IT Networking Fundamentals Course | Syed Raza | Skillshare

IT Networking Fundamentals Course

Syed Raza, IT Architect: CEO www.claydesk.com

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22 Lessons (2h 43m)
    • 1. Course Introduction and Agenda

      2:49
    • 2. What is Networking?

      7:45
    • 3. What is a Local Area Network?

      8:03
    • 4. Understanding Networking Typologies

      8:46
    • 5. Basics of IP Addressing

      8:42
    • 6. Concept of Subnets

      11:23
    • 7. All Important OSI Model in Networking

      11:52
    • 8. Network Cabling

      9:23
    • 9. Network Tools

      6:19
    • 10. Wireless Networks

      5:46
    • 11. ipv4

      10:21
    • 12. ipV6

      6:32
    • 13. Basic TCP IP commands

      8:33
    • 14. Advanced TCP IP commands

      7:29
    • 15. All about DHCP

      5:02
    • 16. Internet and WWW

      8:19
    • 17. What is a VPN

      8:12
    • 18. What is a Router

      5:38
    • 19. Hubs and Switches

      5:11
    • 20. Different Types of Operating Systems (OS)

      7:02
    • 21. Firewall Basics

      6:46
    • 22. Course Conclusion

      3:15
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About This Class

This course serves as a general introduction for students to acquire a foundation in IT Networking Fundamentals including core areas that function within a given computer network. The course provides an introduction to the hardware, software, terminology, components, design, and connections of a network, as well as the network typologies and protocols for WANs and LANs including the all important Subnets.

Upon completion of this course, with appropriate study, the student will have learned to:

  • Identify the components of a network and determine the type of network design most appropriate for a given site.

  • Identify the different media used in network communications, distinguish among them, and determine how to use them to connect servers and clients in a network.

  • Differentiate among networking standards, protocols, and access methods and determine which is most appropriate for a given network.

  • Recognize the primary network architectures, identify their major characteristics, and determine which is most appropriate for a proposed network.

  • Identify the primary functions of network operating systems and distinguish between a centralized computing environment and a client/server environment.

  • Determine how to implement and support the major networking components, including the server, operating system, and clients.

  • Propose a system for adequately securing data on a given network and protecting the system’s components.

  • Distinguish between LANs and wide-area networks (WANs) and identify the components used to expand a LAN into a WAN.

  • Understand various hardware available and used in a network

  • Concept of TCP/IP and protocols

See you in class!

Happy learning!

