regular demand as a photographic speaker and judge both in the UK and internationally.

Paul shoots commercial images for advertising and packaging, press and PR images for the newspaper and magazine industry, and lots of 'people' shots: Fashion shoots, corporate portraits, and family gr... See full profile

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1. TCOYC 001 Course Introduction: Hello, I'm Paul Cooper. I'm a working professional photographer based in the UK, and I've been really my own business for 20 years. The most common frustration that I seen my want to on training sessions is from photographers who were using their cameras and automatic. They're getting good results most of the time, but not 100% of the time. Sometimes automatic just doesn't get it right, and that's when you need to take control of your camera by switching to manual. This course will teach you the fundamental skills that every photographer needs to know the skills that will allow you to understand what your cameras capable off and to maximize your image quality on your success rate, I suggest you run through the modules in order. Have you camera nearby, then go out and practice what you've learned before you move on to the next module, then revisit the modules that you've been the most relevant to you. The principles of photography of the same regardless of the kind of camera that you're using, the things that we're talking about in this course apply toe all camera types. This is a digital SLR, so it's very very versatile. We can change all the settings on here as we can on this one, which isn't an SLR. It's Ah, muralist camera. We have a compact camera. Here s so it's slightly less versatile. And even the camera that's in your mobile phone, it uses the same principles. It has an I S O sensitivity. It has an aperture. And it has a shutter speed on these three things combined together to create the exposure in all camera types. Thank you for taking this course. I hope you enjoy it. 2. TCOYC 002 Exposure Module Introduction: this module is all about exposure. How light, or how dark your photograph it's will cover shutter speeds, apertures and I eso settings on. Explain how these three settings interact to produce the result that you want At the end of this module, you'll know how to set the correct exposure to capture the brightness level that you're trying to achieve, and you'll also understand why the automatic setting sometimes get it wrong. This is the most important part of this course. It's worth spending extra time experimented with skills that you learn in this module because once you've mastered the relationship between the exposure variables, you'll be well on the way to take in full control of your camera. 3. TCOYC 003 The three factors that determine exposure: way talk about exposure in photography were referring to the brightness and our final image . How dark, or how light it is. The correct exposure is generally assumed to be the one that records the scene, but the same brightness level is your eyes. But it's a little bit misleading, as we sometimes will deliberately under or over exposed image to create a particular look. So actually, there's no such thing is the correct exposure as it really depends on what you, the photographer are trying to create. All digital cameras work in the same way. There's a microchip inside the camera that contains millions of individual light sensitive receptors. The lens focuses an image onto the chip at the back of the camera on the amount of light reaching. Each sensor is recorded when we press the shutter release the amount of light hitting each receptor then determines the brightness of the image. So more light hits the sensors. The filter will be brighter than if only a small amount of light is recorded. The three factors that can affect the exposure are the sensitivity of the chip in the back of your camera. This is the I s o setting the shutter speed or how long the light is actually allowed to fall on the chip on the aperture. That's how much light is allowed to pass through the lens and reach the chip in the back of your camera. So let's look each one of these in turn. The I S O setting indicates the sensitivity of the chip. It's an international standard, so chip sensitivity of 100 a. So from nick on is the same as 100 days er from canon or Olympus or Fuji or any of them. The higher the number, the more sensitive the chip is toe light. So if you want to take photographs in dark conditions, a higher sensitivity or I so will make things easier for you. But there's a downside to increasing the chip sensitivity. The best qualities always obtained from the lowest. I serve setting for your camera, usually around 100 or 200 I s O. As the sensitivities turned up, the quality of the images degraded by digital noise speckled colors within the image that will show up very high magnification. The second factor is shutter speed. When you press the shutter release button if the shutter opens and closes after a pre defined amount of time. It's a measure of how long the light is allowed to pass through the lens to be recorded by the chip in your camera. So a shorter shutter speed records like for less time than the longer shutter speed. Most cameras allow you to set the shutter speed from a shorter's 1/1000 of a second to about 30 seconds. The longer the shooter is open, the more light is received by the chipping the camera. On the brighter, the final image will be shutter speeds a measured in fractions of a second, so typical should to speed will be 125th of a second or 1/60 of a second or something along those lines. The third factor affecting exposure is the aperture of the lens in very simplistic terms. Think of this as a measure of how wide the holy is that the light passes through to reach the chip. If the whole or aperture is made wider than more light will past through the lens and the image will be brighter apertures and measured in units called F stops. You'll hear photographers talking about F stops