ISTQB Foundation Level Certification Exam Preparation | Rogerio Da Silva | Skillshare

ISTQB Foundation Level Certification Exam Preparation

Rogerio Da Silva, Passionate About Sharing and Networking

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9 Lessons (3h 54m)
    • 1. ISTQB Welcome Video Course

      6:02
    • 2. Introduction to ISTQB Prep Exam

      7:02
    • 3. Fundamentals of Testing Section 1

      18:56
    • 4. Testing Throughout the Software Life Cycle Section 2

      31:14
    • 5. Static Testing Section 3

      23:28
    • 6. Test Design Techniques Section 4

      51:07
    • 7. Test Management Section 5

      58:39
    • 8. Tool Support for Testing Section 6

      37:08
    • 9. Congratulations! Course Complete.

      0:24

About This Class

Get certified so you get the job or the promotion you want

Welcome to the ISTQB® preparation and pass on foundation level exam! During the lecturers, you will have the opportunity to learn the key elements that will help you pass the ISTQB® exam foundation level and secure the job or the promotion you’ve wanted. 

If you have read or had junior level experience in software testing this course will help you focus on the questions and answers so you can pass the exam.

What Will You Learn?

Foundation level professionals should be able to:

  • Use a common language for efficient and effective communication with other testers and project stakeholders
  • Understand established testing concepts, the fundamental test process, test approaches, and principles to support test objectives
  • Design and prioritise tests by using established techniques
  • Analyse both functional and non-functional specifications at all test levels for systems with a low to medium level complexity
  • Execute tests per agreed test plans, analyse and report on the results of tests
  • Write clear and understandable incident reports
  • Effectively participate in reviews of ###b/b### to medium-sized projects
  • Be familiar with different types of testing tools and their uses
  • Assist in the selection and implementation process

Course Structure

The course is divided into 6 sections following the ISTQB® syllabus structure, which consists of 6 chapters.

At the end of each section, there’s a quiz related to it, so you don’t have to wait until the end to do just the exam mock quiz and the simulation paper for the actual exam.

At the end of all the sections, there’s a practical exam and two sample papers so you can practice with question and answers based on what we are reviewing in here taken from the ISTQB® syllabus.

