Implementing Lean Standard Work in your organization | Nilakantasrinivasan Janakiraman | Skillshare

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Implementing Lean Standard Work in your organization

teacher avatar Nilakantasrinivasan Janakiraman, Learn - Create - Teach

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (2h 3m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Standard Work - Definition, Benefits & Examples

    • 3. How is Standard Work implemented across Levels (Junior, Mid and Senior)

    • 4. Why Standard Work is not same as Policy Deployment?

    • 5. What is Standard Work for Leaders

    • 6. Part 1 - Tools for implementating Standard Work for Leaders with Case Study

    • 7. Part 2 - Tools for implementating Standard Work for Leaders with Case Study

    • 8. Implementation Tips for Standard Work of Leaders

    • 9. What is Standard Work for Team Members ?

    • 10. Part 1 - Tools for Standard Work of Team Members : Standardized Work Chart

    • 11. Part 2- Tools for Standard Work of Team Members : Work Combination Chart

    • 12. Part 3 - Tools for Standard Work of Team Members : Standardized Work Flow

    • 13. Upkeeping Standards - SDCA

    • 14. Challenges in Sustaining Standard Work

    • 15. Standard Work Wrap up lecture

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About This Class

The concept of Standard Work is useful for organizations of all sizes. It defines various work elements that have to be carried by each role as per their responsibility and accountability.

This concept was first put forth in Lean Manufacturing, Toyota Production System and TQM. However, now it is applied to organizations of all sectors.

Thus defining standard work is the foundation of reaping full benefits from Kaizen and other improvement and reducing Muda or waste by re-establishing standards which were already established.

In this course, which is built on scenarios for both Leaders and Team Members,  using Case Studies, you will learn from scratch:

  • Definition of Standard Work

  • Examples across Sectors

  • Benefits of Standard Work

  • Difference between Standard Work for Leaders and Team Members

  • Various Tools used for creating standard work such as MPCP, Standard Work Chart, Standardized Work Combination Chart,  Standard Work Flow, etc.

  • Challenges during implementation and how to handle them,

  • Techniques to upkeep and sustain standard work

Target Audience:

  • Professionals from Discrete Manufacturing - Automotive, Industrial Products, Pharma, Consumer Products, Technology, etc.Lean Practitioners & Lean Six Sigma Professionals
  • Operations, Production, Engineering, Product Development and Senior Management

Meet Your Teacher

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Nilakantasrinivasan Janakiraman

Learn - Create - Teach


Hello, I'm Neil (Nilakantasrinivasan)

With over 2 decades of experience in large & medium enterprises, I love to make people, processes & organizations future fit. Business Transformation, Design Thinking, Lean Six Sigma, Customer Experience Design are themes that I enjoy working with.

I love to create something new and share it with others. 

Happy to connect & help!

