Impressionist Landscapes - Composition - Creating a Unique Composition with Framing | Rachael Broadwell | Skillshare

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Impressionist Landscapes - Composition - Creating a Unique Composition with Framing

teacher avatar Rachael Broadwell, Fine Arts Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (57m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Find a Unique Composition

    • 3. Selection

    • 4. Sketch with Sumi Ink

    • 5. Materials & Palette Set-Up

    • 6. Demo - Toning & Lay-In

    • 7. Demo - Block-In

    • 8. Demo - Altering the Lighting Conditions

    • 9. Demo - Focal Point / Foreground

    • 10. Process Overview

    • 11. Conclusion

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About This Class

Composition is one of those terms often thrown around when discussing art, but the meaning can easily be lost. Composition is a broad term with many aspects. I am going to examine composition of landscapes one aspect at a time in a series of courses. In this second course on composition, we will examine framing.

One challenge in painting landscape subjects is that we are literally surrounded by them whenever we go outdoors. It is tempting to want to paint a vast, sweeping scene, but that can result in a composition that lacks focus or a unique perspective.  By reflecting on the intended message you want to convey through your painting, you can make informed decisions regarding the framing you choose.

In this class, I will demonstrate how simply narrowing the focus (aka framing) for a single landscape composition can lend itself to creating a more artistic, poetic view. The framing of your composition, no matter the subject or medium, can help you achieve a unique perspective that will intrigue viewers. 

Too often, we fall into the habit of framing our compositions in typical ways -- with a sky, and distinct foreground, midground, background elements. There is nothing wrong with this of course, but intriguing viewers requires you to think outside the box -- or at least work within a smaller, more focused box!

Your first compositional decision is choosing a format (the shape and dimensions of your picture plane). The second decision is how you will arrange elements within that format and limit your focus to create emphasis. You can choose a particular framing merely out of convention, or you can choose a framing that best suits your intention as an artist.

I will be using oils to do these demonstrations, but these concepts are useful for any medium in which you would like to work.

The videos in this course focus on framing and artistic intentions, rather than a detailed tutorial on painting techniques. However, I will demonstrate an oil painting study using these concepts. If you would like some more background on technique, check out my course catalog! 

**The free app I use for simple photo editing is called PIXLR -- it is available for mobile devices and there is also a browser app with more features. Search for "Pixlr" in your preferred app store for the mobile app. For the browser app, go to

**Public domain photo references can be found at -- wherever you get photo references, make sure they are designated as "public domain" or ask the photographer for permission.