Transcripts

1. ISTQB Welcome Video Course: Hi. My name is rejected. A super welcome to the I s, too Could be exam preparation. Course I want to help you understand the IRS took you be suitable talking you through the theory. A dental feet section. There's a quiz so you can practice the total is that six sections with six quizzes. I believe this can help you gain the knowledge and the confidence to pass the exam. Three more simple papers is supplied at the end of the course. It's similar to the one you were going to taking you re Alexa. I'm a certified softer tester in ice Do Q B by the BCS. British computers are citing the UK. I want to share with you my experience. Hopefully by example. It will help you go through this education just like I did. By doing so, it will not only just tick the boxes, it will help you search for their softer, tested jobs so you can step in the ladder and launch your career into this testing whether you are looking for your first job as a test. Oh, already working as a junior tester or even an experienced Esther wants to progressive with your career. I'm confident this training will help you get the job or the promotion of B waiting to get . Let me tell you a little bit about me and what I did and how I did to get to this point. I used to be a telecom engineer working for British Telecom, BT for several years after that, I have had a computer shop selling computer parts and fixing see problems. After a couple of years on opportunity pulled me into softer I during the software company franchise in the E R P and B I domain. Then, in 2013 I got a job at one of the largest logistics company in the UK The Christmas saves his team working on the new CRM system implementation on the U 80 testing, helping to validate the system for the abuses. The test manager asked if I would like to become a fully qualified tester. I showed interest in skews, which seems too much what they were looking for. You know, someone to be gotten more one off the new testers. They looked at my over a rescue set. We seem to be a good fit. I obviously said Yes, and after that, the rest is history. I know the basics off codings ous. I like blogging, and I do most of my websites myself. I'm not a developer. I don't think we tested that need to be. It's a nice to have skew, especially if you choose a more technical route, but it is not mandatory or must have. For an analyst, you don't have to be genius or have to have a IittIe background or have diploma to become a test. But it's good to have some sort off interpersonal excuse such as a good communication swells. Ive being careers person open to learn, open to change, right? Well read well and bean analitico. Those issues will naturally be picked up along the way, but these advantages, if you already possesses them having the I s two Q B certification without a doubt will give you the guidelines to become a good tester. It will help you understand the standards and that the principles of testing it gives confidence not only to yourself but to the person hire new. It demonstrates that you take soft contestants seriously. Besides, it does look good on your CV and linked in profile. What do you are playing for junior tester? Position to an analyst position? Teoh. Not once the level oh can benefit by being, I guess, to be satisfied. Many recruiters within the company or agency recruiters may not ask if you have or don't have sex education, some say, is if you demonstrate you can do the job, then the certification could be taken up later point. I kind of agree on that. However, I believe there are different scenarios we need to look at. Let's say, for example, scenario one. If you are applying for in tender room and you don't have the certification and you demonstrate interest and shows that you can be a good feeding the team, surely you don't need to take this certification at least straightaway. Scenario to. If you are searching for a job on job boards, then apply for a job. People don't know you. You may find a CV Future by the agency will buy the company recruited and sent over. Three. If you already have an experience in the field and don't have the certification and can demonstrate that you know what to do, it can be on your CV on your linked in profile or on your interviews. Then you should be OK and see not reform. If you do possess in certification, have experience and on offer comes on. No doubt when it comes to discuss in the cellar range or contract terms, you will be in a much better position. You see as much as I did and do get the benefits from it. So has many others already certified, tested do, and I'm sure it will be beneficial to you, too. Let's get into it. I hope you enjoyed the videos, demonstrations, examples, squeezes and mark XM's. I'm confident that once you follow these instructions and complete the course you will successfully possibly accept. Please call my course. Give me feedback and any comments that would help me make it better for these course or any others more to come. So tell your colleagues friends like and share it. Thank you 2. Introduction to ISTQB Prep Exam: What is I? Esther Q B? I asked. It could be. It stands for international software testing. Quantification Board, founded in 2002 is a wide world leader in this certification. Off softer testing, the go off I stick you'd be is to continually improve and advance after testing profession certification. Knowledge is based on their best practices the community of software testers and continuously researching the subject matter. What we will you learn condition of professional should be able to use a common language for efficient and effective communication with other testers and project stakeholders. Understand established testing concepts, the fundamental test process, test approaches and principles to support test objectives. Designing privatized tests by using established techniques analysed both functional and nonfunctional specifications aren't old test levels for systems with a low to medium level off complexity. Execute testes pair agreed test plans. Analyze and report on the results of tests right clear and understandable Incidents. Reports effectively participate in reviews off a small to medium size project and be familiar with the different types of testing tools. And they uses and finally assist in this election and the implementation process course destruction. The course is divided into six sections following the I s two Q B syllabus. The structure, which consists Officer six chapters at the end, off X section. There's a quiz related to it, so you don't have to wait to the end just to do the X amok ways and the dissimulation paper for the actual exam at the end off oh, sections, there is a practical exam and two simple papers, so you can practice with questions and answers based on what we are reviewing here and they're taking from the come on do course instructed. The course is dividing 26 sections following the IRS to could Be Syllables, a structure which consists of six chapters at the end off its section. There's a quiz related to it, so you don't have to wait and to the end just to do it. The mock exam, the simulation papers for the actual xom and at the end, off older sections, there is a practical exam in two simple papers, so you can practice with questions and nurses based on the what we are reviewing in here and the taken from the IRS to could be what are their objectives stood in the city was there's indicators for eight section and classified as follows. K one Remember recognized Remember, recall a table concept K to understand, can select the reasons or explanations for his statements related to the topic and some rice. Differentiate. Classify and give example gate reapply. Select the correct application of a concept or technique and apply it to a given context. Indicate. For analyzed separate information related to upload, procedure or technique. Interest constituent parts for better understanding and distinguish between facts and interface. Booking the exam their exam provide. This would wide everywhere the iest it could be Exams are offered through member boards, and Exxon provided annexing. Provided an organization licensed by a member board to offer exams locally and internationally included online exams. You can search for eggs and provide a near you in the I asked two Q B website or personal website. Here's the link for the IRS to could be ended the person's rule as well. So if you are in the UK, you can book a straight on the BCS, the British Computer Society of the U. K TV website as well. So I provide the links here I have attached as well, the documents, so you can click on the on the link, or you can just typing these link. So I personally, I prefer to book decks, um, and then prepare for to take next them. So some of you may prefer to prepare for the exam. And when you fuel raided a new book decks, Um but you won't be able to book it like the next day or next week. So some places there, you have to wait, like, three weeks or four weeks to just sit for the exam. So my advice is, as you go along with this course, you will have a deadline. So put a little bit of pressure on you to prepare to pass tax them. So just going the website formula rise. We did check out the prices and everything for you. Look, our area in the in the good luck. The exam tips at exam centre. A few choice. Make sure you take with you a suitable photographic identification. This is a must to be able to take the accent. Verification will be carried out there and then So a failure to comply with these means the examination Board We were told the candidates results and to satisfy a Terek. Evidence has been provided in Authenticated a representative from the IRS. Two Q B. If you are in UK, you'll be BCS Aled Exam Centre. We were conducting exam. If it's in paper, some sentenced to provided like that. And if it's computer based, you will be conducted to the desk where you will be locked in specifically to US exam. There's my be cameras to observe you. So just in case you're tempted to cheat a brief introduction to how Dex and works and then you off you go. The examination is one hour closed. Both multiple choice Saxon with 40 questions and four options. Bear question. You need 26 out 42 bus, which is 65% in India. Okay, it is a demonstrate by the BCS to the IRS. Two QB syllables a few prime languages, no English. You might have an extra 15 minutes if you have a condition or disability that requires extra time than prior approval of the BCS is required for information off eligibility criteria. Please visit BCS on I s to keep the website to help you prepare for the accent a day off each section, there's a quiz related to the state section s so you don't have to wait into the end to just to do the quiz in the simulation paper for the actual xom. And at the end off oldest sections, there is a practical exam in two simple papers, so you can practice with the questions and answers based on what is likely tohave in the exam based in the I s, too could be syllables. 