See full profile

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1. Introduction: Hi. Let's get started by asking you a question. What percentage off your time is spent on the following activities. I'm gonna give you a few seconds to pause the video. Think about it, give a response and then we proceed, Father. Okay, I assume that you have taken time to answer this question. Now, before we look at what your answer is, what we're going to do is to look at a response from nearly 1007 100 people across friend lying middle management and senior management. A survey which was done by HBR nearly 54%. 54% off. The respondents said that park off, the time goes into administrator activities. Isn't that a concern? A large percentage off. Our time goes into administration activities rather than activities which are strategizing which are relating toe generating, which are helping us to build relationships with our prospects and with our stakeholders. So what do we mean by administrative activities? I'm sure all off. You know, bulk of it is going to go into firefighting troubleshooting, right. You're walking into the office and someone calls you and then you spend half the day just tryingto figure out what's really happened over the night ship. Or it could be about checking, verifying, scrutinizing, just being behind someone else to find out easy doing your rightly. And that's part of your job as well. And sometimes we have to stop their correct estimation. Put it back into normalcy so you get into doing things as well. So this is what we mean by time spent on administrative activities. The question we have to ask is, should be spent our time in this activity or not, of course, yes, but should be spent 54% of the time in this activity. What negative impact that does this have on us and does it have on the organization? This results in unplanned and disrupting activities? Right. You plan something for the day. It's a Monday and your plan for certain things. You walk into the office and someone screams that stays for. You know what? This has stopped last shift. I want you to come help me because you seem to be the export on this or you're the big boss . So you figure out what needs to be done and you spend half of the day and trying to figure that out. So unplanned activities, deception. Your floor is one of the biggest negative impact, followed by inappropriateness off your rule. Should you be actually getting involved in this activity or not? Maybe your two senior you may be capable and fixing this, but are you necessarily the right person to do this job? So we're talking about moved out here. Of course, such disruptions de motivate the team as well. People start losing their engagement levels and the moral as frequent disruptions happen. Frequent interventions happen from their managers and think about the impact it has on the customer. It happens on the delivery exit job, so the whole ecosystem gets impacted if administrative activities are high. Now, what is the right person teach? I'm going to talk about it as we move forward. But as a rule of thumb, I should say that it should not be anything more than 2025% at the mid level on somewhere around 5% at the senior level. Now let's talk about a system a system which has no intervention whatsoever from the manager. Any system which is capable of delivering a high level of opened over a period of time when left UN attended. When left unmonitored naturally deteriorates and the performance comes down, that is the law of the nature. You and I cannot change that. So a person takes off Our before certainly needs to go in making sure that whatever we have achieved in the past, the performance level that we have achieved in the past is sustained. And when we do such an effort, what we would see is a swing up on a swing down or something like a startled kind off a pattern in the performance right? Things would improve when you're overseeing and the newly lose sight things will deteriorate again. There would be a red flag. You would intervene in water. One manager does. It could be in terms, off review or it could be in terms of actually getting and doing things. And then things will again import, So a cyclical pattern off performance is followed in any process which involves monitoring . But on the other hand, if you're going to use standard work and in the standard work is well defined in your process, then you would expect that the aviation which happens that is the beak performance and the dip in performance would certainly happen even when standard workers define. But the quantum off variation would be much lesser, so you would see that the process is gentle and the performance is more or less around the same living. So there is consistency off performance, So that brings us to one of the biggest advantages off standard work. If you have standard work defined for yourself, if you have standard board defined for your team members, then you can assure that the level of performance would be more level consistent over a period of time. In fact, organizations which have such a standard walk define see lesser disruptions and work, and the output, as they said, would be consistent. And Onley. Interventions, which are really necessary will needs to be done by the manager, which in another way is a tool for empower in your employees to do their job. You don't need to keep sticking your north into their business, and they don't need to be looking up to say that who is going to come and save me? They will be empower to take decisions. They will be empowered to run their show because they know they are entitled to do so. So standard book, while in the principal Off Lean seems to be more off a technical thing. More seems like a documentation off. What somebody needs to know what somebody needs to do, etcetera. In principle, it is one of the big pillars which would support a lean culture in your organisation. So with that note, I'm going to wrap up this introductory lecture as we move forward. As they mentioned earlier in the scores, people learn how to create standard walk for workmen, that is to say, for team members. And we would also talk about how to create standard work for leaders who are senior members in the organisation, starting right from the sea. You So with that note, I'm going to welcome you again to the scores, and I'm going to wrap up this lecture. Thank you. 2. Standard Work - Definition, Benefits & Examples: Welcome back. As we move forward in this lecture, we will talk about the definition of standard work, the goals off standard work. We will look at a few examples of standard work from other sectors. That is sectors other than manufacturing. But before we get started, I'm going to ask you a question again. What are the key elements that you think are most difficult to control and leaves too high variability? And in answering this question, I have fine choices For you is a measurement. Is it material? Is it machine? Is it may 3rd And finally, is it people or man? I'm going to ask you to pause the video for a few seconds. Think over it. Think over a situation where you're managing a process or by your responsible for your particular role in your organization and try to look at different situations and then give me a response. Take a few seconds. So I'm assuming that you have done due diligence and you have honestly answer the question . I asked this to a group of my students and here is their response. Bulk off them said that man is highly uncontrollable, followed by material now What is the real response? For sure, we know that human beings are the most unpredictable off all the five that you see in the list, isn't it? In addition to human beings are man. The next, I would think, is not necessarily material. But it is a matter how this response could be anything else for you. It depends on your organization and what kind off controller processes your organization currently has. But most organizations, most mature organisations, are able to control aspects such as machine aspects such as material and measurement, much better than to other aspects. One being human beings, that is man and the other being mentor. We know for obvious reasons that human beings follow a process. Human beings follow a method. When you cannot control a person. How are you going to control the process that he's going to follow? So bunk off standard work if I go back to the definition off Standard book is about, as I said earlier, reducing the variability but mainly related to man and meter, a standard work. It's nothing but a formally defined and documented process that has to be followed at a specified piece. It can be matrix are it can be things to do, so it can be a list of things that you have to follow, or it can be a set off perimeters that you are responsible for. And one thing I want to make very clear is that standard book is applicable to every single employee in the organization. There is a misconception that standard book is always related to worker or related to a team member in an organization on that is Not true. A standard work is a concept in lean that is applicable to the CEO down the line to the last employee in the organization now looking at standard work. We talked about various throws off standard work earlier in my previous lecture, Aspell. But I want to summarize again because this is very important. Standard book leads to consistency, which is one of the big pillars off lean. It makes the process mawr repeatable and, as a result, reliable and scalable. It drives efficiency in the process. It helps you to produce high quality products. It helps you to produce products and services at a much lower cost. And as I mentioned all your it helps you do empower your team members to do their job without being dependent on you. We will look at some standard work examples from other sector. Let's start with the forced example from airline. What you're looking at is the dashboard off our craft, and what you're seeing right at the middle is nothing but a check sheet. You know that every airline that leaves our every act craft that leaves any airport across the globe has to follow a set off procedures or a checkpoint one after the other, the pilot and then the engineer, the first officer and so on. Do the maintenance person has to clear. So there are a bulk off check sheets and checkpoints that people have to fill and that is customized for every airport and for every Ampara. Which means that our safety, as we see from the perspective off a customer, is a short using check sheets in our pollens standard book. When the standard work is defined well in the organization in terms off a check sheet, then we know that the process is repeatable. So I'm going to take another example now from the service industry hospitality because it has more human factor and less machine or engine or anything like that that you saw in the earlier example. So you check into a hotel, and then the bellboy there helps you Teoh the room that you have to go. So he accompanies you in the elevator and you would find that as you are in the elevator, he was take a conversation with you and if you understood that, are definitely patterns in terms of what questions they ask you and what responses that they demonstrate for these questions. So that is standard work. Indeed. If you have worked in that industry, you would know that every employee, every bellboy, is trained as to what he has to ask. And when he has to ask, Let's say a customer is bussiness form. He's not gonna ask yourself and you're going toe come for the dinner. What are you planning to do in the evening or things like that? Are you flying down from? So these are the set of questions that they ask you, but they know when to ask this question and not to ask this question. So it is well defined in the standard work off a bellboy as to what he has to do. Another example. Now the popular uh McDonnell's you look at what is the standard walk for the person who's right in the counter there. There are seven items or seven tasks in the standard work off the person, which is well defined, and I'm not gonna go through this one after the other. I'm going below you to go to this list yourself, but it really defines that you have to greet the customer, take the order, then you have to repeat the order for the customer and you have to challenge the customer and then you have to handle the car, and then you have to greet the customer again. Eso this process that you see in every McDonnell's is defined as a standard work. People are trained to do that, and like this, there are many industries. My understanding work is in green into their I would say, very off walking and service sector where we just launched. It went through, you know people and their attrition is very high. The culture of standard book without the term standard work has got in Beit and manufacturing sicked up, has a lot to learn from other sectors as well. So the point here I'm trying to retrain is that I gave you a few examples. I can give you some more, but what's more important for you is to go and for yourself. Look at other sectors as a customer and you walk into radius services and tedious products . When you contract with them, try to understand how they use the concept off standard book. And what is the lesson that you can learn from that? That you can come back and deploy in your own organization in manufacturing. So with that note, I'm going to wrap up. This lecture will continue in the next lecture. Thank you. 3. How is Standard Work implemented across Levels (Junior, Mid and Senior): hi and welcome back. This lecture is very important because we're going to talk about the importance off standard work for leaders and standard work for the team members sample. Start by asking you a question. Do you think there is anything called as a standard walk for leaders? Though I know I have disclosed the answer to you earlier, I wanted to think through in your own organization. What does a leader do when he says he is doing standard work? Take a minute or two, pause the video and then let's get started again. So here's the response from my students. Most of them felt that yes, leaders do have standard work. And let's not talk about what do we mean by standard work for leaders, and in fact, we're gonna cover this in greater detail. But right now we want a different shape between standard work for leaders and for the team members. I'm going to start by talking about a Padam it a parameter fitting across SR Mid and junior management. As you see in the screen. HRT has 5% standard work. On the other hand, a team member has 95% standard book and as you walk up on the ladder, you would realize that a team