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Rachael Broadwell

Fine Arts Teacher


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1. Introduction: Hello and welcome Teoh Impressionist landscapes. This is my miniseries on landscape composition, and in this course we will be examining different ways. Teoh frame your composition. Composition is one of those terms often thrown around when discussing arts. But the meeting can easily be lost. Composition is a broad term with many aspects, and that is why I'm going to examine composition of landscape, one aspect at a time in a series of courses. In this second course on composition, we will examine framing one challenge and painting landscapes. Subjects is that we're literally surrounded by them whenever we go outdoors. It can be tempting to want to pay a vast, sweeping scene, but too often that can result in a composition that lacks focus or a unique perspective. By reflecting on the intended message you want to convey through your painting, you can make informed decisions regarding the framing that you choose. In this course, I will demonstrate how simply narrowing the focus, also known as the framing for a single landscape composition, how that can lend itself to creating a more artistic, poetic view. The framing of your composition, no matter the subject or medium, can help you achieve a you know, unique perspective that will intrigue viewers. Often we fall into the habit of framing or composition in typical ways with a sky indistinct foreground, mid ground background. There's nothing wrong with this, of course, but intriguing viewers requires you to think outside the box or, in this case, working within a smaller, more focused box. Your first compositional decision is choosing a format, which is the shape and dimension of your picture plane, which I covered in the first course of this miniseries. The second decision is how you will arrange elements within that formats and limit your focus to create emphasis. You can choose a particular framing merely out of convention, or you can choose framing that best suits your intention. As an artist, I will be using oil paints for the demonstration. In this course, however, these concepts apply no matter what medium you choose to use, so feel free to paint with whatever you prefer. Now let's get started 2. Find a Unique Composition: If you're working with a photo reference, I'm going to show you a very easy and simple way. Teoh work through finding a good frame for your composition. I'm using a free mobile app called Pick Slur, and this is just a photo editing app. I know there's a lot out there, and many of them are free and wonderful. This is just the one that I happen to use and basically what I'm going to dio. Since I already know that I'm going to be working with a square format. I'm just using the square crop tool to go through some of these photographs to try to find a really interesting way to frame the composition. And my goal for this composition being that it is a square format is basically that I want it. Teoh be kind of serene and calm, and a lot of times, when working with photo references, we have a very wide or expansive landscape of you. But you can use the crop tool to actually find simpler compositions within the's big, expansive photographs. And that's actually a really helpful tool if you're a new painter as well. If you look at this photograph It's very beautiful, but there's just a lot going on, and it can be difficult to manage all that information. But look at this crop version. It's much simpler, and I can really use that to my advantage to help me get my point across. What I want. My viewers, Teoh see and feel. And I'm just going through these photographs and I got all of these photographs from a website called Picks obey dot com. And this is a website where photographers can upload their work and they have specifically allowed their photographs to be in the public domain. So you can actually use these photographs and you don't even have to give credit to the photographer, although it's always nice to do that and also with Pick slur, I like to use the doodling feature just to help me kind of workout compositions like this, where things are not very clearly defined between the foreground, mid ground and background. So I can kind of use it just to help me start thinking about where those divisions are and start thinking about how I can work in some atmospheric perspective to really help bring the perspective toe life in a way that the photograph might be lacking. So I'm just going through these and keeping with the square format. I'm just looking for different framing options. I'm thinking that, of course I want this to be a very calm and serene seen. And so I have a lot of photographs that I think might be able to communicate that. And sometimes you just need to play around a little bit. And fortunately for us, we have these free and very powerful digital tools where we can experiments, look at things in different ways and even save these corrupt so that we can go through them later and really decide what is going to fit our vision best. And since this is a free app, of course there's lots of advertisements pretty much any time you hit save. So looking at this composition, obviously I'm very drawn to these beautiful blue waters. But it's a very expansive view, and it can be easy for a painting to feel a little bit disjointed or unfocused. But just a simple crop into a part of the photograph that maybe you didn't even necessarily particularly notice at first can make such a huge difference in how the image reads. You might even find more than one composition within a single photograph. You could do two or three paintings from one photograph, and they could potentially look completely different from each other. Sometimes I like to look at really abstract aspects of the photos, like