3. Fundamentals of Testing Section 1: right. My name is Jose. Did the super. They'll be sure knew how to prepare for the ice to you. Except this is the first section. Is the fundamentals off testy? So it's a very basic inflation there at the first level level and after this first section is gonna be a cui's so far of the queen's practice A so much as you can. So the video's gonna be a shark that in villages just specific for you to that you have around and prepare for the exam. So if you're not sure about something, you just go back. Wind watch. I do hope you do possible Ex Im just like I did and the many others has cost. That's Rob. So I'm gonna enjoy the videos. What we learned on these forest section. Well, the first question is, why do we test by retest things? Why would test softer? I'll talk about that. Why the causes off defects on softer while the testers objectives were you looking for? Between differences between testing and bogey, who looks after testing homes after day ballgame while the principles of testing while the activities of testers in databases retesting What about those that means real resources. Triangle as well. Talk about that. The completion criteria. One. These tasks done what you have to do. Reports static and dynamic testing. Testing dependence is, and finally, code of ethics off a software testing. Okay, so the first question why testing is necessary? Well, people make mistakes. Do it availability. But that is also other pressures. For example, attention to the two time call strains lack of knowledge and experience, so a software program code is present every way. So from banking to a promise to cars, electrical appliance since I'm hitting system and many more as off the failure results in financial loss, waste of time, loss of reputation on some worst cases, injury and even death. So the testes produces the re stuffs after fame, weather causes off softer defects. Old effective starts with a human era, for example, type of misunderstanding, lack of planning, capability, etcetera. So the test will job is to expose the defect by causing a failure before the softer gets to production. So a narrow it's a human may make a mistaken code and our development off document specification so associate area with a human, um, and defects is a problem caused by a narrow. So I found a failure off the system of component caused by a defect. But the failure it's don't only happens to defects, but also environmental conditions, harder problems, etcetera. While the objectives of testing avoidant rectify errors insure that the key function up and done functional requirements examined, testing is not about removing defects, but about how to find developed is about them. Testing is that also about reducing risk real easy, so testing can give you confidence in the quality of the software. If it finds your no defects test can and must be measured. Typical measurements are number of defects found. Number of failure in the given time period, reliability, usability rating and maintain ability. One thing tested has to understand is the difference between testing and big booty. So the broken is a process used to identify in code and correct them. And testing is the exploration off this system in order to find the effect. So you know, dynamic testing. The tester observes the famous and then reports to the developer their local start to giggle investigator Isolated effect. Develop a thesis defect, develop a check fix words that report defeats box to tuna tester, then only them the test retest them. Confirmed the failing phone calls. So what? The fundamental principles of testing. So number one testing showed the president off books. Hence the need of testing number two. Exhaustive testing. It's impossible. I mean, you know, some people say, Oh, you have to test everything, but it's just testing. Older combinations are endless and time consuming. Another three area testing saves money. That's true. As early as possible, you can get on. Testing is better. Number four defect closely happens. So if there is Ah Bergen in one part of the softer the chances are there others that related both nearby so bad. I mind you find one bug. Just look around by the others next to it. Number five. The pesticide paradox continues there, running the same test one fix new, but so if you just repeat, repeat, repeat them on and on and on and on. One doesn't mean you will fix it, But number six Tesla's context dependent. So you know, testing. You need to be basing something you need to be based on requirements and story or something to carry out. You tests number seven softer with not no error is not necessary, ready to be shipped. So does it. Doesn't matches the user or abuses expectations. So you have to ask these questions so no having a row doesn't mean is ready. This is the five fundamental test activities and tasks from planning to test closure. So the first part is that planning and controls for planning to verify the mission of testing control is monitor check progress and take action. 2nd 1 down. Its analysis and design test analysis and test design is the testing objectives to create test conditions and test design. 3rd 1 down is implementation and execution activity where test procedure or scripts are in order, the environment is set up and test that run fourth his evaluation exit crater in reporting activity where test execution is assessed against the defined objectives and finally, is the testicle Closure activities occurs at Project Milestone. Surgeons released completion consolation or maintain its release has bean complete Okay, All this part is a retesting and regression tests. This is a good example of a retest which is a running the test against after they fail and the bug have bean in theory, fixed and regression is the running the test to check the crossing packed off the defect fix in the home function Al Joe system. So he is a good example. This is a logging from a website. So let's say someone's identify a bug. Are these section here to the state signing? And then the defect of bug is being raised person to Death Team. They fixed it and the past back to fixed to the testing, testing rules and retest. And that that section is fix and then right, So after that, after this is being released, well, you have to do its part off your aggression Tests of aggression park. You test everything else just to double check and see if that fix has not may affect the order functional. It's next to it. The results triangle. You might have heard this before. In any other projects. This'll is used in the development project. You you will hear, hear about these some point in places you work and on my s two Q B foundation. This is part off the exam, so it's good to remember. Know that this is easy to remember. So they're triangle refers to time, cost and quality. You can't have them off only picture. So you were given the option off fast, good and cheap until to pick any two. So he in this triangle fast the first time required to deliver the product. Good is the quality of the final product, and cheap refers to the total cost of the design and building the problem. So the triangle here reflects the fact that the three properties off the projects I inter related and it's not possible to optimize all three. When were you always suffer. In other words, you have three options on this summarizes quite nicely, so designed something quickly and into our high standard. But then you will not be cheap. Designed something quickly and cheaply. But you will not be high quality and design something with high quality and typically, but it will take a relatively longer time to complete the project. So here we go. Now you know the resource triangle. Oh, in this part, you're talking about completion criteria when he's done criteria you set at the beginning of the project that the terms when it's safe to stop Tessie except criteria leads connected to the test coverage test is designed. Technique adopted risk level off process varies from one test left, so it's best five coverage has been achieved. No show stoppers are critical defects. There are very few know median of low bar defects that don't affect the users. Plastic Club. If exit bacterial has no met the test to be stopped, the city criteria has to be re bumped. All the time should be extended for test based on the quality of the product. Any changes to the test completion material must be documented and signed off by the stakeholders and the test where can be released upon successful completion off the exits criteria. So here we go. Now you know about the exit criteria, the completion criteria when you taking out tests. Okay, this is a static and dynamic testing or the difference between them, too. So it's static testing. Red Accord is not exercise, for example, in documents, specifications, analysis, reviews. Even, um, code itself can be done as review by humans carrying out money, examination, off documents or static analysis off the code in software mode models by using automation tubes and dynamic kind of testing that exercise the problem with some test data. Dynamic testing is performed by executing softer under test and comparing actual with expected results. The definition offer a test indefinite. It's It's quite important, so developers are listen definite. Where is outsourced? Testing companies are more independent because they don't take defects. The screensaver so several levels off indefinite can be defined as shown below test designed by the persons who wrote to softer in the test. So this is the least you know, independent test designed by another press with the development team test designed by a person from a different organization. Group of independent testing or test special specialists and, for example, usability performance tester. And the more likely want to be good is a test designed by a person from a different organization or company outsourcing or certification by external body so he can identify which one's the. They're more likely to be the least independence under the more definite and testers. When you decide to become a softer tester and you go for the eyes to kill the excellent and you pass, you have to comply with the code of ethics decided by the I esteem to be, I think it's quite important. I think those elements here describe it. It's it's down to individual. But you might do these already and it is known to you won't fix the only way to work with people. We decline, I will read out. You can pause and read yourself if I'm reading too fast. But basically these this far, as described on top, its involvement and soft and softer testing neighbors, individuals to learn confrontation, privileged information. So therefore, code of ethics is necessary, so public testers shall worked consistently with the public interest quiet and employer test. A sharp walked in a minute, I reason, invested interesting about the client and employer considerably to put interest product testers shall ensure that the deliver, but they provide on the problem