lead a manager on divisional manager or divisional head has proportionately less a standard work. But they get involved mawr and what we call as policy work, which we would talk in the next lecture the boy dervish to highlight. So coming back, the point of rich to highlight is that standard work is applicable toe everyone in the organization, however, for leaders, for senior leaders, it's only 5%. If you're someone who's walking in the middle management, then you should not expect that your standard walk should be anything less than 50%. That is, nearly 50% off your into your week should not be spent in activities other than standard book, and that is good for you. And that is good for the organization. Now let's try to understand what do we mean by standard work for team members? And then we will talk about what do we mean by standard work for leaders. Four people at the junior level. Standard work is usually very clear and obvious. Anything that is a Replicator becomes part of the standard book, so it could be related to production process. If you're from manufacturing or if you are from any of the other associated function, it could be aspects where you have to do something repeatedly every day. But I say manufacturing in court production, it could be related to pro activity. It could be related to quality, could be related to safety. It could be related to the morale off employees could be related to Tel Aviv, and now we will talk about standard bark for leaders. Standing work for a needle usually is not as clear as these for the junior level in the organisation. Usually the standard book for a leader is associated with chicks on stability and Adivasi off the system. A support If your oppression in charge, you're responsible for the stability of the system. You need to make sure that the system that is the Prussian unit is stable and it's producing. That's your standard work, and what you need to do to do that chick are part of your standard book adequacy. Can you meet the demand if there is a fluctuation? Can you take care off that if there is a glittery guideline, can I be sure that my organization will comply without any challenge. So some of these aspects relating to stability and adequacy form part of the standard work off every leader. And if you're one such leader, think about it. You know what could be your standard book? Also, it could be aspects. As you don't go down the ladder. It could be aspects which relate to resource utilization and efficiency off the organization on. If you go further, it would be something to do with monitoring performance levels and maintaining the Braille of the employees if you're a friend line manager, so as you trickle down in the organization from the top, the standard work itself would change. But I'm not trying to emphasize here that for a top leader, keeping the moral of the employees is not important. It is, but it would be a larger share for someone who is interfacing are whose frontline managing the teams now, what methods process tools to be used for team members when we want to define the standard bug and what do we do for the leaders? Usually for the team members we start, but the quality standards, of course, the product itself needs to be there. The product specs should be there. Then comes the quality standard based on the quality and product standard. You define the processes so the process standards are defined. Based on this, you may have to establish the operations, so you need to perform a methods study. And once you have all this information, you can create a process. Standardization. Now we've been talking to scores about what tools you could use mainly for methods and for process standardization. I'm not gonna cover what we're going to do with quality standards, because I think that's a different topic altogether. Now that is something that we're building from the bottom up. When we talk about standard work for leaders, it comes from the top. Usually we start by understanding what is the rule of the person, and then that trickles down what his accountabilities are based on the accountabilities we define Water said that he has to check on Border said that he has to do it finally culminates into activities such as flu walks, that is, the Campbell walks. It could be looking for abnormalities in the process. It could be engaging with the team. It could be mentoring, coaching and motivating the team to perform. It could, in a way, to cool down and march very well. But what we have created bottom up. So there's a good synergy between the vaguely defined standard walk for a frontline employees such as a team member and won't be defying for a leader. He has to march, and if it doesn't march, we have a problem there. Now we will take a step back and find out what are the religious Mitchell D. Nevels for organizations in terms off standard work and how they define in practice. So here's a guideline. We have a five point majority level, and we will talk about it briefly. So we start with Level one in Level one. The operation methods are left to the operators. Their experiences, instincts and their instincts do it correctly. The next level starts with the operator performing their tasks in similar ways, but they have not been standardised, so people are doing it correctly, but it's not documented or standardized. The tor level, which is where most organizations are, in fact, or and fourthly will the total of it. Talks about process specific standards have bean established and are generally followed. Fourth level is little different from the thought. We say that the standards have been established for all the process is not just for one process, but all the process in the organization. But there is no attempt to challenge these standards on the fifth. Make sure dealer will talks about standard operations, which are then defined and which are completely followed and constantly implored in the organization. So coming back, I feel that many organizations that I don't do that I contract that I audit stay somewhere between three and four. Very rarely you find organizations that five, and I'm sure there are many that I don't know about. So end of the date. The objective off standard walk is not just graduating in the maturity model. It's more about delivering value to your customers. And so the standard world that we created the organization should help us move towards that journey and the importance off why standard book has to be challenged and improve is something that we will talk about as well in the following lectures. So it is time now to wrap up this lecture and we will see you in the next thank you 4. Why Standard Work is not same as Policy Deployment?: hi and welcome back in this picture, you're going to talk about the difference between policy management and daily work management. In other words, between static breakthrough activities that you do in your organization versus standard work that just post do as a leader are as a team member. That's what people to cover in this lecture. Let's start by understanding a scenario. Let's say an organization is continuously doing cases to improve the performance of the process over a period of time. What we all would expect. What we all have learned in the theory is that the more cases you do mawr improvement you would see in the performance of the process. But in reality, what happens is that every time you do an improvement that is certainly an improvement in performance. There's no doubt about it, But when you don't take enough matures to sustain that improvement, you don't really get the benefits of the improvement as time progresses, which means after taking an afford to improve a process, we realized that gradually the performance deteriorates. If it doesn't even drop down to the level where it waas earlier, it certainly drops at least by 20 to 30% at minimum, and and and sometimes it goes as much as 100% down, which means all the afford that we put in that case in has Bean washed off, which in other words, means that at the end of the league at the end of the year, when you project the performance based on the number of cases you're going to do versus what you really land up with, there's going to be a gap in progress a lot off. Afford that people in casing actually goes and sustaining the current level off performance . That is the point that I wish to read it, though we think that many cases help us and improving the performance level. Reality is that many times people struggle to sustain the current market share. This try to sustain the current level of performance and that itself needs a lot of improvements. You should think about this and say why I've made an improvement last year, but this year I find that I have to put more efforts that is more improvement into the same area just to sustain the same level of performance. In reality, what is happening is that whatever improvements that you have done has got washed off. So that differentiates between the red line on the blue line. Blue line is theoretical. Red Line is reality. Now if you want to go and hit the blue line, if you want to stick to wear the blue line projects here, performance to be than what you have to do is to look for ways to sustain the performance on. That is where the concept off daily work management comes in. That was highlighted in the graph in short, S. D. W M. Before we get into what daily work management is, I want to briefly talk about the in and young off lean. We all know about what Llinas and this course is not about lean. But what I want to emphasize is that in any business, whether you follow, lean or not, there are to ask. One is to run the business, and the other is to change the business. When a doctor about run the business and talking about sustaining the level of performance that your business is achieving today and carrying a door to the next year or two the next period, changing the business is all about bringing breakthrough improvements. You're hitting a particular number today. You want to multiply that by two x three x 10 x That's all about changing the business as a leader. All of us have board these responsibilities. Quite often. We think that if I'm a senior person, I'm responsible for strategizing on responsible for bringing about breakthrough improvements in my organization. But to sustain the current level of performance is not my responsibility, but that's not true. In reality, we are responsible for board running the business, which is what I call as daily what management and changing the business, which is what I call as policy management or breakthrough management. We'll talk more about this as we move forward. Take the scenario very similar to what I industry did. Dalia. This person, let's assume, is pushing a rock up as he is doing that afford to push the rock up. The performance of the process improves, but the moment he lets off the rock it again slips down on. Unless he doesn't have that which are that stopper, the performance is going to deteriorate down. The rock is going to keep coming down. That is again an analogy for what I talked about earlier. As you make improvements, unless you don't have that stopper or that which which is nothing but the sustenance or daily work management, your process would never attain its full capability. So it's equally important for us to balance between running the business and changing the business. Not now, when we talk about running the business and changing the business, I want to emphasize how these two are different when we actually implement them. I talked about the fact that one is afford sustenance and the other is about bringing breakthrough improvements. What do I really mean? Daily work management largely helps in controlling variability in your process. If you look at this graph in the middle, you will realize that the first part of the graph has high radiation and I don't have daily work management there. The moment I put daily work management in place, the variability in the process reduces, which means my process is more consistent, and it is also a scenario that I already have the know how off how I have to manage that process so that knowledge elderly recites in the organization that does not require innovation. That's what I mean. Andi. Across all deliverables off the organization. Something like this needs to exist if you are responsible for financials, if you are responsible for people, if you're responsible for customers in all those verticals or pillars, you need to have this kind off daily work management culture. The next on the last phrase, is where you see a sudden increase in the performance, and that is what I call its policy management or, in other words, breakthrough improvement. This involves innovation. It involves you doing something that you don't know are. You don't have the know how to do that. It is something that's new to you or to your organization or to the industry as a whole. And here we may not attempt and do breakthrough across all areas. We may prioritize in which deliverable we want to do breakthrough improvements. It's not important that we do. Breakthroughs cross in all areas. It depends on the strategic priority of the organization. Another way to look at the difference between what the difference between the two is that when you do daily work management, though, I said the sustained performance is the objective that is also a marginal lift in performance. You can expect about 5 to 10% lifting performance, depending on your process. When it comes to breakthrough improvement, you can expect as much as 30 or even much higher than 30% off improvement asked against the current baseline. So that is what differentiates between policy and daily work management between changing the business and running the business. Now, to test your knowledge, I have three scenarios on the screen. Scenario A is one where we do meet the target scenario B is a scenario very mostly don't make the target. Occasionally we do, and scenario three is a scenario where we have never met the Tom at the target. Now tell me in which of these three scenarios daily what management would be useful for us ? Take a minute to think of ordered foster video. Give it a tart, write down your answer and then proceed further. Okay, let me more. Assuming that you have thought about the answer, the real answer rewards around the concepts that I spoke about. Polio, great to management, usually helps in uplifting the performance of the process by least 30% so that is a drastic improvement in performance. So that's relevant more so in this case, off. See, however, in the case off a where you are by and large meeting the target, all you need is ah referred to