or if numbers confusingly a smaller F stop number is a wider aperture than the larger F stop number. They have stopped number sequences. Calculated mathematically is the ratio of the lenses focal length to the diameter of aperture. But you don't need to remember any of that. Basically, the smaller the number, the wider the aperture or hold that the light passes through. So F 2.8 is a wider aperture than F four or F 11. You'll also hear photographers talking about fast lenses, a fast lenses usually considered to be one that has the widest aperture of F 2.8 or more. 4. TCOYC 004 Exposure modes PASM: modern cameras have a multitude of exposure modes, but most of them are based on the three basic automatic settings. Thes air, usually labeled as P A on deaths and a common to most cameras. P is program mode. This is the most automated setting and allows the camera to set both shutter and aperture together with I S O. It gives you very little control over which settings were used, although you can usually tweak things a little bit with the exposure compensation, which we'll talk about later on. Aperture priority more usually labeled as a on your camera allows you to set the aperture value, and then the camera automatically sets the shutter speed for you. This is useful when you know that you want to use a specific aperture for an image, usually because of the depth of field that that particular aptitude will give you. Don't worry. If you don't know what I mean by depth of field, I'm covering it in a letter module for you. The remaining automatic mode is labeled X, which stands for shutter priority. This mode allows you to set the shutter speed and then let the camera set the aperture value automatically If, for instance, you wanted to fix your shutter speed at a very high setting, such as 1/1000 of a second, maybe to freeze the action in a sports photograph than this mode can be very useful. The Fourth World on the one that we're most interested in for this course is manual usually indicated by a letter M on your camera. This gives us the full control that we want. And although it can be a little daunting to start with, once you've mastered setting the exposure yourself and you're not relying on the camera to second guess what you want, you'll find yourself taking full control. There are situations, usually when the light is changing quickly, when it can be useful to switch to one of the automatic modes. But in doing so, you must always realize that your sacrifice in some of the control that you have as a photographer 5. TCOYC 005 Metering: way. Take a photograph. The amount of light subject reflects is measured by the camera and then in the automatic molds. The camera decides what settings to use for the exposure now, depending on your particular model, the camera may changed just the shutter speed and aperture settings, but it may also alter the I. S. L. Basically, the camera is in control and you have very little imports. Apart from pointing the camera in the right direction to make decisions on exposure, your camera has to know what constitutes a correct level of brightness for your final image . This is achieved by using a meter which is built into the camera, and it measures the amount of light entering the lens all camera meat as a calibrated to an international standard, which is loosely based on what Kodak called on 18% gray count reading. In other words, if your subject has an average reflections of 18% gray, which Kodak established by looking at lots of holiday snaps of green grass and blue sky the meat, it will measure the light accurately and produce the correct exposure. Now, the meters in today's modern cameras have very sophisticated and they look at more than just the reflective of the subject. Scene recognition software tries to establish what the cameras actually pointed out. Is it people landscape, sunset, etcetera And then it works out the best exposure. But like all technology, it sometimes gets it wrong. This is when you need to take control. Let's just demonstrate how automatic exposure conf fail. We've got a camera set on automatic, its program mode, and we're pointed it at three different cards. We've got a black one white, one on an 18% gray card. What we'll do is we'll see what the camera makes of each one of them. So we'll start with the great card with pop that on there. So the camera is literally just filling the frame. With the great card we take a picture on, we can see that the camera has actually achieved agree result, which is what we would expect. The camera is calibrated to love gray cards. It likes things that a gray. Now let's swap this for the black one. And again, the chemist alone automatic we take a picture on. What we see this time is we've got another grey image. The camera has made our black card very, very grey. So it's actually over exposed the image on our last one. Have a white card. We'll take another picture. I know. What a surprise. We've got another great image because the camera tries to make everything 18% gray. There are two main ways to take a light reading photography incidents and reflected light readings. Now an incident light reading measures the amount of light that falls on the subject. This this gives a very accurate results because the color and the reflections of the subject doesn't affect the reading. You may have seen photographers using a separate light meter like this, which they point towards the camera from the subject position. It measures the light that actually hits the subject. By the way, all professional photographers light meters held together with elastic buns like this now reflected light reading, as the name implies, measures the light that's reflected off the subject, so the color on the reflectivity of the subject will influence what's measured Now. The meeting your camera takes these readings on assumes that everything is 18% gray. So that's why all our shots end up looking a little bit great. So how does this cause problems in the real world? Because most photographers don't go around shooting. GRE counts well, if the cameras presented with a scene that is predominantly white and I don't just mean a piece of card like this or something that's very light in tone, maybe a snow scene. Then there's a tendency for the automatic settings to try to make the photo darker because it makes everything amid great Oh, the opposite situation is when a scene is predominantly dark. Remember our black card that it tried to make gray? Maybe when you're shooting at night in this case, the automatic settings will overexpose the shot again. It's an attempt to make it gray rather than black. Now, by switching the camera to manual mode, we can take control of the exposure, and we can create an image that reflects the true eternal range of our subject. 