senses and they test make the highest professional stunt impossible. Goodman testers shall maintain integrity and in evidence in their professional judgment management, test manager and leader shall subscribe to and promote on ethical approach to the management. Off the soft test professional testers showered was the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with people getting dressed. Colleagues test the shall be factual in so supportive of the colleagues and promote cooperation with softer developers. Self That's the shell participating, lifelong learning regarding the practice off the profession and shall promote on meth co approach to the practice off the profession. Now you made it you completely first section. So first sexual out of six. And this is while we you've learned so far. I mean, you know, you learned a bunch off the information that's gonna be beneficial for you. I ask, too. Could be except I'm proud of you. Very good. So this is what you learned so far why testing is necessary. Common causes off something defects. What is Tess's objectives? Differences between testing and debugging for Mementos, principles of testing five filament attests activities and task from plenty to closure. Why retesting is one of the most important tasks in testing Resource triangle. Remember that time, money and quality? You can only have two definition off completion criteria when the project is ended, when card carry out static and dynamic testing. Why is important to get testing indefinite? It's and why Code of ethics it's necessary. So if you can answer all these questions and that you can refresh you memory on all the topics we discussed about. Remember, you can always go back. You can rewind the DVDs and watch it all over again if you didn't understand something. Okay? How The first section ended, so I won't say thank you for you, Teoh. You know to complete the first section and it comes to down to these end it's 25 to go. So this is the first part so hung in there is so much more to to come. So now I just wanted to make sure that you are happy with you learned so far And Teoh verify why you learned why you understood I have attached a cui's down below So there must be a link there a section where you can get the Cui's and that you can download And you can practice Nick Waste based on this first section on Lee eso if you have any questions, please to make questions the almost soon as I can any comments and criticism as well, I believe that everything you do is that working progress so things that I can improve here and make it better as well. Please let me know as well I'll be grateful for that. And if you really like it. So thumbs up. Click there when you like, and share with your friends and colleagues or who? Someone you may think that wanted to watch these videos and same as you and myself. This possible bias to could be. Except I just want to say thank you. Thank you. Thank you. 4. Testing Throughout the Software Life Cycle Section 2: Hi, my name's are getting a super and I'll be showing you how to prepare for the guys to be exempt. This is the second section. So if you watch the first section well done, so stick to the second section. Now, in this time around, I will be talking about the testing throughout the software life cycle and at the end of the section, as well as the same of the first section of Be Heaven sharing some queens so you can practice about these sexual only so you can help you fix on your memory. One learning so far so hung in there and people bad because there's so much more videos that to come. But I hope you enjoy. And again the leaders are short, sharp vision so you can go in and you can always go back and look at the specific sexual. If you didn't understand, it can always drop the comment question or majorly, Chris, this is not about being sexually. That will help me that recruited for you. So under that, let's go. Okay, guys, this is the beginning off the second section. So what? We will learn on this second section so this second section, I will be talking about the software test methodologies. You know, like Walter fall the model in integrity like job. What is unit or component system testing? What is the integration part off the testing? The system testing and the acceptance testing means the differences between functional and nonfunctional testing. What is the structural testing change related, Destined and maintains testing. Okay, lifecycle mothers so is developed. It is divided by I asked to be instructions is divided into two sections which is a sequential lifecycle motors and in tentative in from nature like type of life cycle motors . I my experience. I have used a theme Abu and the waterfall and also our job as well. It depends on the project. Um, but these things will fall on the eyes to keep the extremities were also pay attention on this run. So in the sequential lifestyle lifecycle models, the the entire system is building the sig single segments of activities that successively define beauty test and implement The softer the examples are waterfall structured systems analysis and design method at the team order When the date of your border there damn others is rather those are the more more common ones. Interrogative increment org Life cycle moderns Interpretive incremental devil of modern systems are building a series of sharp development cycles which enable working systems in a number off separate increments that can later be integrated together. Our John Development is attempt for several methodologies include scrum crystal clear in many more the most common one. You see, it's our judges scrum Each has its specific approach but oh share the common vision and core values as a continues planning, testing integration for the project and software is adaptable and the day old focused on empowering people to collaborate and make decisions together quickly and effectively Again . It's still about the life cycle motives, but just contest to be more into the actual names that you see more often. Testing does not exist in isolation, so test activities are related to softer development activities. Different development Lifecycle models, member acknowledges, need different approach to testing. There are many assistant development lifecycle mothers which fall into two main categories . The Sequin show like Committed before Walter Far and the Model and the interpretive Incremental Our child, it's ah you know it's a rapid application development to can be defined as a rational, unified process. Extreme programming scram dynamic system development method So you see all these short names out there, the most common ones you here. It's a waterfall, which is a node way off doing at that apartment. The mado on our joy. Here's an example off Walter phone model. As you can see here, the shape is that it's like a waterfall. So the life second through which which project goes as sequential linear design process Dessens carried out at the end. So that's Ah, it's no. Every idea was remitted on the first section that nearly their stage test Inis is better than later. Stage on DSO involves these sequined six sequins, initiation another since the sign beauty in test, then deploy. So this is the traditional approach to assistant development. Each stage is quite separate, card up by specialists and each most complete before the max begins a chest A don't puts the deliverable, which is important to the next. All testing is done at the end after the Congress developed. Therefore, this model does not allow for a retesting of recommending in the principal's area so much more detailed. The model in this section, you can see a bit more in details each stage and how we the static side related to the dynamic side from the beginning to the end off the delivered product. So there are many variations off the motor. We've been slightly different numbers and description off levels. The highest IQ Q B from the ships and cynical refers to our mother with former test levels , which is a ah component integration system and acceptance. But you know these in the section one and shows we're gonna describe, um next road level it is. Demonstration described a few modern five levels off testing. Instead, Component testing component integration, testing, system testing says integration, testing, acceptance, testing. So basically each side correspond to the other side on DSO abuses. Requirement. So at the end of the acceptances, the test is gonna have to refer back to the business requirements and see those those down matches the abusing requirement and so one. He's a better presentation off the food theme audio. Concede more more details. Like I explained, it produces lights the each each section off the static off the preparation off. This investigation is related to testing test inside So the first love is that user requirement matches with acceptance testing. So when the problem is ready, ready to release public, he has too much business requirements. Seizing more uses want So often it wasn't requirement the interface specifications related to systems integration testing the assistant specifications, which is after taking specifications. Those in marches were consistent testing, so that testing call relates to that and all my home. So the design specification component integration, tax and component specifications component testing. So you see there's loads office static testing is a chance that as early as possible that the test is it's a related Teoh requirements and specifications. Assume as he jumps in into these sections here, um, Priore to the code area when develop is a statue to code, it's better because then you can help identifying raise questions like we tested. Do we had champion in asking questions, and that those questions can lead to a better improvement in These are in this section once they start to goad, then we can start to test and then moving on to the dynamic testing where you're gonna be more Hunt's on deck, which is a Capulets testing and then the component integration testing in this system testing the system integration tests. And then finally, the acceptance testament. So in furthermore around the video is you're going to see you more details to be more about all of those. This is the the motor. It does have similarities with the sequential method, as in, you know, in Walter Far, the team older includes a number of different testing fibers, which will respond to a development stage you see begins with requirements. Does the oldest static, then coding and then dynamic testing and the program is ready. Eso these these method. I like these method as well, because the allows you test actives to be fully integrated with the other tasks in a project life psycho meaning cycle show the purples off each test level and showed importance off catching defects. Nearly the the moto socials. How ecstatic testing can be carried out during the development stage before the code is reaching. So just before the cooling are here, these sexual I'll be explained. More details