sustain that performance so daily what management has needed even when everything looks fine. In there is a scenario where mostly we don't mean the target, but we're not completely off. Occasionally, we do touch the target in this scenario as well, where you can get at least five or say 10% improvement in the performance just by doing daily work management. So Scenario A and B are more relevant for daily work management. That is the answer. I hope this video has given you good clarity on how to differentiate between daily work management and policy management. Also, to help you understand when you should use daily work management. The reason I'm talking about daily what management and emphasizing more about it is because in the context of standard work, daily work management is a larger umbrella standard work fits into the larger amble off daily work management Onda. We will talk more about this as we move forward, but it's very important. Important that you relate the concept of standard work for daily work management at this point. Thank you. 5. What is Standard Work for Leaders: Now we will talk about standard work for leaders now in the context of standard work. If you recollect the definition that we talked about, emphasized that standard work is applicable in scenarios where there is a repetitive book. One of the challenges that usually people have in associating the concept off standard work to leaders is that leaders quite often don't repeat tasks. They do, certainly. But it's not like a manufacturing production unit where, like a person who is working on the machine, they repeatedly performed the same activity. So defining standard work for leaders in itself has attracted Lord off interest and attention. Now, in this lecture, we will talk about how standard work is defined for leaders as we do this. I want to start by talking about daily work management, which I did talk about Aaliyah and relate that to standard work again, something that we talked about all your in the definition lecture as I mentioned daily, what management is more off a principle in which standard work is an important competent If you look at this illustration, the foundation off daily work management starts by defining and standardizing the processes once standards have been established for the process than based on the rule. Every person in the organization will have responsibilities to sustain the level of performance for those accountability areas or for those perimeters that would result in daily governance. As I mentioned as you do governance, you may also identify small areas for improvement, which you would, of course, implement. And that can lead to small cases and small improvements about 5 to 10%. So the framework off daily work management starts with the framework off defining standard work from there. Assigning that two individuals and thereby establishing governance and small improvements now standard work in itself for the leader is not as important as the concept off accountability. And so I would say that I would enlarge the definition off standard work and include accountability in it. When we talk about standard work for leaders, what do we mean by accountability? There are a lot of definitions floating around on what is accountability and how is it different from responsibility? I'm not going to go into that right now, but what I wish to emphasize is that accountability is ownership off the recess or, in other words, ownership for effectiveness. When there is a task that is given to a leader, the leader is accountable or, in other words, the leader is responsible for the outcome. The effectiveness of the outcome rather than just focusing on the task on hand. If an organization has made a person the CEO of the organization and has given him responsibility off increasing the let's say, the market share by 10 person, then in five years, for example, then this person has to find note, smart ways off achieving the target. And let's say he finds some bottlenecks which were not identified earlier or were not part of the original plan. He cannot come back and complain, or he cannot report saying that these are the constraints. I cannot achieve the target. So he has to find ways to still Delaware the results that he has promised. So accountability is more important in the gays off leaders, but it doesn't stop there. The definition off accountability or definition off standard work also involves shared accountability. What do we mean by shared accountability? There could be various scenarios in an organization which involves multiple functions and multiple leaders that one leader is largely dependent on the other. Sometimes you are in the giving end, and sometimes you are undertaking in. When you are in the giving end, all of us just silently keep quite. But when we are in the receiving end, we make noises. Saying that that person is not cooperating on is not supporting me. The concept of shared accountability comes in where you, as a leader on a forcefully are, in other words, voluntarily involving yourself in finding ways off, demonstrating your accountability on an area where you are not directly responsible. If this definition is little confusing, you should take the example off Any team sport in any team sport in middle. Afford that supporters when one member of the team is responsible. For example, the goalkeeper in a football is responsible for blocking the ball from entering the goalpost. And let's say for some reason he's not able to do that. Are he's struggling or is still doing that? But other players are not sure if he's able to block the ball, so you always find there are few other players who run behind the goalkeeper just as a cover to insure the ball does not pass beyond the goalkeeper, so they act as a PSA gained level off difference, or sometimes even 1/3 level off difference. That is what we mean by shared accountability, not player who runs behind the goalkeeper. If you look at what he's supposed to do, it's probably not defined that he has to protect the ball from going inside the goalpost. That's the job of the goalkeeper. But he still done that because he feels he's accountable for that particular match and it's victory. So the concept of shared accountability becomes more important in the scenario. As you move higher in the organization, I'm going to take a business example so that this becomes a little clear meeting. The production target becomes standard work for the head of production off any organization . That's what he's being hired for, so that's his standard work. That's his normal responsibility. But I'm going to stretch that definition of standard book toe include his accountability. Now what is he accountable for? He's accountable to ensure that even if some flyer problem exists, it does not impact meeting the production targets. He finds smart, obeys or defines alternate solutions to make sure that in spite of supply of problems. The production output adjustment. That's where he demonstrates his accountability. Now, what is shared accountability? Let's say the marketing forecasted a particular volume for the year and for some unknown reason. There was a surge in the volumes in the demand, and that's good for any business. And let's say it increased by at least 40 to 50%. No, the production manager obviously can always come back and say, Listen, you asked me to plan for X volume. I have done that, and I'm able to meet that. But if you want me to do X Place 50% I'm not able to do that because I don't have planned capacity for that. That's where the concept of shared accountability comes in. If he's able to work with the marketing team with this Appalachian deem to ensure that he still needs the search, the unexpected search in demand thereby ensuring that the organization does not miss the opportunity. That's what we mean by shared accountability. So if we now having understood this concept come to a transactional element off, how do I implement daily work management that contains a set? A few steps I'm gonna briefly talk about this, and this is covered in the daily work management course in detail. Start by defining the process by which I mean what is the process? What's his objective? What are the steps involved? Who are the owners for the process? And what para Mido's or matrix for KP eyes do we want to measure up? What is the role definition off every individual who is associate ID with that process? And what are the standards establishing the standards? It could be process standards. It could be quality standards. It could be standards for material. So you could look at it from a perspective of the six games man machine Matured material Miss Sherman and Mother Nature. Once this is done, we will be able to cast the standard work for every rule. Once that's done, it's important to communicate the standard walk across the organization so that everyone understands what those are responsible or accountable. For once this is done, we move into execution where we talk about establishing a routine rhythm for daily work management someone has to audit or someone has to perform the standard work regularly in the gaze of a manufacturing team member. Somebody like a person operating a machine. This is simply state forward. He has to do this for every competent, or he has to do it for every time the shift changes and so on. But in the case of a leader, many times the word daily is not relevant. The activities more often might be across weeks or months or quarters, so sometimes it can be even once in a year. So it's important that we actually create a routine and follow that road in with conviction . Make it a habit. And once we realize that the process is not meeting the desired standard, then we find a way to correct that deviation. So that's an I trade of cycle. We talked about this the last bit off the correction and it I creative cycle in a separate lecture as we move forward. Very importantly, there is a big die Lamar for organizations and leaders who already practiced daily work management what is called as managing points, checking points and simple words and PCP. If you haven't heard of this storm, you would hear this in the next few. Let just indeed a So there is daily work management on one side. It has a set off defined tasks. There are policy improvement targets which the senior management has given to you, such as an improvement by 30 or 50% on delivery or quality and so on. Then you have small improvements. Are occasions with your team. Members have promised that they would do, and then you also have your HR gold sheet. That is your HR Thomas, in which your annual performance would be reviewed. I quite often when I do an audit, I find there is disparity between all these four elements. People don't know whether What's there in my MP CP. Should that be in my HR Emma's? Or should the policy items going sit into the NBC P. So I find all kinds of scenarios, particularly the MP CPR daily work management is abused. I find many cases people put policy parameters into it. In many cases, I find case and projects are fitting into it. And sometimes I find that there is a disparity between daily work management and a John Thomas. So it's very important we saw the salt. I would say that the daily work management policy and case in our three different elements that should go into your age. Aramis Daily. What management? M PCP is only for monitoring or sustaining the current level of performance. If you're responsible for production in your organization and if you wish to check the first ever output off every shift, then that's part of your daily work. That's part of your standard book that should be part of your daily work management. If you want to improve the first ever output by 30% that becomes a policy project and that would not come in your daily work management. They are two different aspects, and Cason is a scenario where you want to just make sure that you improve the performance. My say 5% or so so suddenly when you do it daily Work Management You may identify opportunities for small projects, which can be taken up as casings by you or your by your subordinates. Policy projects are top down given by senior management when all these going to HR mus that are constraints and how many para meters or matrix or carries can be including the HR emus . So always there's a struggle to incorporate everything. The best is to ensure all your policy priorities in your H animus and choose the most important daily work management or standard work, and add that you could even exclude casing depending on the level in which you are. So that could be a way to solve this dilemma. So with that note, I hope you understood the difference between how a leader approaches standard work versus how the approach standard work in the context. Off team members. We would talk about each of this in greater detail, taking examples of how we can implement this board for leaders and for team members. Thank you. 6. Part 1 - Tools for implementating Standard Work for Leaders with Case Study: MP stands for managing points and see P stands for chicken points. Now we will understand what is the difference between managing points and chicken points? Let's start with an analogy. Let's assume that you are cooking a recipe for your family Now the outcome off that particular task, What do you think that would be? Would that be the taste of the food? Or would that be the satisfaction level off the people who are going to eat the food, Maybe your family members? Or is it going to be the cost associated with cooking this particular recipe? Or are you able to cook it on time so it could be any off this right? I just took a handful off examples so that you're able to relate that the outcome off any activity could be either in terms of delivery for activity. Or it could be in terms of quality safety, Exeter or even customer satisfaction for that matter. So, ultimately, for any activity, whether it's cooking your mean or whether it's manufacturing a competent or a product in your factory, or whether it is a bank where you are servicing the customer, there are going to be defined outcomes. These outcomes are largely what we consider as managing points as managers. We are accountable for delivery or effectiveness off these outcomes, and hence those become are managing points. No, the question really is what are our checking points then? If you want to achieve your managing points, you have to take care off a handful of things. Those handful of things in this case, in the case off this cooking off a recipe could be things such as the quality of the ingredients, adding the ingredients at the right time and right quantity. In fact, even going