6. TCOYC 006 iso,shutter,aperture relationship: Theo, So shutter speed and aperture settings work in conjunction with each other in a fairly simple way. Dublin, the I s O makes the camera twice a sensitive to light. So you only need half a much light to create your exposure. And having the I s O makes it half a sensitive. So you need twice as much light entering the camera by Dublin or having the shutter speed, we can let more or less light into the camera to compensate for changes in I s O our third control. The aperture also works in a linear way. So by closing the attitude down to the next F stop, we have the amount of light passing through the lens on By opening up the aperture to the next widely Steph, stop. We double the amount of lights you'll hear photographers talking about stopping down the lens are opening up, stopping down, meaning we're using a higher F number. That's a smaller aperture, and opening up a lens is using a smaller F stop number, and that's a wider hole or aperture in the lens. For example, let's assume that we've worked out a correct exposure of 1 250th of a second at an aperture of F eight. With the camera, ESO sets a 400 we can maintain the same exposure across a wide range of individual settings . The important thing to remember is that if we also one of our three variables, then we must alter at least one other in the opposite direction to retain the same brightness. Let's demonstrate that now we've got the camera pointing at the great card and we switch to manual mode. Now, if we look at the meter in the camera, we can see that we've got a shutter speed of 1/10 of a second on an aperture of F five on the meters indicated that this would be the correct exposure for this great card. If we alter the shutter speed. So we go from 1/10 of a second to a 20 earth, then you can see that the meter is now indicating that this photo would be under exposed. So what we can do is we can open up the aperture like sotto F 3.5, and the meter is now returned to the center. Position on the exposure is therefore correct Likewise, we could increase the I s O from 400 to 800. If I just do that, then you'll now see that the meat is indicating we will be overexposed. So what we can do to compensate for that is we could either close down the aperture from 3.5, like so to at five. Or we could have left the aperture on F 3.5 on. We could have used a shorter shutter speed like that 48th of a second. So you can see that we can actually use any of the three variables the I s of the aperture or the shutter to achieve the result that we want in the correct exposure. Now, changing the shutter speed has a different effect to changing the aperture changing the I S O has a different effect to change in the attitude of the shutter speed. These three variables work in conjunction with each other, but you have to be aware of what each one does to your final image. It's not just about the exposure 7. TCOYC 007 Switching to manual: way camera pointed at a white card again was set on automatic program mode, actually, is what it's called S O. The meter in the camera is measuring. The light reflected off our white card. Now it's suggesting an exposure or the 60th of a second. The F four hour I eso is set on 400 at the moment, so if we take a picture, we know what will happen. It would be rather grey surprise. Surprise it is now, before we actually switch to manual mode, let me show you a little trick that you can use if you want to stay on one of the automatic modes. There's something called exposure compensation, and it's a little plus minus button on most cameras. If we press the button and hold it in and then we can dial in exposure compensation now, photographers will talk about exposure compensation measured in F stops. A lot of the meters will show it as e V. That's exposure value UNIX. So if we dial in one e V what we're actually saying there is used the meter reading that the camera is suggesting, but then overexpose it by one eveyone f stop in other words, double the brightness of the image. So we take a picture and hopefully this one will be brighter, which it is. It's still not where we want it to be. So let's dial in a little bit more exposure. Compensation. Let's go to two F stops or to evey units, take another picture that's getting closer to our white card Now. Now we can go further. We can actually go to I think three f stops or more on this camera. Let's go to 2.7. Take a picture and I think this will probably be white now. It is the problem with exposure compensation. As good as it is, it's still not giving you control individually off the actually on the shutter on sometimes that's what you need. Now, if we switch the camera to full manual mode, then we could take control off the shooter and the aperture as well as the I S O. So it was switched to manual mode. Andi, we go now. I'm often asked, what's the starting point for exposure? Well, great starting point is to actually use the recommendation of the meat in the camera, then with the knowledge that you have off the subject that you're trying to photograph. You can tweet the explosion one way or the other. So let's have a look at what the meter is telling us if we also the should have speed, that we go to