Syed

Transcripts

1. Course Introduction and Agenda: welcome to this course on I t networking essentials of Very basic fundamentals. Money. Messiah. Now the instructor for this course. I've been in the train this free for well over 20 years, and I've trained thousands of students over the course of these years. Let me talk about the structure of this course, which is the basics off I t Networking will begin by taking a look at what is a network. How does it work? What is a network topology? What is a star topology, for example, what is a mesh topology? So we'll take a look at how networks are connected and how they're created. What are those? Then we'll get into the oil side, the behind the scenes, the fundamentals, a theory of how networks function, how data is transferred so demonstrating we'll take a look at in great detail about the toys. I model the various layers and functions of each of those layers as pockets or need a travel from one lead to the other. What happens? So we'll take a look at the concepts off the or Simon. I've also demonstrated the concept of TCP I P, which is a protocol that we use the transmission control protocol and so on. So we'll get into in depth analysis of what the protocol is and how does it work? How did this function? What is the function of TCB I being each of those os I layers? So again, just the just the concept. I want to demonstrate different kinds of hardware that is used, for example, hub switches, routers, all these names that you hear every single day. Take a look at now, explain what those are and the functions of each of those hardware devices. So you would know exactly when you create a network environment which device to use. So this courts will give you a solid understanding and a foundation to understand the core concepts that go behind the ICTY networks. For example, talk about sub netting what that is. How does it work? So you have an organization that has multiple departments, and each department's has maybe sets of computers, maybe 10 computers or 100 computers in one department 200 computers in the other department . How do we actually combine into one network? So maybe a local area network or a wider network and the concept of subjects as well. So all of these concepts, the core concepts of ICTY networking is covered in this course. I welcome your positive reviews. Thes are very important because they allow me to make my courses better and better. And I value of feedback. So if you have any questions, post them into the discussion area. So what you waiting for and I will see you in class. 2. What is Networking?: in this lesson, I'm going to talk about what networking is all about, the basic definitions and things that are involved when we talk about networking. So what is a basic computer network? Think of this as a computer network, which primarily is defined as the interconnection of two or more computers. Now, this could be other devices as well. Nowadays we have mobile devices we have wireless computing, for example, and so on. But just the very basics is the fact that a computer network is defined as the interconnection of two or more computers, and these computers can be connected through any medium so physical cables or wireless and so on. It is done to enable the computers to communicate and share available. Resource is just like when we receive emails. We send documents attachments in swan sharing of resources such as printers. So, for instance, we have several printers within our office, environment or home, and all of these printers are connected to your own computer so that, for example, if you were to print a document, you can send the request to any one of the printers showing off expensive Softwares and databases. Similar analogy as printers. You can share software you can share database where you store all the information. Communication from one computer to another, the exchange of data and information among users via the network. So a good example is email. So you send out an email. It goes from your mobile device, your laptop, your personal computer, for example, to someone else's computer, laptop and mobile device sharing of information over geographically wide areas. So it doesn't really matter where the person is, whether the person resides in New York or San Francisco, from one city to another city, it doesn't really matter, or even from one country to another country. So off these definitions essentially make up. What we call today is a computer network, so the components that are required to form and network a basic network is two or more computers. We also need cables that can physically connect these computers together a network interface card also known as the Nick card or and I see on each computer because you'd have to physically connect the two computers together. And what's required is a basic network card on again. If you're using cables to connect when you talk about wireless computing. It's a different ball game, and I'll demonstrate, and I'll talk about that when we get to the lesson. But just the components, the basic components you need a network interface card on your laptop computer and so on. Other components are switches and hubs. Also, for example, so a switch. Think of this as just devices a physical device, for instance, that allows multiple connections to it. So this is similar to a post office right? So you, through our letter in the post office, the mail gets processed and then the post office identifies where it needs to send your mail to, and it goes there and gets delivered. We also need a component called the software called Operating System. So, for instance, Windows eight Windows 8.1 is an operating system. You may have an Auburn system called Mac OS if you have an apple computer, for example, or a Linux operating system, a UNIX and swan. So this is what a basic network interface card looks like. So if you were to visually see your person computer, your laptop, you lotus, something that looks like this obviously not gonna notice the inside because that goes inside your computer. But the external part is what you will be able to see from the outside, and this is where the cable fits in. So why do we network I mentioned briefly earlier, but importantly we network so that we can share our resources. We can collaborate with other individuals. If you're working within an organization, for example, you're sharing documents. You're sharing information, data and so on. We also network to do connectivity or connect systems together from one country to the other, from one city to another city, and so on. As far as the hardware is concerned, a network allows users to share many hardware devices, physical devices, that is, printers, modems, fax machines, CD ROM's players and so on. As far as the software is concerned, sharing software resource is simply reduces the cost off software installation and also saves space on your hard disk. So several benefits off why we do networking. Here's a list of all these benefits. Some addition benefits as well increased speed. For example, If I were to send an email, it was just instantly as opposed to using the regular post office to deliver a letter these costs improve security, centralized software management, electronic mail and flexible access. All of these are benefits off Why we network here. Just a simple illustration off one computer to another computer, right? So think of this as a source system, a system that is going to send out information and then, of course, the destination system, the computer that is going to receive the data. So the first thing is obviously the source. The second step would be the transmitter. We need some device that needs to transmit that data, and then Step three would be the actual transmission, whether it's a cable where there's wireless and so on. And then, of course, the fourth step would be the receiver, and then the fifth would be the destination. So the transmitter, which is Step two in this illustration and then four, which is the receiver, are essentially the same. So you have a network interface card on computer A and then you have a network interface card on computer. Be so both of these air basically acting as a transmitter from the source system and then the receiver at the destination system in between, which is number three is actually the medium of transmission cable, wireless and swat. So just a simple workstation PC. Sending data from one to the other in the middle is the actual medium off crass mission. So hope results practice with these concepts, unless move to the next lesson. 3. What is a Local Area Network?: in this lesson moving forward, I'm going to talk about and demonstrate what a local area network is all about. So first, the basic network configurations there are of two types. The 1st 1 is called Peer to Peer Network, where a bunch of computers are simply connected to each other through cables, for instance, or wireless connectivity. But they can share. Resource is among each other. In other words, there is no centralized repository or management. If one computer wants to send information to another computer, you could do so, but nothing gets stored in one central location hence is called Peer to Peer. The next is the server based. Here. The architecture is a bit different, so now we have a bunch of computers. But all of these computers essentially communicate through a central repository or Hobbes. Or let's call it a server, a computer that serves the requests So these bunch of computers simply tell the central sir and then the server than distributes the requests accordingly, whether it's a print request, for example, for it's a log in request, for instance and so on. So the server now plays a centralized role, and that's called a server based network and the computers within a server based networks are also sometimes called, referred to as clients. So you might have heard the term client server computing, right? So that's what we mean by having a server based network configuration as opposed to a peer to peer network. There's no centralized server. So within the European Network, the nodes provide and request services the user in each node simply administers. The resource is so since there is no centralized administration, right, you're responsible for your own computer. There's no extra investment. Just put together a bunch of computers and connect them together very easy to set up, obviously weak and security. And there are additional load on each node or each computer. The server based network, on the other hand, is basically designated computer to administer. The resource is air centralized. Everything passes through the server. The service stores, all the information, all the data. It just simply gets the request from a client computer or a computer, for example, and then forwards. Their question complies. It supports larger networks. So from one building to another building from one city to another city, one campus to another campus for example, or from one country to another. Country has strong security because now you can secure your server. Obviously, the cost is higher than a peer to peer network. So a few benefits advantages and disadvantages of peer to peer networks is that their low cost, simple configure the user has full accessibility of the computer itself. The disadvantages are you may have duplication of resources so the same file can distort in my computer. The exact same file or the copy of that file can be stored on a different computer within appear appear network so difficult to uphold security policy and difficult to handle uneven loading. Now there are some benefits also of having peer to peer network. One of the benefits is the fact that when you have 10 or less users there no specialized services required. All you require just sharing resources sharing printers, for example, and security is not an issue. Onley limited growth in the foreseeable future, so those are the benefits off having a peer to peer network. So if you're starting off, for instance, within the networking field, the first step, the best ways to create your own peer to peer network. Just put together two devices to computers, laptops or your personal computer or the combination of the two and that connect them together, and you essentially have a peer to peer network share resources. So the local area network. Now we understand the basic configurations. The pure appear in the server based model. The local area network is a group of computers confined to a small geographic area, such as a single building, an office space, for example. On a certain floor of that building, you may have your own local area network. No outsiders are allowed on Lee. People that you authorize or place on the network are able to share. Resource is the local area network is again a group of computers or devices that share a common communication medium, such as cabled or wireless connections. So straightforward. Now we're talking about a local area network bunch of computers connected together, but on Lee, those authorized individuals can share collaborate on resource is and projects. The structure of the local area network is basically a network which is designed to operate over small physical areas such as an office factory group of buildings. The lands are easy to design and troubleshoot, you could exchange information. Resource is very easily within your local area network and all the machines or the computers. Laptops devices are connected to a single cable. It is usually a privately owned network. As I mentioned earlier, let's say you're working for a company. The company office is just located in one building, and they have, for instance, 30 employees Perfect. They have a local area network. Now. This could be a server based model. War appeared appear. Most likely it's a server based because all these resources have to be centralized and then shared among those 30 employees. So some additional classifications that you may hear the term, such as local area network, which is the land. You may also hear a whan, which is known as the wider and work. Now we're talking across buildings, and I were talking across cities right across multiple offices. That's a wide area network. You also have a man metropolitan area network. So you have officers in Boston, you have an office in New York, Jersey and so on. So we're talking about a larger network called the Metropolitan Area Network, and then also it can which is a campus area network. Usually universities, educational institutions fall into this category, so a network can be again land when man or a camp, and there are others as well. These are the basic ones that I just want you to understand and know about. So practice with these words, some definitions, the core concept. Let's move to the next lesson. 4. Understanding Networking Typologies: in this lesson, I'm going to talk about what a network topology is all about, and different types of network configurations or apologies that we can actually use. So the basic definition or the concept of a network topology is that it's a pattern in which various computers, printers, routers or other devices on your network are connected within your local area, network, wide area network or other network through different links. There are four principal apologies used in local area networks, which is bus rang, star and MASH, and I'm going to talk about in detail about each of these kinds of apologies. But think off a network. Topology is simply an architecture, right? So if you're planning on creating a network for your own organization or your home environment, for instance, you would have to decide which type of topology you like to deploy based on your own requirements, whether it's a bus, whether it's a ring withers star or is it going to be a mashed apology? So here are the different apologies, with advantages and disadvantages. Let's start with the 1st 1 which is the bus. It takes less cable, relatively cost effective, but the disadvantage is that if the bus breaks or the entire cable breaks, all of the computers that are connected to the cable would not work. The second topology is the mesh. There's a break in the cable. Your network was still work because it provides fault tolerance. The disadvantage is that expensive and complex and really difficult to reconfigure. Ring topology is easy to install but has expensive Keb's. The fourth kind of topology is the star topology, very common, the easiest to install almost all local area networks that deployed these star topology. If there's a breaking workstation cable network, for example, still works and provides fault tolerance. It's a little bit more expensive than the bus topology, but fairly common. So what is a bus topology? A linear bus topology consists off like a mentioned earlier, a main runoff cable with the Terminator at each end, and all computers your notes, for example, such as filed server workstations and other peripherals such as printers. They're connected to the linear cable, and you can imagine that if there's a break in the cable, right, any point there's a break. The connection were break among computers and devices. So once again the advantages and disadvantages of the bus topology is easy to connect to a computer or device to leaner bus. Simply hook on the computer, connect the cable, and you're on the network you can share. Resource is, it requires less cable and than a star topology. The disadvantages is that, obviously the entire network shuts down. If there's a break in the main cable the Terminator's air required at both ends of the backbone cable, it's difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. And that's the most cumbersome part of having a bus topology. It's not meant to be used as a standalone solution in a large building, because if the cable breaks, all of your computers are down and you're just tryingto find where the problem is and it's very difficult to identify. Then we have these star topology where you have a bunch of computers. They're connected through a device called Switch or Hub, basically a centralized device. All of the cables go into the device, and, of course, that device connects to the centralized server through a cable as well. So therefore, it's called a star topology and its fault tolerant because If one of the computers goes down, for instance, nothing happens to the rest of the computers because they're sharing. Resource is through a centralized device called the Switch. For example, Data is passing through switch