in excess lied. He's you know you can You can help you identify before stock to code, and you can help you testing on the static at the document level and you know you can help you identify area there bugs and faults in a room. Is there yes possible? Okay, this is my favorite one, which is our giant so interrogative incremental. Our job models softer, designed modern, where these stages are going opposite to the water for method testing. Koko's and sparkle feature sprained. So our job development is on hold relative for several in tentative and incremental softer development methodologies. The most broke large and that pathologies I scrum crystal clear, experiencing extreme programming de Sdm and FDD. So typically, development teams work closely together with fewer formal documents and more emphasis on face to face communication. This minimizes over a risk, and that law allows the project at up to changes quickly. So I like that because it's more off based on you experience, and it's more exploratory and the less documentation to go through and and also the fact that you more interacted a lot more with each other. Hold these stakeholders involved on the development project. He's an example of our drug, so the project is dividing two tasks and that each task this is dividing two springs into a time box into some places are two weeks of springs. And within these two weeks, you get the requirement off with development featuring gonna develop the design and you get the to code and then wildly code in a new test. And then you test just thes thesis part off off the future decided that is gonna be developed within these two weeks. So the team decides, um, what they're gonna do in this time life in this time box. So I'm saying two weeks, but this is based on the experience on other projects. But it could be any in the mall more weeks or last week's, then that this is the typical timeline, the most projects that worked with before. So then why does it? Once you developed a little bit within these time box, then you develop the next one. So you joined them together. But then you develop the next one and you will increment on and on and on it on to you. You get the whole package, the whole problem. Teoh Death now at the unit or component testing, testing video units are pieces off cold for a system. The aim off component testing is to determine whether is on in video function, works properly in isolation before integrate with the system, then combine it with other components. Component testing is different from on later test stage, as it is locked them by testers, but but by developers off the code in the developers environment. Using I D. Like intelligent, they begin tools and test frameworks, incorporating stubs and drivers as an example. In the model method, Complete specification components test Levin unit is where is located at. So if you remember, the Modern showed earlier, so they called review. Then they do a cooled unit. And then I had a bunch of code unit, which is small parts off a component. And then this component. It's really for to be tested. Okay, wants the unit becomes a component and then various components. It's just started to join together. Then we have the integration testing, so it's performative very sure that two models operate together correctly. The aim is to test all major interfaces and interactions between the individual components and to uncover communication failures between components. It should not test differential knowledge within the component, but this, you know, by this time has already been done by the component testing. I showed that on the previous video only focus on how to communicate with each other. It is normally performed by devil A presented the development environment. So in the if you look back in the the model document the design specifications component integration test that shows which, 11 days after the component integration testing that this is the system testing. So, as you can see on this example, the system texting it's ah, it's the joint to get off the unit and the components on after the components into great each other to the test in this system, test the various parts of the application. Work together within a system. Work this test. Test the behavior off end to and integrated system as defined by the scope off a development project. It is usually conducted by independent tests, since intestine may include test based on risks requirement business processes, use the case or high level text descriptions. Motives are assistant behavior, interaction with the operational system and system resources. The test environment should be as close to the production environment as possible. You know the to minimize the risk off environment specific fail not being found in test. So if you refer back to the the model document, you can see these interaction of these key points are the system specifications. This is some testing system integration testing. So once the system is has its components ready, he will have to look with all the system. So it's most likely that the system you have to connect internally with other systems or other organizations externally. So the purpose of the system integration test is too exposed effects and interfaces and interactions between systems and between hardware and software, so it is normally found out. Also, system test is complete by indefinite system testers in a near live environment exactly like tea. When testing pollutes prefixed there no systems test is making sure only the own side off interface, which my because it has a risk, as the testes is, may be linked to Teoh extend production system so they're always boundaries around that work. Floyd Implementation of business process may involve a series of systems where across platforms issue, you know, issues may be significant. So here's an example. Service system test was being loved that might connect with a legacy system on road systems that there's a connection between band. There will be all their consistence. There will be external connection with the, you know, over the toilet, so extend of systems or databases, but that there will be a database internally as well. So the test will be testing. Oh, the boundaries of the inning outs off the system on the test And this part you're talking about acceptance, testing, except in assisted to determine whether the problem team did satisfies the specifications and users start requires us the purpose off acceptance testing is to establish confidence, and may focus is ensuring his feet for purpose, not fighting. Exceptions can be carried out by re abuses users or body independent testing representing users. Exceptions, Testing is normally defining stage of testing before deployment. So in the the more the document, you see that on the line of them the first line on the static side, which is abusing requirement, the last line on the motor. It's the acceptance testing. So in these stations, all the exception stashing is Why are you here? U T u 18 is another name, you know, it's a user acceptance test. So Dustin can be also called because you 18 we can't know talking about functional testing testing, rather system does, based on analysis Office specified requirements. Functional testing is concerned with what this is the most dude to achieve its objectives as defining dosing requirements. Fortunato's press pretensions music is this. Abuses process. Models etcetera, it considered extend our behavior of the softer hence is nomads. Black box text testing. Functional testing is usually associated with data manipulation. Search as input, validation, processing, storage and output. This is as opposed to functional those a moment functional testing Israel. It's a testing how well this is amidst their required required softer character excuses, such as performance and usability. We test the attributes off a system that do not relate to functionality. It is concerned with how our system works. It considers constraints on the functionality on how how Austin who aware of fusion, can take place also to present. Here we have the black box testing on DSO. It's an important goes through the black box and have the output. So the non functional testing includes performs knowed stress, usability, accessibility, maintain ability, reliability and portability. So the next is a structural testing It's a testing that takes into account the internal mechanisms. The structure off a system or component types include brunch, testing, path testing, statement testing. So to represent way of the white box tests in here. So you have unequal. Till then, you be able to see the code and how the system is there. Blocked internally in the UK, you get the output, so you call their white box test. In so structural testing, known as white box tessie, it is sometimes called glass box as well usually follows the specifications based test station. Throughout, there's off coverage, full structure testing. These Barrett thought thorough but time consuming. And it's often mandated in safety critical systems such as life support machines. Coverage measurement applies at all levels as any aspect off. A system which can be representing stripped of diagram can be used as the basis for structure testing. So program called design coverage, off statement decisions and path component hierarchy diagram covered off component interfaces and Web pages is true. To cover it off page navigation change related testing, testing a system following modification or corrections could retesting and regression test . This is testing falling that change or fixed to the softer or environment. He should involve two types of test retesting and regression test. So retesting is just a confirmation off a rear Enel fixed. The developer has done so within this contacts here. This example. So let's say this Remember me is broken, and then you raises a book and the developer fix it. Then the devil refer back to you was a tester and then the test ago and retest and close the book. And after this is big fixed and the developer releases all these future here everything, then you have to do a regression test. The regression test is just to test a previous program that has been working, but there's no other problems due to one burger, one defect that has maybe introduced other defects around the area. So an estimated 20 to 50% of changes introduced new defects, or it's always you bought into the regression test Priore to release the softer it may be there from it out. All their home test levels and types include functional, non functional and structural testing. Regression should take place that always stays. Are testing after functional improvement or repair has bean done So in most places, the companies that develop maintain groans and automation testing. This is, Ah, gun sniper for the new testes, so make sure you follow my blog's for other courses specifically in automation is I'll be sharing some more more things so retested. The regression tests should be repeatable so they can rerun every time