this little crop here, and my favorite thing to do is just to kind of change the focus of the image. So in this photograph, obviously, the focal point is that Dr Boat and Dock. But by using framing, I can actually change the focus of this image and just focus in on the background in these reflections and this hill full of trees or with this mountain scene, I can really emphasize the slopes and the snow on the mountain and again use my doodle tool just to try to find some of the lines of action in the composition that I want to emphasize in my paintings. And here, again, with the same mountain. Just by shifting it a little bit, we get a completely difference. Focus. I think I like this composition just a little bit better, actually. And remember, when framing a landscape composition, you don't have to include the typical features such as the sky or even a foreground. You can focus in on something entirely different and find other ways to convey atmospheric perspective and depth. So I really encourage you just Teoh, get an app and play around with framing. See how changing the focus of the composition changes the overall feeling. It's really a simple concept, but at the same time it's a very important decision to make in the creative process. 3. Selection: Let's just take a quick look back through some of these crops that I did and try to see what will make a nice composition. And truth be told, I think any of these will make a perfectly nice composition for the most parts. They're all very calm and serene. I think that I may not go for the mountains because when I think of mountains, I think of climbing. And honestly, I think of anxiety cause driving on mountain roads is terrifying to me. I like the water compositions. However, I find water very soothing. I really am interested in this Grand Canyon composition, but I'm just not sure. And this one I really like, But I'll leave it out just because it's not really a landscape. Maybe another time, though. And then this bridge one. I don't think I'll do just because I feel like I've been doing a lot of green compositions lately and I want something just a little bit different. So I really like that boat. I like pretty much anything with water also like this sunset with the lake fiddling around here. Not really sure where to go, but I really like this. What I really like about this composition is that first of all, this area down here in the reflection is actually a reflection of the sky and the effect of the setting sun. And what I find interesting about that is that when we look at the actual space up here with sky, we don't see any indicator of a sunset. So the Onley indicator of the setting sun in this photograph is actually down here where we would not typically expected. And I think that that makes this composition look very interesting. The other thing that I like about this composition is that other than this area down here, everything is pretty subdued. But what I see is just kind of a splash of color right here, just a splash of green. And I think that could be really fun to play with. So this, I think, is a good candidate for composition. It's very quiet. It's kind of abstract, and there's some unexpected elements in there. E also really like this composition because, as I said earlier, you condemn definitely play with atmospheric effect, even when you don't have a distinct or obvious background. So let me just doodle on this a little bit to show you what I mean. So obviously the foreground would be everything here and what I would do to really play up the foreground of the water is to really add some bold strokes of paints. Really nice. Impossible pain. Teoh kind of indicates this ripple effect up here. And then Teoh indicate more of a background. This could all be very soft back here. And I could also really start to subdue the color quite a bit while keeping the color in the water in the foreground. More vivid and bright with more contrast. And you can already see that in the photograph itself, we see more ripples in the water that's closer to our eye. And then as things become more condensed in the mid ground in background, we have a lot less contrast, a lot less detail. You might be tempted, and I know that for a while I had this temptation. Teoh, try. Teoh, you know, indicate every little itty bitty thing that I see. But really, what I would do is probably keep that very smooth and soft and subdued rather than, you know, trying to get all that photographic information into my painting. So that's something that when working with photo references, I think that you have to be extra mindful of, because just because you can see some information and a photograph doesn't mean that you should include it in your painting. I also think that the Grand Canyon scene is a good candidate. Ultimately, I think that I'm going to go ahead and paint this scene with the boat. As I said, my goal for this composition is for it to be very calm and serene, and I think that this really fits the bill for what I want. Teoh communicate through this painting, so let's get started. 