one step further and making sure that you buy the right quality off ingredients , ensuring that you are keeping the temperature off your open or your stop with the right level. You're cooking it for enough time. Or even, for that matter, are you having the right man well or the right cheat sheet when you're cooking? So it could be a variety of things such as these, which I describe which are important for us to make sure that we end of the day keep checking these things as a result, off which the outcome are the managing point comes out to be as desired. Interestingly, many of these factors in a factory set up our pre controlled or, in other words, they're taken care by other functions. What US and operations are You as a process owner can check our things, such as doing dip sticks once in a while, even for this scenario off cooking. We always do that right. Every time the mean is cooking, you try to smell and see if you're getting the right fragrance. You try to taste a little bit to find out if you added too much salt or too little salt. Is it too spicy or not? So always, we look at things. We see things visibly. We observe realism. Sometimes we smell. And sometimes we taste to make sure that we keep checking this process continuously before the final outcome is produced, thereby giving us a scope to make course corrections if things are not satisfactory. So if I were to sum up managing points or MP, nothing but measures off effectiveness. Chicken points have a cause and effect relationship that you're managing point and those are perimeters which are important for us to monitor or check on an ongoing basis so that we can assure the quality or the effectiveness of the managing point. So managing points and checkpoints become an integral part off a leaders standard work. At this point, I want to emphasize that breakthrough goals are targets off. Breakthrough goals, which we discussed in detail earlier, should never be part off the MPC p off a leader. Maybe the MPC B is meant for making sure that whatever standards offset are being maintained and the current level off performance is being achieved. The reason I'm highlighting this and emphasizing on this is because this is where most organizations falta when they create the MPC P for a leader, they knowingly or annoyingly end up adding a lot off targets. That is to say, improvement targets in the MPC pee on them. M PCP loses its sanctity. Let's not talk about few examples off em PCP, which will give you a better idea off what these perimeters exactly can be in your scenario . So I'm going to take four examples the forces that off operations or a productions manager if he is responsible for the employees direct plus in direct production related costs, if that's his managing point. That's what he's accountable for. Then he probably have to keep checking things such as employing productivity because they employed. Cost in a way is determined. That is the total cost, not the unit cost. The total cost is determined by the per activity. It's determined by utilization of the conveyor, assuming that it's an assembly line variance in the head count. Where says what he has planned for both in the management level and maybe at the workmen level, even variations which exist between what the role expect someone to do versus what that person is really doing. I'm sure in your organization you have a competency grid on. People are mapped against various competencies. If you're taking a guy with a higher competency, then you might be paying him more. But if you're ending up giving him work related to lower competency, and obviously that's an opportunity for you to find you. So let's more another example again from operations. But now we're talking about cost, and in this case we're talking about cost relating toe conversion. I want to take this more from a business perspective, and that's why I've said conversion cost against Donora in this case, factors which impact the commotion cost could be manufacturing cost brilliance, as against the plan utilization of the plant. That is to say, in other words, the running ours versus recoverable costs. That is, cost that you can extract back, such as the recoverable value off scrap or production off overtime, or keeping overtimes within the expected target. So these could be the checking points in this scenario. I'm going to take another example in this case and keeping the MPs same. But I've taken two different functions, so one could be on Engineering Guy. Another could be a commercial guy. And if you talk about opportunity, loss and what do I mean by opportunity loss, it could be the quantum off production that you have missed. There was a market demand, but you did not meet that demand because you had inherent problems within your infrastructure. And for an engineering person, this very important right. It's very vital because that's where he exists. He exists to make sure that he is building enough capacity in the manufacturing unit, and so if he has to be accountable for this from his perspective, then the chicken points could be factors such as the quality rating of the cells if he is using a cellular manufacturing concept, UH, capacity of the in host parts which, with respect to the plan system, rating off various cells. Assuming that he has some kind off aerating mechanism for various cells not necessarily related to quality and ability to enhance the capacity for new products. For the commission person for the same managing bind, he would be accountable. Or he has to check for factors such as deliberating off the some players because he has to make sure the supply chain is competent or capable to deliver. He has to ensure that the Windows have enough capacity, and finally, he has to constantly de bottleneck chronic client stoppers. Now, this point Bryant off the bottling Chronic line stoppers is not necessarily a breakthrough . It's a digital job off this particular person, the commercial person, because that's why he exists. And small improvement in that process certainly would also be considered as part of a standard work or daily work management. So but this scenario that is, these four examples I'm sure you have in tow appreciate the difference between what a managing point and what a checking point is. I don't more about this as we move forward, help you to understand how to create these. I'm not going to take another scenario. Cost per unit cost per unit produced. If that baby managing point off the plant head or the manufacturing head then there could be two factors have just taken to there could be more for simplicity have just taken to There could be two factors which largely impact the cost per unit. One could be productivity, and that could be material cost for the sake. I'm just going to stick with one example on the other. I'm going to allow you to read yourself. If the checking point off the plant head is per activity, then he probably needs to deploy this to somebody down the line. Might be the shift manager, or it could be the engineering person. If it's a shift manager, when the shift manager has to indulge deploy line stoppages and first ever out, he has found out that these two factors that is the line stoppage and first of output are critical for ensuring that you meet your proactive denounce the line stop or Indra done is impacted by shortage of material and availability off tools, that is the spare availability off Tut's. So, in a way, we trying to link and say what measures have to be checked at various levels down the line from the manufacturing head till probably the shift supervisor to ensure that you mean the production target are, in other words, in this case, cost per unit. What do you have to appreciate here is our put perimeters which are critical to this business. Be not you're creating theoretical model off. What is the formula for productivity? What should be in the numerator, what should be in the denominator? So we're not worried about that. We know historically from the fact that we're managing this particular operations, we know that our per activity is often impacted by line stoppages and first ever out. The output in the first over is usually less, and as a result, I'm gonna check these two factors alone and in return. I know that line stoppers are mainly because off shortage of material and due to availability off spares off tools. I'm going to check those intern. So this is how you construct a matrix tree from which you will have the impetus are you would have the preliminary framework for picking up managing points and checking points. What I want to read trader at this point is that just these metrics alone Do not make your MP cp You would have activities and you would have other standards in addition to metrics in your MPC people What we call us a to do list which you talked about earlier. Remember that NBC P should not be restricted toe matrix alone though I'm showing you only metrics. 7. Part 2 - Tools for implementating Standard Work for Leaders with Case Study: So now I'm going to talk about riel deployment. We talked about what is MP Re doctor. About what? The CPI. I'm going to take three scenarios now. I'm going to help you understand how I deploy em PCP down the line. Let's assume a scenario one where you have a plant head and he's responsible for production delivery percentage. Now he has to deploy this particular managing point. So what he's done is he's taken this and deployed to office line managers. He has to line managers. Two different lines lying want to. So the same production delivery person stage. Let's assume that to be 95% is deploying that to these two gentlemen because they handled diverse portfolio. Yours and their areas don't overlap with each other. So scenario one MP of the manager gets deployed as MP for his subordinates. What about the CPI? The manager's CP that is daily Plan versus Actuals is also getting deployed as CP to his subordinates. So in this scenario, the manager and the subordinates would be looking at very similar metrics, but would be for respective Radius. But the manager would be looking at it cumulatively. In addition to these managing points that has been deployed from the manager. The subordinates could have other CPIs off. The manager has their managing points, which is what we will talk about in the next scenario. In the second scenario, I've taken another perimeter such as cost per unit, something similar to what we talked about all year. In this case, the manager has found out that there are two factors which impact cost per unit or in fact , tree off them. One is indirect. Cost number is over time ours, and the third is labor cost radiance. So he's taking his indirect cost and he's deploying that to the production hit. He's taking the labor cost and he's deploying it to the HR head. So over time ours is a C B, which is also beginning the CPI of this subordinate. So in this scenario, to sum up, you're talking about the managers CP getting deployed as MP to the subordinate and the C P off. The manager can also get deployed as CP to the subordinates. This is the most common scenario that most people assume and use. But this is not just one scenario. There could be multiple other scenarios. We already talked about one, and I'm going to talk about another in the next big auto. So here is the third scenario, and I call this shared accountability. In this case, you're talking about two different functions, so there's no boss and subordinate relationship here. Here, you're dealing with two functional heads, one is operations and another is HR. In the audience scenario, I talked about one where you have a manufacturing head to whom all the H Audis are reporting in tow. This is the scenario we're talking about took beer groups. Andi, In this case, if on time production commencement, let's say there's a new project and you want to come into project the production on time, then if that's the MP for the operations person and he finds out that unfilled positions is while the T taking points, he could deploy the chicken point as a managing point are as a chicken point to another peer off Hiss, who is responsible for hiring people, which is the HR. So here is a scenario. 1/3 scenario where you don't have a boss about in relationship and a CP off one function gets deployed as NPR CP to another function. And this is mainly coming because of the fact that you're talking about the shared accountability here and if you recollect. I emphasized about this when we talked about the standard work for the leaders. So we talked about three different scenarios. I'm going now. Show you how the template looks like. Every organization has a small radiation to this template. So I've taken one, which is generally used and have just shown one example, and this possibly could before the CEO. And he's responsible for market share. And we also include the unit of Measure Target Frequency and the owner for that metric, which happens to be the CEO. And he has found out that the chicken points for these are sales growth and expansion off the network, which by which we mean you. No, the Dealer Net book. And he's intern deploying the first metric That is the growth in sales person stage to the sales head and his deploying network expansion to the marketing head. And the targets have also bean deployed accordingly. Now this would be his checking point. He would in done ensure that these chicken points either become empty or CPI to those two gentlemen. So that is how an M P. C. P. Gets created and I'm emphasizing again. I'm just talking about The Matrix here because that's the most difficult part. But ensure that when you create your own PCP, you don't just make it a matrix affair. But you also have to include things such as activities which had to be performed as a manager. He may be expected to go for a gimbal walk. He might be expected to conduct a reviews. He might be expected to perform audits, or he might be expected to review the outcomes of the audits extra. All that should be part off the MPC be for any individual so that not we've got a good hang off what the MPC p for a leader is and how that is created. Thank you 8. Implementation Tips for Standard Work of Leaders: in this lecture we're going to talk about How do we implement standard work for leaders when the implement standard bark for team members, It's pretty much state forward, isn't it? All we have to do is to put the visual control system out there. The VCs out there on we have to train the employees to follow the process, which we have already done, maybe through a formal training. So all we have to do is to just monitor them. But when we talk about standard work for leaders, the very important aspect