IT Network cabling :Start your cabling career now! | Hofmeyr De Vos | Skillshare

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IT Network cabling :Start your cabling career now!

teacher avatar Hofmeyr De Vos, Never stop learning!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

43 Lessons (3h 36m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:43
    • 2. What you will learn in this course

      2:22
    • 3. What are the course objectives?

      2:10
    • 4. Meet your instructor!

      5:00
    • 5. What is structured cabling?

      5:42
    • 6. Why do we need a structured cabling network?

      5:26
    • 7. What is Ethernet?

      4:02
    • 8. Common TYPES of cable

      7:57
    • 9. Pro’s, Cons, and applications of STP and UTP

      6:58
    • 10. Special Considerations when working with Shielded Cable

      1:57
    • 11. Stranded and Solid Cable

      4:30
    • 12. Why are copper pairs twisted?

      2:10
    • 13. Common categories of Ethernet cables

      12:47
    • 14. Cable Length limitations

      2:34
    • 15. Power over Ethernet

      4:21
    • 16. The difference between Standards and Codes

      2:57
    • 17. MindMap Section 2

      2:48
    • 18. Typical equipment used on site

      5:24
    • 19. Building our first working cable (practical)

      13:21
    • 20. Wall sockets (Practical)

      9:10
    • 21. Cable Routing and Management

      10:31
    • 22. Do’s and don'ts when installing Ethernet cable

      5:08
    • 23. Running Ethernet cable outdoors

      1:59
    • 24. The Patch Panel (practical)

      6:09
    • 25. Network Cabinets

      3:52
    • 26. Network cabinet layouts examples

      4:45
    • 27. Patch and fly leads

      2:40
    • 28. MindMap Section 3

      1:17
    • 29. Introduction to fibre optic cabling

      11:00
    • 30. When to use fibre instead of copper cabling

      3:13
    • 31. Mind Map Section 4

      1:26
    • 32. Labeling methods and standards (practical)

      12:49
    • 33. Testing What is TDR?

      2:56
    • 34. Testing The difference between verifying, qualifying and certifying

      5:59
    • 35. a Closer look at Crosstalk

      5:19
    • 36. Common Networking Cable Mistakes

      3:12
    • 37. Mind Map Section 5

      0:47
    • 38. Floor plans

      3:59
    • 39. Health and Safety

      5:42
    • 40. Civil Works

      4:04
    • 41. Where to from here?

      8:48
    • 42. How to be successful in the cabling infrastructure space

      3:02
    • 43. Mindmap section 6

      2:44
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About This Class

Information Communication Technology (ICT) Network cabling course brought to you by an instructor with more than two and a half decades of experience in the industry

We will cover everything from Structured Network Cabling , building and testing cables, various types of cables, copper and fiber technology, common cabling errors ,  correct labeling methods, typical tools used on site, floor plans, civil works, and even health and safety awareness.

This is the best entry point to a career in IT Network cabling we could possibly design, with all the basics covered in terms of practical demonstrations throughout the course.

Meet Your Teacher

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Hofmeyr De Vos

Never stop learning!

Teacher

Hofmeyr de Vos is a highly experienced and accredited operations manager with more than 25 years of experience in the ICT industry. Currently he fulfils the role as Chief Operations Officer (COO) of one of the most sought after SMME companies in the ICT industry: Apparatus ICT