4. Sketch with Sumi Ink: if you've seen my other courses, you've probably mostly seen me doing my sketches with a pen or even a Sharpie. And the way that I typically like to sketch is I sort of do a scribble sketch. And I do that because to get my mind in the right place for painting, I don't like Teoh be drawing. That is to say, I don't like to be thinking in a linear fashion. I like to do value studies, and I like to try to find the general big shapes in the composition. Well, for this painting, I'm doing it just a little bit different. What I have here is a jar of Sumi Ink. Sumi s spelled s u M I. And this is a really nice Rich Inc. And of course, you could use this ink with a dip pen. But right now I'm actually using an old watercolor brush. And what this is allowing me to do is to start thinking about my composition even before I start painting. It allows me to start thinking in a more painterly way while still focusing on values in the big abstract shapes so that I can start problem solving anything in this composition that might be a challenge, and what I'm doing right now is just laying in all of the darkest values. So this is just pure black Sumi ink. It's very rich fluid. It's really easy to sketch with, and now I'm starting to add just a little bit of water. The water helps to thin it down a little bit, just so that it's a little bit easier to apply to the paper. And by the way, the paper that I'm sketching on is not any kind of watercolor paper. It's just regular paper, so I definitely don't want tohave too much water in my wake because it would not drive very fast. And what I can dio to look at some of the more mid tone values is just to add a lot of water in to this Sumi EQ. And that's really all that I need to do when I sketch, just figure out my basic values, my big simple shapes. I'm deciding which shapes or I'm going to allow to merge together. Most importantly, I'm allowing the boat and then the shadow that it's casting onto the water merge into one unified shape and that's called a lost edge. So that edge between the boat and the water, we know that it's there, but we don't need to explicitly render that in order for the composition to make sense. And with Impressionist painting, it's really important to look for opportunities to use lost edges because that inherently appeals to people. It really activates their imagination, and it invites them to actually participate in the painting rather than merely viewing it. And to me, that's really the big draw with Impressionism is that it invites the viewer into the composition and it allows the viewer to fill in the gaps. And I think that's what makes it so appealing. So here's my sketch, and I think I'm ready to start painting. 5. Materials & Palette Set-Up: I'm going to go over my materials that I'm using for the painting demonstration just really quickly and keep in mind, especially with the colors. And really any of these materials thes air Just what I use because I have them already. I don't expect you to go and buy the precise colors that I use or the precise materials that I use. You should really use either what you have available to you or what you prefer from your own experience. I'm gonna be painting on arches oil paper, which I have clipped just to a little piece of foam board that I've cut down. And I'm working on a slanted surface. So I had Teoh use a little bit of tape to try to secure it on there. And I'm actually going to need a little bit more than that because it's gonna slip and slide all over the place. And I really like painter's tape for when I attached paper around the edges of the paper to a board because it comes off really easily. But that makes it not extremely sticky for other purposes. All right, so the first color, of course, is titanium whites. Next I have cadmium yellow hue. This is a nice kind of medium warmish yellow And then I have permanent rose as my red. This is a nice cool red leans a little toward magenta and then ultra marine blue, which is a cool blue and then raw number, which is a nice, warm, earthy tone right there. So I'm using very limited colors today for this little study. And then, of course, my palette knife for mixing. And then I will have just on assortment of brushes. I'm gonna try to stick to the large flat brush and then this long Phil birds. But I have the other one available if I need it. And last, I'm using a Citrus solvent. This is a non toxic solvents. I like to use this instead of odorless mineral spirits because odorless mineral spirits is toxic, though admittedly I still use it sometimes because it's cheaper 6. Demo - Toning & Lay-In: And now I'm going to go ahead and just tone this paper just the way that I typically do with my permanent rose. So I'm using my palette knife just to kind of spread it on their You don't need a lot of paint to tone your canvas. And really, what we're doing here is we're just kind of staining the fibers of this surface. And then I'm going to use my Citrus solvents as a thinner to kind of spread this around and scrub it down into the fibers of the paper. I try not to use too much solvent to do this, but if you dio and abusing too much Silva and you get a surface that's really kind of wet and slick, then all you have to dio is blot it out or rub it with a paper towel just to pick up the excess moisture. And I basically always have to do that because I always end up using just maybe a little bit too much solvents. And you also don't need to worry about having total coverage when you're toning your surface. It's okay if they're still some paper or canvas showing through. I like to tone my canvas and surfaces just because it helps me to judge my values a little bit better As I work on the first block ins. Now, I'm using my raw number and my ultra marine blue just to mix up a nice dark color. This is typically what I use instead of having a black, and I'm going Teoh do my initial laying of the composition very much the way that I did my ink sketch, and I added just a little bit of my solvent. Teoh. This mixes well just to make it really thin, and that just helps it to go on very easily onto the surface. If you leave it too thick, it's a little bit challenging. Teoh do a quick blocking, and I think that I actually added a little bit too much solvent to the mix, so I'll show you how I will handle that as well. But basically, right now I'm just focusing on the darkest values in the composition, and rather than treating the boat as though it's a specific, you know, object that's separate from its environment, I'm treating everything as though this environment and everything in it are completely integrated, which, if you think about it, that really is the way