that there is not going to be anyone to go on you are the efficacy off. How you're performing your standard bog is something that is very critical. You have to be your own auditor, and you have to find creative ways off deploying your standard book. I'm going to talk about few commonly used practices. But all I have to tell you is that this is where your creativity is needed. What will work in my organization may not work in yours, so all you have to do is to find a different way off enforcing or making sure that you perform your standard book Also, we know that as people move up leaders, they are smarter people in a lot they don't like do things such as a standard book. They hate to do the same thing again and again. They try to delegate these things to someone else. I recently met a CEO and he said, I don't do any monthly reviews So I said Why? He said, I don't have time He said, All I want from my team members is to tell me what issues they're facing asked me does Sometimes we have penniless patients. Standard book. He's something that means patients, and it is going to change the fabric off your organization. That is the culture of your organization. So it's very, very important for you as a leader. Some of the most common practices for standard work are things like visual control reviews . You could do your floor meetings or floor meetings the way you call it. Some people called as flow. Some people call it as floor meetings. Some people call it us. Sun Rays meetings so different technologies are used, but all you could do is do a quick meeting for not more than 7 to 10 minutes every day morning to find out what's work. Well, what didn't work well, what issues to be anticipated except gravity team. So it's a quick had, If I had to say, you could also do audits. Once in a while, you could no mystery shopping. You could just step in and find out what's happening. You could, in fact, do a process. What to when you walked through your process? You may realize silently as you don't try to intervene. Drone. Try to ask questions. You may realize that there are certain aspects in your organization or in your process that is changing. So you may be able to take actions building action trackers and using that There is also a very powerful matter, so there are multiple ways in which you could do your standard book. I want to emphasize that it's very important that you encouraging cases is also part of standard work. I talked about standard work and policy, and I said improvement is not part off standard work, but for a leader for a leader in creating the team members to do improvements is part of your standard book. Marginal improvements are needed in the organization. I don't 2 to 5% lift in performance, and that can be achieved by engaging your employees and as a leader, that's your responsibility to. So there are various templates, and I would say various best practices that you might already being exposed to. So without not, I'm going to wrap up this lecture and we will proceed in the next lecture and talk about standard work for team members. 9. What is Standard Work for Team Members ?: We will not talk about standard work for team members as we do this. I want to start by asking you a question. If you have standards in an organization, do you think we have standard work? Take a minute, think about it, pause the video and then let's proceed further. I hope now you have thought about this. I would disagree with this statement because having standards this one thing and having standard walk is another SP saw in the earlier videos. Standards are more about standards relating to the product standards relating to the process, standards relating to material and so forth. Standard book is about a culmination off the rule and the responsibility of the person which is mapped to these standards, thereby we establish a routine or rhythm. The standard works about establishing a routine, all rhythm in the person's activities in a day which would ensure that these standards that we have created our deployed if you look at standard work for team members here, the Tom team members have used mainly for people who do repetitively work, so you could assume that to be people who are involved in production would be people who are involved in inspection in material movement in ensuring that that is enough supply off material exit job One of the big prerequisites for establishing standard work in the context off team members, as defined in tight a production system, is that there should be repetitive cyclical work. If the work is not repetitive, then the opportunity for you to define standard work is much lesser. For example, you have a team member who is coordinating for your case and improvements in the organization. He is going about meeting people to understand what improvements they have done. He's documenting that, and he's helping them, his coaching them in such scenarios, It's not easy to define standard work. You can do it. You can say how many people he has to meet, how long he has to spend time with each person. You can do that, but on the other hand, if the same person walks in a cell in a mission ing cell, then it's the repetitive and it's easy to define. So start by defining what is the standard work, particularly for processes where there is sick. It'll work also if you don't have the need to maintain quality or performance levels, then you don't really need to worry about standard work that's taken for granted. Another prerequisite for standard work is that the acute mint downtime is not very high, because if I establish a standard work and then if the equipment frequently fails, then this person will never get the rhythm or will ever be able to perform his standard book as defined. So these are, I would say, prerequisites for standard work establishment. And what are the elements off a standard book? Usually they talk about three elements, but I don't think we need to restrict it to three. Of course, you need to have a work sequence, a defying work sequence, inspection points. So quality aspects, safety aspects, safety points defining what is the standard walking progress in wintry W. I. P. Here stands for work in progress in Men Tree. Many times I've heard people say that inventory is part of the standard work. Inventory is not part of the standard work defining for a cell or for a line. What is a work in progress in my country is part of the standard book. Why? Because we don't want inflated in men tree and that someone has to be accountable and we want the operator. Are the team member who is handling that sailor that line to be accountable for him. Entry lying around, working progress in mentally lying around. And that's why we have included that tak time, a concept which I'm not going to go into greater detail. And you would get that, uh, in Internet as well. A rhythm to perform your activity, a little Matic pattern or time to perform your activity is what, in simple words, that kindness and escalations very important, which most people miss. We want the team members also to hold some level of accountability if I'm responsible for handling a Cela motioning cell, which has two machines are three machines in it. And if I find the quality of the incoming material is deteriorating, or if it find that there is a small deterioration in the performance off my equipment, but it's not alarming that I need to raise the red flag what I do that usually I wouldn't I would think that is the problem of the guy who's coming in the next shift, because in this ship I'll still be able to say to accountability or escalations, which we're talking about here is about the operators keen eye for detail and his willingness to go and share this inside with his with his Siberia. So that's about escalations. So these are broadly the elements which go into defining standard work for team members, though on the right side what have defined us prerequisite analysis some off them may not be necessarily prerequisite. They would still be part of the standard work itself work definition itself. I want to start with the bottom of the list. In fact, what's highlighted at the end, which is visual S O. B. So the idea for us is that when we have completed defining the standard work, I should have a visual S o. B. So the standard work should be a visual S o. P for the team member, which he's able to look at it, and he's able to interpret it easily and perform the task as defined in it. So that is the objective for that to happen in an engineering organization in a manufacturing organization, we may have several complexities. We may have a Koopmans. We may have people we may have material extra so everything has to be synchronized. So there is a bit of analysis which needs to be done. Usually it's done by the methods engineer or by the industrial engineer. In fact, it goes beyond process or methods. It starts with the product quality specifications. Then you need to have process flow chart. Then you need to have what we call as the president's matrix. When you're doing assembly of parts, we need to know in which sequence these components have to be assembled. So that's what we call by Presidents Matrix. Then we need to balance the line in the gates off machining and and sorry. In the case of an assembly line, we need to have line balancing shed as toe every stage. What activity needs to be performed and in what sequence and at what Speed? Exeter. Once you have done this, then you're irritable. On the other hand, if you're talking about a mission ing sale, we're talking about standard work chart. That is to say how work flows within the cell. We talk about production capacity sheet, which talks about essentially how we are managing the production planning process. The last is about mind machine table or it's called by various names again, which talks about how a machine and a human being contract with each other so that we are able to manage the cycle time that time Exeter. So all these could be, I would say, part of standard work. But a team member may not be able to understand or may not be ableto interpreter it as easily as a visual S o. B. So the culmination of all these analysis should be in the form of a visual S o b foreign operate. So that broadly, somewhere, I says, what goes into a standard work for a team member? What I'm going to do in the next few lectures is to take few off those items. The most important ones, like the standard work, standardized work chart, and so on. And take an example and cover that in greater detail. Thank you. 10. Part 1 - Tools for Standard Work of Team Members : Standardized Work Chart: in this lecture, we will talk about standardized work chart. We talked about a few different ways in which standard work can be created or, in other words, the prerequisites for standard work, which is the visual S o P at the end can be created. So standardized work chart is one off those most important tools that I felt you should know if you're working in manufacturing and it is largely used in the context off machining cell. Of course, you can also use it in the context off non cellular manufacturing scenario. But it will be more relevant and useful when you use it in this scenario. So what does a standardized work chart? It is a visual representation off the layout of the acute mint, the cycle time, the sequence in which the work happens, where the work in progress inventory is stored, and how much and the other factors such as thes relating to the standard book. The purpose off having a standardised work chart is that it will help us in standardizing the operation or, in other words, creating standard work for the operator was managing that cell so it can serve as an s o b are it can become a prerequisite or starting point for creating more visual and more. I would say attractive standard operating procedure, which is simple in language. So this document you're going to see is slightly technical. This is how standardized work chart looks like, and it's usually used for an engineer to read and interpret that our religious ways in which these things can be done. So I'm just showing you one of the most common matters. And so there could be small variations to the template to the symbols which are used here. So let's start with a table on the left side of the table. You have the name of the line, the process name description off the process. What is the name of the previous process and the next process, the cycle time off this particular cell, how much is the standard in men tree and the number off breakdowns which have happened. So these are all the perimeters which has to be populated at the bottom. You see three symbols, one for the standard work in progress in men tree, the other is for quality chick, and the last is for safety. So these are the symbols toe denote what activities have to be performed at each stage. Now coming to the illustration of the diagram. We have taken a very simple process, which has two machines M C one and C two and the raw material he's clearly placed on the top right corner off this illustration and at the bottom right corner you have the finish courts, so the cell is arranged in such a way that you have M C one and EMC two facing each other. That's one operator who is denoted by that blue symbol. The numbers here denote the sequence in which the activity happens, and the Aramark says how the moment off the team member or operator would be so it starts with one. So it starts with the operator picking up the raw material moving toe. EMC one. He's loading the component. Then he comes to EMC. Do is noting the competent on learning it and putting it in the finished good palate. So this is a sequence in which happens. We also have those symbols, as I mentioned, so he has to take care off the work in progress in Men tree, which would be defined as how many numbers Usually it's written, written inside the symbol. If there is a safety check when that's highlighted and same way, if there is a quality inspection check, then you use that diamond symbol, which is there an emcee do and you might write at what frequency is supposed to check if I put 20 it means after every 20 competence he has check. I haven't put the numbers here. So you would say what is a work in Progress Infantry that's defined in the entire cell in the their cell, which contains two stages, including the finished goods and raw materials. So this layout is helpful when you want to design a process when you want to, Designer said. If you are in a process engineer and you're designing yourself, then you could try out various combinations and then desired that this could be possibly the best combination for this particular volume that we have