Hofmeyr has an absolute passion for skills development, and assisted with the design of this course from the perspective of exactly knowing what is needed to complete a successful ICT project, and what technical skills are required to accomplish this within the specifications of the client.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: It's positive body and welcome to our introduction to structured cabling. Now the very first question that we need to answer is why this course, and why would you take the time to take this course? So any gardening system, regardless of how much a thought and planning goes into its design and the quality of its components will only operate properly and meet expectations when it's properly installed. Now, well thought out design and archiving system is also a same chop need design and a correct installations are critical. This is particularly true in the cabling system is required to support the ever increasing data transmission rights of the dice emerging technologies and still has to be ready for the next generation. Your installation needs to be future-proof. In other words, now this course will serve as an introduction to beta knowledge of all of these things and as a helper to guide you to the next step in you or your company's rode the Struck which you think success. It is also important to note that there are incredible jobs and business opportunities nationally and internationally in the structured cabling environment with extremely lucrative tenders and RFQs or requests for quotes constantly being published by government and peristyle organizations. Now ask yourself, Are you missing out on these opportunities because you think you lack the skills to become involved? Or do you need to add a new skill TO Cv? As a business owner, do unique and know your workforce can do the job properly and according to the stringent international and government standards that are out there. So if you've answered yes to any of those questions or you're just curious about the subject of ikea cabling and structured i7. And join our hands on workshops specifically designed to address all of these needs. Okay. 2. What you will learn in this course: Okay, so let's have a quick look at what you will learn in this course. Our course objectives, In other words, and this is by no means an exhaustive list. So firstly, you read to describe and identify the components of a structured cabling system. And you need to be able to use a spacious tools required to construct a network cabling system, to be able to taste and rectify common cable faults. And lastly, but maybe more importantly, you need to identify the first and most important attribute to becoming successful in the cabling infrastructure spice. I wonder if you can maybe guess what that is. If we have a look at our table of contents that is in no particular order, this is actually changing as we speak. And I'm not going to retrieve everything. You will see that there is a PDF that will list all of these things in detail. So we're going to have a look at things like copper cabling, our copper cabling up obsolete. What a structured cabling anyway, why does Ethernet Typical tools to be used on site pros and cons of HTTP versus UTP. Cable length limitations have very important aspect of cabling. Patch panels, network cabinets. We're going to have a look at introduction to fiber optic cabling, tasting. Very important. What is TDR difference between verifying, qualifying, certify? What he said the files taste exactly. What is cross-talk. Crosstalk is a very important subject when it comes to structured cabling. Even ever look at an introduction to flow plant's health and safety several works is going to be an exam at the end of the course. And there's going to be a list of further reading if you are serving plant. So as you can see, we are going to be quite busy. And so let's get cracking. 3. What are the course objectives?: And welcome everybody. And we're going to start a short video with our course objectives. And a very first course objective will be to describe and identify the components of a structured cabling system. Here we're going to have a look at the specialists tools required to construct a network cable. We also going to have a look at identify, tasting and rectifying common cabling errors. And then the fun starts with the practical sessions. We are going to bold cables and we are going to test cables. Now. We are also going to have a look at a labeling of cables and even something called a patch panel. And if you don't know what a batch penalties, Don't worry, everything will be explained so we will be batching our patch panels. So looking at our brain map, section two is going to be about the Basics. Section three, practicalities. Section four is going to be about fiber optics. Section five about labeling and testing. And lastly, we're going to have some advice from the trenches, from years of experience. And that brings me to the very last point. And that is what makes this course unique. And it's simply this. Everything you see and learn will be from a practical viewpoint. Bolt on decades of experience in the industry. Now this is not something that you can easily buy with money, but that is something that you're going to get in this course. So setback in joy. And if there's any questions from your side, please do not hesitate to use the acumen. Ok. 4. Meet your instructor!: Could everybody, so this is that part of the course. We, you get to meet your instructor. Yeah. Actually this video has got a threefold purpose, but we'll get to that in a second. So first of all, my name is Hofmeister foss. I'll be your instructor for this course. And the first thing that you'll notice about me and this is according to my friends, is that I've got a face for radio. And I were friends like that who needs enemies, right? Anyway. So I have roughly about 25 years. It's actually more than 25 years of experience in the ICT industry. Ict is an acronym for information communication and technology. And at the moment I am the director of a company called apparatus ICT Yeah, in South Africa. And I'm coming to you from our offices in the town that we are working from desert actually, only our administrative offices, This is our workshops are located yet as well as all storerooms for all of us stock that we need to carry. Sal Yeah, that is basically that is me. The second thing that you need to know about me. And this is actually more important than the first thing is that I have an absolute passion, not only for teaching but for learning as well. My personal tagline or taglines or one of them actually, is, that is to never stop learning. Learning is very important to me to learn new things and teaching. I love teaching. So that's basically why I'm here, is because I want to teach you new things and I want you to be better versions of yourself because of my teachings. So hopefully that's going to happen. And that actually brings us to the second part of this video. And that is more important than anything else. And that is to get it with the teaching and learning is that this course. And the sole reason why we are doing this is because of you. As you, I think the cameras over there. So it doesn't goals. You need to realize that as our students, you are very, very important to us. And you will also notice that we are very responsive when it comes to humanize. And so if there's anything that you need to know that you are unsure of, please, please ask the question. You need to always remember Gaussian goals that not only are you our students and, and it, you are important to us because you are our students. We take us humans very seriously. But you are also our customers as well. And customer service is something that we absolutely proud ourselves on. So we are here to give you I service, and do not hesitate to ask questions. We are very responsive with regards to the Q and a section. So use that functionality and I'm sure we can sort out whatever problem you might, you might have or whatever question you might have. So that is two of the reasons why I'm doing this video. The third reason is to ask you a huge, huge fiber. And that is to please reveal to us, it is very important to us that you reveal us either good or bad. It doesn't matter. Just we're asking for an honest review. And if it's not a 5-star review or even if it is a 5-star review, please. And tell us why you are giving us the points that you are giving to us. And as I've mentioned, we are quite responsive to everything to give an ice and we are responsive to reviews as well. And we constantly need to beta ourselves and one of the best and most efficient wise for cells to measure ourselves and to beta ourselves is with your feedback. So please guys used the review function and give us some feedback. What do you have to write? That is basically it for this video. So let's continue with the lady. Okay. 5. What is structured cabling?: Okay, so let's jump right into things and we'll look at a definition for structured cabling. Some of this does not make sense to you. Do not worry, everything will be explained. So structured cabling is defined as a building or campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized, smaller elements or components. Now this is very important, as you will see, just a little bit later on. So Haynes recording it structured and this is called a subsystems. Now I structured cabling system is a complete system of gambling and associated hardware, which provides a comprehensive telecommunications infrastructure. This infrastructure serves a wide range of uses. Justice to provide telephone service or transmit data through a computer network. There's an added, we've mentioned the components, it's less the components and we can have a look at a description of each in just a second. So there are six different components of a structured cabling system. And in order that they appear, yeah, these are intrinsic facilities and equipment. Room, backbone cabling, telecommunications room and telecommunications enclosures, horizontal cabling and the work area. Okay, so now that we have listed them, let's have a closer look at each first of his yo Entrance Facility. Now, the Indian facility is the points in a building facility where the cabling from the telephone or the network company connects with cabling at the bolding premises. Next up is your equipment room or the core, as it is known by some people. Now this is not to be confused with attack, telecommunication, GMO, their telecommunications closet, their equipment rooms contain them major tools such as surveys, cross connects, and telecommunications equipment for occupants of a polluting. The nature of this equipment is typically much more complex than that stored in the telecommunication, true. Next up is your backbone goblin. Backbone cabling consists of all the main cables that interconnect the entrance acidity, the equipment room, and a telecommunications closets. Now these three components are the back end of the structured cabling systems that are not visible to most occupants of your boating. And so the cabling that connects them is aptly named. Next episode, telecommunications closets. And I know if you've wondered about them. But on earth, am I talking about closets for but the telecommunications closet is usually designated for a specific floor of your building housing the laser complex equipment needed for that flow. It is much smaller than the equipment room and can be thought of as a satellite location of the equipment room. These closets usually store things like panels and switches. Next is your horizontal cabling. Now there are horizontal covering runs between your telecommunications closet and the work area. Horizontal category includes cabling that runs in through the ceiling parallel to the floor and in the walls of the outlets present in the workspace. And finally, we have the work area where to all matters. The work area, this is probably what you are sitting at right now. Now. Work area can be a desk, a cubicle, or office, et cetera. We're connection to this structured cabling system. Need these needed via computer or phone or other device. This is the final stop in this structured cabling path. I've also heard me mentioning a cross connect or a horizontal cross-cutting. Now this is something that we're going to have a close look at a bit later on in this course. But for now, we can say that a horizontal cross-connected to horizontal cabling connects to a patch panel or Pancho block, which is connected by backbone coupling to the mine distribution vicinity. Okay. And if we have a different look at what we've discussed so far, and we can even divide these six components of the structured cabling system into three subdivisions. So you will have your equipment room where your ISP comes in via. It might even be fiber or a wireless connection or whatever you have at your site. Via gateway router, routers, Nucor switches. Now yo telecoms rooms are connected to the equipment room via your backbone cabling. And your work areas are connected to telecoms rooms via horizontal caving. So that's just basically a different way of looking at your different components. And lastly, we have a nice graphical representation of everything put together. Said, have your endurance facility, equipment rooms with telecommunications closets, vertical cabling, horizontal calving, and your work area. 6. Why do we need a structured cabling network?: Okay, so now that we've had to look at different components of a structured cabling. Let's look at why do we need a structured cabling system anyway. So we know by now cabled is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. Now being in business these days, the mall that companies be properly connected with the right data network cabling and the best way to be connected for doing 21st century business, believe it or not, is with structured network KB Now a good cabling system absolutely underpins the performance of any network. Okay? So for a moment, think of network cables as pipes and information flowing through these pipes as water. Now using this analogy, we can see that the bigger the pipe, the more water can flow through the pipe. And the beta quality the pipe, the beta the quantity of the water. Now this is why it's so important to add that box installed and that the pipes are installed correctly. Now our network is only as good as the weakest link in that network. And we have to do everything in our power as cable infrastructure installers to ensure that our work is not construed as the weakest link. Now, the only way to ensure this is through knowledge, not knowledge of the base products available, but also knowledge of the correct insulation procedures and standards that the customer wants to see applied at iso premises. Absolutely. They owe this to your customers. So there's also very specific benefits of a structured network cabling on your computer network. First up, we have a greater return on investment. Structured computer network cabling system unifies your ICT IT network for data, voice and video. That unified structure reduces the need for updates and lowers your maintenance costs. Additionally, any additions, moves, or changes can be made within the system with ease, saving your company both time and money and time and money is a very important. You also have a simpler management system with a structured cabling system. Now, structured cabling on your computer network, you won't need to continually call on a big team to keep your data center cabling under control as it can be administered and managed by minimum staff. And when changes do need to be made to the system, that can be done in a faster, more efficient way with minimal disruption. So you have happy customers. You also have more expansive IT infrastructure. Structured computer network cabling exhibits high bandwidth, which means it will be able to support future application. So add ons. These add-ons can include multimedia or videoconferencing with little this interruption to your existing system. And as a result, you get the assurance of your system and, you know it won't become prematurely David. Thus, the use of structured wiring allows your system's infrastructure to adapt your future telecommunications requirements. Picks up, we have criteria. Now having multiple wiring systems can be difficult as structured cabling system, however, consolidates your computer need to acquiring system into a single infrastructure that transfers data in multiple formats. This flexibility also makes a system easy to dismantle and moved to a new location if needed. And lastly, but no less important, the A's aesthetics, the aesthetics into, into the equation. Structured cabling creates a cleaner, more uncluttered look than a point-to-point cabling or multiple wiring system. A cabling system plague with too many wires can slow functionality, but a unified system is more efficient and easy to use. So in other words, if we talk about aesthetics, yo Network, move from looking like this to looking back at this. We even this or this. So fractal network cabling is obviously the way to go. The benefits of structured need to accounting simply can't be underestimated when deciding on a telecommunications network that is best for your company to have a simplified system with room for growth and one that maximizes functionality. Saving your business both time and money. Structured cabling for your computing e. E is the best way to go. 7. What is Ethernet?: And I gotta say you've heard us banding the word ethan it around, but what is easily it exactly. So let's have a look at that. And this is a very simplified description because this can be a very complicated subject. Now, the official description of Ethernet is a system for connecting a number of computer systems to form a local area network with protocols to control the passing of information and to avoid simultaneous transmission by two or more systems, my goodness me. But anyway, within it is a way of connected computers together in a local area network or LAN, has been most widely used method of linking computers together inland since the 19 nineties. Now the basic idea is of its design is that multiple computers have access to it and can send data at any time using the ethernet connection. Now the term ethan, It kind of invented by Robert made cough, encompasses an entire range of twisted pay and fiber cables that are constantly being upgraded and standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, known as I triple E omega. So quite simply put, if somebody asked you what is Ethernet, you can, I'll tell them that ethernet is the physical connection between devices, really as simple as that. Now that physical connection can be made with coaxial cable, UTP that's unshielded, twisted pay or fiber. Now, something that we touched on real quickly is to concepts LAN and when Local Area Network, you mentioned that. And the other thing was the I triple E or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. So let's have a look at those quickly. Okay, so a LAN and aware of what is it, land is an acronym for local area network. And when is an acronym for wide area network, as you can see in these pictures. Yeah. So land is a group of computers and devices connected together with Ethernet, usually within assign bolding and when connects several lens. And the other subject that I wanted to discuss, where quickly was the I triple E or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Now the I Triple E is a non-profit professional organization founded by a handful of engineers back in 1884 for the purpose of consolidating ideas dealing with electrode technology. The I triple E plays a significant role in publishing technical works, sponsoring conferences and seminars, accreditation and standards development. With regards to lands or local area networks. As we've seen, the archipelago is produce a very popular and widely used standards. For example, the majority of lands and vote uses network interface card. So NICs are Nick's as the unearned based on the archipelago 802.11a. Oh, ethernet standards. So why are standards are important? Simply, using standards mean it. Everyone subscribing to the standards uses the same methodology and design parameters, ensuring important aspects like interoperability between different vendors and different bands of equipment. So you can see that using standards and planning for the standards of very important when you are installing a network for a customer. 