so each of the cable from each of these computers are connected to the switch and then from the switcher. Cable is connected to your server. The advantages and disadvantages of the star topology, easy to install nor disruptions to the network. Easy to detect false and to remove parts. But there are also disadvantages requires more cable length because you can imagine that within the star you have cables coming from one computer to the switch for the centralized device and then additional cables going out as well. So if the hubs, which or the concentrator fails, knows, attach our disables off, something actually happens to that centralize device, obviously more expensive than leaner bust apologies because of the cost of the extra peripheral devices such as hubs and switches on, we'll talk about Hobson switches later on in a different lesson. But here just understand the basic concept of and the advantages and disadvantages of these star topology. Then we have the mesh, which is a combination of your star and bus or ring. So it just a combination of different apologies and that you can deploy within your own environment. That's all there is to it. Next, of course, we have a ring topology, just bunch of workstations connected together to form a ring format. Where did I was flowing? You sharing resources from one note to the other? Here are some of the important considerations. For example, 1st 1 is the money. A Hlynur bus network may be the least expensive with installer network, and you don't have to purchase concentrators or switches or hubs the length of the cable. The leaner bus network uses shorter lengths of cable. As far as the future growth is concerned with the star topology, for example, expanding a network is really easy cable type. The most common cable type, for example, in school network or your company network is unshielded twisted pair, which is most often used with start apologies, and I'll talk about the cables and the connectors a little later on. But for now, just these few important considerations as faras these apologies air concerned so last in this lesson, I will talk about a concept of Ethernet just give you a flavour of what Ethernet is all about. Because you might hear this term quite frequently is basically a system for connecting a number of computer systems to form a local area network with protocols to control the passing off information and to avoid simultaneous transmission by two or more systems. So Ethernet is the most widely used local area network technology that defines wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer of the transmission control protocol or the Internet protocol. It's basically just a system that forms the local area network. So when you hear the term Ethernet, it's a system that comprises off different things. Could be a hardware Could be the cables could be the network card could be the TCP I p protocol and so on. And I'll talk about, of course, what t c B I. P. Is and so on. But right now, just give you an idea of what an Ethernet ISS. In this lesson, we took a look at different types of apologies. So a few are the admin off your own organization or intend to create a network you need to select any one of these apologies based on your own requirements, so I hope this helps. Let's move to the next lesson. 5. Basics of IP Addressing: Welcome back in this lesson. Moving forward, I'm going to talk about everything that you need to know about an I p address. So whenever two computers talk to each other or two devices communicate, each device has toe have a certain address, just like we have addresses off our homes. And we have streets, names, numbers and so on. In each house is unique. No two houses have the same address. That's how you get your mail delivered through a postman, for example. Similar concept applies toe a network, so each computer on the network has to have a unique address so that information can be shared and data can be sent. And this is called the I P address, so it looks like a bunch of numbers such as 10.0 dot to 0.15 The 1st 3 act, it's or the 1st 3 numbers, so to speak, are the street address. And then, of course, the last one is your actual house number. So think often I P addresses Justin address that is unique to each computer on the network . So the Internet Protocol address is a unique address, as I mentioned earlier that computing devices such as computers, tablets, smartphones they used to identify themselves and communicate with other devices within the network. So any devices connected to the I P network must have a unique address. Otherwise, they'll be a conflict. Often I p address two different types of I P addresses. One is broadly the private or the public i p address. So the I P address can be private for use on a local area network or public. If you like to use it on the Internet or other wide area network I P addresses can be determined statically. In other words, you can log on to a computer laptop device and physically specify, and i p address for that computer or dynamically assigned by another device on the network on demand. So, for example, if your computer does not have a unique I P address soon as you turn your computer on the server on your network, the central server, the repository right the storage I will give you an I P address as soon as you turn your computer on. So either it can be static. In other words, a permanent I'd be address for that computer or it could be dynamic, and we'll take a look at what d etc. P or dynamic allocation of I P addresses is a little later. But just for now understand that they can be determined either statically or dynamically. So here's an example, and I p addresses formatted just Siris of four values separated by periods, so 192.168 dot 0.1. So you're probably thinking, how'm I going to know what these numbers are? Which numbers can I use so each value can range from zero through 255 The I P address assigned to your personal computer or your laptop on a network is called a local address, so the local I P address could start with 19 to that once accept, and you can start with $10.0 And so on. The TCP I P, which basically is an acronym for transmission control protocol. Internet Protocal. So the I P is often prefixed by the acronym TCP. The TCP part stands for transfer control protocol. It's simply a set of rules for transmitting information on a network. So technically speaking, in the I t World TCP I P refers to the methods and engineering as opposed to a specific address or value so it doesn't relate or talks about a specific value. But it's actually a method next time we talk about the I P classes. So the Internet community originally defined five ADDers classes to accommodate networks of varying sizes. So, for example, if you're living in a certain subdivision for examples a small subdivision you are going to have your own a bunch off numbers. They can pick and choose your own addresses. If we're talking about a city itself and like to provide I P addresses for each of the houses in the entire city area, you may have to allocate a range of I P addresses specifically to that city. So Microsoft TCP I. P basically supports Class A, B and C Adverse is assigned to various computers or hosts the class of address that defines which bits are used for the Network i D. And which bits are used for the host i d. It also defines the possible number of networks and the number of hosts per network. So now we're talking about bits where each unique I P addresses being assigned to a certain host or a computer on the network. So let's talk about Class A, of course, that three classes right Class A, B and C. So let's elaborate upon the Class A addresses, which are typically assigned to networks with a large number of hosts. So that's the keyword large number of computers, the high order bit and a class A address is always said to zero the next seven bits. Completing the first Arctic complete the Network I D. And the remaining 24 bits, which are the last react. It's represent the host i D. So essentially, this would allow for about 126 networks in about 16,779,014 hosts per network. So you'll notice that the first parties in network I D. And then, of course, your host ideas part of the class a network. Then we have the Class B addresses, which are assigned to medium size to large size networks. The two high order bits in the Class B address are always said to Bonn everyone and zero the next 14 bits, completing the 1st 2 Arquette's complete the network idea itself and the remaining 16 bits representing host I. D. So for a class B address, you can have about 16,384 networks and with 5 65,034 host per network. So again, class A just took the first part of the network idea, and then class B had both of them by and ready one and zero. Then we have the Class C, which is used for small networks. The three high order bits and a Class C are always said to January 110 The next 21 bits complete the network I d. So you can see a pattern here, right from A B and C. And of course, the remaining eight bits represent the actual host I. D. And this allows for about two million networks and 2 54 holtz per network. So once again, just remember the Class A Class B and Class C I P addresses. Here is the summary of what we just talked about. So we have Class A, B and C, and the grid provides the values for the network. I d portion, the host i d available networks and the hosts per network that you can have within the Class A, B and C I P addresses, respectively. So just go over some of these basic concepts these air important because you will come across this almost all the time. So I hope the Celts practice and let's move to the next lesson. 6. Concept of Subnets: Welcome back. Moving forward a very important lesson all about sub nets and this. Listen, I'm going to explain and demonstrate how to go about calculating your sub net masks, for example, or various sub nets within your network, and it's simply a logical order and the division that you do for your own network. So the basic definition off a sub net is simply illogical. Subdivision off an I P based network. So the practice of dividing a network into two or more networks is called sub netting. You may ask, Why should I do this? Simple answer is, for example, let's say you have where you work for a company which has different departments such as sales department, marketing, department operations and so on. So each of those departments can in fact, be on their own subject. So that's a good example of why we actually sudden it's easier to manage. Identify, take a look at where the problem arose from which department computer is not working and so on. So computers that belonged to a sub net are addressed with a common, identical, most significant bit group in their I P addresses. So just about taking a look at the I. P address. You would know as the administrator, for example, that this I p addresses coming from the sales department, one of the computers within the sales department. So let's walk through an illustration. For example, you're the administrator, and you have the i. P. Address 192.168 dot one, which is a Class C I P address. If you recall from the previous lessons and then I have the Ford slash 24 network. The suffix 24 pronounced as Slash 24 commonly simply tells the number of bits used for network address. So in this example that we're gonna take a look at the admin has three different departments with different number of hosts. Sales department has 100 computers. The purchase department has 50 computers, the Accounts department has 25 computers, and the management department, for instance, has only five computers. So we are going to divide our I P address 19 to 168.1 dot zero slash 24 which tells us the number of bits used for the network address into each of these departments. Right, So sales 100 purchase 50 Accounts 25 management has five computers. Here's Step one first step is to make a list of sub nets possible. So the given subject mask starting from 2552552550 And the notation, of course, is slash 24. That's where we started from the hosts, or the sub net can be to five for the number off hosts. Similarly, we're going to go ahead and also create 2552552551 to 8. In other words, just borrowing bits. Now the slashes 24 the possible hosts are 1 26 for example, on that number or sub net. And likewise, we continue on just simply barring one bit from slash 24 25 26 27 swan. So that's the first step you make a list off sub nets. Possible in Step two was simply short. The requirements of the I P addresses in descending order, highest to lowest. Which department has the highest number of computers? Sales 100. Next is purchase department, which has 50 computers, Accountant says 25 management test five. So just a simple descending order list. Step three is allocate the highest range of I PS two, the highest requirement so sales as 100 computers. You want to be able to allocate the highest requirement, right? So let's assign 19 to that 168 that 1.0 slash 25 to the sales department. This i p sub net with network number 19 to 168 That one dot girl has won 26 valid Host I P addresses, which primarily satisfies our requirements of these sales department because sales department as Hominy computers or users only 100 The sub net mask used for this particular departments. This sales department has one and then, of course, three and 67 zeros as the last octet. Based on the bits, Step four is simply allocating the next highest range, right? So once you're done with the sales department, the next apartment is Purchase Department, which has about 50 computers. We will allocate the next set of I P addresses to the purchase department. So this I p address with the network number 19 to 1681.1 to eight, has 62 valid host I p addresses, which can easily be assigned to all of the computers in the purchase department. And, of course, the summit mask used is 11 and then seven zeros. You just borrowing a bet. You just move a bit. Order in the last act next to step five, we continue on with the next department, which is accounts, same process. This is the same exact process. All you're doing is just the last octet of the subject. Mask is now barring another bit, which is 111 and then 50 is right so you can see how we move forward from one department. In descending order, we had sales. We have purchase, and now we're in accounts. So accounts has, for instance, 30 valid host I P, which satisfies the requirement. And similarly, Step six allocate the next highest range to management, which is the last department, and it only contains five computers. So the subject mask with the slash 29 with the mask off 255255255 and 248 has exactly six valid host I P addresses. So this can easily be assigned to the management department once we're done with the sub netting and actually assigning I P addresses in the sub net mass diverse department before and this lesson just a brief note on what a private I P addresses are. So keep in mind that every class of I P, which is whether a Class A, B or C, has some adverse, is reserved as private I p addresses. And these appease can be used within a network campus organization, company and our private to it. So the public, which is the Internet, for example, has nothing to do with this. So these addresses cannot be routed on the Internet. So packets right data containing these private addresses air dropped by the rotors. So a router is simply a physical device that checks to see where to send the data, right where to send the next signal. So the router sees the I P address coming from the sales department, for example, and recognizes that this I P address belongs to a private organization. Hence it cannot be distributed out publicly on the Internet, For example, I'm also going to show you a quick demo so you can manually calculate all these sub nets. But online there, several calculators, hundreds of calculators they can simply go out there specified the I P address slash 24 25 or whichever satisfies your apartment and will calculate the sub nets for you. It's just that easy, but I wanted to explain to you how to do this manually and how to borrow the bit order. So let's go ahead. Let me go online and open up my browser so I can demonstrate by using a 70 calculator. I've come across this wonderful side of place that you're l simply take a look at this. It's a very easy to use calculator and you'll have fun with it. So let's move to our browser. So once I'm on this Euro that you saw earlier, this will bring you to the I P Submit calculator. And this is simply a straightforward and faster I be Submit Calculator, which provides a complete list of information concerning an I P address and the sub net mask, including the network and host Adverse eyes, is so all after you just go to the I P Address field and enter the I P address and submit mask. And once I'm done. I'm going to go ahead and click. Calculate. So let's go ahead and use 192 that one succeed that zero. What's it? That one? And the subject mask is 255.255 dot 255 and let's zero click Calculate, and instantly it calculates the stark host address, which is 19 to 1680.1. And then, of course, the end host, which is dot to 54 So the possible a maximum number of hosts on this particular I p with a summit mask is 254 computers. My network address is as follows. And of course, I also have my broadcast address also shows me the class automatically, which is a Class C. The network adverse IES is slash 24 bits. Recall. We just talked about that. And then, of course, the host Adverse Eyes is eight bits. So a simple example of a Class C standard I p address with a summit mask. Of course, if I would change this to a different I p address, let's say a class A so I can do something like 10.0 dot 0.1, for example, and then specify the sub net mass to be 255.0 dot 0.0. Calculate and automatically shows me that the maximum number of hosts that I can have within the Class A are humongous. 16 million, right? So it's a large class a network class with the network adverse eyes of eight bits and host adverse eyes off 24 bits. So practice with this. The more you practice, the easier it'll become for you in understanding what a subject is. How do you actually go about calculating your sub nets and logically dividing your network ? So practice and let's move to the next lesson. 