targeted and then decide this layout every time the volume changes. The sequence can also change because I might add one mission from the next cell into this cell, or I may push one mission from here to another arm I just discard the sale and added to another self, so all those various combinations can be done. In fact, it's not necessary that every cell should have only one operator, so you could have two operators manning a cell are more than two, so all that will change every time the production volume changes. It's not mandatory, but it's likely to change when the production volume or the attack time changes are when any of the other standards, such as the cycle diamond every stage in the machining. So RMC one time, if it increases, then automatically the sequence would change. Then there would be an imbalance, or we had to figure out how we would do the balancing. So that's about how you create this illustration. Now the standard work chart in itself is only a starting point. To go to the next level toe, create detailed analysis off how the machine and the man in traps, which is what we would see as we move forward. I always like to draw inspiration from other sectors or other industries. So here is a small illustration, which is only for inspiration purpose, which talks about how, ah, fast food chain uses the same concept off cellular manufacturing and, more importantly for us how they have defined their standard work. At the bottom, you see an illustration which is very similar to what I have shown you just a few seconds ago. So that is, Ah, place where the raw materials available. There is clearly a defined step off how the work moves from one stage to another, which is number and right on the top. You also say what stages said, and how long is a cycle time for each stage, and it also talks about the layout and where what has to be done? For example, it says, where the toaster would be, how the heating cabinet would be placed, and so on and so forth. So the concept of standard work are standardized work. Charred can be improvised and can be used in multiple scenarios and not necessarily in manufacturing. You look at how planes are part in an airport for the top you you're clearly know there is some science behind how that's done, and that's probably because it is part of the standard work off many people who are working in the airport and the respective airlines. So many activities across sectors. They have identified very creative ways off standardizing the processes. Thank you 11. Part 2- Tools for Standard Work of Team Members : Work Combination Chart: in this lecture, we're going to talk about standard operations combination chart, in other words, also called as man machine chart, and there are few other terminologies used for it. So the purpose of this charter is toe Find out how people and machine interact during operations to produce the desired output. Again, it's very useful for standardizing the operations, and it is helpful to define standard work. Creating S. O. P's very similar to what fees are all your but when we talked about standardized work chart . In fact, standardized work chart is also a prerequisite for this chart, so you would be able to efficiently combine people and machine and the way they interact to produce mawr value or reduce the based or moda in the process. The starting point for it, as I mentioned, is the standardized work chart. Once the Leo has been defined, then an engineer, a methods engineer or an industrial engineer would go about firstly analyzing, which really analyzing on ground how the sequence off work happens. Then he would capture that in the combinations chart that we're going to talk now and then he would analyze the combination chart to see if he can optimize it any further. Now we'll go ahead and understand the optimization and the combination chart, more importantly, for the same scenario. So you have one operator and you have to machines each mission performing one process each , which is called US PR one for first machine M C one and BR to four second mission, which is called US EMC two. So here is a small illustration off the combinations chart as usual on the top, you have information such as who prepared ID and that time and which team it belongs to. I want to draw your attention into the legends here. The legends for this graph there are four. You have manual work defined by a dark line. You could change it to any color of choice machine work. I've used a dash line. Some people use something like a sort dude walking. I've used again a dark black line, but it's a slanting line. It's not a state line, as you see in the illustrations below some people for walking. Also, they use something like a sign Go. You know it goes up and down on waiting is highlighted in red. We will talk about how we create this as we move forward. But the layout of this chart, if you go into the details on the left side you have the description of the process step by step, and every small detail is captured here. Then you have a portion of the charred baby a capturing the times, which we didn't do earlier in our standardized work chart. So here we say, What is the time in world Mandali? What is the time that the machine is doing the operation, which is what we call this automated time, time for the mission to run and what does the time, which is spending walking between one stage to another or one station to another. So let's. And of course, the right side of the globe talks about the graph itself, and you would see that it has, ah, time scale on the top, split by five seconds each. You could change it to your convenience, So let's start by understanding this a little better. Big. The competent is the first activity that the operator would do, and that's a manual activity which involves three seconds so that three seconds you see here is captured as threes against here. Then this person walks for two seconds so that walking is associated for use against here on as he has done that, he has come to the stage. So this stage involves PR one in M. C. One. Now he has a 10 seconds off work off during this particular competent into the equipment or M C one so that tends against is captured here. Then for the next 25 seconds, the machine is doing the operations. So that is Mark here in dashed line. So starting from 15 it goes writer 40. After that, you know, what this person does is after he has done the loading in the machine. He doesn't have anything, do the machine. He's loaded the competent. It's an automated process. If he has to be involved in that activity that if he has to continue to interact with the machine, then he has to stay there. But in this case, it's an automated mission. So he lorded the competent, shut the door, press the button and all that took him tense against. Then the mission will do the operations for 25 seconds, so he decides to move to the next machine. So the competent, which is already being processed and lying in M. C one He'll pick that up from the previous cycle here, picked it up and take it toe EMC two. And that would take him to many two seconds. And then he would spend tense against to Lord the competent in EMC do again. So that is the next 12th. As he has completed this, the EMC two will do 45 seconds off operations so that that goes something like this Now, coming back the first stage by this time is still doing the mission ing and it will complete the mission in here. Once this person has loaded the competent, he is relieved so he can walk back and pick up the next company. But after picking the next company int, he is not going to do anything. He may go to the first stage or the stage bear, which bad markets? One in our chart where the raw materials are that he can go there and he loved just evade till he completes 72 seconds. Why is that? Because here, if you see, the previous mission is not free, the next mission is not free. So this is probably not best optimized combination. If we had 1/3 machine in the cell, then this person could have been used for loading that If there is any other manual activity that you had wanted him to perform then such as inspection or something like that , he could have done that because he doesn't have anything. He's going to wait for this long. He would actually. When this 40 seconds gets completed, 39 seconds get completed, he may become. This machine may become free. So now he can pick up another component and load that in the mission So the cycle might start right here as well he can. He can start here as well, so he would bay till 39 seconds. And then he would start his next stage off operations so he would not be waiting for us in their time. Let's assume that's the scenario. I'm going to change this. I'm going to say that this person comes back here and he's going to pick the next competent , and he's going to look. So now what happens if he picks the next competent loads another two seconds for loading and then sorry, another 10 seconds for loading, and then the mission would perform the operation for subsequent timing. So if he's 39 so 39 plus 10 is 49 49 plus another 25 which comes to somewhere around 74 or so, So till 74 he would have completed the loading off the processing of that mission. So even if he has completed the loading here, so let me just go ahead and copy this, bring it you and say that he's He's already done the walking now. So now he is just going to do the processing that he's going to do the dense against. I'm just taking it approximately. And then the machine starts doing the work from their own for another 25 seconds. So this man is no free. I What he's going to do is he's going to again walk back to that machine. Ideally, what we do is in this scenario, we might dry down on drawing it here. I just for illustrated purpose and just doing it here to illustrate to you that we're still not optimized. So this person, after this loading is complete, he is again free. So here he was free for fuse a few minutes. Then again he loaded. Now again, he is free. Here he is free. Here he is relieved the machine is doing the job. Even though he's free, he get on, start the operation in the next machine because the next machine is still doing the work. So anyway, even if you push this guy to go and pick up the next competent and start machining it still , he has to wake for this timing. So all I'm trying to say is that this is how you find out as an engineer how you can optimize the operations in a particular process by playing around One of the smart ways is to see if I can reduce this 45 make it equal. Can I split it equally? Can I move some operations from here from this machine toe the previous machine? Now I don't know what those operations are and what tools they have And is it possible for us to do those configurations in a similar way? What tooling we have used? What differences we have used for the tooling extra all that has to be studied. But if we can do that, then we will be able tow, optimize the process and we will be able to drive more value from this listening. Commissioning said so. This is how ah, standard work combination chart is used for studying a process and standardizing the process tip. So once we have completed the first chart, which is a standardized work chart and the standard war combination chart for a machining cell, we have kind of defined the standard work. Then how we can deliver that visually to the operator When we talk about in operators Visual S. O. P. We would talk about safety aspect. We would talk about visual representations, will take photographs. We will see how he has to lure the competent where it has to. But and you know what are the different spines, which he has to take it off? What quality inspections he needs to do so those aspects would be emphasized Mawr in the which will s O. B. And what we talk about here would have been already pre configured in the machine itself. So that's how the operations were happening. So this is a standard combination chart for you. Thank you. 12. Part 3 - Tools for Standard Work of Team Members : Standardized Work Flow: No, I'm calling this as a vote flow chart. In this lecture, I'm going to talk about a CDs off standard work related templates and formats which are used mainly in the assembly operations. What we talked about earlier was all about machine shop, the 1st 1 here. What you see is called a workflow, John, our process flow chart. And you would sign that there is similarity here to what we saw. All your as standardized operations or standardized work chart in manufacturing in Mission Shop here, you see that it talks about how flow off material happens across various lines. You would have sub lines on main lines in assembly, and we talk about how various subassemblies are. Sub lines are integrating with the main line and how the sequence off operations happens at a high level. Also, we have medias symbols. Teoh identify special operations. Critical operations difference between special and critical is that special could be a very unique operation which is non standard critical could be anything where it's critical from a quality or from defect perspective. Of course, any operation is represented by the Circle Verification ordered inspection, which includes the operations inspection, which excludes the operations and so on. So this is an illustration. So this could give you an idea of how the whole process happens. Are is going to happen. But for us to decide that we need to define what are the activities would which would be done at every stage in the assembly operations. So probably this is more detailed. And if you see here, we call it is a work sequence chart. And here we're talking about how various activities, small activities off, even picking up something and placing it. Ekstrom happens on both sides of the assembly line. So you see here one side, you have the allege that upside on the other side, the average the right side. And there are two operators standing on either side of the assembly and then they're trying to do the assembly. And we say how long they expect that operations, that operation to take at each stage. And this goes on like this. If you visually represent this, that would be aligned. Balancing chart the one that you see on the top is a not so optimized line balancing chart , and the next one is an optimized one, basically when we say it is not optimized, you'll realize that the red line you see is at that time on you see that not every stage has fully utilized the dark time, which means that is enough slack in the process. If you move the work here and around, keeping in mind the president's matrix that I talked about as toe in which sequence what can be assembled, you cannot assemble