8. Common TYPES of cable: Hey guys and girls, so welcome to this lesson and we're going to look at common types of curves. Now, you will see that later on we will look at different categories of cables. So it's not to be confused with each other. We're going to have a look at types of cables and we're going to have a look at categories of table lights are. So common network type of cargo types. We're going to have a look at unshielded twisted pair, that's UTP and shielded twisted pair. Have a quick look at the coaxial cable and fiber optics. We actually have a whole section on fiber optics, light on. So for this lesson we're going to mainly concentrate on a shielded cable and unshielded cable. Good. Why equity so we can adopt sick, poor cable quickly, all in the name of science, they say. So we're going to use our trusty wire stripper from our toolkit. That's what it looks like. And that's normal Cat5 cable. So you can see that with our trusty while strip, it's actually quite easy to love our cable like that. Just one twist off. So that's the inside of our UTP cable of unshielded twisted pair. So as you can see, we've got a four pays. On the inside. It looks dark that different colors for each. And if we untwisted, we'll see that in this case, we've got the solid green and green and white. And what I'm going to do for you quickly is I'm just going to remove the insulator so that you can see the conductor on the inside. And that is basically it. So you've got your pays, you've got your cable jacket, you insulate, and your conductor. So you've heard me mentioning unshielded twisted pay and shielded twisted pay. So let's have a look at those. And obviously the main difference between these would be the so-called shield. And I'm going to show you what that shield looks like. So unshielded twisted pay or UTP. Cables are widely used in a computer and telecommunications industry as Ethernet cables and telephone wires. So this is the cable that you will find at most sites. Now in an UTP cable, conductors which form a single circuit, are twisted around each other. In order to cancel out electromagnetic interference or EMI from external sources. And shoot means a no additional shielding like Misha's or aluminum foil which add bulk. Our used UTP cables, often groups of twisted pays grouped together with color-coded insulators, as you've seen in a previous video. The number of which depends on the purpose. Now, shielded twisted pay, another hand, similar to unshielded twisted pay or UTP, either it contains an extra foil rapping or copper braid jacket to help shield the cable signals from interference. Acp cables are costlier when compared to UTP, but has the advantage of being capable of supporting higher transmission rights across longer distances. This is actually quite important. Now the additional covering in STP Campbell stops and electromagnetic interference or EMI from leaking out of or into the cable. Remember, in our previous lessons we talked about crosstalk. That is basically what cross doggies. Okay, so let's look at a few practical examples of these cables. So first off, you have unshielded twisted pair. That's what we looked at. And this is an example of a shield that recipe Aqaba as you can see. And this is yet another example where you can see that the pace, or in fact individually shielded. So this end the previous example is a shielded twisted pair where you have aluminum foil. The only difference is with the previous one. You had aluminum foil around all of the Pais and with a purple cable. Each pay is visually shielded for even more shielding. Okay, so they many types of shield copper pace as if seen now there are two sections to a shield that code that is printed on good quality cable. The Firstly, the signifiers that type of shield used to enclose or for twisted pays of an Ethernet cable. So an unshielded cable is marked with a U. For unshielded a cable, a foil shielding is marked with an F and a cowboy with bright achieving is marked as an S. The second portion of the code describes a twisted pays foil to unfold, and TP stands for twisted pay. I set the table below shows the different types of copy ethernet cable and gives a brief description of each type. And also see there are mentioned Cat5 IQ at six and get 6A. And that is the category of cable that I've mentioned right at the beginning. So we can have a whole section on the different categories of cable. But for now we are concerned with the different types of gay guys. I'm just going to run through these bible's real quickly. Sorry, UTP is one, you know, quite know by now that unshielded twisted pair UTP cable consists of pairs of wires twisted together as you've seen now, this is one of the most basic methods used to help prevent electromagnetic interference. Next up is your FTP. That's your foiled twisted Bay. Now FTP offers an additional layer of protection with shielding, also called screening, wrapped around the individual twisted pays. This protects against EMI and crosstalk. Next is your HTTP. And if UDP is shielded or screen or foiled and unshielded. This is an overall foil or bright screen covering the four P's of unshielded twisted pair. And last but definitely not least, SFTP is shielded twisted pair as a combination of the two above a foil shielding around the individual twisted wires and overall screen, which can sometimes be a flexible bride. This provides the maximum level of protection from interference and is found in the highest performance cables. This shielding obviously makes the table very, very expensive as well. And lastly, if you look at the PDF that goes along with this lesson, you will see that there is a nice graphical representation of different types of twisted pair cables, as well as cross cuts of what each of these cable looks like. If you were to cut it across and look inside. 9. Pro’s, Cons, and applications of STP and UTP: And I guess an added we've had a look at shielded twisted pay, an unshielded twisted pay. Let's look at some of the pros, cons and applications of these two types of cable. So first off, let's have a look at the ACP shielded twisted pay and the advantages of shielded twisted pair. Now, as you may imagine, a metal shield protects wires from radio and electromagnetic interference. This enhances dependability and burst data transmission speeds in buildings that contained microwave equipment, HVAC systems, or radio transmitters. It also blocks interferes from Malthus in various devices, such as power tools and vacuum cleaners. And the necessity of ECP cabling varies depending on the size, quantity, and proximity of these machines. Why manufacturers also design UTP productive resist interference. Nonetheless, they can't match the performance of shielded wiring. Now when people install and maintain improperly, ACP cables greatly reduce cross-talk. Crosstalk is a very important subject and we have a whole section on cross-talk, as you will see later. Now, basically, what crosstalk means is that they stop signals from passing through the outer coating and innovatively intrigue nearby cables. On the other end UTP wiring and the officer basic protection against crosstalk. The importance of this feature dephase bison numbers of wise in a tight spice. You're more likely to experience problems of crosstalk. If your body contains numerous network devices and oh, provides room for new wiring. And on the other hand, we have UTP or unshielded twisted pair. Now, first off, you didn't have to pi for the metal shield, so it costs less to buy UTP kindling and related hardware. Tech issues can install unshielded wise more quickly and easily. Takes also need more training to animal is TP products safely. And then require extra time to perform repaints and guess what time is money? Unshielded wires don't rely on grounding to the same extent is shield cabling. This improves reliability and decreases the amount of time it takes to install them. If you forego is TPR, he needed ground. Each cable at both ends. Don't choose shielded carrying an issue willing to perform all of the necessary crowning tasks. And in properly grounded shield collects signals, it actually worsens crosstalk and electromagnetic interference. And this situation, you'd have better results with UDP wiring. Also. You won't need to devote as much time or money to maintenance if you select unshielded cables, fewer problems developed when someone mishandle these wires or runs them through excessively tight spices. Metal shields remind fairly fragile and somewhat rigid. When the shielding in any portion of a wire suffers damage, it resistance to interference moved significantly, significantly reduce. And this is actually a very important point. Now, unshielded wiring wise, comparatively little. These cables are substantially more flexible enough Compaq dimensions as well, such as bandages and Mike UTP products and less difficult to install, transport and maintain their versatile and able to fit it. Rather small spices, you can put more unshielded wires in a narrow passageway, for instance. However, keep in mind that crosstalk could become a problem. The limited size and weight of UTP cables decreased day expands because they cost leads to ship suppliers save money on transportation, as well as packaging materials with UTP. And lastly, let's have a quick look at applications for both ACP and UTP. And these are considerations that you can have a look at. Edge. You start planning your network and have to decide between the two. So obviously, April's medical centers and factories often benefit from STP wiring. These facilities possess numerous machines that produce considerable amounts of interference. Now shielded cables also come in handy when installers must run wires. Next, fluorescent lights, microwave ovens. Oh, powerful mud. Sometimes we don't have a choice but to have a cowbell runs, run alongside these units. And these cables prove useful in alto sittings as well. For instance, some people connect alto surveillance cameras to STP wiring. This protects the video feed from interference generated by vehicles and power lines. It also stops criminals from using jam as to interrupt communications between cameras and indoor monitors or recording equipment. And other people use UTP cables in the vast majority of homes and offices. Unshielded. He took wiring perform well in most buildings. If you done have major concerns about interference, it's wise to avoid the cost and complexity of ACP wiring. You might be tempted to buy shielded cables when you have extra cash in the bank. However, this won't yield any real benefits if not serious interference or cross-talk problems exist. You will also guide the system that's harder to maintain and modify. At the same time, doubt Mike, the sight of buying UTP cables if your plans for the future could boost interference levels. The bottom line is that unshielded wiring office the base solution in mouse. My situations, it cuts costs without sacrificing speed or the permeability. Let me say that again. It cuts costs without sacrificing speed or the permeability. This is very important. Nonetheless, it's crucial to remember that powerful magnetic fields could cause EGP need to run slowly or file. Always take the time to carefully evaluate or potential sources of interference before you start planning your network and before you decide when you should go for shielded twisted pay or unshielded twisted pay. 10. Special Considerations when working with Shielded Cable: Okay, so special considerations when working with shielded cable. Now, first of very important, while this lesson, quite simply because we are seeing this costly mistake made by contract is and clients frequently. It's important to note that unshielded and shielded cable f Different Methods I'd requirements for correct installation. You do not follow manufacturer guidelines. Your shear that install will not work correctly. If you your shield installed doesn't work correctly, your network doesn't work correctly. And in some cases, you will have to redo your whole install. Can you imagine the kind of cost? So a spatial considerations when working with shielded cable. First off, the foil shield is a reason shielded cable is less susceptible to noise. In order to implement a completely effective shielded system, however, the shield continuity must be maintained throughout the entire channel. Think about that for a second. Including the patch panels, wall plates, and patch cords, the entire system must be bonded to ground at both ends of each cable run. Or you will have created a massive antenna. So once again, make sure to follow all insolation guidelines. Very important as well. Standard audio 45 connects is connected, do not have the ability to ensure a property grounded throughout the cable shield. So a spatial meeting hardware, Jack's patch panels and even tools must be used to install a shoe. That system. 11. Stranded and Solid Cable: Okay, so in this lesson we're going to have a look at stranded and solid archival and looking at solid versus stranded cable. These terms actually referred to the ethernet conductors. Remember when we dissected archival the conductors inside the insulator. Now, stranded copper cables comprises several thin copper cables. And assorted cable conductors comprise of a single thick copper cable conductor. Stranded cables all night of several smaller wires. Why would you get it and asked adjacent for Chrome connectors, not batch cables or typically strain cables and are excellent for applications that go for flexible cable and also rose up well. You typically use stranded patch cables for connecting workstation network interface cards which are Nix and updates or between a concentrators and patch panels, ops and other rack mounted. Suggested for RJ 45 black terminations. Stranded cable has a bigger and more flexible and complete connection, then solid countable attenuation that your signal reduction is higher in stranded conductor cable. So the total length of shared cable in your system should be kept minimum to reduce second degradation. In other words, are longer pebbles should be solid cables annual short pebbles, patch cables should be stranded. Stranded conductors are preferred for conductor flexibility, as you've mentioned, is much greater than stranded conductors, making them easier to install, flex live longer compared to solid conductors. Stranded conductors gonna DM More binning and vibration before breaking. Generally speaking, the foreign illustrating the more flexible that conducted, but also the finer the conductor, the more expensive it is. Surface damage. Damage is stranded conductors such as scratching or Nikki, will be a series with similar damage. The similar damage do solid conductors and lossy strand count that fixed both the flexibility at the cost of the conductor for any while size double strands but present the more flexible and more expensive the conductor become. On the other hand, we have solid cable. Now, solid cabling runs are usually a single run of wire and are based for wall Jack's backbone and horizontal runs. These solid conductor cable is designed for backbone cable runs should not be flexed, bait or twisted repeatedly. It suggested four runs between two wiring, say this or from your wiring sage too. And it's a attenuation is better than that exchange conducted cable allowing for better performance over longer distances. And remember what we said, attenuation is reduction of signal strength due des mission. And reduction of signal strength is a bad thing. Now, solid conductor cables are ideal for structured wiring with inner building. They can be easily punched down into whoa jacks and patch panels as they consist of a single conductor. The wise seats properly into the insulation displacement connected or IDC. And we're going to have a look at these, IT sees it next lessons as well. So what cabled to choose? I think if you look at the pros and cons of each kind of, well, it will be quite apparent as to what you should be using way. Now, it's important to carefully consider what the base Khyber conducted east for your configuration. Depending on your application requirements and insulation features. Since attenuation is high, incentive cables and, and solid cables, trended cable arounds should be kept short to lower the distance of introducing even more attenuation into the system. It's basic key planes of standard patch cables under six meters, actually where the industry stranded. Standard in most cases five meters and even less. So. Always keep that into consideration with everything that we've said so far. 12. Why are copper pairs twisted?: And so one, copper pays twisted. And now the telephone lines were first deployed alongside power lines. Alexander Graham Bell, popularly known as the invades of the telephones, was the first person to twist copper pays to reduce cross-talk between the lines. You've heard of Castile before. Twisting the copper cable ABC to for utility poles. And now at 400 reduction of electromagnetic interference. Well and an increase in range. Ethernet copper cables adopted the same technique to reduce cross-talk between internal wires, XT and external wires. That's, that's the acronyms that we use when we are discussing these two terms. Okay? So a pair of wires for a circuit that can transmit data that pays or twist to provide protection against crosstalk, the noise generated by adjacent pays. Now electrical current flows through a wire. It creates a small circular magnetic field around the wire. And when 2y electrical circuit applies close together, their magnetic fields are the exact opposite of each other. Thus, the two magnetic fields cancel each other out. So you can see that it's actually quite important that these wires are twisted that also cancel out any outside magnetic fields are twisting the wires can enhance this cancellation effect. Using cancellation together with the twisting the wires. Cable design is can effectively provide self shielding for why a base within the network media. So why copper pays twisted to cancel out crosstalk. 13. Common categories of Ethernet cables: So welcome to our lecture on common categories of cable. Now this is not to be good for you to pound lectures on types of cable that we had a while ago. So a quick revision on a typed common network cable tarps, unshielded twisted pair, shielded twisted pay and coaxial cable and fiber optic cable. And we had a very specific look at unshielded and shielded twisted pay. A common categories of cable, as you'll see now, is a completely different kettle of fish. So first a bit of background for you to understand the different categories of cable of beta. So what is transmission speed and a, B P, S. I don't know if you've seen that acronym somewhere. So remember our water pipe anology. Transmission speed is about how much pressure the water in your bypass. Now am BPAs stands for megabits per second and is a way to measure the throughput or speed of a network. The more megabits per seconds you have foster your network. Okay, so it stands to reason, every piece of media or content or network uses a certain amount of data, most commonly seen, measured in megabytes or gigabytes or GB. Now one megabyte is a mega bits, and one a gigabyte is 1000 mega bots. Now, obviously, some file types such as text documents and PDFs, myTag anew, few Megabytes. But the download and high definition movie can easily psych up to, let's say, four gigabytes. So this is where it's gonna get a bit complicated. But don't worry, I'll be with you all the way. And I say it becomes complicated because we've seen senior network engineers stumble on this maths. But we are there for you and if you've got any questions or dennis, anything that's not clear, please ask us and we will explain it until you understand it. So let's look at an example. Now. A fall, for example, consists of a certain amount of megabytes, say Danner to fall that consists of around two megabytes. You'll need a download speed of eight megabits per second to download the file into sigma seconds, I'd megabytes comprise of, for one megabyte. Remember, one megabyte is eight megabits. Let's look at another example. The fall you need to download is one gigabyte. You still have a download speed of ICT megabytes per second. How long will it take to data to fall if you want to whip out a calculated, they do so. And remember once again, one, a gigabyte is 1000 megabytes, and 1000 megabytes is 1000 megabytes. So I, 1000 divided by eight megabytes is 1000 seconds. So that's gonna give you around about 16 minutes and some change. Next term that we have to look at is transmission speed and more specifically, a maximum transmission sheets speed. So we ask what is maximum transmission speed? Now, maximum transmission speed describes the maximum data transfer right, of a network or an internet connection. It measures how much data can be seen over a specific connection in a given amount of time. For example, a gigabit ethernet connection has a transmission speed of 1000 megabits per second. Now that's a 125 megabytes the sick, because you're taking a 1000 and you divide it by eight. And yet another term that we have to look at before we look at different categories of Ethernet cables, and that is bandwidth. So what is bandwidth? Now, this can be quite confusing as both bad with N transmission speed about how much data can be put through a cable. Now the easiest way to explain this is with our water pipe analogy. Now, bandwidth is about how big the pipe is. The bigger the pipe, the more water can flow through the pipe. In other words, as the bandwidth increases, so does the amount of data that can flow through in a given amount of time? Just like as the diameter of the pipe increases. So does the amount of water that can flow through during a period of time. And bandwidth for cable is measured in hertz or megahertz. Okay? So if we look at what transmission speed and megabytes per second is and what maximum bandwidth is. So now that we know this, let's move on and let's look at this table over here. And finally, we get to the different categories of cable. You'll see that we've got Category three, category 55667. Now, first up, kenny, See our transmission speed and bandwidth correlate. The higher the one now high the other one. That happened. Look at what these different cables to climb. We know what Cat five, it looks like. We get six, gets six. I can't save it. Now, there's quite a few differences between these categories. But look at your table again. And you'll see that as a categories go higher, the force they get your maximum data transmission speed and u, max bandwidth increases as your categories go higher. So let's look at the different categories and little bit more closer. So k3 is an earlier generation of Ethernet, but can still be seen in all the deployments with the ability to support a maximum frequency of six. This type of Ethernet can still be used for two line telephone systems and can be used for alarm system installations or similar applications. Cat, you can have 23 or four copper base, although for copper pays are very uncommon. I have not seen something like that ever. Cat five that introduced a tin 100 megabytes iterate over distances of up to a 100 meters, also known as Fast Ethernet. Even though some older deployment still use Cat5 cable, it is now considered obsolete and being replaced by CAT five e. Cat five e The Cat five and get five e cables are physically