7. All Important OSI Model in Networking: welcome back. Moving forward. Another important concept within the networking area is the OS I model. Before I talk about the OSS I model, it's important to understand and know each layer within this model, starting from the physical layer, which is the bottom most and the top most being the application layer on. We'll talk about what these layers are. What happens when an information is passed from one computer to the other. So, for instance, if you were to send email, which may look like an easy task, but behind the scenes is in fact the OSS I model in action. So in this lesson, I'm going to detail out what the OS I model is all about. So once again, it contains seven layers starting from the bottom, which is the physical layer, the dental in clear, the network layer transport session presentation and application. So when a computer sends some data to another computer, obviously the medium of transmission is the cable or the wireless. So the data travels directly from the computer and passes through each of these layers. So this is just the macro level. At this point, I'm going going to get into the details of each layers. But just visualize data being sent from one computer to the other or to the cable, right. So the data goes from each of these layers before, in fact, hits the actual medium, which is the transmission cable or your network cable or the wireless media, whichever you were using. So when the data passes through each of these leaders, each layer has a certain function. It does something to that particular data or the bits. So the top three layers, for instance, the application layer presentation session. Nothing happens at this point, but when it goes through the transport layer, segments are made and the network clear packets are made the i P hetero TCB header and the data remains. And then, of course, the data link layer also divides the actual data into a frame which contains the Mac address I, p address, TCP header Data and FCS. So think of this as just simply sorting out the mail, right? So if you were to physically send a letter to a post office, the post office is processing. Your man is checking to see what state it needs to go to which house address which subdivision? What to do? What's the name and so on? So here I'm gonna talk. About what? The U. S. I stands for its open systems interconnection model. The OSA is a conceptual model that simply Kurt rises and standardizes. The communication functions off a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. So whether we're using a star Network bus network, any topology, for instance, any type off transmission media doesn't matter. This is a fundamental conceptual model that tells the data to pass through each of these layers and each of these there's perform a certain function on that data. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection Project at the International Organization for Standardization, which is known as the isil maintained by the identification. And you can always look this up. So just know that U S eyes a conceptual model. Another word just a standard right. How computers communicate. What happens with the data from one computer to the other. Let's get into the layers of the OS I model. So the physical layer, which is the bottom most next to the network medium or the transmission cable, also known as the lowest layer of the O. S. I model. So remember, the lowest layer is the physical layer. It's simply concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium, which is your network cable. So this layer is the first layer, in fact, to receive piece of information or data bits. It describes the electrical, optical, mechanical and functional interfaces to the physical medium and carries the signals for all the higher layers. A couple of other functions of the physical. There is data encoding, so it modifies the simple digital pattern, which is ones and zeros within the bits used by the computer to better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium and to aid in bit and frame synchronization, right? So its function is to just take a look at the piece of information that it receives and then encodes. It makes shores that all the bits are there. It also determines what signal state represents a binary one and how the receiving station knows when a bit starts and where it stops right and how delimit sti frame itself. So that's the main function of the physical there. Next is the dental ing. So now your data is moving up, right? It hasn't received the user read. You cannot see it on the screen yet. Right? So after it passes through the physical layer, it goes to the data link. The data link provides error free transfer of data frames so this particular layer checks to see for any errors within the data or the bits being received from the physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume a virtually error free transmission over the link. So this is your salt lake. Think of this as your guard at your office, right? So it's just checking to see who goes in, whether you're authorized to enter or not. The link establishment and termination that's one of the functions also establishes that and terminates the logical link between the two nodes. The frame traffic control tells the transplanting node to simply stop or back off. When no friend buffers are available, it also performs the frame to limiting and creates and recognizes friend boundaries and it or checking as well. So in a nutshell, the data link layer provides air free transfer of data upwards to the application there. So once the data has now passed the physical layer, the dental in clear. The next is the network layer, which controls the operation of the subject. Deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service and other factors. It provides routing, for example, subject control frame fragmentation, logical physical address mapping. So it takes the local agencies. All right, which department should have sent this data to whether it belongs to the sales department, the purchase department, operations, marketing and so on. So it takes a look at the sub net, the actual I'd be header and the address where it needs to go. The subject usage, for example. Accounting has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by sub net Intermediate systems produced the billing information moving upwards towards the user. Next layers, the transport layer is simply provides message segmentation except a message from the session layer above. It splits the message into smaller units and passes the units down to the network. Clear the transport layer at the destination station, reassembles the message, so the messes acknowledgement, for example, provides reliable end to end message delivery and that's important to keep this in mind. Whenever you hear transport layer, it's end to end message delivery in a reliable manner. The message. Traffic control is one of the other functions that healthy transmission station to back off or stop when no message buffers are available. So that's what the transport layer does. Next layer is the session were simply allows establishment between processes running on different stations. So it provides session establishment, maintenance and termination, allowing to application processes on different computers to establish use and terminated connection, hence called this session. So this is the logical session between one computer to the other computer. It also performs the functions that allows processes to communicate over the network performance, security, name recognition, logging and so on. Next is the presentation layer, which provides character court translation, data conversion, data compression and encryption. So this is where all of these functions happened, which is the presentation Lears. So, for instance, they did a conversion is the bit order the interviewer floating point and so on. The compression includes were using the number of bits that needs to be transmitted on the network and, of course, the encryption data for security purposes such as password encryption. So you enter a password, user name and password on the Internet and you hit. Submit. What actually happens is the data goes from your computer to another computer and passes through this conceptual, standardized or side model. And finally, we have the application layer, which serves as the window for users and application processes. Toe access network services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions, and all those functions include resource sharing, device redirection, remote file access, printer access I PC, known as the Inter Process, Communication Network, Management, Directory Services, email and virtual terminals and Swan. So the application layer simply serves as the window for users and applications. This is where now the messages right displayed on your screen Here's a quick summary. What we just talked about conceptual model. Very important. You need to understand what each of these layers do and mean. For example, there seven is application than presentation all the way down to the lowest layer, which is the physical layer. The easiest way to remember the layers is just memorized. This statement all people seem to need data processing. Of course, you can make your own as well. But if you remember this sentence, all people seem to need data processing. The first letter of each of these words represent each of these layers. So the letter A in all represents the application there, letter P in people, the presentational there and so forth. So I hope this helps take a look at this concept again, understand the functions of each of these layers, and with this, let's move to the next lesson. 8. Network Cabling : and this. Listen, I'm going to talk about different types off network cables. We did talk about the OS I model, the I P addresses and these sub nets moving forward. Let's get into the physical aspects off the networking. So here, in this lesson, just focusing on different types of cables that are used to connect networks together, whether it's your own network. Yeah, two different networks. So a cable is simply defined as the medium through which information usually travels from one network device to another. So for one computer to the other, the information or data is transferred through a cable, assuming that you have your own network within your own organisation or home. If you need to send data from one medium to the other across cities, for example, or different continents or countries, obviously medium is still used, not physical cables, perhaps maybe wireless, and in some instances it's a combination of both so networking. Campbell's, which form the basic networks, are networking hardware used to connect one network device to another network device or to connect to arm or computers to share printers, scanners and so forth men. Two types of network cables are the twisted pair cabling, which comes in two varieties shielded and unshielded twisted pair cable. The U. T P. Also known as, Of course, the unshielded twisted pair is the most popular and common. So every time you see and network cable connecting two computers, most likely it's a you TP cable. Here are the different categories of cables in the industry, usually to talk about Category 123 45 and so on. They don't really say Give me an unshielded cable or twisted pair cable. They simply go out to a shop, and they say it will. I need to buy a Category five cable, which is the most common one or category three, Category two, and we'll give you the entire length of cable. Whichever suits your own requirements. They'll cut out the cable physically and hand it over to you. So Category one is the voice only, so your telephone lines typically they go through the Category one cable category two can handle data up to four MBPs, which means megabits per second. And that's just local talk. For example, Cat three, as they call it right, so it's cat one cat, two cat, three as the industry standard. By the way, when we talk about cables so Cat three is data that can handle up to 10 megabits per second speed, which is also known as the Ethernet cat four can have that up to 20 megabits per second. This is also referred to as and MIPs, right? So if you hear the short version of this, it's called MIPS. So cat for and data to 20 MIPS as required within a token ring network Cat five once again is very common, has data up 200 MIPs and then also known as the fast Ethernet. So these terms are synonymous, right? So we're talking about cat five or talk about fast Ethernet, it's the same thing. And then, of course, we have the category five e, which is the gigabit Ethernet and cat six of to 2500 MIPs. So just sort of memorize you to be categories. So when you go out there to a shop, for example to buy these cables or you order these cables online through a vendor, you need to just tell them I need cat five and he'd cat 321 and so on. Once you have the cables. Obviously, you need a connector that actually physically connects to your computer into a computer. Jack, for example, whether using a laptop or a personal computer or a printer, even sometimes you need to have a connector almost all the time. You need a connector in one form or the other. The most common one is called the RJ 45 connector, which is the standard connector for you TP cables. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone style connectors. So if you notice within your computer you'll see the RJ 45 connector. You can simply pop it out and inserted back again. A slot on your computer allows the RJ 45 to be inserted only one way R J stands for, by the way, registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the telephone industry. Under Standard Designates, which wire goes with each pen inside the connector? The next type of cable is the shielded, twisted pair cable. So we talked about the unshielded right, the cat 123 cat, 45 and so on. So now let's take a look at what is shielded twisted pair cable or known as the SDP cable is all about so. Although you to be cable is obviously least expensive, it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference. So, for example, if you have a network cable next to an electrical device or power socket, you may find data loss right or reduced speeds of data transfer. This is essentially known as the term is called Attenuation. I don't talk about that later, true, but for now, since it came up, need to know that the U to be cable, which is unshielded. Although it's inexpensive, right, it may be susceptible to attenuation if you must place a cable in environments with lots of potential interference. The better bet is to buy a shielded, twisted pair, and these cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cable. So that's the basic main difference between you TP and STP cables. The next type of cable is the fiber optic cable. This consists off a central glass core surrounded by several layers of protected material. It can transmit light rather than Elektronik signals, eliminating the problem of electrical interference. So here, with a fiber optic cable. We're not worried about the attenuation problems, and this makes it ideal for environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. Maybe you're working in a factory electronic factory that has nothing but electronic signals, so fiber optic cable would be the best possible solution. Patch cables is another type. This is also called the straight through cable. Most common type of fat patch cable is used to connect a computer to a central connecting device like a switch. So, for example, you take your computer and you want to connect to a centralized device like a switch or hub . For example, you would need a patch cable. This is also it crossover cable, which is used to direct connect similar devices without the use of Hub, so to similar devices can directly be connected to it. Crossover cable. Last is the wireless standards. The WiFi Alliance, which is a global nonprofit organization that helps to ensure standards and interoperability for wireless networks and wireless networks, are often referred to his wife, I, which the acronym is, by the way, Wireless fidelity. So the WiFi networks use the Internet protocol, and the grid here shows you these standards So, for instance, the standard eight or true 80.11 A has a maximum speed off transfer of data at 54 megabits per second and typical ranges 150 feet, 802.11 b. Standard has 11 Memphis with 300 feet and so forth. So just know these wireless standards as well. So in this lesson, just wanted to demonstrate different types of cables, their characteristics, the features and functions. And based on your own requirement, you'll go out there and by the cables to deploy it on your own network. So I hope this helps practice and let's move to the next lesson. 