something before something else is assembled, right? So that sequence has to be taken into consideration. And if you are able to move the work, you will realize that in the first chart we had 41 stages are 41 people. In the next charge, we have only 31. So by squeezing by optimizing, we can save over 10 people in this stage. And that's reasonably good from a perspective off efficiency and from a standard work perspective in the context off how we can define the standard work. Once we have done the optimization, we will go back and redo this work sequence, or it should have been already done, thereby, we will be able to crystallize and say, toe every operator what he has to do at that stage. So then we will go into the visual S o p For every stage, many places. They also goingto one more level of detail. If the operation involves usage of some kind of a special equipment or other things, they have to integrate To say how much off Greece has to be applied lubricant has to be applied. Are you know how much you have tightened in particular? Screw what tool you have to use too tight in that and which competent has to be placed. About what? When you're picking of the company, When you visually inspect the competent, what is it that you're observe? So all those aspects is also usually captured on That is the starting point for all this. All this information looks very engineering in the sense, you know, it's all meant for engineers and not meant for the team members were working in the shop floor. Once you take all this and completed this optimization, then you will be able tow Prepare stage wise Usual s o b. I keep talking about this visual Esto p What is that? All of us Know what visual, Esopus, I'm sure all your companies have put up visual standard operating procedures at every stage , highlighting what is important today. With a lot of technology available, you're able to push using digital media. What is this later standard operating procedure to the device off the person who is working in that particular stage So a lot can be done with technology. But I would just put that through a simple test. I would say that if, uh third grade child can understand your factory S o. B, then your S O. B. Has passed the test and be put up in the factory that easy. I'm saying this is because we need to understand that brain someone is working on the production line. He has work to do, and he's not going to be reading your S o. B. And people don't refer toa a soapy every time they assemble. After a few times, they know what needs to be done. So if you keep the S o. B simple and catchy, it's likely that hateful attractors attention are. If he needs any clarification, he can instantly reach out and he can get that clarified from the S. O. B rather than asking anyone else. So this is a test and I always draw inspiration, as I mentioned from other industries, and in this case, I'm going to talk about what most airlines do. You know the variety of customers who travel in an airline. You have people with all levels off education and people who can speak multiple languages, read and write multiple languages. So for an airline, it's indeed a humongous task to make sure that everyone understands what the standard operating procedures when gays often emergency. And you should understand that this is about life or death, so they pretty well be sure that they have communicated what they intended toe Andi. Most of the visual eso piece that you see in your seat pockets are very good. I just taken one example which illustrates what you need to do, and the reason I like this is because it has zero text in it. It only docks about the sequence, and it is the administration which does the job. So create S. O. B's our standard work for team members, which are simple, which are illustrative, which are big, which is easily readable or easily understandable from a distance, and make sure that you constantly revised. So with that north, I'm going to wrap up this lecture. Thank you 13. Upkeeping Standards - SDCA: so welcome back. We're not going to talk about how do we upkeep the standards? And so the standard book, Let's assume that there is a process in which you have established the standard and the standard book. The performance has been stable over a period of time, and things are all looking good. But then you would always realize that as time progresses, the performance off such a process, for which there is good level of monitoring and there is a good standard work practice established will start deteriorating over a period of time. This is likely because we live in a dynamic would in today's world. The environment changes something or the other does obviously change. And employing my a trite you might get a new employee. Your existing machine might go to a problem. You might change the layout in your factory and so on and so forth. So there is likely hurt that the performance will deteriorate as time progresses, so there would be a gradual drifted Buffon's. This indicates that we not only have to establish a standard work, but we also have to up keep our standard book. Now how do we do that? in order for us to upkeep the standard book The use s D. C. A cycle. I'm sure you must have heard off PDC a cycle are we talking about in his d. C? Where s here stands for creating standards or standard passage. So instead, off plan, do check and act we say standardize, do check on act And we will now briefly talk about what do we mean? And how do we use the cycle effectively as a leader, So standardize The fourth step is about creating standards in the organization, which we have already done. We talked extensively about how do we do that the next he's do do here stands for implementing the standard And that is also something that we talked about various ways in which you can create and implement a standard. The next is about chick. So here we're going to check the performance. Have you got to check and find out? Is the performance good? I'm not going to find out that the performance is bad. Yes, you're going to write. So it is the process off validating how the performances, depending on how the performances are, plan a faction could be very different. So that brings us to the last step A. Which stands for yeah, we may have to date action to restore the performance. If we find any deviation in the process now, what does this mean to us? That could be four different scenarios. I'm going to use this two by two matrix to help you understand what those four scenarios you could have standards on one access and outcomes on the other standards could be met. And there could be a scenario where the a not mate. On the other hand, outcomes could be undesirable, and they can also be a scenario, or we expect that it is desirable most of the time. So the first scenario for us is that the outcomes are desirable and the standard Izmit. That's perfectly what we want, right? We want a scenario where we have implemented the standard and the performance is as design . The next is about a scenario where the outcome is undesirable. But the standard is meant. Isn't that a cause of concern for you? Performance is not good, but standards are met, which means we have to challenge and raise the standards. So this is an opportunity for us to find out why our standards are not able to meet the requirements in terms off the outcomes, which means sometimes we have to discard the existing standards. Sometimes we have to raise the bar. Now that takes us to the third scenario where the outcomes are undesirable on the standards are also not made. Now this is a very state forward scenario. That's this is something very similar to what we saw earlier. The first scenario, standards on May and outcomes desirable now standards on Hartman Hope come is also nor desirable. So here all you have to do is to go back to our plan, our original plan and on hair to the standards, so create a plan to adhere to the standards creator and here inspire. The last scenario is more critical where the results are desirable, so that's a good news for everyone. But the standards are not made, but the standards are marked made on the results are desirable, which means standards itself are questionable. Are these the right standards? Which means maybe we are going towards a wrong standard, so we have to sometimes challenged standard and discard the standard altogether Maybe a standard is not Parliament there at all. So you could use this two by two matrix these four scenarios to take a call as to how you will proceed when you come to the act. Step off as disease. But all I can tell you is it's very important for you to sustain what you're created in your organization and as d c up. Keep off the standards should be part off the standard work off the leaders. 14. Challenges in Sustaining Standard Work: in this lecture, we're going to talk about some of the practical challenges that you would face when you're going to implement standard book in your organization. What are the most important things that you should take care is that people don't confuse daily work management with policy manager. I'm retraining this because this is where I see while the biggest challenges in organization, it's very difficult to create standard work for every role in the organization. It takes a lot of time in the foot. And remember that once you're created, all you have to do is to refine this standard work and improvise it. But what organizations do is to insert some of the policy goals by policy goals. I mean breakthrough goals like I want to improve the productivity from, say, 90% to 99% or some stuff like that, right? So goals like that if they are inserted into your standard work, such as an NBC be then you would realize that your standard work RNB CPU, created last year, is redundant this year, and then it's humongous. If foot that's needed to update your empty CP. So always remember that MPC piece should be standard work they should be talked about. They should be talking about daily work management. So this is the first and the most important point. The next is about accountability that is missing in standard book. When we talk about standard work for leaders, people put matrix and and stuff like that. But what they try toe exclude. Is there accountability? We talked about how, as a leader, we need to take accountability. We need to take shared accountability that is, bean to participate in engaging with are yours and share the accountability. So that's very important. Aspects relating to this, which we talked about in the course, is very important for you to include when you create your standard book. Otherwise, standard work will only result in mawr disputes within various departments. Too much of standard book That's again another big dealer. We talked about percentage of time that every person every role in the organization has to spend based on the hierarchy. You have to make sure that out of enthusiasm or over enthusiasm, you don't create standard work, which is too much for someone to adhere or follow. Make sure that Standard Board is standard work is minimal. I always reflect back and look at the dashboard of my car and see how many para meters do these guys want me to monitor when I'm driving? They want me to monitor not more than three or four or five para meters. So at Max you should have something like not more than nine Param. It does that is three m p's and six CPIs that every leader should monitor. If you are training that state, it's wonderful. If you're gonna end up having something like, you know, then M p's and 35 CPIs that it's, I would say, a humongous task for anyone to adhere to standard book lack of governance that follows the next as the biggest challenge in most organisations. Everything is created, but people don't take the afford to go on and monitor or make sure the standard work is implemented. So it's part of the SDC, a cycle and that is missing in many organisations. So that's another key charge. Lack off ownership by the employees. We talked about accountability earlier. In fact, accountability for standard work is also very important. He has to take care that he's updating his MP CPR, his standard book. That employee has to own that adaptation process, aspirin, and if that's missing, you can't do much about it. Because no one other than the employee knows more about what he is doing about his job as someone who is surprising him, I would know only so much. The guy who was doing the job knows more of orders job than anyone else in the world. So it's important that he takes ownership updating his standard book, The Last two points. Quite important from the culture perspective, is going into a compliance more when there's too much of pressure to emphasize and implement standard book. People go into this compliance more, which means they're just going to go and pick things off and say that I've done my job. But you would not expect that the real results will come out as we are expected, which means that we should never push our employees too much. If there is adherence issues, that means we need to find ways to motivate them to add her rather than pushing them toe. The moment we go into that, more people just start taking templates and everything looks fine, like Everything looks fine. The flight crashes. We talked about airline example so that should not happen in your own industry. And lastly, the culture off SDC as this year is very, very important if you want to sustain your standards. And we talked about it when we talk about SDC. So that's the last point. So these, I would say, are some of the biggest challenges for my own practical experience that I've seen when I have implemented standard barking organization. So take care of these factors and I'm sure you would have some more challenges that you face, which are organization specific, find innovative ways to solve those problems. And then I think you will be home. Thank you. 15. Standard Work Wrap up lecture: Hey, I I hope you enjoy this course. We talked about one of standard Bug starting right from the definition to various tools that you can use and some of the challenges you could possibly face. I hope you learned a lot we talked about. Stand for leaders and standing for team members you want Choose any area that you think you like, Maybe started work for a leader or for a team member. Apply one or two tools off that and shoot it off to me as a message. Let me go to wig and I'll give you some feedback. And I hope that becomes the first step off your learning journey. All that you don't will be nice when you apply it and help the organization influence performance. So I hope you make the right choices and put this to execution. Thank you.