similar. Category five Ethernet, df2, more stringent our Triple E standards. Remember we spoke about our Triple E. E is for enhanced meaning and lower noise version with the potential for cross talk is reduced. Crosstalk, if you remember, is interference that transfers from adjacent wires. K5 is the most common type of gardening useful improvements due to its ability to support gigabit speeds at a cost effective price. This is very important, even though both CAT five and Cat 5E supports a maximum frequency of up to a 100 mega at five years completely replies his predecessor gigabit ethernet utilizes for data pays in comparison to false Ethernet, which uses, utilizes or need to database. Further, CAT five e support speeds of up to 1000 megabit specific and it's flexible enough. Or small spice installations like residences. Though it is still used in commercial spaces. Of all the current cabling options, CAT five, e is your least expensive opposite. Now, get six can support up to ten gigabits per second and frequencies of up to 250 mega. Now I'll Cat5 cable fetus 1.5 centimeter Cat six cable or more touchy wound and features two or more twists per centimeter. The amount of twist per centimeter various upon each manufacturer actually. Now CAT six cables also spoke a thicker sheet. The comparison to CAT five e, the standard ethernet, suppose distances of up to a 100 meters Cat six cable and is suppose 37 to 55 meters, depending on crosstalk. When transmitting at ten gigabits per second speeds. It stick a sheath protects against near and crosstalk and edit crosstalk. And once again, don't worry if you don't know what that is. We've got a whole section on this. Even though CAT six and gets archiving offer high performance rights, many lands still opt for CAT five e due to it's cost effective and ability to support gigabit speeds. So let's look at the big boys. And we're going to start with CAT six. Catholics I supports bandwidth frequencies of up to 500 meters, twice the amount of Cat six cable. And it can also support ten gigabits per second blocks predecessor. However, we pick difference comes in unlike CAT six candling Catholics, a can support gigabit ethernet, a 100100 meters. We're CAT six chi being, on the other hand, can transmit the same speeds at up to 37 meters. Are Catholics. I also features more past sheathing, which lemonades Eileen crosstalk and improves upon the signal to noise ratio that is in the a is for augmented. Now the stronger shielding max Cat six cable, considerably thicker than CAT six, also making it less flexible to work with and therefore better suited for industrial environments at a lower price point. Next up is category seven. Mcat saving can also support ten gigabits per second. But a laboratory testing has successfully shine its ability to transmit up to 40 gigabyte at 50 meters and even a 100 gigabytes at 15 meters. That a newer clause, if cabling can support frequencies of up to 600 megahertz. That said Cat seven has not been approved as a cannibal standard for telecommunications yet. Gets even offers extensive shielding to reduce signal attenuation and is relatively stiff in comparison to previous generations of cabling, making it very difficult to work with both individual pays or shielded with an additional layer of shielding over the entire cable. The shielding needs to be grounded. And Cat seven also requires special giggle guide. 45 connectors detect full advantage of high performance features. In other words, your normal RJ 45 connected, connected will not work on Cat seven. All in all Catholics, I honestly can perform just about the same as get seven, but at a lower price point, Cat seven is apparently suited for use in data centers and large enterprise networks. And lastly, we again look at the unicorn, also known as category right, still in the development stage and not yet ratified. Now according to the 2016 Ethernet alliance roadmap, it will be able to transport a stunning 25 gigabit and 40 gigabyte ethernet. And we'll be able to support even force a transmission writes at a distance of 30 meters. But this is all very theoretical at this stage. So that is it for different categories of cable. You've learned a lot in this section. And if I was, you would go through it again, especially the moths. But don't worry too much about it. Once you get the hang of it, it's quite easy. 14. Cable Length limitations: So welcome back, and let's look at cabled link limitations. Now. First of cabling along the cable, the less likely the signal will be carried completely to the end of the cable. Because of noise and signal attenuation. Realized that for land systems, the time it takes for the signal to get to the end is also very critical because we're working with data yet. And we were working with very high speeds of data. Now, cabling versus conducting and our Category five cable has four pays of conductors. As you know by now. By design, each of the four pays is twists it in such a fashion so that the pays are slightly different lanes, varying twists, links when we pay to pay improves across Tokyo performance. Therefore, signals transmitted simultaneously on two different pace of Weibull arrive at slightly different times. Because once again, the cable length or the conductor length is not the same. The conductor length is a link to the individual pay of conductors, where as the cabling is the length of the cable jacket, part of a modern cabled taste is feature set, is the ability to perform conductor length taste actually. Now, this is very important. The maximum distance WHO Ethernet is a 100 meters. But this includes the whole length of the cable, including the patch and the fly leads seven, planning your vocabulary to do not let the horizontal cables exceed 90 meters. This will ensure that you do not exceed the maximum length when adding your fly and your patch eat. And just to intersect you fly lead is sitting between your computer and the wall box and your patch lead is between the patch panel and the network equipment. So once again, when it comes to Khyber length imitations, your distance limitation for Cat5, Cat 5E AND CAT six is 328 feet or a 100 meters. But this includes the patch and the fly late. So that's basically what you need to know about cabling limitations. 15. Power over Ethernet: Okay, so power over ethernet, This is something that you may have heard of before. So we know what power or electricity is and we know what infinities. But what on Earth is POE, power over ethernet. Now, power Ethernet is a technology that leads network cables carry electrical power. For example, a digital security camera normally requires two connections to be made when it's installed and network connection in order to be able to communicate with video recording and display equipment and a power connection to deliver the electrical power the camera needs to operate. However, if the camera is POE enabled, only the network connection needs to be made as it will receive its electrical power from this cable as well. That is actually quite nifty. Now, devices that use power of Ethernet, PLE has many applications, but the three key areas of VOIP phones, that's Voice over IP phones. That's actually the original POV application. Using POE means funds have a single connection to a wall socket and can be remotely powered down, just like with the older analog systems. Ip cameras is another application. A PIE is now ubiquitous on network surveillance cameras. Weights enables forced deployment and easy repositioning. And of course, a wireless Wi-Fi and Bluetooth IPs or access points and RFID readers are commonly POE compatible to allow remote location away from the icy Atlas and relocation following site surveys. So how do you upgrade to PHP? Now, adding PALB2 network is very straightforward and there are two routes you can choose. First is a POV switch. That's an networks which had as power of Ethernet injection bolt in, simply connect other network devices, the sweet to the switches normal. And the switch will detect whether the PMI compatible and enable Power automatically, easy-peasy. A mid span or PO injector is the other way to do it. And that's used to add PFGE capability to regular non PMI network links. Met spans can be used to upgrade existing land installation supernovae, and provide a versatile solution way fewer peer reports are required. Upgrading each network connection to PIE is as simple as patching it through the mid span. And as with PIE switches, power injection is controlled and automatic. So the benefits of PHP, now because PHP allows you to use one cable for both power and data transmission, PAV saves you money on purchasing and running cable for networking equipment, envoy advance, PIE Mike's insulation or expanding unequivocal, much simpler and keeper in buildings where it's too expensive or inconvenient to install new power lines. Using PRV also lead to mount devices in places where it would be impractical to install power, such as drop ceilings and lost. The using PHP can reduce the number of cables and electrical outlets needed in a crowded equipment room or wiring closet. And loss equation that we get a lot. Can any ethernet cable be useful PRV, another short answer is yes, and we do get Cat 5E PV installations. But it is recommended that CAT six be used for PHP applications. And tell you why cats, it is better designed to handle the extra heat generated by the injection of electricity in your conductors. Because obviously, the thicker the cable, the more insulated is going to be. So that is it for PV. 16. The difference between Standards and Codes: So difference between standards and codes. And the reason why we are looking at this in this lesson is because both instructed cable, I agree, you will definitely get to work with both standards and codes and they are very much applicable to the ring structure universe. So the differences between code and standards ease that occurred tells you what you need to do and instead it tells you how to do it. A coat, my C that, uh, said that a boating must have a fire alarm system. And instead it will spell out what kind of system and how it must work. And what's a code, is a model, a set of rules that knowledgeable people recommend for others to follow. Codes are mostly adopted and enforced by law. Now, typically instead, it tends to be a more detailed deliberation. The nuts and bolts of meeting occurred. Now very important, you need to be very clear on the applicable codes for the area you are working in, as well as the stead in situ client have in terms of structured cabling. You also need to know that more often than not, different governmental agencies have different standards. So curves will typically deal with safety hazards, minimum qualities of construction, et cetera. Typically, a code is a compendium of laws and ordinances that sit minimum safety standards and codify them for easy reference. Malice boating codes have requirements about asset type, location and clearances. Five stops, access for people with disabilities, requirements for electrical wiring and so forth. Standards, on the other hand, will deal with issues like interoperability and specific work methods to ensure quality of work and consistency throughout the specific environment. Requirements would deal with parts of equipment, specific routing needs, caliph, cables, etcetera, etcetera. Now, very potent. If you do not follow a standard, you will most probably sit in a subpar install an unhappy client. If you do not follow a code, you would have most probably broken and low and receive hefty fines or worse yet status and you implement, you can go to jail for breaking the code. In both cases, you will need to redo the installed cost, immense amounts of time and monitoring the file. So obviously, it is very important to know the standards in the code of the area that you are working in. 17. MindMap Section 2: Let's do a quick mind map for Section two. Now, you will notice that I think that mindmaps are absolutely awesome. And I use Mad Max through out my courses. So mind-mapping bicycle is a highly effective way of getting information in and out of your brain. And mind mapping is a creative and logical means of note-taking and note making that literary maps out your ideas. So one stage in the near future, we are going to do a whole course on mind-mapping, I'm sure. But for now, just go with it and enjoy our now and maps. So if we look at the structure of section two that we call the bisects, we started looking at what structured cabling is. Next up for this six, we had a look at why we need structured network cabling. Isn't seven was a short lesson about infinite and what is Ethernet? Actually? It's an eight common types of Ethernet cables, less than nine pros, cons, and applications of HTTP and UTP that shielded and unshielded twisted pay isn't tin spatial considerations when working with shielded cable, 11 stranded and solid cable. Why it's there and what it's used for. You had to look in the next lesson, isn't 12 about why capa pays twisted? And if you can remember, it's all about crosstalk. Isn't 13 was about common categories of, of Ethernet cable. Isn't 14 cable length imitations. Can you remember what those cabling limitations? Well, next up we had a look at power of Ethernet, quite an awesome concept. And lastly, we had a look at the difference between standards and codes. And now ignoring these can land you in a lot of hot water. So if you look through this mind map and you think that you need a revision on one of these, then go back to your lessons. This is the awesome, one of the awesome features of this platform that we are using is that you can go back and revise and resubmit as many times. 18. Typical equipment used on site: So let's have a look at the typical equipment that you may use on site now. And this is by no means an exhaustive list. But see it as more of a guideline as to hand tools and other things that you might need. You get to kind of aside. Okay, so you'll see that I have divided into tools, PPE, that is personal protective equipment, that is part of your health and safety equipment, suggests that registers also part of the health and safety equipment. Sundries and I've put a water in space or on because we always have to confirm that our team and our people is drinking enough. We stay in Africa. And Africa becomes very, very hot. And as soon as people gets busy, they forget about drinking enough fluids and then you can have issues. There's a tools will be general tools are letters and scrubbing tools. And we can have a look at now, wire strippers, a heat lamp. If you have to work in a dark corner in a roof, might be grinders live, apprentice, et cetera, et cetera, your PPE. And is very important because obviously if you are looking at the safety of yourself and the people that are working here on site. But also you need to look at what you called say for your specific area. And most codes will actually specify what kind of PPE you need, four inside. And maybe if you are working on hats on that is in roofs, you act, you have something else, then we knew are not working. And so make sure that you know what the codes for your area specify in terms of personal protective equipment? That Sam was suggested registers. Apart from the fact that it just makes sense to keep record of everything, you will find that some of you codes will specify what corner radius this you will have specifically with regards to your incident registers and you PPE register. And we've already mentioned the water dispenser. And you can also look at a list of sundries that you might use. You've gotta grind on Saatchi. Good use. Granted leg. Simon's, Joel's drove bits or robots. That's something that we use to GF two walls. If you have to make a bigger hole, rivets, washes, wall plugs, etcetera, etcetera. So as you become more proficient in working on a site with cabling, you will start learning exactly what it is that you need for that site. Okay, so let's look at a very cheap too. So this is a kit that we going to use to build the Cabo, most probably the next lesson. So let's just open it up and see what's inside. Ok, so you can see this is very basic, but this is all you need to start building your uncountable. So you've got your ramping to punch them to chi will strip and you bisect electronic capabilities that we have to just opened up quickly. Just velcro. So that's your cramping to that you're going to use to group your object would evolve connected. Okay, next up is punched down to begin to use for bunched up blocks and wall sockets in an isolation. That's what that looks like. So and next up is my fiber to the whole world, ie the cables, Japan. It works really well. And a good cables trip will save you a lot of time. Laws, but not the least is your casualties that this is a little electronic cable taster, aids con i malls the mode that looks like that. And it's got different boats for different applications that looks like that. And it's called Petri's. Inside of it should be turning on archival that we're going to go, we're going to taste with this casualties. And that is you very bicycling toolkit. 19. Building our first working cable (practical): Like I said, let's build our first working cable and tools that we can use. This is a land taster cable stripper, RJ 45 grouping two. You're going to use RJ45 connects this strain relief boots and of course our Cat5 cable. So let's just look at these two items. First. First, arpeggio RJ 45. That's a type of connector commonly used for eternity networking. Now the RJ, RJ 45 stands for radius to Jack, Since it is a standardized networking interface. Each RJ 45 connected as eight pins. Remember you have cables between your four pays in your Bible, which means that RJ 45 kilo contains, I'd separate wires. If you look closely at the end of an Ethernet cable, you can see the EITC y's, which are each at different color. For them a solid colors while the other four strapped. And you strain relief, but that's an advice that protects the RJ45 connector, keeps a connector also have free of dust. It's a rubber cover that is slide over the audio for the power connector. And it is important the first slot is strategy of good onto the cable and then attach the connector. When you do this in reverse order to connect, there cannot be put weight anymore. And interestingly enough, when I did this video that we can have a look at. Next, I actually might that exact same stack. Now remember there are four pairs of wise, an ethernet cable and an ethernet connector as eight slots. Each, pen is identified by a number starting from left to right with a clip facing away from you. So if you look at the wiring diagram for a standard audio 45 ethernet connector, you will see that they are to understand as we call them the a's and b's then if you want to. Now, the technical term is T 568 a and T 5-6 B, but we just call it a and b standard. And for the most part, we use the DDI standard. Obviously, very important is that whatever standard you decide on, that standing that you need to stick to for your site will there's going to be a lot of confusion. So if you look at your RJ 45 plug and you look at you kinda stand. And we're going to use b for this one. You will see that. Depends from numbered from one to eight, you can have stripes orange. So orange stripe green, blue stripe blue. Then saw that green, then struck Brown and then sort of brown. And that's going to be the same on both ends of the cable. Like I said, Fine, here's some practical steps and it's both offers. Working caribou, hopefully offers written countable. So we've got our Cat5 cable. We've got a good, we've got an article 45 connector. Remember, we said we need to slip over the strand relief but before we do anything else and also he's going to get on afterwards. And our first step will basically be to strip the cable jacket. Now I'm gonna do this incorrectly the first time because this is actually something that a lot of people do wrong. So the way I'm gonna do it now is not too wide. You should do it. So I'm distributing the cable, but I don't know if you can see that in a video, but I actually damage the wiring inside with the cable stripper. This cable is actually now quite unusable because of this, because IF damaged. So isolation on the inside. But there is a way to fix this. And that is to do a bit of tuning on your strip API uses to prologue that. So you've got to do is true like that. So what you're basically doing is you are adjusting the screw so that the wise trip doesn't close down all the way and you can. And if you've got a wire stripper like that, it's actually quite easy to adjust. So h just cut the wire cricket and redo the wise trip. You can use anything that catch your wire on this using the stripper because it's close at hand. So now, if I strip the chiral Jacket again with the y stupid is not that. You will now see that our OK. Will is undamaged. That looks perfect. Okay? So next step, you need to spread the four P's of twisted wires apart. Remember, CAT six cables have a spine also needs to be cut if you remember the different categories that we spoke of. Yeah. So there's your four pairs. And now for step three, we untwisted ERPs and we mixed a movie to align them into T 5-6 V orientation because that's what we're going to use here. Ok. Important. Be sure not to untwisted any further down in the cable invaded check it begins, we want to leave as much of the cable twisted as possible. Cuz if you untwisted much, you're going to have cross talk on your wires and that's something that we do not want. So now what you can do is get the Ys great length AC, measure them against two RJ45 connector medians. Easiest that. So there's more or less we're going to use our trusty wise trooper, cut the wires, rocks, so and important, you need to cut the wise as straight as possible. That that does into RJ45 connector straight line. One more time, making sure that you call occurring is correct. Any thank you. Audio 45 couldn't carry