that is change or fix. So for you, go to save time on the automation can be on essential part off off, off these t Harris off change related testing. So even though automation is great, it's not full submitted to manual testing. That's not 100% information tests can be achieved and he shouldn't be achieved. What is maintainers testing? Also, this after is deployed. The system can go running for years or even decades. So during this time, their personal system, the configuration data of the environment. You know often that is, some corrections can be changed. You can be extended. So the testing off these changes is called maintenance testing, and it's triggered by plant enhancements or great to abuse and systems. Corrective in the emergency change changes to the operational operating environment. Such a system upgrades upgrade of commercial off the shelf. Softer migration off applications from one platform to another. Retirement off legacy software system. So in these graphic here representing, you know, they the life system. But in the life system, there will be some new change You need to investigate. And you need to assessing park to change the wrists in the wedding. These life system, you select some key. Full Shalala. Jeez, that you include The new regression test back we talked about regression tests prove is late. And the dust. That's how we Costas maintainers testing. Okay, this is a review off. What you learned on these section. So this is the end off the section two. Um, so far we talked about a waterfall model. The more do a terror, it'd model, You know, the agile type methodology we talked about a unit or component testing integration, testing system, testing, doctor about acceptance. Destine also called you 80. What it means functional testing. None. Functional testing, structural testing change, relate testing. And finally, the maintainers tested. So you need to Ah, refreshing image. Just go back, revert back to the videos on book to that specific area, and we now complete this section too. Well done. Okay, first of all, when I say well done. So you complete the second section. So the 1st 1 was done now the 2nd 1 So don't forget to use the queen's down below. The Queen's is important, so you can fix what you learn on about the section of your memory Again. If you have any questions, send me questions throughout the formal or semi contact down below. I would be interested, as I 10 questions related to the section and also have any comments. How help to? Well, he's helped you anything. Share your college people benefit. 5. Static Testing Section 3: Hi. My name is Roger the Super, and I'll be showing you how to pass on the eyes to Q B except and this is section three. So in these sexual talking about ecstatic testing, we'll be covering all the elements off static testing. Okay, so hang in there, watch the videos. Let's get it started. So what? What we will learn in these third section. We'll talk. We're gonna talk about you. Static testing techniques, The importance off reviews, typical types of defects, founding reviews carried out, a basic and formal review roles and types of reviews. So we're gonna talk about the differences between them, which is informal. Walk through technical and inspection reviews. While this successfactors off reviews, what is the static analysis? The benefits of reviews Use office static analysis tools. Let's go static testing techniques. So as you can see these graphic here, there's a difference between, uh, sorry to carry out. I started testing. It's necessary, so I would probably focus now easy type of static tested, divided between reviews, walked rooms and inspections, and the later point we're gonna talk about dynamic testing, you probably hear more about functional conventional unit test integration system tests, So our focus now reviews inspection. So static testing is the examination off program source source, guard or other documentation without execution after code find defect so the two types off static intestines are reviewed. Static analysis. So reviews is done by Hugh. You know the money world insemination off the document. Static analysis is done by tools is the automated analysis off source code in software modules so as opposed to dynamic setting, with which is performed by executing softer on the test and comparing the action the expected results. So reviews really started analysis have the same objective as dynamic Testing for in different statue testing is a compliment, Technique finds causes the failures defects directly, while dynamic testing finds failures, which made calls okay reviews. So, as you can see in these graph representation, which looks like it's spaghetti, I'll try to use as much as images as I can, as I believe it can help you memorize and think about. So this. It's a riffle idea off everything involved in the development process of software, so pretty much anything can be reviewed in order to improve and find effects and improve the software so a typical written Project Documentos software product that can be reviewed a business requirements functionally specifications. A system the database designs source code can be reviewed. A grotesque plums test cases Scripps and use a guy to help text are being used to support the development and the day actually user itself. Ah, Web pages. So, as you can see, pretty much anything can be reviewed. Continuing on reviews The benefits off review knows there that's supposed to be simple, easier and cheaper to fix, period. So any defect, detection and correction, increased development, productivity, reduce development costs and time skins. Fewer defects in code reduced time and cost off dynamic testing improve communication between testers, analysts, developers and users. So as soon as you can tell these graphic here, uh, what it effects are more likely to be introduced. So requirements and you send in a day coding Thus, Thus, where is more likely to happen are the integration Blair's testing section, you know, like in you 80 and the support when the products has already been gone so as their leases as you start in requirements and Cody was better types off defects, founding reviews, so they must reviews is to check and improve the quality of for project products such as verification, validation off documents against the specifications and its standards. Consistence with produces documents and completeness and conformance to standards. So basically, the aero, which is related to human so human make Eros omissions, additions, inconsistencies on big Witter's readability, terminology, spelling Gramma layout and instructor. So those are the key things that you look at when you doing a review now that to have an idea what you're looking for in a review. So this is the basic review process. A good review will also include casual analysis to learn from issues and bring out process improvement by involving a number of reviews in a controlled minor contentious that can be Richard it on subjects such as a best design practice. So in these sh rt shows that a document on the review is stupid, then review is identify issues and informed the author. And then the author decides on actions to taken open eight as needed. So reviews are better than dynamic testing at finance, um, types off defects such as checking these standards, identifying consistencies in requirements and designs, assessing maintain ability in checking interface specifications. Now that's part off the review. The formal review process. The way review works depends on the agreed objectives. The intention is to find defects, gain understanding that, OK, testers and the new team members or discussions and that decision by consensus. So here's ah, typical former review activity. So ah so first is a planning than a kickoff than Individual Preparation Review Meeting Real work Follow up. This will fall on the X er believe. Trust me So planning Moderator defined the criteria and what to review. Allocate robes, defined entry and exit. Great area kick off Document distributed to reviews 123 days in advance. Objectives, process and documents. Explain to participants individual preparation of reviewers. Read and note any potential defects. Questions and comments. Compare product two predecessors. Product standards guidelines and Best practices Review. Meeting participants discussed the document notes, defects and log findings. Moderators ensure discussion is captain track and remaining objective. Some reviews on the defect is discussion. Other may discussion alternative solutions. We work following the meeting. The Outer corrects the documents based on the defects found and new Pilate. The status, the effect and the finally the follow up moderators. Insurance Documented is now corrected and collected. Metrics. Searches, time spent reviewing defect density and breakdown defects by abuses. Arial severity. So this information will be used to find recurring issues in this topic. A review role. So why the rolls off individuals working on the review process? So manager moderator out, the reviewers scribe. So what did they do? So manager decide what to review, allocate time in the terms or whether objectives have been met. Then the moderator or leader managed the team include planning, motivating, facilitate meetings, training reviewers and monitoring the process. I also record some a result for the follow up action, and then they also prepares the material to be reviewed, participates in discussions during the review meetings and incorporate the agreed changed afterwards. And the reviewers, as known as check cares or inspectors, is responsible for finding defects. So it stakeholders should have technical abusiveness background, ideally from different areas and focus such as business users, developers, analysts, ICTY operators, testers and compliance officers. And they describe or recorder documents, old issues, problems and open points that were identified during the meeting. So in this graph, a representation off the four types of review. So on top of the graph informal then after that walk through, then technical review, then inspection. So these indicates the level off formality so informal has low formality and as you get towards the inspection, then you have much more higher formality. So that is in mind the four types of review Informal woke through technical review any inspection continuing with the fall types off review in more detail. So the informal means 1 to 1 discussion with no formal process, for example, but it reveals power programming design Review Oh, code by a technical team leader. So walk through lad by day offer Taking you through the scenarios. Dry runs and peer group use foreign highly visual via storyboard in a work flows etcetera. Seen as a more passive approach. Presenting the information. Finding the effects but not proposing solution opportunity for testers analyze in the query the document so technical review its AH defined defect detection process involving both Pierre and technical experts led by moderator