an 18th of a second F 3.2, then them eateries in the center. Eso that's indicated that the camera thinks it would be the correct exposure. Our I eso is on 400. We know this will be wrong. Let's take a picture just to prove it, so that will give us a nice grey image, as expected. So now we can tweet this on what we need to do because it's a white subject and the camera is being fooled into under exposing. We can actually use the longer shutter speed to make the picture lighter. So let's do that first. So if we go from an 18th of a second to a fortunate a second, so we doubled the length of time that the shooter opens and actually lets the light through , so the picture will be twice as bright. There it is, still not bright enough, but it's getting us nearer to where we want to be. If you look at the meter on the bottom of the camera there, you'll see that it's not really indicating that the camera thinks the shot is now over exposed. But it's not. Let's take the shutter speed even further. Let's go to 1/20 of a second. So we have now doubled the length of time. The shooters open again. We take a picture and we've got something that's twice as bright again, again. It's still not quite where we want to be. So let's just use a slightly longer should space a 15 for the second. That should be church brighter. And there it is on. We're starting to get a pure white in the center There. Now all we did was we changed the shutter speed. Now let's put on a shirt to speed back to an 80th that was on starting point. Now we could increase the I S O. So we're on 400. Let's double it to 800 then double it again to 1600. So what we've actually done there is we've, um, double to the brightness and then doubled the brightness again in a similar to what we did with the shutter speed, but we haven't touched the shooters. But this time, so we take a picture. Andi. Yet we've got almost a white image there. We could tweet that, then with your dispute, or we could go a bit further with the ice. Oh, or we could open up the aperture. The question I'm asked all the time is, Well, how do you know which one to alter? Well, it depends on the situation in which you are taking the photograph on. It depends on what you want to achieve in this situation. The cameras on a tripod. We know that we can use a very, very long shutter speed, a long exposure. Andi, there's no problem with the camera being moved. Your in the exposure. It's nice and solid. It's on a tripod. It's not moving. It's not going anywhere. If we were holding the camera, then we were photographing a moving subject that we may have an issue and we may need to use a very short shutter speed eso that it would be something that would freeze the action and so that we didn't have any kind of movement if it if we way we moved ourselves during the exposure. Um, so in this case, we know that we could drop the exposure. Very, very. Ah, low. We could even go to something like a two second exposure. Uh, would put the I s o plaque. I'm actually gonna put the icer onto 200 which is the lowest setting for this camera. Because, remember, the lowest setting gives me the best quality on. Then we can tweak the aperture and I'm watching the meter all the time when I'm doing this . So we tweak the aperture so that there we go. The camera thinks that the correct exposure is two seconds f 32 with a nicer of 200. It's not remember, this is the meter thinking it's correct. So this will be great. Let's take the picture and you can hear the shooter is up for two seconds. That's a very long time, and we've ended it with the same result is a great picture, but what we can do now is weaken. Open up the aperture. Let's go to se F 18 of 20. Take a picture that's still two seconds, I said. What's like to gray of 16 we're gonna something even lighter. What I hope you're getting from this is you can use thes three variables, the ISA that should speed on the aperture in combination with each other. And sometimes you might want to change one instead of the other. But you have control of which one you're changing. Now, what we're gonna talk about in another module is depth of field. And that's all about the aperture that you choose in and how much you want in focus. And so sometimes its depth of field reasons or camera, shake and blur or reasons of quality. Why, you might alter one of these variables over another. 8. TCOYC 008 Exposure tips: There's a very useful tool built into a lot of cameras and image processing software, which displays a HIST, a gram of the tones in a photograph and will also highlight any areas of over exposure. Let's look at the history Graham First, the history Graham is basically a graph, which shows the dark tones at the left on the lighter tones at the right, with vary in shades of gray between the two. Let's shoot an image and have a look at the corresponding hissed a gram. What we have set up here is our camera looking at our Greek out again like we had before our 18% gray card. We're on manual exposure. If we shoot a picture and then look at the history Graham. What we'll see is a peek just in the centre, which shows is the gray level of the card. Remember the left of the history? Me black, the right of the history. Graham is white and everything in between a different tones of grey. If we fill the frame with our white card instead, I'll just hold it there like that and take a picture. Then you'll see the hissed a gram moved to the right, indicating a much later told Andi. If we do the black card, you'll see that the hissed a gram moves to the left. The reason it's not bang up against the left on site is because it's not a completely true black in much the same way as the white one wasn't completely up against the right inside because it's not a true white. But what I can do now is I can put the three tones within one image if you just hold them like that and shoot a picture. And now you can see the three peaks indicating the black, the gray of the white that we've got within this image. The second tip is something