remember, clip needs to be away from you in a firmly CQ wires inside the audio for the power connector, not pet. Make sure again that you call occurring is grit. You'll see that these little spice to the notch on your cable crimp. And you basically just PMBOK l. What I do is I trace down at least twice on the RJ45 connector. And the, you got the cribbed cable. And remember, our strand really put that and it comes via cable flux. So it looks quite neat and I've already done the other side. There's an added, we have built a cable. This taste, a cable with nascar will taste. So you'll see that's what the unit looks like. You've got remote unit and a Mazda unit that you can take apart from each other. And having different ends of the caribou evil that might be. But for this exercise, we're going to keep them together so that you can see what it works like. Okay, so we take a cable that we absolutely know is working. It's a molded offloaded. Factory mode is flooded. And you will see that it basically just plugs into your master and one side remark on the other side. And you just turn on the case step. And this is what it's supposed to look like. You can see that the signals correspond with each other. So from y one to y eight, it's actually facing the throughput. And that is what a working cable looks like. You can also put in slow for some reason on even a while is a fast and a slow taste. But that's basically how you taste your cable. Ok, so now we've tasted accountable that we now it's working. It's this the parable that. I have both and see if I've done it correctly. Okay, so once again, we're putting in the cannibal on both ends of the remote in the mosque facade. And we are turning on our taster. Ok, so now something interesting happens. You will see that a lot actually jumping and champing at cable for kind of a four, I supposed to believe you solid a blue cable. So obviously the problem there. So let's see if we can actually noticed a problem. Say, if we remove our cable, remove our boots so that we can see the colors, which is have a look quickly. And the ease. You can see that we will see that my blue cables, I actually swapped around the solid and the start Blue is switched around. So that is what it looks like when you are building a table and it's not working properly. And for the last part of our lesson, we're going to have a look at crossover cables. Up to now. We've only dealt with straight through cables. Now basically what a strikethrough cable means if I just move my mass over here, is that the pins from different sides of the cable actually corresponds with each other. So if you've got a white and green cable wire going from one to the other side, F11 and sign with an 2's have been too but have a solar green and another side of the cable is going to be solid green as well. And you can go on and it's open ICT. We cross-wiring or your crossover Kiva's comes in, is that it actually changes. So pin one will be a Whiting green, but it will not go to pin one on the other side of UK. Well, it would actually come to 0.3 and the sine with Penn too. And we'll see that actually participant six, etc, etc, etc. Now, put this wiring diagram into a PDF in your lesson. So this is not something that you need to now out of your head, don't worry about that. But what you need to know is way would you use across over countable and not a strikethrough type? Most often used to connect two devices of the same exact example, two computers via the networking device controllers or to switches to each other. Now by contrast, patch cables will strike through cables and p both are used to connect devices of different thoughts, such as a computer to a network switch or a Ethan it up. This is not something that you will see a lot of in the field. But just in case you've got the wiring diagram for that now. 20. Wall sockets (Practical): So let's discuss wall sockets in is going to be a practical session with this lesson as well. So the tools that you need to get together for the practical session is a wall socket, preferably a surface mount wall socket. You can use a bunch down two, and we're going to use a cable stripper and of course our Cat5 cable. Now, you will notice that I've mentioned surface mount and flush mount wall sockets, and this is what they look like more or less. I on the right-hand side you will see we've got our surface mount wall sockets and they do exactly what they said. They are mounted on the surface of your route and your cable goes into that. And then you will have your flush mount wall sockets that normally goes into skirting net looks something like this. Side. Satellites both our first surface mount, wall socket, video. Ok, so this is the tools we're going to use. You've got a cable, we've got a surface mount wall box, got a punch down to and we have whilst trapper. Now if we look at the wall box quickly, I'm just going to open it like that. That's where it looks like on the inside you'll see this little dust cover that covers your dad and that's where it looks like when you open it. And what's quite enough to about your wall boxes. If I could just bring it closer. I'm just going to pause it. And you will see that your ball box, as it's actually got color-coding on the inside. So takes all the guesswork out of wiring your boxes. And this is actually quite nifty. So you can't really see it from here. But if you look at the wall box that you should have in front of you, you will see that there is an a and a B mocking and we're going to obviously use the b because that's the most prevalent in the industry. And we just kind of wire it according to the color-coding. They really make it as easy as that. So that is your toolbox. So let's go ahead and wire this beauty. Okay, so the first thing obviously is that we need to strip our jackets. So we're gonna take our trusty wire stripper and just insert archival luck. So don't worry too much about the length as you will see that 3d doesn't matter. Just give it one to o and actuate a damage any of the oscillation. And you will have an exposed wire. Okay, so the next thing that you need to do, obviously, is to. And this is important that you keep the pace as twisted, twisted as possible. You need to straighten out the pace. So you will see when you are inserting your cable, you check it. Way you twisting actually starts needs to be as close as possible to this keystone. We're going to wire cables in. So now we're just going to unwind our y's basically and start aligning them over the color coding of the keystone. This narrative unrounded via wires. We can now use the color-coding and we can start inserting the wires into the keystone using your color-coding. And just a quick reminder again, we are using type B. So there is otherwise I uncertainly Keystone XL can lift it up like that and that's more is what it looks like. So now we can start punching it down. Okay, so let's punch down the sucker. So first off, you will notice with your punch down to, and this is very important, is that it's got these blades. Another plate will cut off the excess cabled Jeff on the sides of it. So that obviously means that that play needs to be on the outside of your keystone. If it's on the inside, you can catch a wire that is supposed to be connected and you're gonna render your home connection useless. So always just check for that. Okay, so you're going to insert it. So it's going to take some force. Apologize, I am at lefty. So that's more or less what it's supposed to look like. And you will also see that it will not always cuts have sometimes you have to do it twice. So we're just going to press it down like this and date perfectly. It cut it is try that first one again. Make sure the cable grips that exits cable. They it is say we'll see that the cable is actually pressed down into the Keystone. And simultaneously you are cutting the axis wire that's sticking out on the outside. And that's where the length of your stripping doesn't really matter. Sleep, just go ahead and do the rest of the keystone. That is now more or less where it's supposed to look like. So you can take you thus cover if you got on with it. Just press that over your keystone. Luck. So really need and you can take your cover and just put that on. And you have a punch down and terminated surface mount wall socket law. State of this exercise, we're going to taste our connection. So first off, we're going to insert a molded patch panel. This guy's a fly lead into our wall socket. I will say it's gonna go to a computer or a laptop or any kind of network device can be a network printer. And the other side of the car was going to run through your walls, you seedlings, it's going to be horizontal, vertical cable that cause typically to a, to a cabinet. And we're going to look at network cabinets a bit like the intersection. So the other side will typically connect to something we call a patch panel. And that looks something like this. So that is a patch panel. And we're going to look at terminating to a patch panel very soon in this section. And you will see that luck you owe box. This patch panel is very conveniently color-coded as well, so that make it really easy for you. So the front you've got ports looking at that, that's going to be a fly leads, leading to your network of us, typically a switch, and that is it. So for your homework assignment, I want you to taste this concoction of yours. So you will on that side put a RJ45 connector. And using your taster, you're going to taste your cable and see if it works. So good luck. And, and let me know how it went. 21. Cable Routing and Management: Welcome to our section on carload routing and cable management. And right off the bat, we need to say that you must visualize and plan a route of the required insulation, always keeping customer standards in mind. This is incredibly important. And this of course implies that you need to know what the customer standards says. Some good practical advice would be to make a list of all the things that you need as you are walking through the site or as you are sitting with a plan, preferably in conjunction with the customer being there as well. Now this list of what you will need is also the start of your better material where you will be quoting the customer from. Now. Some examples of this would be a cable, a wreck, but you can't just quote for archival record which is planned for vocabulary check. You need to know what the type incisor, same with skirting standards. The size of the skirting, the lengths of the skirting, the type of this good things, must it be metal or plastic? Same with wall sockets. What kind of bowl sockets are required? Why mesh in the roof? Several works, trenching manuals, boating entries. So this is all examples of what you might need with regards to the covering installation. And you need to make very careful now to this because this is how you will price the work that you will do. Now also, when you do your planning, always, always, always keep the different components of the structured cabling system in mind. Remember this is what sitting you apart from other technicians and other companies that's also quoting for the same thing. And you can even divide your belt of material that I've mentioned in the previous slide into the different components and the different components. Just for a quick reminder, is due entrance facilities, your equipment room, your backbone cabling, you will telecoms rooms in the telecoms enclosures, horizontal cabling endlessly your work area. So when you're doing your pre installation planning, some typical areas to consider for your pathways. Now pathways are exactly what it says. It's the path wise for the cabling that you can put it as some physical areas that you need to consider might be directing conduit, your backbone and you're ceilings we should be working. Now. Once again, always confirm that you are planning a path ways according to your client's specific. Standards. So some typical examples of client standards will be, and once again, keep in mind that these are only examples, but these are examples that we've taken from some of our existing customers. So the chances are very good that your customer or the company that you are going to do your cabling with. But have very much the same type of standards with regards to calculate routing in management. So if we look at an example of standards would record the duckling will be the full ratios for conduit, cable tries and ducks that must confirm to standards and manufacturers recommendations. For example, I 50% utilization for initial installation and a maximum of 70% of the expansion work. Another area might be to plan outlets to be within three meters from the user workstation or nato print ad in close proximity of a PowerPoint. Also, cabled trunking must be of the steel type. As an example, single or double. Trunking must be forced into permanent structures by means of six millimeter knocking forces with non corrosive flat washes with a minimum diameter of 25 millimeters. Once again, these are only examples, but there are very good examples. And they've been taken from some of our customers that basically use exactly the same standards. With regards to deducting. Say here you have some pictures of installations that we've done not too long ago at one of our big clades. And note that you skirting for housing data and power, and always note that color the client buffer as you walk through with your client. So more pictures of the incitements relation. This will be a standard power data cluster and not the positions and the liability for this. This will be a typical our data cluster and most of our customers actually wanted to be done that this says some other typical examples of client standards. And this is where records to conduit. And once again, this was copied from one of our existing customer standards. So you will find pretty much the same thing must probably when you are dealing with your customers. So what they said is that conduit runs must be designed to run in the most direct route possible with no more than two 90-degree pins. We must also always use slow bins. And it should contain no continuous sections longer than 30 meters and withstand the environment to which they shall be exposed to. So this is typically for an auto installations when you are forced to run your copper cable on the outside of the building. And the example continues and it says four runs longer than 30 meter draw or junction boxes must be installed a 30 meter intervals and metal conduit and no smaller than 32 many meters in diameter with matching couplings adapt as bends, etcetera must be used depending on the environmental factors to which it is exposed. Settles must be spaced at one meter apart. It must be false and to permanent structures by means of six millimeter Hilti plastic fastness. Now, once again, this is an example, but this is actually a very good standard to follow when you are installing conduit and at your company or add customer premises. Look at backbone. Now, in the case of this customer backbone for the main alto installations. So this usually is for the Alto cable pathways and usually goes with several works. We need to have machinery in place to dig up the earth on the outside for the sky was very. Now, this example says only a 110 millimeter cable flex up, as you can see in the picture, year in six millimeter length, complete with water seals and must be used for underground cable roots except for dolomite areas. We, as civil engineers, should be consulted. Now, dolomite areas is a whole other kettle of fish and it's actually very difficult to work with Don areas. At least 110 millimeter park shop installed. The quantity of pipes per run can be increased depending on the capacity required. Note that trench width increases with an increase in pumps, this magazines, of course. And also very importantly when you're working with these kind of Parks, is a good quality. Narrow rope with a thickness of at least seven millimeters must be used for all pipe routes for future warning of a cable. This is something that we call a draw wire. This does exactly what it says. You can use to draw wire that is lifted these paths to pull through other cables. Just make sure that you use your draw wire, that you replace a draw y again for future installations. Next up is regards to sample pathways is ceilings. Now for this customer, they absolutely were adamant that we should use cable trends and should be welded wire mesh cable tries very expensive. But with regard to o, as far as solutions go, it is a very good solution to use. Now, in this example, the ceiling spice must allow for 75 millimeters of clear vertical space above conduits. And laugh with 300 millimeters of clear vertical space above the tray or rice wife or I wait ceiling cable try or right. So i systems not allow horizontal pathways to restart greatly on OB supported by ceiling panels and allow for human movement if the seeding structure is not constructed of removable panels. Once again, this is only an example, but this is a good standard to follow. If you have too supply or helped design a customer standards, this is something to look at. And lastly, always confirm that you are planning a path ways according to your client's specific standards. I know I said it probably about ten times by now. But this is a very important aspect to consider when you're doing your planning. Now there should be a standards document available for this. If not, guard your customer and assist in setting up a standards document that can be side of by all relevant bodies. And that is that for carbo routine and a cable management. 22. Do’s and don'ts when installing Ethernet cable: So let's look at some do's and don'ts when installing ethernet cable. Now after you reach new pathways are completed, its time t2, the cabling. Thank goodness. Now it's very important to note that they are stringent industry and government standards in place to guide and govern you industrial chord. And it's your responsibility to know what these standards are and to follow them to that later. So in order for UTP unshielded twisted pair cable that includes Cat5, get 5V and can't seek to deliver high speed performance. It's manufactured to very tight specification. And in order to maintain UTP archiving system performance after manufacture, proper handling is absolutely crucial. Damaging the cable can greatly affect its ability to carry data at high rates. And once damaged, he's not always readily fixable. In other words, you will have to replace that cable. It is not always possible to fix it. Many common occurrences like over stretching or other painting, can permanently stretch the conductors or alter the insulation. Does effecting a transmission properties of the cable. For example, cable that has been kinked cannot just be straightened out and expected to provide the intended level of performance is just not going to happen. Thus, proper insulation is one of the most important keys to cabling system performance. Not just a few do's and don'ts to assist you in this regard. First of t naught over full, your conduit cable tries and your ducks. We add discussion of this in a previous lesson. And this is usually included in the standard of the customer and of the manufacturer for that matter, do not allow the cable to kink, not snack while pulling it off the sp2 or out of the box, deforming the patrons to well, alter the performance of the cable and you will not get the performance out of that capability should or that you paid for for that matter. Do keep tighter and electrical cable separate rule times that's what you channel skirting is for. And I showed you a picture of you channel skirting In a previous lesson. In group spices US DO channels or keep electrical cable on opposite sides, opposite sides from data. If using the same wire trends, this is not recommended and should only be considered if cost is a factor. And you should know that your customer know that this is what you are doing. Do cross power cables, the 90-degree angle. If you do need to or happened across your data network cabling with electrical cabling, they should be kept at a 90 degree angle in order to avoid interference and should never ever touch. This is very important. Do not run cable in unsafe level locations. At some point you may need to run the cable in the ceiling or wall. Makes sure the cable doesn't touch the ceiling tiles and do not run the cable. Electrical conduit, water pipes, or any other parts as it is unsafe and may not pass inspection. I can tell you that it will probably not pass inspection. Do not Bundle cables to tackling the spatially two bundles to the point way crushed stress occurs. Kinked cable whenever negative effect on the network and reduces the quality of the cable. Cabos that are bound to tightly are difficult to troubleshoot, especially it's one of the marijuana you can think. Should they be an issue when running power of Ethernet heat in our bundled cables becomes a huge issue. Rather use velcro tie reps to secure large cable bundles. It's a bit more expensive, but it's totally worth it. Do liable the cable according to customer standards and we've got a whole section on leveling. It is that important. Do not allow your cabling to go beyond industry standard of 90 meters. This is something that we've also discussed and government standards for expansion requirements. The existing Cat5 cable infrastructure must be used, no mixing of pirates will be allowed. We have found this with all of our customers. And I'm sure in your neck of the woods, It will be the same. And that is it for now, for ISN turns when installing ethernet cable. 