and very from informal to very formal. The goal is to review for from technical and specialist viewpoint to discuss make decision , evaluate alternatives, find effect, solve technical problems and checked for conformity to specifications, plans, regulations and standards. And finally, the inspection. It's Ah very thorough formal process designed to find defects in the documents and problem source code using rules, checklist and entry and exit criteria. Inspection is led by trained moderator, also involved for casual analysis. Look at common causes off defects and provides feedback to improve future development in the inspection process. Okay to representing Former Review. Ah made up these the shot. So the main purpose is to find defects and uses no formal process. So he's the out there so they author creates a new review. Identify what's need to be reviewed, and then it's The item is ready for reviews, and it passed bus onto the reviewer so that one off the reviewers can be a tester. So the review examine of review items and log anomalies a long time spending the review and then progressed the notification. And then they also a examine fixed, rejected anomalies and hustling in to review Revere complete again. And then they also examined fix, rejects, anomaly and then mark. The review is a complete, so I walk through a walk through are very useful for highly visual products by storyboard work flows to etcetera. So what through should find defects but not purple solutions. So this is the author first asked after the meeting. So this is graphic. It just represent one off the visual walk through. You would see out there when you walk. Typically working as a tested technical review a bit more in depth. Enable decision making, finding the effects, solving technical problems and checking conformance off documents. So there's a specialist of viewpoint is to discuss, make decisions, evaluate alternatives, find the effects, solve technical problems. So a check conformance to two was specifications, plans, regulations and standards. So the technical specialists should be someone like a technical architect. Data design compliance officer. A system a demonstrator again really quick about the inspection. So the main purpose is to find the effects and process improvement. The inspection process is a very thorough formal process designed to detect defects and documents and program source code using rules, checklist and entry except criteria. He's a I graphic to represent these, so you have an idea. So it's planning and overview, individual preparation, inspection, meeting, rework, and then if it needs to go back again. Individual preparation, inspection, meeting, rework and then follow up. And then you do, in our analysis off inspection and then you complete. So what? The success factors for reviews. So for any type of review to be successful, it must have clear pray, define objectives and must involve the right paper for the review objectives. These include testers who are valued reviewers and can contribute to the review and also learn about the product, which enables them to prepare. Test is a really so each review should have pre defined and agreed objective. Any defects should be welcomes collected in the half. Most players off trust AH, techniques suitable to work product type, emphasis on learning and management support. So those are they success? Key points for any review process. You engage, though static analysis so used to find the effects and software source code in softer motors or the objective off static analysis to find defects and in software source code and softer murders but not written documents. It requires the use off tools and is performed without actually executing the software being examined by the two. So it's static analysis find effects rather than failures, so static analysis does not test from she analogy, but can locate a structural defects that are hard to find. Dynamic testing. So he is an example. So I looking code. So if you had these looking code working on the system, you will not flag as a failure defect because he will continually work, as is being written. But if you dio I say ecstatic analysis on it, then you do identify this loop and then you can prevent it to happen before the code is actually execute is an example of the benefits office static analysis So early detection off issues borrow to test the execution. Early warnings about suspicious code or design identification off defects not easily found by a dynamic testing. So he improved and maintain ability and is a prevention off defects. So in this example, the statement cannot drive. We'll never be executed as the condition is over 18. We always be true. So it's on unreachable code in a static analysis and the much more easy to identify these other than continuing on the benefits off the static analysis. Here's another example of the typical problems at a data flow analyzer with detect so you see a, B, E and F is defined, but like F is no used and the X C X is not defined. So, uh, this is the kind of things that tester should be looking at, so there's some definitions in there on this code. But there's some others that is used in the code but has not been defined according to these example. So use off static analysis troops, so it's static. Analysis tools are typically used by developers to check against the pre defined rules off programming standards so before during component units and integration testing made off. These tools provide graphical representation off the code, and this can be useful for testers to help pinpoint where are complex source code, which might indicate possible defect clustering, helping you focus for the dynamic testing so you can in a This is a graphical representation off a static analysis to so the decoders, they they code the program, and you can kind of have a preview off the program and then some programs. Pain point, where there is a some critical heavy code that you can expert and looking into a section like, for example, he If this was a coda graphic code so you could just, like, highlighted these number four. And then he will be able to see the codes on these in the and some. Some off the tools can actually indicate. If it's it's something critical on these code and it can help you. Focal song on the A specific area and specific feature now reviewing while you learned on this section. So he comes to an end. The Section three. Well done. So this is what you learn So far, so did the two main static techniques we talked about that we talked about reviews. Way talked about types of defects on the reviews, so basic review process. FALBO REVIEW. Paul says Renew Rome's Paul types of Redus Way talked about to follow review. My dad talked about walking review, technical review, inspection, thesis obsessed factors for reviews, then static analysis and its benefits. And finally, a man we used, uh uh, how we can use this static analysis to or new a benefit as a test. Okay, well done. So you made the halfway mark. So you complete the first, the second, the third section. So allow you could get the static testing. So make sure you down below and again the attachment, please on, you know, practice with because it helps you memorize section that focus on Not especially now that you're just complete because you know, you lovers fresh anything so well done. So now three more to go Don't forget to make any questions down below on the regulated, making a comment around criticisms that help me thes sectional my skills and show you is gonna be so much Roman Teoh. But these eyes to be a promise you, Andi, if you really like it, you know, comes up and you say I like it. And I'm gonna share with my friends chairman from the other guys that, you know, move benefit from it as much as I did. And you because you pass a law passed. So you honestly? Okay, so move on by 6. Test Design Techniques Section 4: Hi, but it was rejected a super. And this is the section. Far is the test design techniques. So make sure you watch all the videos. They again Senate grabbers. They shot you do so you can always go back to each different sections watching over over again. Make sure you golden way to the end. Very gonna find some quizzes there. They can practice the section, make sure you memorize and familiarize me. Been section and then you you define you possibly accent Aziz. One of you follow these all the district has a father bequeathed practice, practice, practice, you find. So what, We're gonna be talking about this for a section we're gonna be talking about Identified test conditions. Butte test gazes about test procedure? No. The test coverage task is designed technics, black box, white box and experience based techniques going to talk about specifications based techniques in the black in the black box option structure based technique. An experience based technique in more death. The test development process. The test development processes a breakdown off the analysis and design phase discussed in section one. He couldn't been done in different ways from very informal with leader or no documentation or very formal. The level formality depends on the context of testing, including the maturity of testing and development processes, time constraints, safety or regulatory requirements and the people involved. So the test of women process looking at the formal test development processes. There are three main steps. Analyze the test bases, identified the test conditions and document them in the test design specifications, then designed the test cases required to test the test conditions and document them. In the test case, Specification imbued the test procedure for executing the test cases in the document them in the test procedures specifications. So in these graphic years of the test base, analyze tests and then test design, specification and design and test cases specifications and viewed Caspersen stratification . Then you can actually test execution I triple E 8 to 9. They standard for softer test documents. They started for softer test documentation. Describes the content off eight documents to be produced during the softer Texas preparation of tests. The test flown so plan how to test may proceed then the test design specifications to decide what needs to be tested and then the testes specification, which has created test to be run. The test procedure described how the test is our room. Then the test item transmission report specified the items released for the testing and then after the preparation and it is ruining the test. So as you room the test, you need the test log. So recorded details off the test is in time order and then the testings then retorts, This is where you record the details off events that need to be investigated like bugs on incidents. And then, after the ruling the test, you need to do the completion of intestines of the test. Summary report summarizes and evaluates the tests. Continuing with the I three bully 8 to 9 is standard fall, softer test documents this section. I'll be describing the three specifications documents. The other documents will be covered later. So the test design specifications of documents the test a condition. So the covert items for test item, the detailed test approach and the associative high level test cases and then the test case specifications is the documents a set off test stations, the objectives the foods test actions, expected resumes and the executions, bread conditions for test item, and then the test procedures specifications since the documents, the signals off actions for the execution off the test. If the test is to be executed. Mannelly it is called the test procedure. And if it is executed by automated tools, which is called the test script, here is a graphical representation off the test phases. So the high level the master test plan and so the test blood are the Tesla level. You be, you know, document in the unit, test the integration test, this system AC sentence, test them intends test and then following down the three topics we're gonna be talking about. Mostly on these section is the test design specifications. The test case specifications, test procedures sold its best design specifications. It's the where day the test phases are of the test design unit test than the test design integration test. The test designed system acceptance test and the test design maintenance test and then following after the, uh, the the test cases. This is where you're gonna be, ah, breaking down into test cases. So test cases. 