which many cameras feature called flashing highlights. When activated, your camera will display the image of taken on any areas that appear white. That's the highlights will flash on enough. It's a great way of knowing whether you've over exposed an image on lost all the detail in the lighter tones photographers refer to. This is blowing the highlights because once the pixels have gone pure white, there's nothing you can really do to bring it back. We've got a camera pointing at the white card. If we shoot a picture, we'll see that the hissed a gram is up towards the right inside. But it's not pure white. The card isn't pure white. So that's what we expect to see if we overexpose this shot a little bit. So what I'm gonna do is use a longer shutter speed and shoot a picture. You can see the peak is moving further to the right. Now, if we go too far, you'll see now that the image has started to flash, this is the feature called Flashing Highlights. That tells May that we've basically lost all the detail in that particular image. What I've got is I've got this software set to show me anything above the value of 250. Absolute. Why it is 255 Andi. So that's telling me that we've hit that to 50 on. We're in serious danger now of losing all the information in this picture. So what we would need to do is just bring the shutter speed back, touch or stop down the aperture, or reduce the sensitivity of the I S O. And then we get in much more accurate results and something, but is a lot more flexible later on. If we want to play with the image, don't panic when you're shooting outdoors and the skies flashing on and off every time you take a photo, the sky does tend to be much brighter than the ground, and sometimes it's unavoidable to lose detail this way if you correctly expels for your main subjects. If you camera has a history, Graham on Flushing highlights feature than I strongly recommend that you switch it on. It's a fantastic way of assessing the exposure, particularly if you're shooting outdoors in bright sun when it could be difficult to view an image on the back of your camera. 9. TCOYC 010 Lens and sharpness Module Introduction: Thats module, you're going to learn some important facts about lenses. Why do we choose a particular lens for a shot? What does focal length mean? How do we control the sharpness in our photographs? We're going to look at an overview of the different auto focus modes that are available on most cameras and also why it's sometimes best to switch to manual focus. We'll explore the concept of depth of field and look at how we can control it so that we maximize or minimize the sharpness in an image. But the end of this module. You'll understand the relationship between setting our exposure, which we looked at previously, and control in sharpness within our photographs. Through aperture settings, you'll need to have your camera lenses ready so that you compose the lectures while you find the settings on your own equipment. 10. TCOYC 011 Lens focal Length: what lens focal length, which is a measurement of the power of the lens, is usually quoted in millimeters as photographers. The only thing you need to remember is that the angle of view becomes narrower as the focal length increases. The exact angle of view depends on the former to the camera being used. A full frame 35 millimeter camera will capture a wider view than a smaller format camera when fitted with same focal length lens in general, when dealing with 35 millimeter former camera gear, lenses of 28 millimeter or less are regarded as wide angles and lenses above about 70 millimeter would be considered as telly photos. The middle ground, 50 millimeter focal length lens is widely referred to as a standard lens, as its angle of view closely matches that of the human eye. So a short focal length lands will capture a wider view of a scene which could be very useful in cramped shooting conditions or for capturing wide landscape images. However, Kerry's needed when using a wide angle lens close into a subject as it will distort perspective, objects close to the lens will appear to be much larger than objects that are only a short distance away. This effect can be used to inject drama into a photo, but if using correctly, it can be very unflattering. On Portrait's, a standard lens of around 50 millimeter focal length will provide a very natural looking perspective. Because the angle of view is similar to our own vision, the images appear very natural to us. A slightly longer focal length or short telephoto lens say around 100 millimeters is a great portrait lens. It compresses the perspective slightly and is very flattering. Extreme telephoto lenses such as four or even 500 millimeters tend to be used purely for sporting events, wildlife or even papparazzi shots. From a distance, it's important to choose the correct focal length lens for the image you want to create. A wide angle shot in a confined space will make the view of fields if they're in the thick of the action and is often used by press photographers to inject some dynamics into everyday situations. But remember that a wide angle lens will also distort perspective on in general. It's not the sort of lens that you'd use for a portrait unless you're aiming for a particular effect. A telephoto lens has a much narrower angle of view and is useful for making distant objects appear closer or for isolating the detail in a wider scene. Because telephoto lenses have a narrower angle of view, they are much more susceptible to camera shake problems. Camera shake is what happens when you move the camera during the exposure. So if you're using a telephoto lens, it's important to use a faster shutter speed in order to minimize this effect. If you camera lens has an image stabilization feature, this is the time to make sure it's turned on a lot of photographers. You zooms, and these convenes from very wide angle to telephoto in a single lens, the reverse attire. But there's often a trade off between versatility and image