23. Running Ethernet cable outdoors: So let's have a look at running ethernet cables outdoors. Now. The first question that we should OMC ease. Again, you run ethernet cable at all. But a beta equation would be, should you run ethernet cable outdoors? So let's have a look at the different answers to these questions. So now you can in fact run. But it is not recommended to do so without using proper conduit. They are in fact cables designed to run outside, but even those should really be running inside some type of enclosure. For most of it, link must have its lane. Look, typically for cable that is UV protected and preferably suitably shielded. And now examples of proper conduit, and we've had a look at these in a previous lesson, would be something like PVC pipe metal or Basel pop as it's sometimes called. And corrugated or flex part that is the most popular pop that we normally use for at Oren's. And what we have found that running installs, that they can be a significant difference in the thing between buildings connected by a network backbone. If this is the case, you will have issues with the network equipment in these buildings. Rather use a fiber connection that cannot conduct electricity like ethernet, copper cable does. And in fact, most government standards do not recommend running Ethernet outdoors and should only be considered in extreme cases and in conjunction with the client. 24. The Patch Panel (practical): So this lesson is going to be about the batch banner, is going to be a practical session involved with this as well. And we will be using a batch panel for the practical session as well as a bunch down to a stripper and Cat5 cable. Now, the first question we need to answer E is way to the batch ban or go. Before we have a look at this, can you maybe think with the patch panel goes, we've had a quick look at it when we did our whole boxes. So way does the Batman logo. So what is a patch panel? A patch panel in a land that your Local Area Network is I mounted hard way assembly that contains ports used to connect and manage incoming and outgoing lamb cables. Patch panel can, can be mounted in a network rack lying above or below the network switch. And it's classified by the number of ports. They are 12 boards, 24 ports, and 48. Patch panels typically. And patch panels can be applied in five n copper cabling systems. And for this lesson we're going to look specifically at the copper variation of this. Okay, so let's look at an actual patch panel and we're going to terminate a cable to this dispatch panel. So this is what you patch kinda looks like. This is the back, this is the front. You can see that this is a 24 port patch panel. It's got 24 ports in his numbered one to 24. And we're going to terminate our cable to this patch panel. We're going to use bought one. And once again, I'm a lefty. So it works a bit differently for me. I apologize. But they say lefties are the clever ones. So you see that your ports in the back are numbered one to 24. Each. Keystone is numbered as well, and they ease new Keystone spice for eight wires. And once again, they are color-coded according to type a or type B. And we're going to use type B. So this pretty much works the same as we did with our whole box. So the first step, as always, is going to be to remove the outer jacket of your cable with your wire stripper. And then we take it from there. So we just removing the outer jacket by now. You should be quite accomplished with this. The wise shepherd makes it really easy, really foolproof. And the length of the cable doesn't matter because you can aim to remove U xs cable with you. Punch down to say, do not worry too much about the length of the cable. And for the next step, which is going to start on whining our cable wires and put the more or less in the order that they should be for our keystone. So once again, you shouldn't unwind too much of your wires. So your Cabo jacket must be as close to this Keystone as you can possibly make it. And unwind our wires. Why is unwind? We can start adding the y's to our keystones according to the color coding. With added y according to the next step is to just do your punch down with your tools that you need. Or it can cut the axis wiring as it is, pressing down the Y into your keystone. So I'm just going to turn the patch going like this. And you can see that I'm actually inserting the axis wire xs, y into their plight and you've got a beautifully punched down wire. So now all that is left is to do the same with the rest of the termination. And do you have it guys and girls beautifully punched down? And it's him and I did one of a batch battle. 25. Network Cabinets: Okay, so let's have a quick look at a network cabinets. So there are two main types of network evidence. You get your flow standing, standing on flow, and your wall mounted into a cabinet, said is mounted to a wall. Cabinets are righted according to size and we call those size units use worried. We're going to have a look at that in the next section. And they is usually very specific cabinet layout standards that this customer is supposed to supply to you. And we're going to have a look at boating those standards, old, drawing their standards for customer in just a second. So in terms of a sizing, the whole spicing for standard 19 inch racks on the mounting flange is spiced in groups of three holes, as you can see in this picture of a yeah. Now this three whole group is defined as a wreck unit or are you or sometimes just called a u. In fact, we all just quoted to you, one you occupy occupies 1.75 inches or 44.45 millimeters of vertical space. And manufacturers of Rachman equipment and make the product lines based upon how many or use or use that equipment occupies in Iraq. The thiol group spicing is measured from S2 to S2 hole and does not vary regardless of whether they're server rack has square or round mounting holes. Now the term 19 inch that I've used in the previous slide, the width of the front panel of the boxes that are installed in Iraq. You can see that in the image to determine if Iraq is a 19-teens drag measure, the how to how spicy, as I've mentioned. Now, blanking panels, also known as filler panels or rack spice up next, are installed in server racks to maintain proper airflow. Using a rack without blanking panels results in improper cooling, which can lead to thermal damage. If any of the vertical spiciness server cabinet remains open, the gap between Rack Mount equipment causes change in E-flat and the rack, and the rack and across the components. Liking panels available in many sizes. As you can see these pictures every year from one year to six year. The use of blanking panels is considered a best practice. So you mentioned this to the customer. You will definitely score some browning points. So brushed panels and maintains cabinet neatness and tidiness by an enabling the patch leads to be pushed through the panel and out of sight, as can be seen in these pictures. Also, cage nuts are used to force and all components in the cabinet. Please note, according to most standards, all holes must be populated with a cage nuts. So when you are doing you install, make sure that you have enough courage nets so that you can actually just fill the holes. And here are some nice examples of network cabinets that are populated according to very neat standards. 26. Network cabinet layouts examples: Okay, so we had to look at network cabinets. So let's have a look at near to a cabinet layouts and rack diagrams specifically. So AraC diagram will become important when you are designing and planning for your network. You're doing a quotation for a customer. And we just need to see what your rack cabinets are going to look like. In terms of planning, in terms of spices are going to be enough for all of the equipment you need the etc. teacher. Now, first things first and SB usual and also very important. Always confirm what the customers ten at ease when you designing your network cabinets and you need to cabinet layouts. Now what the customer Stan and ease and follow that customer standard. Now, a red diagram is basically a two-dimensional drawing showing the organization of a specific equipment and, or the specific equipment on a rack. And it is drawn to scale my share the front and the rear, the rack layout. You can use specialized software for this and you can go and Google rack diagram software or use something simple like X out the pins on your budget and what the customer wants. And here we have two examples of frack diagrams you'll see on the left-hand side you will have one that was done in excel. Very basic, very straightforward. And on the right we used something called Eagle. And now they are many, many kinds of software like this. We use ego because it is multifunctional and you can do other things with it as well. But once again, it depends on what you prefer. So if you go to Excel and nice just to that quickly, He's going to go to Excel. This is typically what is going to look like. You're going to have your blocks and you're just going to plan what your cabinet looks like. And this case it's a 25 you cabinet. And we started with a blank panel, the top fiber batch, Benno, a nother backing panel and fiber optic switch its iteratively. You can see what we did here. So this is a very simple, very cheap way to do it. And if your customers happy with this, then by all means do this. If you can't afford your more expensive cabinet layout software. But I'm going to show you why we use something like E draw. So I'm just going to go the quickly, if software just allows me for it, the GV. Okay, so this is ego and you will see that. So basic knighted or dedicated software makes it much easier for you. So in this case, you just gonna go to your network. And it's got all of these templates. We often say you can have a base basic network diagram, 3D network diagram. It, it gives you a lot of options and one of the options must enough is Iraq rack diagram. So if I go and I click on this box, so and these examples of it, we can go to an example. I'm just going to show you how it works more or less. So it gives you order these templates on the left-hand side. So from yeah, it's basically just dragging and dropping. But AV unique in this guy's got a 30 year, you can change this to whatever size you need. And the equipment that's inside, you can just basically drag and drop. So it's gonna look something like this. You're going to say what it is, but you get the idea. So it's just dragging and dropping. You can save this as a picture file and you can import this into the rest of whatever it is that you are using to report back or to quote or however you want to do this. So this is actually quite nice. And it depends on what you need and what your customer needs, how much money you're going to spend on this. It's all up to you and your customer. So that is it for wreck diagrams. 27. Patch and fly leads: Next up we have a short lesson on Bachelet and fly it. Now, a patch cable batch good or patch lead is an electrical or optical cable used to connect or patch in one electronic or optical device to another. For sigma routing, well, some big words, they now devices of different types. Example, a switch connected to your computer or switch to a router are connected with batch codes. Now Patch leads can be copper or father biased. Now, ask yourself what type of cable that you find in a batch or a flooded solid stranded and y. Now we had a previous lesson on this. And this is going to be a question in the next quiz, I think as well. Okay, so we usually refer to lead inside the cabinet as batch leads and needs from your computer or phone to the wall socket in an office as I fly lead. Now that's basically the difference between batch and floorlets. They're exactly the same cowbell, but depends on where you are using them. Now, very important batch and fly lead should be of the exact type of cable used elsewhere. Example, CAT six, shielded, et cetera. If not, the leaves would be the weak link in your cable. Now, interestingly, government standards usually maintain it. Lead should be Factory molded, IE, not self-made. And this is normally a very cheap, inexpensive way to do it. And you are saving yourself a lot of trouble by just going out and buying your passion, your fly leads. So I'm going to leave you with a question. And that's going to be way does batch and fly leads to fit into this structured cabling environment. Where do you think in terms of your insurance facilities? We've been through backbone tabling, telecoms rooms and telecoms enclosure, your sample cabling, and you work your way with your batch in new flights fit into this. And that's going to come up in the next quiz as well. So that is it for batch and fly leads. 28. MindMap Section 3: Let's do a quick mind map for this section. And as you know by now, I love mindmaps. So for Section Three, we started by looking at your typical equipment used on site lesson 19, we did our first working Cabos. This our first practical session for this course as well. Next up we added look at wall sockets and we bolt a wall socket together. Then we looked at Cabo routing and management, do's and don'ts when installing ethernet cable at less than 23, was about granting ethernet cable outdoors. 24, we had looked at the patch panel and we terminated terminated a cable into the patch panel as well. There isn't 25 was about network cabinets. Isn't 26. We added, added, added look at nato cabinet layouts and malls. But not least, there isn't 27 was about batch leads and flooded. 29. Introduction to fibre optic cabling: So welcome to our introduction to fiber optic cabling. Now first of what our optic fibers of fiber optics. Now fiber optics are long, thin strands are very peer gloss about the diameter of a human hair. So it's a very, very thin. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances. Structure of a typical fiber cable, it will look something like this. So you've got from the outside, going inside, you've got a jacket. Then you've called, You've Got a buffer that sometimes that you're strengthening and you've got your cladding and you've got to cool. And he is also is a cross-cut of a typical fiber cable with the outer jacket that you're strengthening, that's normally made of Kevlar fibers. So it's very strong. And you've got your coating cladding and you cool on the inside. So how does an optical fiber transmit light? That's a very good question, of course. And I suppose you want to shine a flashlight beam down a long straight away. You just point the beam straight down a hallway and light travels in straight lines, so it's no problem. But why did the hallway has abandoned it? You could place a mirror at the bane to reflect the light beam around the corner. And what did the hallway is very winding with multiple beans. It might line the walls of mirrors and angle the beam Saturday bounces from side to side all along the highway. Now, this is exactly what happens in an optical fiber. The light in fiber optic cable channels through the core that you're always by constantly bouncing from the cladding, that's your mirrored line walls. And that's a principle called total internal reflection. Because a cladding does not absorb any light from the core, the light wave can travel great distances. And that's a very simple way to describe how fiber-optic transmits light. So let's look at a few key principles with regards to optical fiber. And the first principle is where you will hear references to multicore fiber cables. And that's basically what it looks like in a crosscut. So I've shown you previously what a single core fiber looks like. But you can get T equal 57, cause 30 goals, 19 goals, etc. So that is basically what we mean when we refer to a multi-core fiber cable. Next term that we have to look at is modes. Now, optical fibers come in two types. You are quoting it, single mode fibers, multi-mode fibers. And this is very easy. Single-most cables are designed to carry light directly down fiber. It is a single strand of glass fiber and as a diameter of more or less ethanol to ten microns, that's very small. The single mode gives a higher transmission and up to 50 times more distance in the multimode. The core from a single mode cable is smaller than one from a multimode. And single mode is a vital part of broadband networks because of their massive distances that you can send data over. It is designed to transmit data over long distances. On the other hand, you've got multimode cables. I had a bigger diameter, typically 50 to a 100 microns for the live carrying component. Now, our median distances, multi-mode fibers give high bandwidth at high speeds in Cabo runs longer than 914.4 metres. To be exact, the multiple parts can cause distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and partial data transmission. So typical government standard state at multimode fiber cables must be installed up to 550 meters. And four links exceeding 550 meters, single mode fiber must be installed. And I'm looking at termination of connectors and splices. Fiber must have connectors which allow batching cables into links and connecting transmission equipment. We had a look at batching, batch cables and flights. So sometimes cables or permanently connected using splices, either fusions prices which are made by welding the fibers together in an electrical OK, or mechanical sliced splices, which have simple alignment fixes that clamp fibers together, connect this not splices are used in most cabinets as the easy connection or disconnection and reconnection offer the ability to reconfigure cable runs, taste individually links and connect odd way we need it. I have a picture of some of the connectors that are available out there. But in our field, the most commonly used fiber optic connectors is the AC connector, the ST connector and the LC connector stood on the subject of connectors and splices. You also get a simplex and a duplex fiber connectors as simply x connection means signals are sent in one direction at a time, for example, and the signal is transmitted through to simply x connectors and a simplex 5G fiber cable from device to device be. It cannot returned from device to device a via the same route. But the reverse transmission can be achieved through duplex connectors and duplex fiber cable, which is called a duplex connection. In addition, is simply x fiber connector is often connected with one strand of glass or plastic fiber. Well duplex connect this need to connect with two strands of fiber. Now the following picture shows a comparison of LC dubious connect this at ISI, Duke x connectors. Also interestingly denote that fiber patch leads are described by some type of connectors that are terminated with. So in this picture you have an AC to AC connected, but you can get an AC connected to a steel connect AC to AC. You get the idea. So now we're getting to the specialized equipment. Now, obviously we cannot use copper cable equipment too in working with fiber curls. And some of the specialized equipment required when building your fiber cable is something called a splices. I simply put, a fiber optic splicing involves joining to fiber optic cables together. And splicing is also used to restore fiber optic cables when a buried cable is accidentally severed. And that actually happens quite a lot. There are two methods, as I've mentioned before, of fiber optic splicing, the fusion splicing and the mechanical splicing. And mechanical spices are simply alignment devices designed to hold the 25A ends in a precisely aligned position, thus enabling light to pass from one fiber into the other. This is a very cheap solution, doesn't always work. And I have to say most customers are not happy with the solution. And the other hand, you've got fusion splicing. Now in fusion splicing machine is used to precisely align the 25A aids in a glossy genes are fused or welded together using some type of heat or electrical OK. This produces a continuous connection between the fibers enabling and very low loss of light transmission. Now of course, this is very expensive, but you high-quality splices will also taste that connection while you are doing it, say know that you have got a connection that has actually been tested and that works. Next up we have tasters of the fiber optic cables are installed, spliced and terminated. They must be tasted. And for this, we need to use specialized testing equipment with a very specialized training requirements. That's also very important. And most commonly used is customers require is a so-called 3D 4E, Ltd. All the optical time domain reflective meter that is useful for tasting the integrity of fiber optic cables. It can verify splice loss, measure length, and fund faults. And the Ltd. is also commonly used to create a picture of fiber optic cable. We need is a newly installed. Also. They are true, Ltd. 4e is extremely expensive. So that is basically for your introduction to fiber optic cabling. And what I want to do now is I just want to take a minute and just run through the different things that we have spoken of in this lesson. Because and I know it can be quite confusing and sometimes very technical. So we had a introduction to fiber optic cables. We asked what fiber optic cables or we had a look at the structure of a typical fiber optic cable. We looked at how an optical fiber transmits light. And we look at different aspects like what multi-core fiber cable is, the different modes you get. Single mode, unique multimode cable. We had to look at the termination connectors and splices and different types of connectors. And we say that the most commonly used fiber optic connectors on the AC, the AST and the LC connectors. You also had a look at simplex and a duplex fiber connectors. We had a look at how fiber leads are described in terms of the type of connected there have we had look at specialized equipment and more specifically splices and and that is it. 30. When to use fibre instead of copper cabling: So we do use fiber. When do you use copper cabling? Let's have a look at that quickly. So the rule of thumb is simple. When your network connects buildings or floors or even cabinets in different areas of the same building, use fiber. It's as simple as that. Now, if you think back on your structured cabling diagram that we've been using over the scores. Can you now identify we should be using fiber and we should be using copper. I think let's put this into our quiz at the end of this topic. And here's another picture that we use. Can you identify from this picture way we should be using copper and we should be using father pink on that for a bit. So a fiber optic offer several advantages for land backbones. Obviously the biggest advantage of optical father is affected it CRAN, transport more information over longer distances in less time than any other communications medium. In addition, it is unaffected by the interference of electromagnetic radiation. And remember the crosstalk that we've been talking about for so much, which makes it possible to transmit information and data through areas with too much interference for copper wiring with less noise. And this error, for example, in industrial networks, in factories, father sorts a smaller and lighter than copper wires, which makes it easier to fit into spices and conduits. Now properly designed centralized fiber-optic network may save costs over copper wiring. When the total cost of insulation support, regeneration, it's H are included. But for most customers, it is still a very expensive when compete to copper, copper is much cheaper than fiber. Now replacing UTP copper cables to the desktop that's called Farber today's stop. And is not yet a cost-effective as each link requires converters to connect to the copper port on the PC, the father and another on the hub of the switch in a nice dedicated hubs and switches with five bolts are used and you are using dedicated five and it'll cause which you do find, but still at this moment scales. And they are expensive and difficult to maintain. So at the moment, it is not yet option for most customers do have fiber right through your network, though it does make sense in some ways when it comes to affordability. And he does not. 31. Mind Map Section 4: Okay, so our mind map for Section full on fiber optics and yes, our nodes, any two subjects. And I apologize for that. But I'm sure it on the stand that we need to complete our mind map. So at the end we're going to sit with a complete structured cabling mind-map that you can download. So I have to do every section. So in this section, we did a introduction to fiber optic cabling and we did quite a lot of subjects in day. And then we looked at when to use fiber instead of copper cabling. And that is eat for section for my, doesn't think I should sing you a song or something to fold time. It's going to be beta for everybody. Trust me. So enjoy. And there's going to be a short quiz now off to this. And then we're gonna go to the next section. 