9. Network Tools: in this lesson moving forward, I'm going to talk about various network tools, physical tools that are required within the networking industry, such as the crimping tool, the wire cutters, cable testers and so on. Some of the basic tools for twisted pair cables, whether it's you to pee or STP, are displaced. So, for example, we have the crimp er. Here we have the wire cutter, the cable tester, for example, and then, of course, the wire stripper as well. So these are the basic tools that are required if you need to make cables. Typically when you goto a store, for example, or you order a roll of cable, let's say the U to be cable category five, for instance, they'll give you a length of cable, right? So let's 100 meters 200 meters, depending upon your own requirement the size of your network. So once you get the cable essentially raw cable, you need to take the ends of the cable and then use these tools to make those connectors or connect the RJ 45 connectors, for instance, so that they can be plugged into your computer, your laptop or your network. Switch hubs or servers. So the patch panel and RJ 45 Jack, a network patch panel, is simply amounted hardware device that includes a number of ports that enable the local area network interconnections and management. So this is just like basically a device physical device that has various Jack's right. And this is where you can plug in all the cables. So one cable goes to the computer, for example, and then one would end up with the patch panel, the RJ 45 Jack. On the other hand, it's an eight pin it position plug or jack is commonly used to connect computers onto Ethernet base local area networks. So this is the actual end of the wire, which connects or has this particular jack call RJ 45 simply plugs in pops into your laptop or computer on one end and on the other end, it'll go either to the switch hub or finally to the servers as well. So the RJ 45 connector, the tools that are required to make the RC 45 or the connections between the Patch panel and the RC 45 jacks, includes simply a cutting tool wire, stripper punch down tool and a device or testing device known as the continually tester, with simply tests that all of the pens of the connection one by one. So since there are eight pens, once you make the cable using the crippled tool, for example, then you can plug it into the device, and it will test each pins for active electrical connection or not. So let's talk about attenuation a few additional concepts, but they're important. Once you work with cables and you start connecting those cables on your network, you need to be a watchful of attenuation. So the quantity of information reaching the receiver as compared to the transmitted quantity of information. So, for example, the data goes through the cable, and what happens is some of the data is lost or the speed is reduced. So that's what we mean by the quantity off information. It's typically measured in decibels with a symbol DB. According to the I Tripoli standards, at 2.3 standard, twisted pair cables can be 100 meters. So what that means is, once the length of a twisted pair, cable reaches 100 meters, anything beyond 100 meters, you will have some kind of attenuation, which is essentially a loss off signal. So beyond this, the signal degrades to such a point that it cannot be interpreted by the destination host, and you start losing your data packets and so on. So the rule of thumb is basically 100 meters of cable. After that, you will lose these signal, and there are other factors that also fall within attenuation, and I'll talk about that next interference. Anything that disrupts for modifies its signal that is, traveling along the cable wire. So electrical sources, for example, lights, outlets, motors, appliances, anything that is run on electricity and is near your STP or you two be cable. Rather, you will find not only interference but also attenuation as well. So copper, cable and network devices should be kept away from these electrical devices that's important to remember and cables at all possible. And that's why we typically see modified boxes that contain your network cables or devices , patch panels that has kept separately from your electrical devices, the E M. I, or also known as the true magnetic interference. This disturbance can affect electrical circuits, devices and cables. You, too electromagnetic conduction and possibly radiation any type off electrical device can cause. AM I. So, TVs, air conditioning units, mortars on chill did electrical cables, and so far so copper based cables, for instance, and there were devices once again should be kept away from these electrical devices and cables to prevent any network communication issues, attenuation or interference. So in this lesson, I just wanted to talk about different network cabling, tools and couple of concepts to be watchful of while you're doing your cabling on your network. So I hope this helps. Let's move to the next lesson. 10. Wireless Networks: in this lesson, I'm going to talk about wireless networks. We did take a look at the network cabling and physical devices and how to make network cables in the previous lessons here. Moving forward. Let's take a look at how to actually use wireless networks and what they are and how they're used within our networks. Simple definitions off what a wireless network is. It basically enables connection to the network without using a wired connection. So there you go. There are no more cables involved. Provides a degree of portability. Obviously, it's flexible. Extends connectivity toe a pre existing wireless network that could be used to connect entire local area networks to the Internet. So let's say you have 500 users working in a single office with your local area network, and they all need to that they use the Internet. So one way is to use a wireless network or create a wireless network. Some devices can be connected directly to each other in a point to point fashion, so building a network is not just confined to physical cables anymore. You can have wireless connectivity between two computers between your central device, hub switch or for example, your server to your computer and so on, and you can take all of those computers and then connect to the Internet. So depending upon the structure or the topology of your own network, you can, in fact create a wireless network. What we need is wireless adapters, and there's simply enabled connectivity between a desktop computer or your own laptop, for example, and the wireless access Point, also known as the WAP. These network adaptors come in a variety of shapes and sizes, including USB. Small is a USB, by the way, a PC card that physically gets inserted in your laptop and has a jack right? Or as an internal PC I card or PC I express adapter cards. So variations of physical hardware that actually uses the wireless technology to connect from one computer to the wireless access point. So this is what the wireless access point looks like simply enables wireless devices to connect to a wired network. So the wireless router right router, by definition means that routes data right routes, information from one computer to the other can also acts as a router firewall or an I P proxy and some of these terms I'll cover later, but a firewall. It's simply these security layer for your data so it gets transmitted and reaches the destination that is actually been defined. So the wireless access points simply neighbor the wireless devices to connect to a wired network, the wireless land or the W land. As I mentioned earlier, you can in fact create your own local area network completely wireless. It's simply a network composed of at least one wireless access point and a computer or handle device that connects to the Web. Usually, these networks are Ethernet based you to be cables Category five cables pretty typical, but they can be built on other networking architectures as well, so you can use other cables that cat six, for example, or she lied cables and other apologies. In order to ensure compatibility, the WAP and other wireless devices must also use the same standards the same I Tripoli able to that 11 w land standards so you cannot have a device that uses the 802.1, for example, or any other standard, and then try to connect to the wireless device toe have to match the entire network structure has to be built on the wireless. The WiFi, also known as the wireless Fidelity, is a trademark toe brand products that belongs to the category off W land devices. Here are some of the standards So I put together this simple grade where you can actually see the I triple E 802.11 standards, which has category A, B, G and N C and then the data transfer rate, and these air the maximum. So, for instance, the first roll is attitude at 11 A, which has the data transfer rate, a maximum rate of 54 megabits per second and the frequency of five gigahertz similarly there, other standard they can follow. So if you are interested in developing your network, you can implement any one of these standards and make sure all devices match and you have a wireless access point and they're connected to your actual network. So in this lesson, I just wanted to touch base on the wireless networks, and in fact, you can actually set up your own network to be completely wireless. Or you can have a hybrid where you can have certain cables connected to your server switches Hobbs and yet use the wireless access point to allow, for example, connectivity to the Internet. So I hope this helps. Let's move to the next lesson. 11. ipv4: in this lesson moving forward. I'm going to talk about the I P Version four protocol, and I'll also demonstrate how this is actually used and the difference between I P Version four and I also cover I p Version six in the next lesson. We're here just focusing on what I p v four is all about. So what is I p version for? It's simply the Internet Protocol. Version four is the fourth version of the I P or the Internet Protocol and the first version Toby, widely deployed. Even today, 99% of the networks being deployed They used the I. P V four version. It's a frequently used communications protocol, and it one of the core per calls for the Internet. And importantly, I p. Resides on the network layer of the O. S. I model here, the I P addresses each computer, for example, on the network has to have a unique I p address, and we talked about that in previous lesson. It has to be unique, just like the home address within the subdivision that you live in. For example, your house has a unique number. That's how your physical mail gets delivered to you. So the I P addresses they consist of four rocked its eight bits, each between zero and 255 So, for example, we have an I P address of 12 that 5 to 4 dot to. We also may have an I p. Address, so 1 to 7.0 dot 0.1. This is also known as the loop back address. And then, of course, other ranges are also available. So in order for an i p address, true function properly, there must be properly configured I P addresses and compatible sub net masks. Two different kinds. One is the static and the other one is a dynamic. I p addresses static I P addresses are simply that are manually assigned to a computer or a host or a device, and the dynamic I P addresses are common than static. I P addresses where they are automatically being obtained. Or, in other words, the computer automatically obtains an I P address from your server or from another device. So let's say you running 10 computers on the network, for example, on one server in a client server model every time you turn your computer on the server were a sign and I p address to your computer, and that's how you would be able to connect to the server and transfer information. Another important concept is default. Gateway and DNS Server. For a device to communicate on the Internet, a default gateway and Deanna server must be assigned. So, for example, think of default Gateway as your main gate outside your house, right? So everything happening within your own environment. You have five different rooms in your house, and you have computers in those rooms. They're all connected together. But if someone needs to connect to the outside world or across the street or to another city town, for example, you have to use the default gateway I think of again. As of the main gate of your home. The default gateway provides a default route for TCP I P hosts to use when communicating with hosts on remote networks. So now you're connected to someone else outside your own environment, the first i p address of the device that a client computer will look for when attempting to gain access outside the local network. The DNS server, on the other hand, is the server that provides name resolution of domain names to I P addresses. So, for instance, you browsing the Internet and you go to Microsoft dot com, for example. Well, that's that's text, right? That's not night P address. It's very difficult to remember I p addresses because there millions and millions of computer networks and hosts within each network. So the easiest way is to use English terminology or names. So we remember Microsoft dot com, for example, Google that calm and so on. But in fact, behind the scenes, they all have an I. P. Address. So the DNS servers job is to resolve that name, so it masks the I p address, so to speak. So you see Microsoft dot com, but behind the scenes actually an I P address, which the server has assigned accordingly. Here's the class ful network architecture. The I P V four classifications system is known as the class full network. Architecture has broken down typical into five sections. Class A, B and C and of course, there D and E a swell, but primarily were concerned with the 1st 3 classes. So in class off I P address, for example, class A the first act. It is the network portion that we talked about that recovered that in the previous lesson. But just a nice chart. That kind of gives you the verse classes, the I B range, for example, the default subject mass to be used, the network I D versus the host I d possible networks and then usable addresses. So, Luke, back testing. I mentioned the i P address 1 to 7.0 dot 0.1. For example. This is also known as the loop at testing. Just to make sure that your computer is connected or as an i p address. So the range for Class A Izzard 1 to 7 the 1 to 7 network number is not used by hosts as a logical I p editors. Instead, this network is used for Luke back I p addresses allowing for testing. So the important thing to remember is that the i p address a 1 to $7.0 don throw. That one is reserved for Luke Back. Testy. Next, Let me, in fact demo some of these I p addresses. You can actually see everything in action also, So I'm gonna go ahead and open up my network connections on my computer, and I'll show you the various networks. So here are all the different network connections have simply opened up my network connections on my Windows computer, and you'll notice there several of them, for instance. One that I'm actively connected to the Internet, for example, is the WiFi or the wireless connectivity. I also have the physical Ethernet, for example, that were cable, which is unplugged because I'm not plugged in physically to a network. Therefore, says Network Cable Unplugged, I asked my Ethernet right, my local area network. And then, of course, my virtual box, which is the host willing that work. I also have a virtual machine running, which also runs on on Lian Ethernet adapter. So if I were to right click, for example, the Virtual Box host Network and then click on Properties. This opens up the host only network properties. Let me bring that in the center. And if I were to scroll down notice, here's the I P Version four or the TCP IP version four, so there's a select this and click on properties. It brings up my Internet protocal version four properties, and here's the I p address. So 192.168 that 56.1 is being assigned to the virtual box or disconnection with a subject mask of 255255255.0. And we know from the rules that this is a Class C network. Here's the DNS. So if there was a DNS server, the I p address for the DNS server would have been listed as well. So just to give you an idea that you can take a look at your network connections, right click Goto properties and then evaluate and just observe various I P addresses being assigned. If I were to test this I p address whether the connection is good or not, I need to run the ping command and I'll get into the TCP I. P commands the basic in the advanced in subsequent lessons. We can always test this as well. So let's cancel this one. And let's take a look at the WiFi, the wireless connectivity connections. So if I were to right click, for example, go to properties of the WiFi connection, bring this in the center and school down simply highlight the TCP I P. Version four Click on properties and in this instance, noticed says of 10 and I p. Address automatically. So here the I P addresses being automatically assigned to my computer from the actual host or the server that is outside my network similarly is going to obtain the Deanna server address automatically as well. So once again, you can hear manly Assign I P addresses, or you can set it up to be obtained automatically. So let's go ahead and switch back to our slides. Perfect. So in this lesson, we talked about the concept of I P Version four protocol. The I P addresses one more time and then how to go about on your own computer. Take a look at verse network connections and observe these static I P. Eder's versus the dynamic I P addresses as well. So I hope this helps practice and let's move to the next lesson. 