things are because nothing exists in isolation and typically in a scene. We have every object within the scene being illuminated by the same light source, of course, usually the sun if we're doing landscapes. And so if we think of everything is kind of basking and being bathed in the same light, I think it makes sense to treat it all as though there's really no meaningful distinction or separation between the objects that we see and in terms of painting. I also think that it helps to actually stop thinking about the physical objects that were painting. So I'm trying not to think about, you know, this is a boat. I'm really trying to think in terms of value and shape right now, and I'm not going to be dealing with any mid values at all, just the darkest ones. And since I did add a little bit too much solvent to that mix, I'm just going back in with my paper towel and I'm very gently blotting and you can see that the pigments have stained the surface, so I'm not really losing the information 7. Demo - Block-In: And now I'm ready. Teoh, start doing a first blocking. So basically, I'm going to try to get as much of the composition and the surface covered as possible. And I like to work from my darker values and move up to my lighter values. And this scene I've decided I'm going to interpret as being kind of a sunset scene. I find the photo and especially the colors in the photo just a little bit uninspiring. And so I'm just gonna kind of play with the colors and see if I can get a nice Melo sunset because I think that that will really play into a theme the calm and serene energy that I'm going for. I'm starting out just by going over that initial lay in with just some ultra marine blue. That color that I mixed with ultra marine blue and raw amber really gives me a nice, neutral, almost black color, but it doesn't really fit this composition. So I decided to just go over that with some blue and it didn't have any kind of thinner or solvents in it. But I tried my best. Teoh apply it pretty thinly because for this initial blocking. We don't wanna apply any really thick in pasta brushstrokes because that will make it difficult for us to add more breast strokes on top. And then I've basically mixed a violet. So I added some red and a little bit of white in there. But I overall want this scene, not Teoh have any real bright spots because again, I'm imagining that this is a sunset scene. So even my light values aren't going to be as light as what I might use for just a regular daytime composition. And I also want to keep everything again very soft, very mellow. And I'm gonna try to stick with this larger brush for a so long as I can. I think there will be some areas that I will need a smaller brush. And for that I'll try just to use my fill birds. But I do try to use the largest brush possible. I try to do as much with that as I can, because that just really helps get those big, broad brush strokes. It helps you Teoh not get hung up in trying. Teoh render details in your painting because again, with Impressionism, we want the viewers just to get the impression feeling, the mood, the energy of the composition. If they needed to see every specific detail, they could just look at a photograph. Now I've added a lot more red and the way that I'm going to use atmosphere perspective in this painting, even though we really don't have any cues in the distance, for example, we don't have like a shoreline. We don't even have a sky. It just goes off, and it's all water all the way off of the composition. So the way that I'm going to address atmosphere perspective in this painting is just by shifting the color and the value a little bit. So again, imagining that this is a sunset scene, I am imagining that the water as it recedes into the distance it's catching more of the colors of the sunsets. So I'll be using some nice pastel pinks and oranges, maybe a little bit of yellow in there, just to create the impression of a sunset reflecting on that water as it recedes into the distance. And this the color that I'm using right now, this might be just about the lightest value that I use for this composition, Because again, I don't want anything to be too bright. And if you look at the photo reference, the inside of that boats think is white or it's some light color. And so how I'm going to handle that is I'm basically going to imagine that the light is reflecting off of that. And so we're still going to see some of those pinks from the sunset reflecting from the white surface inside that boat. I'm keeping all my brush strokes really large in general. I'm not trying to mimic the ripples in the water that I can see in the photo reference again. Right now, I'm just trying Teoh get everything blocked in from the most parts. But I'm gonna leave the dock and the grasses up front for a little bit later, so I'm not going to address those quite yet. 8. Demo - Altering the Lighting Conditions: And now I'm going to start working on just adding a little bit of vibrance into the water where the sunset is reflecting. So I'm gonna try Teoh, mix some really nice pinks, Magenta as oranges. Okay, Grabbed a little bit too much of my permanent rose there. The trick here is to get a nice, vibrant color. But I don't want the value to be much lighter than the value that is already there, because then there's going to be a lot of contrast created and that will distract from the atmospheric perspective. So we want all of our contrast to be in the foreground and then, as are seen, recedes, we want less contrast. So I'm going to try Teoh, add some nice vibrance reflections of the sunset that I'm imagining into the more distant waters, just with some really soft brush strokes and trying to keep the values pretty similar. And then we're going to get some reflection in the foreground. But it's not going to be as much as in the water that is closer to the horizon line. And