32. Labeling methods and standards (practical): Okay, so let's have a look at a labeling methods and standards with a quick practical session of the debt. Now the first thing is that you need to know that your labels say a lot about you and it tells the customer mainly a lot about you. So if you're not using any levels at all, you're not going to be taken seriously. So always label your work. That is very, very important. Next up, you get people that use these homemade conventions. Now, what that tells the customer about USD, you make stuff up as you go along and you do not plan your work. And you get guys that uses labels that fall off or smear. That does a customer that fast and cheap is more important to you then good. And it's actually something that you want your customer to think about you. Or best of all, lever professional impression with your customer with a decent label printer. And that is something that we're going to have a look at at the end of this nation. So libeling is very important. And it's also very important that you follow certain conventions with your liability and that it bears conventions are designed in conjunction with the customer. And those standards are set down somewhere on paper so that everybody knows what's going on with your labeling. So on that subject, the two most important aspects of Khyber leveling is first of all, consistency. Make sure the naming and numbering system follows a logical hierarchy. And above all, make sense. And secondly, keep to the customers and labeling standards. If you do not do this, you will be forced to redo everything. We've made this mistake in the past, and we see this mistake being made a lot. And trust me, it absolutely sucks to go back to a site and redo all the cabling. If the customer do not have a liability standards, it's up to you to design a standard that works for the customer and that follows international lively standards. For example, on C, TIAA, six or six B that we are going to have a look at just now. Now the standards that are used here are designed to make it easy to implement and useful for anyone who is working with the cabling in the future to very important aspects that you cabling should have. Okay, so off quickly mentioned the six hundred, six hundred six B standard. So let's have a look at that and let's look at the concepts behind the 606 BY standards and why U2 should be following them. Now, first off is the 6A, 6B standards are consistent. And we've mentioned this before. Any company that uses these standards need to make sure there are followed throughout all areas of the building and all buildings within the company. Consistency helps to ensure that everyone who works on the cabling for be able to understand the labels at all times. Secondly, it identifies physical locations. And the labels need to identify what physical location they are coming to. The painting on the facility. This should include information about the room, the flow, and the body involved. Now easy to read, liveable city be printed on high quality label stock. And we're going to have a look at this. And we have a good printed to help ensure that text on the 0s easy to read. And this is why we use designated dedicated leveling printers should also be durable. The print stock used should be made to last long periods of times and we talking years, yeah. The cables often lost for many years and the level should lost just as long. This applies both to the physical level and the print on it, which should not fade. Also, universal agreement, all departments and de minimis throughout the company needs to agree to follow these standards, or it will only create additional confusion. It should also be pervasive. All cables should be leveled at both ends to ensure anyone who comes into the facility will be able to get the information they need. I will do these wires. Also creating custom labels. Creating custom labels we need work and other lighted cables. E, surprisingly easy when facilities have the right equipment, the best option is to use an industrial level printer. And this is what we're going to use in our practical session, which can create high-quality, easy to read labels for any situation. Each parentheses can use livestock of any size or color to help ensure the labels convey the exact information needed. Okay. So please note that most government standards mandate that a cable should be individually liable no less than four times. And if this is not implemented your company, then maybe you should consider implementing the secure company because it actually works really, really well. Now, can you guess where these four labels should go? Let's take a moment and think about this. Where do you think these four levels should go? So let's see. So the first level should be obviously on the wall socket itself. We've seen examples of this. Then second level should be behind the keystone. Your third layer should be behind the patch panel, and your fourth level should be on the patch mammal. That makes sense. So those are the four areas where you should be apply your labels to. So lively requirements in order to be compliant with the 66 BY standards, must meet all of the following requirements. And this is something that you need to seriously look at if these standards are not being made in your company or at the site that you are working. So first off, any TV permanent the level should be permanently placed onto the cables. She identified it. Since we've spoken about this, both ends of the cables need to be labeled. Your termination points, Nietzsche identified. Now the termination points need to be identified on the labels on both ends. You should be legible. Liability to be legible, which typically means there should be printed off rather than a hand written with a label printer. And it should match with records. Information on the labels should be recorded into records. This allows technicians to get additional information as it is needed. Ok, so let's quickly look at the benefits of following the six of six be cabling labeling standards. First off, it's easy understanding. Having standards throughout all facilities with inner company will allow everyone who works on these cables to now exactly what they are doing no matter where they work. Also forced the troubleshooting. Being able to identify information about cables quickly makes it faster and easier to troubleshoot issues because you are finding the faulty cable easier. Outage avoidance. Having clearly labeled cables to help prevent accidental outages that are caused by someone working on or moving the wrong cables. And rather, and having a customer that you've just put offline by pulling out the cables, just live of the cables correctly. Planned upgrades as equipment is upgraded and facility, having a clearly labeled set of wires will make it easier to plan things out and ensure that there aren't any issues. And lastly, law's benefit, training. Entire facility has the same set of standards. It is much easier to train new employees and how things are done. I facility can create one consistent training program that can be used for all employees or even vendors. We'll be working on these systems so it is very consistent. So we can look at an example of what a label might look like using the 66 BY standards. And you will have your building number, your flow number, your cabinet number, your patch panel number, and the port number on the patch panel, everything on your label. And typically you will use something called elbow grips that looks like this on the cable itself. So it will not be printing on the cable. You can do that if you want to. But it's not as durable as overgrown over grip is our groups are quite a pain to put on. It actually takes some time. And once you've terminated Yochai, will you call redo that. Bend the elbow scripts in the oval labels without read terminating the cable because it slides over the camels very much like a boot. So just as a reminder, each and every cable installed must be mocked four times. This is very consistent and it's very neat. So you do it on the wall box with a printed label on the cable at the back of the box with your our grips on your cable again, back of patch panel with you our groups and in on the patch panel itself with printed label? Absolutely. Okay. Okay. 33. Testing What is TDR?: So welcome to this section and we are still busy with testing. And we're going to have a look at TDR. What is tdo? Now? First off, you will see this term when we are working with cable thesis, when you are working with cabled tasters. Now, time domain reflection meter, that's what TDI is, is an electric instrument that uses time domain reflectometry to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables. That basically what we have been done up to now. For example, twisted pay cable or convex cable. It can also be used to locate discontinuities in a connector. In other words, if something is broken, printed circuit board that is beyond the scope of this course or any other electrical path. So it's actually quite a handy and nifty tasted. You have u equivalent device for optical fiber is an optical time domain reflecting meter. So that's just the optical path that changes. Now Tom to mine reflectometry. Tdr is a measurement technique used to determine the characteristics of a Patrica lines by observing reflected wave forms. And we are also including our data cables in these electrical lines. Now how it works is signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber. There are some of the signal power may be reflected back to its origin rather than being carried all the way along the cable to the fore end. This happens because imperfections in the cable cause impedance mismatches and non-linear changes in the cable. And that's basically how this four faults in your cable, such as kings and even broken cable. So tdo taster interprets the reflected signal to ascertain way and what faults they may be in a cup. That's basically how it works once again. And just In other words, TDI and jx is signaling to the cable and measures the time it is reflected back. Taking this into account, it translates at time into an accurate distance enabling an engineer oh, technician to pinpoint where the fault is. Now, the fault can be damaged cables or open and a short circuit. And that in a nutshell, ladies and gentlemen, is TDR. 34. Testing The difference between verifying, qualifying and certifying: Okay, so let's have a quick look at the difference between a verifying, qualifying and acidifying. Now we are still on the subject of tasting. And you will notice as soon as you start buying your destiny, there is a huge difference between verifies qualifiers and certifies you normally yo verifies. Quite cheap. That's on the low end of the scale. Did you get your qualifiers that you mid-range kind of taste this and then you get your certifies that are normally extremely expensive. So depending on your budget and what the customer wants, you will either buy one of these three tasters and see what some of the teams do is that they have lot of verifies. So they've got to T did say three or four teams. And each one is gonna verify, but they accompany that runs a team. And you have one set of fire that a, that they use between sites because they also super expensive. So what's the difference between these three types of tasters? Now, when it comes to tasting a cabling insulation, there are essentially three choices. Verification, quantification, and certification. Now while some features overlap between taste tools as you move up the rock. From verification desertification. Each type of tasting owns is one of the following questions. Because the first up is our verifies and verifies on. So the question is the cabling connected correctly? I verification tasting answers this question for copper cabling. These simple to use low-cost tools perform basic continuity functions as, as wire map and Tony. Now why mapping will tell you that each pays connected to Iraq pins at plucks and jacks with good contacts in determinations. While Tony and novel actually show you a toner lightly on the station, used to help identify specific cable in a bundle at the remote end, verification, tasting and learn will not verify the validity of the cabling to support specific applications. This is very important to keep in mind. And it's certainly one result, inability to ensure the standards compliance required for a manufacturer warranty. Ok, so next up is your qualifies now qualifies on since the question, Can the cabling support the desired application? And that of course, is a step up from your verification. And quantification taste is include verification functionality but are more sophisticated with the ability to qualify cabling bandwidth. Qualification provides the information needed to determine if the cabling and it tastes will support the signaling of specific applications. Combined with verification functionality, quantification, taste is are also excellent troubleshooting tools that are ideal for small adds, moves and changes over setting up a temporary need work that needs to be qualified for a specific network technology. That can also help in deciding whether an existing cabling plan needs to be upgraded to support and new application. But library application tasty quantification doesn't not perform this education required bike IVIG manufacturers. And of course, for that, you need a set of fire. Now acidify answers the question, does the cabling comply with industry standards? Certification taste is the only answer to this question used by commercial installers and contractors and inter-process facility managers to ensure that new cabling fully meets the requirement of cabling standards, such as TIAA F5.6, I see DO2, category six, EI or ISR live in A21, second edition clause, EPA certification is the most rigorous of all cobbled tasting. It is required by cavity manufacturers to receive a warranty. And, and a lot of our customers actually into this and they require us to not only satisfy our installs, but to provide this warranty as well. So this is something to keep in mind. Certification includes all the tasting that goes into verification and quantification, but also makes several measurements across a pre-defined frequency ranges and conveys the detailed results to the standard set by TIAA, TIA or ASUM. The results determined balls of file in accordance of the standard and indicate if a link is compliant with a specific category or clause of cables such as CAT six a year. This in turn tells you which application it is able to support. And when you do this, you will also get a certificate from your him that it is certified according to the same standards. And once again, a lot of our customers require this. The drawback of the sets of files, as I've already mentioned, is that they are extremely expensive. If you compare them to the verifies and the quantifies. And that basically, in a nutshell, is the difference between a verified quantify and acidifying. 35. a Closer look at Crosstalk: Okay, so we have talked about cross talk quite a bit now. So let's look at a few other concepts surrounding cross-talk, because crosstalk is so important when you are doing caving. Now if you look at this diagram on the right, the diagram shows exactly what happens and how the concept, what the near and the far in ease, depending on which end the signal originates from. So the diagram shows a cable that is stasis from either end and weigh the two ins are and where the next end fixed signals are in relation to Division I think signal. Now what on earth am I talking about when I'm talking about next end fixed? This is quite simply near crosstalk. And for end cross-talk. So, yeah, crosstalk, as you can see in this diagram, is with the, is a cross talk at the end or closer to the end that you are testing. And a foreign cross-talk or fixed is the when that crosstalk occurs at the far end of the ID we, you are tasting. But this of course implies that when you switch it around and you are tasting from the other side, then your next and fixed also switches around. So then your four cross two becomes your near in cross-talk. And your near it crosstalk becomes your four integrals to OK, I have this magazines. Now with a signal legitimately travels down a pair of wires in a cable, the single emerges from the other end as it is supposed to. A field that the signal creates around that pay bleeds over to the other pays in the taste. The crosstalk creates a certain voltage in that wire that will emerge out of both ends, then end. And so when you're looking at a next o near cross talk, the technical definition is interference between two pays in a cable that is measured at the same end of the cable as the interfering transmitter. What this really means is that one pay can interfere with another pay at the end that is doing the transmitting at that time. So from the end that you are testing, in reality, the transmitting cable will interfere all the way down the cable to the other end, but the interference will be the greatest at the end with interfering signal is transmitted from called the near end, hence, near end crosstalk. Now, as far as fixed or foreign crossed ochres. And as the name suggests, it's the same measurement as above, measuring the effect on one pay to another. But at the other end of the cable from the transmitting device, the foil and the effect is less than the near end measurement as it is measured at the end of the cable. Now very important to realize, and this is why we are hammering on cross talk so much is cross-talk. Performance is the primary differentiator between cabling categories. And what we basically mean by this is as you go up in the categories from Cat five, you get 67. And the mythical cat, right? The more needs to be done to mitigate crosstalk, Azure bandwidth and everything that goes with that actually goes up. Your crosstalk can potentially become more of an issue. So they are actually less crosstalk in your high categories of cabling as the ease in your lower categories of cable. And lastly, we're going to have a look at a EXT or alien cross-talk interference, as you can see in this diagram of year, interference from cables around the cable in question is called Edit crosstalk. You can look at it as one pay as the intruder will, the aggressor and the effect it pay as the victim shielded cable if installed correctly, will eliminate idea cross-talk all together. This is something to be kept them on. But if there's only one thing that you take away from this old basin, it is this workmanship is the leading cause of crosstalk. Not your cable type, not anything else. Workmanship is the leading cause of crosstalk. So check that you are doing your work correctly and you will not have cross-talk and you will not have to redo any of your cabling work. And that is basically crosstalk for now. 36. Common Networking Cable Mistakes: Welcome back. So let's have a look at some common networking cable mistakes. And of course, first on the list ys, crosstalk. And one of our favorite subjects you have parity. So as we have said in a previous lesson, workmanship is the leading contributor to crosstalk failure. So if you look at these two keystones, you see the one on left has been done correctly, and the one on the right has been obviously unwound