12. ipV6: in this lesson, I'm going to talk about and also show you what the I P Version six is all about. So what is the Internet Protocol Version six, which is basically a new generation of I p address ing for the Internet? The I P version six solves many of the limitations of I p four, and one of the main aspect or limitation is the fact that I p version four addresses are running out. So that's the one of the main reasons why they came out with I p version six important reason why they came up with I P Version six was the aspect of security. It's more secure. So the addresses are basically represented as eight groups of four Hexi decimal digits, which is a little different from the I P Version four. It's important to note that it's not backward compatible, so if your network has and being deployed using I p Version six, it's not compatible with I p Version four, And there are millions and millions off networks and computers on the Internet that actually use I. P version for the V six version is a 1 28 but stream while The V four version is only a 32 bit stream, so here you can see the power of I P. Version six. It also allows 4.3 billion i p addresses I p Version six allows 340 un disillusioned addresses. So it's huge here. The components that actually make up the I p version six there primarily broken down into three parts. First is thes site prefix sub net ideas the 2nd 1 and then the interface i D. So the 1st 3 groups of the numbers that define the actual network is called these site prefix. The subject I d basically defines the individual sub net off the network that the address is located on, and the interface i D is the individual host i p. Portion. So the I P V six address looks something like this, right? So I'll have the site prefix first and then I'll contain the actual subject i D. And then the interface idea itself. So fairly long address and the reason why is because the sheer number of growth of Internet and then the number of computers and the host on the Internet you can also have a dual i p . Stack, for instance, so dual i p. Stack would exist when there are two Internet particles. Software implementations within an operating system or on your network, one for I P V four and the other for I P v six. The dual stack eye beholds can one on both versions independently, or they can be implemented in a hybrid situation, which is the most commonly used method for modern operating systems. So either we can use version four or six, or you can use them together and slowly and gradually grow into the I P version six environment Next time, in fact, show you what these I P addresses look like on your computer so you can actually see the difference between the version four and Version six implementation. So let me go ahead and switch to my networking properties. So here I've just opened up by network connections and one of the network connections that I'm just going to pick any one of them, for example, about the WiFi connection here. Just right. Click on the connection Click on Properties, and this brings up the Properties Dialog box for school down notice. I'll have both the I p version four And then, of course, the six as well. So six being the latest version of the Internet protocol that provides communication across diverse, interconnected networks. Whereas the V four is simply the transmission control protocol Internet Protocol and is the default wider yet never protocol. It also provides the communication across diverse interconnection networks, so they serve the same purpose. One is just powerful. The other one is just widely used. So if I were to click on the I. P. V six and click on Properties in this instance, notice it has the same I p address the I P V six address. It's fairly long because you have to specify the format. And then here's the sub net. Prefixed length right is one of the requirements of creating an I P V six environment, whereas if I were to check the V four, for example, so it's cancel out of here. Let's click on V four, quickly click on properties here. I just have a simple I P actress, some net mask and then, of course, the default gateway, so you can see the difference between the version four and version six and once again. One of the main reasons why the I. P V. Six is not being implemented because off several reasons. So let's take a look at some of these reasons. Next, let me switch to the slides first. Of course, the Internet is made up of millions of routers, for example, and switches thes or physical devices. Those were initially designed, in fact, to work with the I P version four. So just the mere replacement and upgrading of all of this hardware is going to take time and budget. So it's very, very expensive to move and shift everything to the I P V six quickly. So during the design of the Version six, particle backward compatibility was not on the list. So here's another shortcoming where it's not easily integrated to the I P version force, not backward compatible. The I P version six initially relieves in 1998 by the way, extends the total number of addresses to more than 7.9 times 10 to the power of 28 times. That's a huge number dis illion rate, as I before does. Yet before address exhaustion was one of the major drivers to in fact come up with this I p version six framework. So in this lesson, I just wanted to talk about the V four and V six. So you have a better understanding of both of these environments, so I hope this helps. Let's move to the next lesson. 13. Basic TCP IP commands: Welcome back in this lesson. Moving forward, I'm going to show you several things regarding the TCB I p commands, and I also demonstrate some of the basic commands so you can actually see what these commands do. So, for example, if you were to one network diagnostic basic diagnostics on your network, which commands are helpful before we get into the actual commands, it's important to know the port numbers. The I P address provides the connection to the correct machine right, your PC, your laptop or your server, and it cannot distinguish the different service that is required. So the port number is primarily used to distinguish the application, and it's a value from 0 to 5 65,035 Some of the common port numbers are listed. For example, the file transfer protocol, which is the FDP port 20 or 21. The Telep is for 23. Talent is used to connect to a remote machine. Poor 25 is your simple mail transfer protocol. This port number is used when you use your email. For example, Port 53 is DNs. The domain name service Port 80 is the World Wide Web, so when you browsing the Internet. For example, using your browser, we used Port 80. So all data essentially is routed through port 80. Similarly, Porter 1 10 is your post office protocol pop. Three. Port 1 44 is your news and port 6000 X windows and so on. But these are the common ones that you'll come across. So here are the basic TCP I P commands. That I'll demonstrate first is the Ping Command and also show you the i P config. And then the important one is the Trace ERT Command. What is the pink man all about? So the pink is a basic Internet program that simply allows a user to verify that a specific I P address, for instance, exists and can accept requests or not. And we use the ping is simply checking to see whether it's a valid I P address or not, and it's used diagnostically to ensure that our host computer users trying to reach is actually operating. The I P Conflict Command is a command line tool used to control the network connections on your Windows machines. Primarily, there are three main commands, the I P Config and then we use the Ford Slash all we can also use the I P conflict four slash release and renew as well. And what this does is simply shows you the actual configuration of your I P network. If you were to use the release or the new commands, what that would do is simply obtain and new i p address from the server. So it's going to release the existing assigned I P address to your computer. And then you will request the server to give you a new I P address just to make sure that your connections are valid and not so. It's a good diagnostic tool as well. Then we have the Treasure command. This is simply utility that records the actual route through the Internet. So, for example, if you were to connect from one computer to the other, it will actually show you how many times it went from one computer to the other and then, from from the next computer to the next computer and so on, eventually to the destination. So it goes through the Internet between your computer and the specified destination computer and also calculates and displays the amount off time each hop actually took the journey from one computer to the other is known as a hop, by the way, and the amount of time it takes to make a hop is measured in Mili seconds. The information that actually travels through the trace route is known as the packet. Right, So we hop the time milliseconds and then the actual packet. So next, let me, in fact demonstrate all of these commands. So I'm gonna go ahead and open up the command line tool. So once I have the command prompt, open, all after do just make sure the cursor is blinking and you can open up your own command. Prompt. Just simply type. For example, the pink man. That's the 1st 1 I'm gonna show you. So just paying. For instance, I can either type an I p address if I know the i P address off the destination computer or I can use the name. For example, I can use www dot google dot com or any other website, and the DNS service is going to resolve that name eventually to the I P address. So let's go ahead and do paying space and then just the U R l or the website address, for instance. So I'm gonna go ahead and do google dot com. Hit the enter key and it's going to Ping. Google shows me the I P address, which is 2 to 1.120 that 207 and up to nine and then shows me by replying that it is actually reaching the destination. And a replies being received from google dot com shows me the ping statistics. Also, the packet sent four received four, so it's a perfect connection. Next is the I P conflict. So let's go ahead and toe I p config. And of course I can just do an I p config by itself. Or I can just use other such as four slash renew all and so on. So first I'm just going to type I p config and hit Enter key. And what this would do is show me the actual configuration of my own computer, which is the Ethernet adaptor, the wireless, the Bluetooth and so on. And of course, all of these I P addresses are also being displayed based on each connection. So here's the I P address for the specific DNS. Suffolk's. For example, this is the WiFi local area network adapter. Here's the Ethernet adapter for the virtual box, and then finally, the actual Ethernet adapter for the virtual box host on the network. So this way you can actually take a look at the number of network connections on your own computer. So let me go ahead and clear off the screen. Next, I'm gonna run the trace ERT command. So this is treasured and for space, and then I can use any euro. For example, I can use Google again www dot google dot com and then hit the enter key. And what this is going to do is again tried. Reach the Google destination and making hops from one i p. Address to the other, which means from one host to the other to the next, and eventually to the actual i p address of Google, which is 2 to 1. That one too zero down to 07 doc too nine. So it tells you the actual time in mili seconds and of course, the number of hops you can actually count and eventually take a look at how long it actually took to reach Google. So these are the basic commands that you can actually take and one on your own network. The basic I P commands just shows you the various diagnostics if you need to. One diagnostics on network Maybe one computer is not responding or you get an issue from the user saying I cannot connect. I cannot connect to the network. I cannot gonna do my printer on the network, for example, where I cannot send an email within the same network. So you can simply use these. I'd be commands to check. And here, when the transfer is complete, tells you that the trace route is completed and gives you the details off each hop. So practice with this. I hope the basic TCP I P commands help unless move to the next lesson. 14. Advanced TCP IP commands: and this lesson moving forward, I'm going to talk about and demonstrate additional or advanced TCP I p commands using the command prompt. So before I actually demonstrate once again the port numbers, these are important. And I'm showing you so that you can actually remember these. You'll come across situations where you'll be asked for just a port number. So the FTP or the file transfer protocol port number is 20 and 21 tell and is 23 25 is a some T p and so forth. So basically, the I P address provides the connection to the correct machine, but it cannot distinguish the different service that is required. So the port number is used for this purpose and distinguished. The application on the value can be from 0 to 65535 So basically the data that passes through a port number specifically it knows that this data is for the file transfer protocol telling that were white web and so on. Let's take a look at some of the advanced commands TTP I p commands. I'm gonna show you three important ones. There's several of them, of course, but the more important one of the Get Mac are and Ennis look up, and each of them has its own distinct usage and the output. First, the Mac address before I actually demonstrate to get Mac Command, The Media Access Control Address or the Mac address of the computer is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces. In other words, devices for communications at the data link layer of the network segment or the or side lair. Every piece of hardware, by the way on your local network, has a Mac address in addition to the I P address. So now you have a house address. But you also have, in addition, a Mac address assigned to it by the local router or server. So they get Mac Command simply returns the Mac address and list of network protocols that are associated with it with each address for all the network cards in your computer, for example, or across the network, either locally or over your local area network or wider a number. So the example for Mac addresses shown it is basically six octet number right and each other that has eight bits. So the 1st 3 architects are basically the unique identifier, also known as the O. U I. And then the last reactor acts are the N. I. C or the network interface controller. So once again, all devices physical devices on your network on your computer. They have a Mac address specified by the manufacturer. Next command that will take a look at is the AARP Command or the AARP Command. It's the address resolution protocol performs I p. Address to media Access Control address resolution for outgoing packets. So here it matches the i p with the Mac actress as each outgoing address. I p d. Anagram or pocket citizens caps elated in a frame, for instance, Source and destination Mac addresses must be added. So determining the destination Mac address for each frame is the basic responsibility of the address resolution protocol. And finally, the third most important advanced command that I'm gonna talk about. Demonstrate is the Ennis Look Up, which is a network utility program used to obtain information about Internet servers. As the name suggests, this utility finds name server information for domains bike wearing the DNS system. So if I were to do Ennis, look up google dot com, for example, or any other website. It will give me the results in the output as well. So next let me go ahead and demonstrate these three important commands. So let's open up the command prompt. So once I'm in the command prompt here, I'm just going to go ahead and first show you the they said get mad command. So I'm gonna go ahead and do get Mac. That's all. After type hit the enter key and notice it will give me the actual physical adverse is and then the transport names as well. The physical addresses are six act tax and these are the Mac addresses for the devices. I can also use parameters with the get Mac command. So, for example, if I do get Mac and then space four slash v ill give me the actual details as well. So not only just the Ethernet or the connection names, such as Why five, For example, it will tell me the actual physical device, which is the real type PC. I card the Mac address and then the transport name. Similarly for the Bluetooth network, virtual box host and so on. So all of the network connections with attached Mac addresses and the transport names. The next command I'm going to show you is the art command. So it's address resolution protocol, its Air P and I'm going to use the parameter bash A with a space, have the enter key and notice what this does. It simply gives me the interface, which is the I P address. And then, of course, the Internet address and matches with the physical address or the Mac addresses and also shows you the type. But there's dynamic or static, and it does this for each i p address. So let's go ahead and clear up the screen here. The third important command is the annus loca. So if I were to do, let's say an s look up space and then I'm looking for a U. R l right or a domain name could be any domain name, so let's go ahead. I'm going to use one of them Col. Clyde s dot com of the enter key and orders. It gives me the server information, which at this point doesn't find it says unknown. Address is 19 to 168.1 dot one, and next it shows me the actual non authoritative answer, which is the actual domain name and then the I S P or these service providers I p address. Similarly, if I were to do and as I look up and you can, of course, practice with this any other name so I can go ahead and just type look up space and let's go ahead and do Microsoft dot com enter. Same thing. It shows me the actual first my local and then the non authoritative answer, which is the Microsoft dot com and then the various addresses. So it's a good utility to use, so I just wanted to demonstrate the important TCP I P commands. So practice with these unless move to the next lesson. 15. All about DHCP: In this lesson moving forward, I'm going to talk about the D. H C P server, which is the dynamic host configuration protocol. So the D. A. T P is a client server protocol, and the main function of the etc. P is that it enables client computers whether it's your laptop, your personal computer around the network, for instance, to obtain I P addresses from the server automatically. So, for instance, you come to work, open up your machine or turn on your machine, for instance, and as soon as you turn on, you will get an I. P address assigned from the server. The I P address might include the following the I P addresses. You males will get assigned a sub net mask, get we addresses, DNS server address and other options as well The DTP service service provides to benefits. One is the reliable I P address configuration, and the other is to reduce network administration because having static I P addresses assigned to all computers on the network can become cumbersome at times. But if you had 5000 computers on the network, so it's easier to just have the server a sign I p addresses once the client computer is switched on before the idiot CP server can actually start pleasing i p address to climb computers, the following steps must be performed. We need to install the D IT CP service on the server, configure the I P scope or the range of I P addresses, activate the scope, authorized the server and then configure other options if required. So once again, the basic idea the concept of D. H. C P server is that you define a pool of I P addresses based on your own sub net, and then server would automatically start leasing out I p addresses two different computers . The four step process, known as Dora, is used by D etc. P. So the first is Discovery. The client sends a broadcast to the network to find a D h. C P server. So soon as you turn your computer on, it's gonna go out there and seek it. Did C P server because it does not have a static i P address assigned to it. The second step is the offer, so the D etc. P server sends the offering a unique cast offering. Often I p address to the client. The third step is the request declined and broadcasts to all servers that it has accepted the offer. So now everyone on the network knows that a certain I P address has been assigned to this computer so that it cannot be duplicated. So once the I P addresses assigned recall that I P addresses are unique, they cannot be duplicated or assigned to any other computer on the network. The fourth step is the acknowledge idiot. CP Service sends a final any cast to the client computer that includes the I P information the client will use. So now the server completes this process. The D A teepee service utilizes Port 67 68. To do this, The real motivation for using DCP, for instance, the configuration parameters for network hosts the I P addresses required the router address and the some that mask before the IT CPI. It was manual assignment, like I mentioned earlier