quality. These super zooms also tend to have maximum apertures of around F four to F 5.6, and so they need more light than the lens, with a wider aperture of, say, 2.8 11. TCOYC 012 Focus modes manual or auto: most photographers, including professionals, use auto focus for a large percentage of their work. Modern autofocus systems of very accurate on, when used correctly, can focus much faster than manual methods. But just like exposure meters, they don't always get it right. So it's important to know how to take control of the focusing when you need toe. A lot of auto focus systems rely on high contrast measurement techniques to obtain a sharp image. If they're faced with a low contrast scene, they come sometimes struggle to find a focus point. The names vary from one manufactured to another, but most camera models have a single shot world on a continuous focus mode. You'll see other names like Active Focus or Dynamic focus depending on the camera model that you've got in general, the single shot mode is the warm to use most of the time. This allows you to press the shutter release button halfway down to lock the focus on your subject and then recompose the image before pressing fully down. To take the shot, you can usually switch between a single focus point in the viewfinder, which can be moved around the image area or a group of focus points that allows the camera to select the area of highest contrast. The options really do depend on your camera model, but in general, selecting a single autofocus point, which you then position of the moon subject that you want to be sharp, is the way to use auto focus while still retaining control of your camera. If you subject is off center and not covered by your focus point in the viewfinder, then you have two options. Firstly, you can move the focus center in the viewfinder so that it's aced positioned over your subject. Alternatively, you can point your camera the subject so they're covered by the senator. Press the shutter release button halfway down so that the camera focuses on them, then keeping the shutter button pressed halfway down, recompose the image and press all the way down to take the shots in a fast moving situation . Such a sports, the continuous focus milled, is the one to use again. You can usually select a single focus sensor in the viewfinder or a group, but the main difference is that the camera will constantly monitor the focus point and adjust the lens. If you're subject moves Whilst we're talking about sports photography, if you're in a situation where you and your camera static on the subject is moving through a clearly defined path, same motor racing, then you can pre focus your camera that the point on the track where you want to take the shot. Then simply wait until the subject comes into view. Remember to use a high end of shutter speed to freeze the action. Otherwise, your filter will be blurred through subject movement rather than any focusing problems. If you're working on a tripod with a subject that doesn't move, then it's often easier to use manual focus in the same way as we did with exposure. Switching to manual focus mode put you in full control of your photography. Having said that, auto focus is a great way to set the focus first before switching to manual mode. 12. TCOYC 013 What is depth of field: depth of field is the term we use to define how much of a photo is acceptably sharp. Although a lens can only focus at one precise distance from the camera, there are areas in front off on behind the focus point that will appear to be acceptably sharp to the human eye. This a range of sharpness in an image is the depth of field. Depth of field is something that we can use to our advantage when taking photographs. By changing our lens and camera settings, we can create images with a very large depth of field so that everything appears to be crisp and in focus. Or we can create images that have very little depth of field, with just one main subject sharp and everything in front or behind it blurred. This is a great technique for minimizing distractions in the background of your photo photographs, with a large depth of field sometimes referred to as having deep focus and those with only a small area of sharpness referred to his shallow focus After learning the focus techniques for your camera. Depth of field is the skill to master. Next is a vital concept to understanding creative photography and not something that should be left to chance. Using depth of field techniques to position the zone of sharpness where you want it within a photo is a powerful creative technique that contain, on average image into a stunning one. 13. TCOYC 014 How do we control depth of field: There are several things that affect the depth of field in a photograph, the focal length of the lens that you're using. The aperture that you've set for your exposure the size of the chip or sensor in your camera as the size of the sensor isn't something that you can change will concentrate on the other two variables that you do have some control over as a guide. A wider lens that's a short focal length will have a greater depth of field than a telephoto lens that's a long focal length. That's any given aperture. So if you want to maximize your depth of field of wide lens or a wide setting on your zoom lens, if that's what you're using together with a small aperture, that's a large F number will help Landscapes taken with wide lenses using small apertures will appear to be sharp from the foreground, right through to infinity. Remember back to our exposure module. If you stop in your lens down to use a small aperture, you will need to compensate by using a longer shutter speed or by turning up the I S O sensitivity. So increased depth of field does come at a price. If you're in a situation where you only want a small part of your photograph to be sharp, narrow depth of field, then the best option is to use a telephoto lens anything over around 100 millimeters focal length and set your exposure so that the aperture is as wide as possible. This is a great technique for Portrait's, where the shallow depth of field draws attention to your subject and throws any distracting background out of focus so you can see that the decisions we make about which lends to use on our exposure can have a significant impact on the depth of field in our final image. 