too much. So that's kinda cause some serious cross-talk on this line. So it's easy to fix, but you have to find it with. So if you taste there is not going to find it. If you do not have access to a tasted, it can confined crosstalk, then you have an issue and then if if if comes to that, they knew my I have to replace that whole cable. If you can find your crosstalk fault. Okay, that's enough of crosstalk. Let's have a look at some other common networking cable mistakes. And first up is so-called Miss wise. We mistake is made with the wiring of your keystone or your RJ45 jack. The first picture you will see what it supposed to look like. That's a correct wiring scheme. Then you get something that is called open wire. That's also a mess. Why obviously nets weigh one of you wise new paydays do not make eye contact inside your keystone. Will you RJ 45 Jack. Next up is you short mess while we two of your Pais actually tasting, touching each other, then you get a reversed and this wire. And that's actually something that we tasted way back when we built our first cable. You get a crossed Miss while they can obviously see what happened, they and you get a split must wire as well. So that's your most common mess wires that you can find. And lastly, some other common networking cable mistakes is not following customer standards. We've spoken about that before. Not planning properly. Ignoring distance limitations, shoddy workmanship, running cables near interference, causing devices running cable parallel to electrical cables in proper labeling and fading to taste your network before activating it. Now that loss point, you will not believe how many times we actually see that. So we actually try not technicians to taste the work that they have completed as soon as they completed. And that is it for common networking cable, the sexual now. 37. Mind Map Section 5: I think I said this is a mindmap for Section five and labeling it tasting. So we started off by looking at labeling methods and standards and we had a short practical station off the debt. Next up we added Lukas, also tasting what is tdo? The me, I look at the difference between verify, qualifying and certify. Closer look at crosstalk was next. And lastly, common networking gabled mistakes. And that is it for Section five. 38. Floor plans: So floor plans. Now, as part of your structured planning phase, a site server in conjunction with the customer will probably be done. If you are lucky, a floor plan will be provided. But more often than not, trust me on this, you would have to draw your own flow blends from a scratch and on the spot. Now, uh, well, Joan and completed floor plan will greatly assist in building an accurate bill of material or bombers it's called. Now with the floor plans are provided or not, it is of the utmost importance at the following been noted on your floor plan. Firstly, that the position of the core and the sub cabinets, the cargo route to each office and in point who are civil route if applicable, if there is any civil as to be done, the exact location of each desired endpoint, positions of the main and sub electrical dB's if any electrical work has to be done. Now remember, cabinets need power. A summary of total endpoints, cabinets and electrical work also needs to be done in your floor plan and lost his summary of civils work to be completed including trenching, bolding, increase, reinstatement of services, et cetera, et cetera. That's something that you should always take note of. And we've learned this the hard way, trust me, guys and girls, is that your completed floor plans should be signed off by the customer. Saturday is no issues afterwards if something goes wrong. So always have your floor plans signed off by the customer. Okay, so let's have a look at some examples of floor plans. Now if you are really lucky, you will get a floor plan that looks like this. And if you do not get a floor plan like this, you'll probably have to draw something like this at the end and supply to your customer. But it is very re, we have found that you get something that looks like this, where everything is planned out, everything is in a soft copy and done in the applicable software module will get more often than not, something like this. We, they have a existing plan, but it is not geared towards cabling. And as you do your walk through, you will have to just make a note of way goes, what, what point needs to go away. Um, how many nato points you need per office, et cetera, et cetera. And you will see there the top left hand side. We made in note that these a 100 points, three axis points, etc, etc. I've actually, this is an actual floor plan from one of our sites, so of deleted all the signatures and things, but you can more easily see that this was actually originally assigned of plan and worst-case scenario. You will get something like this, IE, nothing where you have to draw the plan as you walk through the site. And this actually becomes easier the more you do it. So stress too much about this. At the most important thing is to do everything accurately, as accurately as you can do. So you must have a summary at the end. And it says how many points, how many pieces of skirting way goes, What? Then it doesn't really matter if you've got a hand-drawn blend to work from as long as your information is accurate on your floor plan, then everything is good to go. So good luck with this. 39. Health and Safety: Okay, so let's have a look at health and safety, or occupational health and safety as it is sometimes known. Now, this is a very important aspect when you are running a site or when you are involved with the cabling site because you are now obviously dealing with people's well-being. Now. Employers and employees personally share in the responsibility for healthy and safe workplaces. But at the end of the day, you are responsible to keep yourself safe. If you feel you are not safe, you need to speak up and ensure that something is done about it. Apart from shaped responsibilities that we've mentioned, employers and workers have the responsibilities respect respectively as well. So let's run through a few of those. So first off, with regards to employers responsibilities, you would they need to ensure that equipment, materials and the work environment is set, then it establish safe work policies and procedures and ensure that they are followed. They also need to provide an orientation to the company's safety policy and provide safety training on hazard information, equipment use, and operational procedures. What we mean by orientation is that workers need to know what your policies or way to find them. If they are in hard copy some way in a fall, or soft copy on the Internet, etc. etc. Now I also need to consult with employees on workplace health and safety issues. Then it establish a health and safety committee which we knew more employees are working or a safety representative wave five to 20 employees are working and lost it. I need to make everyone accountable for the safety performance. This is very important. As for, as workers responsibilities towards health and safety goes. First of all, workers need to follow their company's safety rules, policies, and safe work procedures. Workers need to take every precaution to protect personal safety and that of others. The need to weigh personal protective equipment as required by the employer or by the low. Then ETUs machinery, equipment, and materials only as authorized by the employer. And lastly, report all hazardous incidents and situations and of course, a near misses as well. Now, most importantly for workers, they must know and be prepared to exercise states three key safety rots. All employees, whether on the shop floor in the office, have these rights. And of course this is applicable to management as well. Management, they've got the same rights. Now the first of these key rights is the right to know. And toys are title to know about workplace issues and hazards that can, may affect the health and safety or that of someone else. The next key safety right, is the right to refuse. Employees have the right to refuse work. They feel this unsafe or unhealthy today or someone else. And the lost right is the right to participate. Employees have the right to participate in their own health and safety. This may be taking part in safety committees or safety rip by reporting unsafe conditions in hazards and O by voicing their concerns and opinions about the health and safety of the workplace. And lastly, we have the slide on practical examples of health and safety equipment. And this should look familiar to you because it is the same slide that we used in our equipment used on a site lesson. So we're going to run quickly through it as an example. So first off, you might have PPE and your personal protective equipment. And that will actually, what you are supposed to weigh will be governed by the environment that you are working in. Now this can be anything from safety boots and overall to a face shield or at dusk mosque. Next is your suggested. And this will also be governed by law. But this can be tools, registers, your PPE register, what was given to who you are to talks register, and maybe something lack and incident register that is also very much governed by law in terms of incidence on site. And lastly, we put in a water dispenser because we need to confirm that your team is taking in enough fluids and this fluids are healthy fluids. We live in South Africa. And Africa can become a very hot, as you may know. So it is very important that your people always taking enough liquids while they are on site. And that is it for now for health and safety. 40. Civil Works: Okay. So civil works, during the course of your structured cabling career, the chances are very good that you will be asked to incorporate some sort of civil works in your project. This can be anything from digging a trench to building a room for the new neat to cabinets. Now, all that exact how is beyond the scope of this course, there are certain things you need to keep in mind when taking on a job 40. So firstly, if you cannot do the job outsourced to someone that can or do not do it at all. We've seen it time and time again. A project that was supposed to be lucrative for the company involved thens into a absolute nightmare because of botched several works. Second thing to keep in mind is always follow the exact standards of the customer S with the first, if you have to redo, you stand the chance to lose a lot of time and money. Make sure you know what the customer wants and deliver exactly that. Third, Health and Safety. And this is something that we had a look at in the previous lesson. Make sure your policies and procedures are in place and follow these. More often than not, civil works in working with heavy machinery and tools, meaning their risk of injury escalates. Okay, so let's have a look at some of the civil works you might encounter on a typical set. Now this is by no means an exhaustive list, but just an example. So if you look at something like manuals and drop it, something to consider might be the frame and the lead. Visit, a pre molded kind of manual. Is it a heavy or light duty would carry traffic? The size specification sets sometimes or actually always very important to know what exact size as other mammals you're supposed to install or bold. Next up can be trenching the depth and the width of your trench. What needs to be inside that range. And you also need to confirm the root and possible crossing of facilities lack power or water. Bolding increase the size of the entry is that it must be a Dropbox or a pipe entry. Installation of polls, type and length of the pole. I going to need it cherry picker if it's a very tall, very long pole. The walls for a network rooms, is it supposed to be plasterboard or brick finishing and paint color? And of course, something like your concrete slabs for outside containers size doesn't need earthling the exact position of that concrete slab. And these are all things that you need to find out before you start with your civil works, obviously, first of all, and as soon as you've ascertained all of this information, you customer needs to sign off on that so that you have something to fall back on if there is a problem on site. And that is it for civil works. As I've mentioned, civil works can be very lucrative for you or your company. But at the same time, the risks involved with civil works. So think twice before taking on this kind of jobs and make sure that you know what the customer standards are and you follow these standards. And that nobody gets hurt in the process and that it doesn't cost you money. 41. Where to from here?: Okay, so let's look at a typical career path. If you choose to follow a career in a network cabling. Now, what we tell all people that all ask us this question, first of all, is obviously that you need to know where you want to be in order to plan on how to get there. Now this is a very personal answer. So this is something that you need to figure out for yourself. But as soon as you know where you want to be and you know where you are now, then you can plan on how to get there and to build your own career path where you wrote these Excess. Three very important points to consider is, first of all, you need to know in order to attain a for government business, your company needs to employ certified installers. And the company needs to be a certified installer as well. The second that you need to consider is that the virus from ourselves and a dual year from throughout the industry is this. Get certified, get that paperwork behind your neck. And lastly, some advice. Find out what the popular industry and OEM standards in your part of the world is and just go for it, get certified in those OEM standards. I'm not sure that I'm allowed to mention the popular industry and obey him standards for our neck of the woods. Because that would be advertising. And I think that might even be against the rules of this platform. But it should be quite easy for you to find out what these popular industries, oh, and how to get certified in these OEM standards. So what would a typical career path in network identical clock? Well, it might look something like this. And this is not set in stone. Obviously, your career path might look different, but this is just an idea of way you might go with this. So your first step might be to meet the educational requirements. While individuals can enter the cable insulation field with only a high school diploma, employees are beginning to prefer candidates who have completed a post-secondary education program related to electronics. And this is due to the growing complexity and rapid expansion of the telecoms industry. Individuals might learn valuable skills by enrolling in a certificate or a two year Associate's degree program, whatever is available in your country in electronics technology or repair. A certificate electronics repair, for example, teaches students about AC and DC circuits, applied maths, and problem analysis. Now a sexist up for you. Is that you may learn about computers along with none knowledge of cable equipment and installation procedures. These workers need to have proficiency in the glacier lighted computed technology field. This makes sense, yes. Aspiring cable installers can get an edge over the competition by taking courses in computer science or familiarizing themselves with software and hardware on their own, or maybe with a course on this platform. Step to complete on the job training. If you have the chance to do this, then grab this birth both hands and do not let go. After earning in education and security, securing an entry-level position. Most cable installed as complete on the job training that can last up to three months. During this training, they learn the specific practices and equipment utilized by the employing companies. Now sum, this equipment can be very expensive. So this training is also very important. Trainees may complete a lower level tasks under the supervision of experienced technicians and with experience advance to more complex duties. Some employees also send employees do training program administered by telecoms, technology organizations, equipment manufacturers. And that is actually something that we do extensively because this works out really well for us. So let's go to the next steps. So step three, continue to learn. Now this is not just applicable to cabling or computers or IT, this is actually applicable to whatever degree you choose in life. Now since technology in this field changes rapidly and it changes really rapidly, they, it is not a week that goes by where there is not a new type of dogma technology in this interesting, in this industry. Cable installers should seek continuing education opportunities to stay abreast of advancements. This could involve reading equipment manuals on one's own, pursuing supplementary training sessions through educational institutions or industry organizations. I think you get the idea, yeah, the Society of cable telecoms engineers or a CTE, that's an international organization that may or may not be available in your country. Offers a range of technical courses in topics like basic cable technology and cable networking. In fact, completing completion of such causes counts towards their continuing education requirements for ACT II, certification, maintenance, and things like Big-C as well. That is also a very important qualification to have pixie lease. Seti, extremely expensive. So they are not a lot of people that do they do it on their own. They mostly white for their companies to send them on Big-C causes. Step four is to earn a certification. Beef briefly mentioned this. Now, cabled installers who wanted to prove their knowledge, gained recognition for the skills or advance their career opportunities, may consider entering a certification. I would say that if you get the opportunity to enter certification, then this is an absolute must. Additionally, some jurisdictions and employees require that these workers hold certification, and that's why we are so adamant about our certifications that are technicians hold. Now various organizations such as the ETA and ACT e set of archival installers. Now, your job would be to find out what the most popular certification is in your country and do just go for that. Now a success step would be to keep your certification current. As expensive as these certifications, or they mostly do have an expiry date. So for instance, human tiny credentials ACT II satisfied Cabot installers must end 12 reset suffocation units every three years. The centrification prices that we use as an example needs to be refreshed every two years. Now, units such as these can be end by participating in approved events like workshops, conferences and chapter meetings or even webinars that are approved by your certification agency. Now, once again, and to close this chapter, you need to know what you want to be in order to plan on how to get there. Think on that for a bit. And good luck on planning your career. It is a very lucrative career, can be very lucrative. It is very satisfying, highly technical. And we find that the guys that starting cabling, staying. 42. How to be successful in the cabling infrastructure space: Okay, so how to be successful in the cabling infrastructure spice. And I think what you'll find is that the infrastructure or the cabling infrastructure spice is no different than any kind of business. So ask yourself, how are you successful in any business or any career? Now, the onset is quite simple by giving the customer or the company exactly what they want. And the trick is to figure out what they want. So after years of experience in this industry, we can give you some pointers in this record. So the first thing that customers are looking for is that you need to be consistent in your work. You can't give them different consistencies, different levels, different qualities of work. They want high standards all the time. And talking of standards, The next point is to follow the standards. Because your customer is most probably paying for following their standards. So you need to know what the standards are, adding e to follow them. It's really as simple as that. Third, and this cuts across any industry is to always exceed expectations. The old adage is good customer service means meeting expectations, but excellent customer service means exceeding them. And our 4 fourth Pinter room, I know this sounds weird, but this is actually from an example that we had quite recently at one of our sites. We we rebuilt a server room for a customer. But the paint job that was on the was really shoddy and they did not pi for the job for us to for us to do the pine job. But we decided, you know what, we're not going to leave the server room like this. And we rebind it that room. And because we did that, because we step that extra mile for the customer without expecting anything back. This is actually become quite a lucrative customer. And Vf sources a lot of work from this customer just by going and doing something as simple as buying a can of paint and a few brushes and binding a room for a customer. So to end this very important to remember, a happy customer will return often and is likely to spend more. And that is exactly where you want to be. 43. Mindmap section 6: Okay, so let's look at our lost mind-map or probably all lost mind-map. And that's about advice from experience and this is experienced at beef picked up over the years and we gladly share with our students. So first off, we had a look at floor plans. We had a look at health and safety. Then we looked at several works. We looked at a possible career path for you in network cabling. You wait you from yeah. And lastly, how to be successful in the cabling infrastructure space. So that is it for our mindmaps for this course. I hope you enjoyed it. And we're going to go into a long quiz for the last section. Ok. Thank you.