I'm not trying to render every individual ripple that I can see in the photograph because I want to keep things very soft. Now let's add yellow, just a little bit of whites. And then I'm going to use this in the distant water as well. And I'm being very careful toe lay down my strokes in a way so that I'm not blending the paint together because I don't want it to be that soft. I'm loading the paint onto my brush so that it's pretty thick on my brush, and then it easily transfers onto the paper without blending too much into the paint that already exists. And you can see that I still have some of my toned paper showing through where it's really bright red. And that's because I am kind of just leaving those until after I get my water complete. No, and some of the plants are going to overlap with the boat. So I also want to make sure that I have my boat in a pretty good place before I start really working on those grasses and plants in the foreground, just adding more soft strokes of this vibrant color. And since my values air very close, there's not a lot of contrast. All of those different colors will very nicely optically one, so they're not actually blended. But the perception is that they're really soft, and it's a good place for the viewer's eye to rest. And I want to make sure that I don't overwork the waters. That's why I'm trying to get that part of the painting kind of wrapped up right now so I can focus more attention on the boat and docks and grasses. So now I'm going to move these mixes aside, I'm just gonna kind of let them mix together, probably might use them to help me create some of my further mixes. So they are handy to kind of just keep on the edge of your palate if you have extra paint and now I'm going to be working a little bit more on the boat, so I'm mixing up a color that's pretty dark, but I'm kind of just using some of those more pastel mixes. Just add a little bit of the white that those have in them into this mix, because I don't need it to be quite as dark as what I used for the shadow and the dark side of this boats, and I'm going to use thicker brush drugs at this point. So lots of imposter so that I can get lots of texture. And again I'm treating the boat and then the shadow that it's casting on the water as one shape rather than trying Teoh separate those. I'm just going in and starting Teoh Mark a little bit where some of the grass groupings are going to be. And even though this photograph is very sharp and I can see lots of individual blades of grass, I definitely do not want Teoh. Try painting all of those. I'm not going to be using any kind of fine liner brush for this painting. So really, I want Teoh again. Use simplification and massing to see the grass, not as individual blades of grass, but as groups or just a very general shape. So I'm thinking of that grass, and I'll try to approach it as though it's just soft forms and will simplify those as much as I can. The inside of the boat is a bit of a challenge because we know that the local color of the inside of that boat is white and it is going to be reflecting a lot of the light from the sky. However, we also have to keep in mind that it's somewhat being occluded by the vertical walls of the boat. So it shouldn't be as light of a value as that water that's going into the distance. That's getting a lot of sunlight. And then for this little bit of Doc that I have in here, I want it to be very subtle and again, even though it's made out of wood, it's gonna be reflecting a lot of lights. So I'm going to try to mimic those nice, warm colors from the sunset in that doc, all right, and then we're ready to work on the grass and get this finished up. 9. Demo - Focal Point / Foreground: and now I'm going. Teoh, focus a lot more attention on the actual focal points of this painting. I'm going in with just some permanent rose. I'm not really mixing it with anything else, but I am kind of letting it mix on the paper with the darker values that I've already laid in and again thinking about this being a sunset scene. I've often noticed at sunset that grasses tend to also reflect the lights. And so I really want to push these grasses toward how they might appear as red or orange, really reflecting the lights in the sky. And I don't want the lightest values in the grass to be to light, because then they will appear to be washed out. So I need to be pretty careful with how much white I add into these mixes, which shouldn't be too much of a problem because, as you can see, I'm almost out of white anyway. And I'm going for a really nice bright orange. And again I'm trying to work on these grasses from the darker values and working up to the lighter values I do that because is easier with oil paint, Teoh put a lighter value on top of a darker value. But if you try, Teoh put a dark value on top of a lighter value that still wet. The pressure of your brush pauses the mixes to come together, and so you'll end up polluting your darker value with the lighter colors that are underneath it. So it's always a good idea to try to have your darks in place and then to try to maintain those throughout the painting process if you're working with oils or acrylic paints. But, of course, that is just a general guideline, and so sometimes you know things happen and you might obliterate your darks. I need to try to go back in there, and in that case, what I recommend is just really loading your brush with a lot of paints so that you don't have to apply much pressure to get the pain to transfer from your brush to your surface. A little bit of white always goes on a long way, so you can see I kind of overdid it, and I know that that value was just way too light, so I divided it here ago, kind of messing it up again, Sometimes mixing is more experimentation than anything, but I do want to get some highlights on the grass. I just don't want value changed to