14. TCOYC 016 Demonstration of Depth of Field: depth of field or the amount that we have in focus within our shots. He's determined by the lens focal length of the aperture that was shooting up. So without one of five mil lens on the camera, if I set my focus point just here on the slice of bread, we'll take a picture with the lens wide open. Andi, we'll see what result we get. That will stop the lens down and compare the results. So, first of all, shooting with the lens wide open. So this is a F three on the shutter. Speed is 1/100 of a second, but I'm not going to do is stop the lens down to F 20 which is a much, much smaller aperture now. Because of that, we need to increase the shutter speed, so the shutter speed is now 1/3 of a second. We've got the same focus points and we shoot into the picture, and I think you'll see from those two images that there's a massive difference in the amount that's actually in focus, that the wide aperture is only a very, very shallow depth of field. As we stop the lens down to a smaller aperture. That depth of field increases Andi. It increases proportionally, with 1/3 of the depth in front of the focus point and 2/3 behind the focus point. So if that's my focus point there, Andi, it's F three. I've got this much depth of field, and 1/3 of it will be in front of the focus point. 2/3 will be behind the focus point as I stopped down to F 20. This amount increases, but it's always 1/3 in front of the focus point and 2/3 behind the focus point. That ratio remains the same throughout. 15. TCOYC 018 Introduction to Module 3: this module is all about lights. Once you understand the controls on your camera on what it's capable off, you need to start looking at light. Controlling the light can often make the difference between an average shot on a good one and created light and can turn a good shot into an outstanding one. We're going to look at the biggest problem that I come across from students backlighting. This is the most common issue that can easily feel an automatic camera system into giving you the wrong exposure. By using manual exposure control that you've hopefully mastered from previous lectures, this module will show you how to compensate on balance the light to achieve a good quality photo. We'll also look at color temperature or white balance settings. Having the correct light balance is important, but if the color is wrong, it can still ruin a good image. At the end of this module, you'll be able to look for backlit situations and then balance the light using exposure control and fill in flash or reflectors to create the results that you want 16. TCOYC 019 Backlit subjects: There's an old rule in photography that says you should only take a photograph when the sun is shining from behind you and over your shoulders. In other words, your subject is fully illuminated from the front. Unfortunately, this is not the best way to like most things in a creative fashion. Backlighting, as the name suggests, is when the light is coming from behind your subject. This is exactly the kind of situation that causes problems for automatic exposure modes, which are easily fooled. If the background is bright of a new subject, backlight in from a creative point of view could be very flattering to your subject on had a touch of sparkle to your images. What we have here is a classic backlit situation. We've got our little still life set up just in front of this window. We've got some daylight coming through the window creating quite strong shadows from behind our cameras. Here, we've got 105 millimeter lens on, which is quite a long focal length. What we're gonna do is taken exposure reading, see what the camera recommends. Take a picture and see what happens. So what I'm doing is using the auto focus to set the focus point on the first slice of bread. Now the reading that the cameras suggesting I'm on. I serve 800. Andi, If I set my appetite on F eight on the reading say's an eighth of a second F aches. It will take a picture and have a look. Andi, the exposure is for the daylight that is outside. So the camera has been fooled by that strong backlighting. What happens here is the the The outside is very, very bright in relation to remain subject area here. The meter doesn't really know what the main subject is, so it gets confused. So what we're gonna do is we're going to use exposure compensation, so we'll increase the exposure such that the exposure here is correct. Now, what that will mean is that the light outside will become brighter. So first of all, I'm gonna take my eighth of a second exposure. I am going to double it, make it 1/4 of a second, take a picture and you can see that that's a lot lighter. But we're now getting some flushing highlights, which could be an issue because start means we're losing detail. in those particular areas of the photo. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go down slightly. So your sixth of a second, I'm going to introduce a reflector. Now, the reflector, if I angle it correctly, will bounce the light back onto the front of our subject here. So how come I can bring in quite close? Because we're cropped quite tightly. And if I take a picture there, then I think you'll see that the light is a lot more balanced because we reflected this light back onto our subject. Now the other thing we can do is we can actually increase the light level. But this side of our subject, we can turn all the lights on in the room. So we'll do that now on DSI. What difference that makes instead of using a reflector. So we've now turned all the room lights on. That's had the same effect as using the reflector and that it's balanced the light this side of the shot toe. What's coming through the door? Here s so what we'll do is we'll go back to our camera. We will see what the meters suggesting we'll go with the meter suggestion First, which is now 1/20 of a second at F eight. We'll take a picture, and I think what you'll see there is that the exposure is quite well balanced. We've got a few flushing highlights on it on the oil bottle, but overall, that's not about exposure. 