or use boot P. So either way, instead of assigning static I p address static, submit mass going to each node. What if you have a network that once again has or 5000 computers? It takes a long time to do this, right? So that's one of the motivation for using D eight. C P is too reduced the work. Here's the structure. Just a preliminary structure off a network. So you may have the SCP clients. For instance, the three client computers. You have the D. H. C P server, and his job is to lease out I p addresses as soon as the clients are switched on and, of course, to the router. And then once the I P addresses are assigned to the computer, the computer can navigate through the router to the Internet, for example, So the port numbers again are 67 or 68 but the H C P server uses, and it uses the UDP. So in this lesson, just briefly wanted to demonstrate natural show. You talk about what DTP server is the main function of the d etc? P server and how clients obtained their I P addresses. So I hope this helps Let's move to the next lesson 16. Internet and WWW: Welcome back. Moving forward in this lesson. I'm going to talk about the World Wide Web and the Internet. Some additional concepts that are also covered in addition to the Www, for example, or the Internet will be the extra nets and the Internets of Variations of the Internet. So let's jump right in. And let's take a look at what the World Wide Web and the Internet is all about. First, the Internet itself. The Internet is simply a system of connected computer networks, and that's just the basic fundamental concept in the entire world. All of the computers in one form or the other are connected, and we also understand that they're connected either through physical cables or wireless media. And they also use certain protocol right to transfer information between and among all those computers. So the devices that connect to the Internet primarily used the TCP I P Protocol suite. The Internet contains a lot of information, resource is and services. For instance, one of the largest is the World Wide Web servers hosting content that people put up. So, for instance, if I need to create or I'm an author of a book and I like this book to get on the Internet so that everyone in the world can actually access it, See it, or I may be able to sell my products and services using the Internet. So the best medium is the World Wide Web servers, where you would actually go out there and upload or transfer your e book or your products or your services on those servers and users all across the world will come to a unique address. Just like if I were to come visit you, for example, he would provide me an address I live in such in such place. Here's my house number. Come visit me and I will just navigate open up a map and eventually find your home. The other one is supporting infrastructure for email. So not just the content itself that you can use the Internet to place, but you can also communicate. I can send a message from one place to the other, from one computer to the other, regardless of its location. And third is the connectivity for peer to peer networks. And we talked about different apologies where if you have local area networks, for example, you can also share information within your own organization. The World Wide Web is in a normal system off elect hypertext documents that can be accessed by using a Web browser. So here you have a situation where you have, let's say, a database right, a storage, huge, huge storage, billions off documents they can actually take a look at. And all of these documents, so to speak, are interlinked, so I can simply go out there, use my Web browsers. So the tool that is used to access these documents is called the Web browser. And of course, we understand. We know that when we browse the Internet right, we use a tool called a Web browser, and examples are Internet Explorer, chrome, Firefox and so on. These interlinked hypertext documents can contain text, graphics and videos. So there, or one billion Web sites on the World Wide Web. Today that's a large number. Everyone seems to be having a space on this World Wide Web. So in order to perform communication among all these computers spread all across the world , we need to use a certain medium right, And that's called the http. It's basically the hypertext transfer protocol, which is a set of rules for transferring files, images, videos and any other multimedia files on the World Wide Web. So, for instance, a soon as a user opens zero browser right, for example, Internet Explorer or Chrome, the user is indirectly making use of this protocol. Http is an application protocol that runs on top of the TCP I P Suite of protocols, which is again the foundation protocols for the Internet. So TCP I. P. Is the foundation and http runs on top of this so that all these computers spread across the world can communicate and transfer right files, images and videos. Next, let's take a look at intranet. So we talked about the Internet and the World Wide Web. An Internet is simply a private computer network or a single website that an organization implements in order to share data with employees, projects managers around the world. So in common terminology and Internet is Internet, But it's on Lee within your organization. So you have a website, for example, you use the same http transfer protocol. However, Onley users within the organization can access your internal web structure. The user authentication is necessary, and that makes sense because external users are not allowed before a person can access the information in an Internet. Ideally, this keeps the general public out as long as the Internet is properly secured. So let's say you have 1000 employees spread across the world and you like to share information, collaborate. You create your own Internet, and that's essentially called an intranet. Next, we have the extra enact. An extra net is similar to the Internet, with a distinct difference that it is extended to users outside a company as well. So, for instance, you may have vendors, external people who liked again access to your own intranet or resource is within your company or possibly to the entire organization that are separate from or lateral to the company. And here, user authentication is obviously still necessary because you're not opening your entire network truly public accessing company data, for example, there's a visual representation. A company can present information to different groups again. We talked about the Internet for internal employees only extra net for partners or vendors and the Web server for the public. So within your own network, which over topology use, for example, using a star topology you can set it up so that you can distinctly divide your network and create sections one for the partner access one for the public access and one for the remote users and your internal employees. And, of course, all this can be done securely using firewalls, and I'll talk about later in the next lessons. What firewalls are. I'm here just to give an idea that you can create and allow access to your own users or external people vendors by creating the extra Net Internet or using the Internet. So here in this listen, I just wanted to differentiate the basic concept of Internet, the World Wide Web and, of course, the Internet intranet and then extra nets. So I hope this helps and let's move to the next lesson. 17. What is a VPN: in this lesson, I'm going to talk about it and also demonstrate what a VPN is all about. VPN is simply a virtual private network. A VPN simply is a connection between two or more computers or devices that are not on the same private network. So here you have a situation where you have your own organization would, let's say, 500 computers, and you wish to connect to yet another organization located maybe another city or across the globe in order to ensure that only the proper users or authenticated users and data sessions cross that virtual private network device, data encapsulation and encryption are used now. Two different terms encapsulation and encryption encapsulate means simply put everything together in one frame, packet or header. And then encryption is in fact using certain algo rhythms to encrypt data so that during the travel right during the transfer, it cannot be read by anyone. And to do that, think of this as a tunnel so simply a Thomas created between the two networks, either through the local area network or the wide area network being used. So two networks quit a tunnel between them to and then encapsulate right as well as encrypt your data. And that's called a private network or a virtual private network in essence, and the medium being used between these two networks is the Internet itself. And we are aware that the Internet is public, right? So in order to cross the public domain, we need to have a tunnel between the two networks so that data cannot be read or intercepted by and third party. Some of the popular VPN protocols is the point to Point Tunneling Protocol, also known as the P P. T. P. It basically encapsulates the frames. The data frames point a point into the i P data grams for transmission over an I P based network. Data, by the way, isn't encrypted by default. The layer to Tunneling Protocol with Internet Protocol Security L two TP, for example, is a combination off the point to point telling protocol and layer to fording, also known as the L two F, which is a technology developed by Cisco Systems. So a couple of different ways you can connect two networks together. The I P SEC, for example, is used to encrypt the actual message or the data point to point telling protocol a couple of other things that you need to be aware of that allows multi protocol traffic to be encrypted and then encapsulated at the same time in a given I p hitter and that essentially sent across the network or public i p Network. PPT P can also be used for remote access and site to site VPN connection, so it has a big advantage to it. It also encapsulates frames and I p diagrams and makes them ready for transmission people. TP uses our basic TCP connection for tunnel management, and a modified version is also available, also known as the generic routing encapsulation or the G R E to encapsulate P p p frames. And this is what the actual had it looks like. So you have the i. P header. You have the generic routing encapsulation header, the P P. P. Header, and then the actual frame, which is being encrypted. So the idea is that you create it tunnel, you flow the data through that tunnel and all of that data, whether it's documents, videos, for example, or images and what not any data being transferred, is in fact encrypted. So in this lesson we talked about what a VPN is all about. Some of the important protocols and then the point to point tunneling protocol Next time, in fact, show you how simple it is to create a virtual private network connection using your own computer. So here I have the control panel open. You can go ahead and open the control panel on your own computer. So once you're in the control panel, locate network ensuring center. Great. So in my instance, it's called Network Ensuring Center. Once I click on it, it takes me to the actual page where I can view the basic network information and set up connections. So, for instance, if I need to set up a new connection or a network, even I can go ahead and click on set up a new connection. This brings up a dialog box and gives me several options. I can either connect to the Internet. I can set up a new network. I can manually connect to wireless network, or I can connect to it workplace, which essentially notice here, it says, set up a dial up or a virtual private network connection to your worthless. This could be someone else's work list as well, as long as it's creating a tunnel right, a secure connection from one computer to the other or from one server to the other. So just simply select this, for example, and if you just walk through the steps, it will create the connection for you. So let's let's go ahead and click next second actual to see the next screen here. It gives you two options. Either I can choose an existing connection or I can create a new connection. So I'm gonna leave this option by default. Click Next two Options once again used my Internet connection or dial directly. So if I were to dial directly to a phone number without going through the Internet, so if the other network that was to connect to has a phone number or modem right connected to it and I can dial into it, they will give me a phone number and I'll just under the phone number, and it will connect to that device. The other option, of course, the 1st 1 is the used my Internet connection, so connect using a virtual private network connection through the Internet. And that's exactly what we talked about. So the medium is the Internet and their two networks or two computers or two servers or two nodes they're trying to connect. So I'm gonna go ahead and let's say, show you how to use my Internet connection, and here you can simply type the address. Now the address means the I P addresses or the domain name as well. It doesn't matter if you were to use the domain name, it'll be resolved to an I P address if you were to use the I P address. And if you know the I p address of the computer that you wish to connect to simply entry of here, give it a name and then once you're done, you click. Create animal, create the connection for you. Obviously, you have to have the credentials from the remote computer so I can say something like 157.54 dot 0.1. And once I'm done, I can go ahead and click create, and it's going to create the connection for me. So once the VPN connection is created, notice that shows you the active connections. So if that was the case, I would be able to connect to the remote computer, so I hope this helps practice and let's move to the next lesson. 18. What is a Router: in this lesson moving forward, I'm going to talk about what a router is. We understand the basic concepts of physical devices such as hubs and switches, which essentially do the same job. They route traffic. You have broadcast traffic once it receives it from the server and then broadcasts to other nodes. The switch does the same thing, but does it more intelligently. Rounder is one of the same devices that carries the same functions but more functionality to it. So let's take a look at what a router is all about. In essence, a router is a device that simply forwards data packets along networks is connected to a least two networks could be local area networks or wider, and it works. The rotors are located at gateways, right? So these are the gatekeepers, right for your traffic. The places where two or more networks connect a router is a device that again forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay inter network. So here's the device. Basically, that keeps track of all of the address is on the network. So, for instance, let's say you live in a subdivision which has about 300 homes, so the router would know exactly who lives in which home. So in other words, which address belongs to which owner? And that's what the rotor essentially does. So in this diagram we have two routers, router A and rather be. And they're connected to different sub nets, for instance, or different networks. And each networks can have their own physical devices, such as hubs and switches. So the router, using different ports, can simply send traffic from one subject to the other, one network to the other and so on. And it keeps a table also known as the routing table. So this table sort of tells the router that next time a message comes that belongs to a similar I p. It just sends and Ford's. It doesn't have the check to see whether it's the right address or address. Resolution needs to take place or not. Some of the basic functionality of rotors it's simply connected to tour more data lines from different networks. We talked about that, so here's the situation. When a data packet comes in one of the lines right, the router reads Theodorus Information in the packet, the data packet to determine its ultimate destination. The data packet is typically afforded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the Internet work until it gets to its destination note. So, for instance, if I were to send you an email and I'm in the US and you're in Europe, for example, it's going to pass on the actual email through different routers across various networks. Another functionality of the router is that it contains a routing table, as I mentioned earlier, briefly, in which all of the information about the address of connected networks exists. So these are very intelligent piece of hardware that knows exactly what's going on. Who resides where. So why do we use routers? In addition to hubs and switches? Well, router limits the collision domain so the packets are not colliding with each other, and there's no data loss. Robbers can function on a local area network and whiter, and it works as well. They can connect different media on architectures. Rogers can determine best path or route for data to reach the destination, and routers can also filter the broadcasts as well. So there numerous advantages of using routers. The disadvantage, of course, is that they're very expensive. For example, Cisco is a huge manufacturer of routers and their famous routers that they've created. They have been quitting since a long time, and they worked very efficiently on their other companies as well that make rotors some of the disadvantages. I wanted to mention that obviously they're more expensive than hab Bridge and switch brakes , by the way, is another hardware device that acts similar to hubs and switches. Robbers Onley works with reputable protocol. So if you're using TCP I P, for example perfect. You can use a router routing updates, Consumes band with network traffic is going to increase because it's going to refresh the list of all the I P address is that it contains also increases the late INSEE due to greater degree of packet filtering. So the mawr stringent your policies are on your router, for example. It's going to I need to do more work and filter more packets, which obviously is going to slow down your network traffic as well. So in this lesson, we just talked about what a router is, the basic functions of the rotor and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotors as well. So I hope this helps. Let's move to the next lesson 19. Hubs and Switches: Welcome back in this lesson, I'm going to talk about different kinds of hubs and switches. Both of these are physical devices that are used within a certain network. First, let's talk about what a hub is. So this physical device is the most basic central connecting device that connects all of the computers on your network. It basically enables computers on the network to communicate rights and data transfer files , images, videos and whatnot. So everything goes through this particular hub. So, for instance, our host sends data to the hub. The Hub sends the data or also known as broadcasting, right. So it broadcasts data toe all the devices connected to the hub, and whichever computer is the destination computer will accept that particular message, and the other computers will reject it. So the function of the heart basically is just to receive data and then broadcast to all of the nodes on the network. Now the question comes in mind that, of course, if there's large pieces of data information being transferred through the hub, the network traffic is going to be on the high side. They're a couple of different types of hubs. One is theatrics of Hub. It uses these simple power supply. You plug it in, and it regenerates the data and strengthens the signal in case of disturbances. So that's called the active hub. So if you were to purchase a help, for example, by far and Active Hub, there are passive hubs as well that do not generate the data and strengthens signal in case of disturbances. And these are typically used from media devices. Right then, there are intelligent hubs, and they're sometimes called as smart hubs, and these devices basically functioned similar to an active hub. But they also include another function, which is a simple microprocessors trip and agnostic capabilities that are useful in trouble shooting situations. So different scenarios call for implementing different types of hubs. So once we understand what a hob is is simply broad cats, all the data that receives to all the nodes on the network switch works the same way as a hub. But they can identify the intended recipient off the data. So once the message is received by the switch, it takes a look at, for example, the data the Mac address and then Onley roads or sends the data to that particular computer very, very efficient and switches consent and receive data at the same time. So they're very, very fast, but yet a little bit more expensive than the actual hubs. Once again, types of switches. There's a manageable switch and unmanageable switches, so manageable Switch simply takes an I P address that can be assigned, and various configurations can be made on that switch. So this, which will have its own interface right so users can log in and take a look at and configured those switches and try P. Adversity is a sign addresses based on your own network topology. So it has a council port as well. And unmanageable switches are simply just the opposite. That I P addresses cannot be assigned, and there's no council port. However, they'll just simply transfer data from one note to the other. Intelligently, here's a couple of scenarios visually, so you can see on the left side of the screen. We take a look at a hub scenario where, within the same network, exactly identical networks, we implement a hub. So the packet of data from a particular server, for instance, is cento. All workstations connected to a hub so the red lines means data transfer. Right. So here the hub is simply receiving information and then transmitting it forward. So just like acting as a post office, the right side of the screen in Lotus, the same scenario. But this time we've implemented a switch. So now the packet of data from the server is sent on Lee to the destination workstation connected to the relevant pork. So here, once the signal is sent from the server, it goes to the PC only that is being destined. So in this lesson, just wanted to highlight the important functions and differences between hub and switches. So best on your own apartments and network topology, your own conditions off your network objectives and swan. You can either buy have war by switches or you can have in a hybrid situation as well. So I hope this helps. Let's move to the next lesson. 20. Different Types of Operating Systems (OS): in this lesson moving forward, I'm going to talk about and also demonstrate different operating system platforms. By its basic definition, an operating system is by far the most important software that runs on a computer. It basically manages the computer's memory processes as well as all office software and hardware. What an operating system does. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak computers language So you don't need to write any programs to tell the operating system. It just knows how to communicate with the hardware and other software systems. There are several operating systems out there, and I've listed a few of them. For example, there's FreeBSD. Net BST open. There's Lennox Microsoft Windows, by far the most popular we have the open VMS. The Mac OS, one of the other operating systems by fire, is also on the most popular ones out there. And then, of course, we have the US, too, and so on. So each of these operating systems the have the same functionality as faras. The talking to hardware and software is concern, but the look and feel is different. So, for instance, if you have a Mac OS will have its own set of instructions, rules the interface itself, the tools, menus and so on. If you have Maxell windows, it has its own set of proprietary set of instructions and tools and menus. So based on your own preference, you can purchase or buy or use any one of these operating systems. Some of the key functions is, for example, the memory management. So what an operating system does it manages the memory of your computer. It also manages the processor, the CPU managers devices, file management handles all the security of your computer controls over system performance , for instance, and importantly, coordination between other Softwares and users. So each of these operating systems has its unique functionality and important functions. Because these functions matter to the user. How it responds to the user, for instance, of the user were to use a certain function. The operating system is the one at the kernel level, for example, or the core level tells the software how to get the message to the user. So think of this as being able to provide different functionality in amore efficient manner and easier manner to the user self, because the bottom line is obviously the user who's actually using the operating system and other Softwares and accessing different hardware within the actual computer. So the operating system job is not only to function internally but also be able to provide an efficient outcome to the user. Next is the concept of multitasking, important concept, and I do want to mention this is basically, for instance, multitasking within an operating system is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task such as, for instance, the Operation Often application program at a given point in time. So you could have, for instance, it would processing program open, such as Microsoft Word. Yet at the same time, you're downloading something from the Internet, so they're two things happening simultaneously, and that's what multitasking is all about. Next is the virtualization. Another important cotton stepped, and you hear this buzzword several times within the networking industry. So virtualization is simply the creation off a virtual rather than the actual version of something such as an operating system. You can have a virtual operating system on your own computer, so you can one multiple us on your computer or a server. It could be a stories, device or network resources, so you can virtualized several things. So in this lesson, just briefly, I talked about different operating systems functions of different OS, and then concept of multitasking and virtualization. Next, let me, in fact, show you different operating systems. I'm gonna show you, Lennox and of course, Windows, which I'm currently using. And I also demonstrate the virtualization so you actually can see how to operating systems can be seen on the same computer. So here, for example, I have the Oracle virtual machine or virtual box manager, and it contains different operating systems. So, for instance, I have the Lenox right over the Cali Lennox install. It's actually an operating system by itself now, even though I'm running windows. So, for instance, if I were to just navigate to my windows APS notice all these abs were here, and I can simply navigate to my windows and start opening any one of these programs on my machine. Similarly, if I go back to the Oracle VM virtual box manager, here's Calleigh Lennox. It's an operating system. If I were to select the actual Callie Lennox, for example, and click Start is going to open up the actual operating system. And now that operative system has nothing to do with the Windows operating system. Now I'm operating here in the Lennox OS. So this way the virtualization is a powerful aspect where you can run multiple operating system on your own computer. You're gonna have Mac OS. You can have any other operating system as long as you create different virtual machines. So just to give you a high level overview of what different operating systems and how you can have those on your own computer. So notice. Once I'm in this operating system, for example, the Lennox I cannot navigate 20 folder. I can bring up other files, and I can even open up a browser as well. In this instance, it's called the Ice Weasel. So if I click on this, for example, it's just going to open up a browser, and I can simply navigate to anywhere l or I can click on. Any link, for example, will take me to that home page. So this way it has on looking feel and its own set of tools, different menu, and depending upon your own preference, you can either use Lennox or Windows or Mac OS or any other type of operating system, so I hope this helps practice on this move to the next lesson. 21. Firewall Basics: welcome back in this lesson. I'm going to talk about firewalls and also demonstrates we can actually see firewalls in action. So once you have understood the network intrusion and you want to secure your local area network or your wider in network or network in general, you need to deploy and implement something called a firewall and that basically secures your network. So far, walls are typically used to help protect the network from malicious attack and unwanted intrusion, and they're very common. Almost every network today has some kind of firewall, so it is just a barrier between your computer and the Internet or external threats. So the security devices and zones, what you can do is you can, of course, create section zones and then deploy firewalls according me, so there may be multiple firewalls on your network. Security devices such as firewalls are the main defense for your company's network. Whether their land wider networks in finance or extra nets, the perimeter networks help keep certain information open to specific users or to the public while keeping the rest of the organization's data secret. So here you can configure the firewall and tell your server or your network that Onley except data from the trusted source or the allowed source packet filtering what it does inspects each packet that passes through the firewall and accepts or rejects that, based on the set of rules that you've configured there. Two types Stateless packet inspection does not retain memory of packets. So typically, the TCP I P is stateless that have passed through the firewall, the state Full packet inspection or the SP. I maintains context about active connection so it keeps in its own cash or memory about the connections. The dynamic packet filtering is another name for this. Only packets that match and known active connection are allowed to pass a firewall, so it's a step above the stateless packet filtering. We could also have the network address translation filtering, also known as the Nat Filtering. You can set this up on your router, for instance, and what this does. It filters traffic according to ports, TCP ports or UDP ports, which is user data Graham Protocol or the Transmission Control Protocol. And this can be done in three ways. First, using the basic and point connections. Second is matching the incoming toe the corresponding outbound I p address connections, and third is matching incoming traffic to the corresponding I patters import. So this is yet another way to filter out and make sure you are deploying a certain type of firewall. The application level get way, supports, address and port translation, and it checks whether the type of application traffic is allowed or not. If it is unless you through and what this does, it adds another layer of security on top of securing your network by deploying a standard far wall. It is just an added layer. Secure your applications as well, But beware that this type of deployment to secure your application is very resource intensive. The circuit level gateway is yet another way and work, said the session layer of the or side model when, for example, the TCP or UDP, connection established and what this does it filters, inspects sessions rather than connections or packets, so it's not concerned about the data. It's actually concerned about this session itself. So once the connection, for example, has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking the struggle level. Get ways hide information about the private network, but they do not filter individual packets. So the main difference between the circuit level gateway versus your basic TCP I p filtering is that it only is concerned with sessions. So we talked about firewalls, give you a high level or review of what? That is there different kinds of firewalls you can deploy. For instance, every operating system has its own built and firewall. Also, you can also purchase third party firewalls. You can have a firewall on your hardware devices such as your routers. For example. We also talked about packet filtering the Nat Filtering application level Gateway and Circle Double Gateway. Next, let me, in fact demonstrate I'm running a windows machine. So I'm gonna show you the Windows firewall and how you can set rules and allow a traffic from either going outbound or inbound. So from within my windows APs, for example, I'm just gonna go ahead and do type firewall, for example, and it's going to bring up Windows Firewall someone go ahead and click on this What this does. It opens up the Windows firewall page and allows me to set up various configurations and settings for the firewall as well. So what? This does is simply helps prevent hackers or malicious software from gaining access to your computer through the Internet or a network. So we have the private networks here and the general or guest or public networks, for example, and both of them are secured for click on the advanced settings. What I want to show you is the inbound and outbound rules they consent. So if I go ahead and click on advanced settings, for example, brings up another dialog box and here notice there are inbound rules and out Bangles and I can configure each rule. And I can also configure policies, import policies and export policies. So it's pretty in depth where you can configure as to what can come into your network and what can actually go out as well. You want to protect your network from both ends inside as well as the external site, so I hope this helps practice with this unless move to the next lesson. 22. Course Conclusion: So we're at the conclusion of the networking essentials course. Let's take a look at what we actually covered just to recap some of the important concepts . So here, in a nutshell, what we covered in this course. So we started off by talking about what networking really is all about. What is a local area network different? That worked. Apologies, whether it's star bus ring and so on, or a hybrid apology they can deploy while creating your networks. Then we dived into the I P addresses. We talked about the OS I Layer Protocol, the concept of sub netting dividing your network into various sub nets. Following that, we jumped into the network cabling, which is the physical aspects off. Deploying your network understanding various connectors. RJ 45 connector, for example. Different network tools that are used like the crimp or tools. The wire cutter, the cable tester, for example. Moving forward. We talked about the wireless networks and the connectivity using the TCP I P Protocol, for instance, and understanding the difference between I P Version four and Happy version six and their main advantages and disadvantages as well. Understanding tpp commands and I demonstrated the basic commands as well as some of the advanced commands like and it's look up. For example, I'd be config tracer and so forth, Understanding D etc. P, which is dynamic Host configuration protocol, which automatically assigns an I P address to a node on the network and the server. Does this for the node automatically remote access. We talked about the Internet, the Water Wide Web and, more importantly, the virtual private network as well, understanding physical devices such as hubs, switches and routers, which are very important within the network. We talked about the basic differences between all of these the advantages and disadvantages as well as their functions, different operating systems. I highlighted and also demonstrated how you can actually have a virtual box or virtual machine. You can run two operating systems on one computer on demonstrated that as well. And finally we talked about the network intrusion, the prevention and the detection off our network from possible attacks or external attacks . And lastly, we talked about the firewalls and I demonstrated how toe actually see what the firewall looks like using the Windows computer and how to take a look at some of the outbound and inbound rules and policies they can actually deploy for your network. So in a nutshell, in this networking essential course, the objective is to give you a flavour of what networking essential is all about importing harbor software as well as understanding how the network works. So with this, I like to thank you for enrolling in this course and taking this course, and I look forward to having you in my next course.