be too stark, because the light is catching just the very top of these grasses. And a lot of times you can achieve a lighter value just by adding a color that has a local value that is lighter. So, for example, yellow has a local value that is lighter than blue. So blue has a local value that is pretty dark. Typically, it's only when you begin buying what I refer to his vanity pillars that you might find a blue that's a little bit lighter in value, so you can buy blues that, you know, maybe they're called sky Blue. I'm not really sure that they will actually already have maybe some white in there. But for the most part, if you're sticking to primaries for the most parts, your blue will just right out of the tube be a darker value than any yellow that comes right out of the two. And if you are in the market for pains, that's just something to be aware of. There's no right or wrong of course, you know by the paints that you want to buy. But if you're trying to stick to a limited palettes and you're trying to stick to primary colors so that you can really learn how to mix, then I recommend just paying attention to the actual pigments that are in the tube of paint you're buying. And usually those are listed on the back of the tube. So I tried to stick Teoh colors that are just a single pigment. Or, if you remember, when I was going over my colors. My yellow is called a cadmium yellow que. What that means is that it's not an actual CAG man pigments. Cadmium, by the way, is a toxic pigments. That isn't to say that you shouldn't use it. I actually do sometimes use true cadmium size because it's a very strong, powerful pigment. But if you ever see the word Hugh on a tube of pain, basically what that means is there have been multiple other pigments combined to create or mimic that cab me and color the canyons air kind of. You're classical pigments that have been used for hundreds of years, and you might know that many artists of the past actually became quite ill or even died because of the toxins that they were exposed. Teoh in painting. So it's really good. Teoh. Just be aware that there usually are alternates available, so avoiding cad means avoiding Cobalts if you are trying to avoid toxins, is a good idea. And there's lots and lots of different solutions out there now because we actually have a lot of synthetic pigments available to us, which is pretty cool. I think we're pretty lucky. You can see I've just added lots of really vibrant color to the grasses, and there's a lot of contrast in there as well, which helps to bring it into the foreground. If we're thinking about atmospheric perspective. No, I've kind of decided that this cast shadow under the boat is just really start. I also need Teoh have a little bit more contrast in the water of It's in the foreground again, just going back Teoh the principles of atmospheric perspective. We're gonna have more contrast in the foreground. Then we will in the distance and you can see that Teoh in the photo reference very clearly . If you squint your eyes, you can't really notice all those small ripples in the distant water in the photo reference . So I think it's really important. Teoh. Remember that and maybe just repeatedly go back and squint your eyes to get a better general sense of the composition, because our eyes are so attuned to those small, subtle details like those ripples in the distance. But painting those would actually make that part of the painting very busy and distracting . And that would distract from the overall goal that I have for this composition, which, of course, is for it to be very calm and peaceful. I'm going Teoh, basically leave the boat as it is. I'm not going. Teoh really do anymore with that, because I think then I run the risk of just overworking it. So what I'm going to do, Teoh just kind of wrap up. This painting is add some more really nice soft in pasta brushstrokes to the water. Nothing I'm doing in here is really making a huge impact. Michael is just to kind of just soften things up, maybe helps that pull in the water a little bit center at a little bit more contrast into the water in the foreground, and I need Teoh separate these groups of grasses over on the right to give the impression that they're a little bit more sparse over there. So I'm going in with just some of those strokes that I used for the water. I had just a little bit of vibrance to some of these grasses. I don't want them to be too distracting, so I think that I will not add as much vibrance in saturation to the grasses over here on the rights. And now I'm actually using the tip of the handle of my brush just to go in and add. Well, actually, it's more like I'm taking away some pains. I'm just adding a little bit of texture. And here, I guess, just following the direction generally of the grasses. And then I couldn't even do that. Teoh help these polls blend a little bit there, kind of. It seems like kind of standing out a little bit more than I would like them to. So I'm really just using this to pen a scrape into some of this paint that's thick. Teoh. Add a little bit more structure and that's it. 10. Process Overview: - way , way, - way . 11. Conclusion: thank you so much for joining me in this course. Framing is a relatively simple concept, but it's one that I think often gets overlooked. It's a very simple decision, and yet it's so crucial. We have so many options in the way we choose to frame our arts and whether you're working from a photo reference or you're working outdoors on plain air, understanding the importance of framing will help you to compose a painting that has meaning and feeling. And it's more than just capturing anything in everything. You see. I really hope that you enjoyed this course, and I look forward to seeing your framing projects. If you have any questions, please feel free to post those in the discussion. Thanks and happy painting.