17. TCOYC 020 Fill Flash: way have a classic battle, it situation here we've got Kate stood against our French windows again. The light is coming in from behind her, and there's very little light in the room. So if we take a picture using the recommended reading that the cameras suggesting which is 125th of a second F 5.6 its silhouette theme the light outside is beautifully exposed. Book Katie, just complete civil. Let the I s O is on 400. Now we can compensate for the backlighting by either opening at the aperture. So from 5.6, I'm gonna go to F 2.8, which is the widest aperture on this particular lens is 105 mil lens, by the way, which is a nice portrait. Lens gives a nice, flatter in perspective. So we'll take another picture there and again, it's way too dark. It's slightly better, but it's still way too dark. So what I'm gonna do now is I'm gonna turn it the I s o will go to 1600 have left the shutter speed on 100 25th. The reason for that is because if I drop much below that on this lens on may risk camera, Kate, because I'm not on tripod. So let's try that again. Okay, That's nice on again. It's better. But it's still not really an ideal portrait. To be fair, this is an extreme situation. If we were doing a real portrait of case, what I would do is probably turn us so that we had some light coming from the window and actually hit in the face. But I want to demonstrate how we use filling techniques to balance the light. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go back to My eyes are off 400. I'm gonna put my aperture back to 5.6. Remember, this was the recommended exposure by the cameras meter 125th of a second F 5.6 400. I s so we know it's a silhouette. Now this camera and yours may be the same, Has a little pop up flash. If we pop that flash up now and take a picture like that, the pop up flash is very, very harsh. The light is a pinpoint light source. So if you have a separate flash gun, it's always going to give you a much more flattering results, especially if you can bounce the light off the ceiling. So let's just pop a separate flash on the camera and will twist it so that the light is going straight up. It's hitting the ceiling, which in this room is white. So that's nice. It's not going to add any color to the lights. We've got the flash again on manual because we want to be in control and I've got it on a very low power setting is actually a 64th of its four power set in. So let's just take a picture there. Nice smile. Care. Lovely. Go on. You can smile. Fantastic. So what we've done there is We balanced the light in the room with the light that's coming through the windows behind Kate. And another alternative would be to use a reflector. Remember? Without a little still life, set it. We use a small reflector. You get bigger reflectors. The reason I'm not using a reflector here, they simply because I haven't got an assistant to hold it for me. I could put it on a stand, or I could get someone to hold that in position, and that would reflect the light that's coming through the window back onto cakes face so again that would balance the light. It's filling in the shadow areas so that we get a much more pleasing results. 18. TCOYC 021 White Balance: way. White balance setting on your camera needs to be matched to the lighting that you using. What I've done here is we've got our set up. We've cut out the daylight coming in from behind, but I have actually set up a floodlight that is a daylight balanced floodlight. Now, what I mean by that is that the color temperature of this floodlight is a very close match to daylight. Daylight is ah, a clean white tungsten. Lighting, on the other hand, is a very warm light. So what we've done here is we set our camera to a daylight white balance setting. We have a daylight light on will take a picture. I'm gonna hold a reflector in here because it's a very strong sidelight situation. We've got going on almost backlit. We take a picture on and hopefully we can see that the colors very accurate because I was setting on our camera matches our light source. If we change the setting on the camera, let me just do that. And now what we've done here is we've changed it to tongue stone. So the camera setting does not match the light source Onda, we shoot a picture again. Then you'll see that the colors are all wrong. Now. What I've got here is a tungsten light source, so we'll switch that one on. We switched our daylight source off and we'll do the picture again. Remember, we're now set to tungsten white balance so the colors look accurate again. Your camera has an automatic white balance set in. My suggestion would be that you use this automatic set in most of the time. In general, it's gonna get you nearly toe where you want to be on. Then you can do any final tweak in in postproduction, especially if you shooting raw files, which most professional photographers do with a raw file. You can actually change the color balance set in afterwards, which is incredibly flexible. If you shooting J pegs, keep it on auto white balance. It will get you a good result most of the time, especially in mixed lighting situations. What we have here is very controlled, so we have even tungsten or daylights. Sometimes you'd be in a situation where you've got multiple light sources, different color temperatures, and it could just cause you a problem unless you start taking very accurate cooler temperature readings, which most the time. You probably will have the time to actually do that. So stick to auto white balance only use one of the presets if you feel you need toe.