12345 and so one. And in the test procedures. So how you gonna take these test cases and and pursued with the tests and then the actual test execution. So, based on all these information above you, you go in and proceed with the execution and then at the end, you will provide the test logs the testings than to report all the books that you found and then at the end when iso complete than the test plan. Execution summary report So about a test condition a night, um, or event of a component or system that could be verified about one or more test cases at a test design specifications contains test condition and high level cases. Example. The system must only allow valid registered customers stored. This give this condition such as valid customer could invited to Costa Mikel registered Kozma known registered custom. This will then be combining two high level tsk searchers. The input off a valid registered custom echoed the input off. Valid former but not registered Costa Mako test case test cases, a set off input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution all across conditions such as to exercise apart off code Test cases can be thought of as a combination off elements like input values one or more test conditions already grouped into high level test cases. Execution preconditions estate off the system tire to test the execution data requirements . Both input and are red on the system. Expected results such as the screen display ever aero display data storage and execution post conditions. A stage off system after the test execution. So he's a simple table showing test case based on the like on example a described above. So the test condition versus the input off a valid register Christmas code. So the import value, for example, a BZ reserves there one and then the practice condition is a customer A visas years or runs up databases and expect results. Customer details displayed in a post condition no change traceability, test conditions and test cases should be linked to the requirement to provide traceability . The wind number system is widely using for for this type of faith off task. So 1.12 point mom so traceability is a bi directional, so it shows that H requirements is are adequately covered by the tests on beach test has a purpose related to the root requirement. So he's an example, said they tested requirements, becoming 24 then across Restaurant Street. The test conditions under sections on a section is there on the like a child section, and they cross reference with the test cases well, so all of them should co relate with each other. Test procedure. Test procedures. A sequence of faction for the execution of the test. He should contains all restrictions for running the test cases. It's rented, test data is and how to load it, looking to set test system step by step instructions to run the test cases where in house recording and check the test results. Action to take to finish test and backup data. So test cases may be grouped together in a single test procedure. But it is often simpler to write a separate test pursued for each test case. He's an example of a test procedure. So, uh, step number one action. So logging with the user I d. For example, ABC one to free the password on Did they expect? Result is main menu displayed, so this is a very typical table used for testing, so you have the number of steps, you have the actions and you have next expected results off the action. And, ah, if if anything happens that it's out off these expected result, then you write on actual result. Make some notes reasons to know the test coverage. So here's an example. Test completion status. So what it does is it provide a quantitative measure off the quality of the testing that has been done so far, so provides a way of estimating how much more testing is needed. Test Execution schedule. The execution schedule is not part off the ID triple We h 29 standard, but it is widely used by testers. So the other off institution can be based on a logical technical dependencies. Off test cases. Order of business processes off functions, prioritization due to risk analysis, test cycles or phases for regression testing and availability of test environmental hardware. So the virus test procedures and ultimate test scripts are so subsequently formed into a test execution schedule that finds the order in which they executed. So you would have like a test case and then you have a bunch of other test cases that you wanted to run, but within these group of test cases than you will have ah priority to so bus for example, Number five and the you wanted to go ahead and test test case number four due to and l z off. These, um, already mentioned, although that you might feel like to do it now. Getting into the three categories off test case designed techniques. So the purpose off a test designed technique is to identify test conditions, tests, cases and test data. So the known black box technique white box technique can experience based techniques, so we're gonna talk more about definitely in the next future. It's likes, but he is a very, very similarly about black box techniques. President. He's also called specifications based is a way off selecting the test conditions, test cases or test data based on the analysis of documentation. It takes an extended view off, the softer so you don't see internally. You just see outside us by called black box you had internally and that the white box technique also called as they stripped it based. These were retested doors and Alice on analysis said the eternally structure off the component of the system. So it's wide box because you can actually see the codes and consider structure how the developers I mean that the software and the other a designed technique is the experienced based technique. It uses the knowledge, skill and expertise off testis to the test cases. So under the design, then you you see key elements off what to look for when you do the the test is design, So functionality message, professionalism, branding, accessibility, engaging simplicity. And they use a village off this system. Okay up the specification based technique. The black box testing test cases delivered directly from my specification or a model off a system or proposed system documentation. So test this can show meets this specified requirements but will not discover if the specifications incorrect. It includes both functional and nonfunctional testing, but it does not test internal structure or component five types office specifications based techniques. So all dynamic test levels will include Black Box Tess in functional and nonfunctional testing based on analysis, off abuses, requirements, designs or specifications. So the five specifications based test designed techniques is equivalents. Partridge partitioning, boundary values analysis, decision table, state transition use case equivalents, partitioning. So what's the equivalence? Person is a. It reduces the number of test is needed by considering partition is the only taste equivalents partitioning an equivalent. Spurgeon. Inputs to the software system are dividing into groups or ranges of values that are expected to exhibit similar behavior, so they are likely to be processed even same way, for example, have the same output. The groups are called equivalents protein, petitioning our classes. Instead of testing every value in the partition. One value can be choosing to represent oh, and used to test the whole partition so a partition can be identified for rangers or sets off values outputs. Time relate values is statues, values, interface parameters, etcetera. So equivalents partitions can be for a valid data, for example, values that should be accepted and valid data present values that should be rejected so tests can be designed took over all valid and invalid petitions. Equivalents. Pertinent petition is is applicable to all levels off testing and can be used to achieve input and output coverage goals. We go here, an example off equivalence partition. So at a minimum we should test one fail one pass one merrick one distinction rather than every possible score. So drawing Ah, a simple line charts can help you identify the partition as showing here. So there are far valid partitions and to invalid partition, give a total off. Six test to cover the holy specifications so on on application is used to assign grades to student taking exams as follows to pass I student most scurrilous 40. To gain a marriage, a student must discard at least 60. To gain distinction. I stood in muscles car At least 80 any score less than zero or greater than 100 is involved , so there's no point in testing anything less than zero and no point in testing anything over the zero about from identified that this is only invalid partition, so doing a diagram helps clarify the specification and identify the gaps. So upper lower boundaries in this case they specifications did not explicitly state that the output value is for an output less than 40. So the exception is it will be, you know, failed boundary value analysis. Boundaries are divided lines between equivalents, partitions, so behavior up the edge off of a partition is more likely to be incorrect than behaviors within the petition. So boundaries are an area where testing is likely to You'd defect. So look out for that minimal in the maximum values off a petition are its boundary values a boundary value in a valid petition? It's a valid boundary value. A boundary value in a invalid partition is and involved boundary values, so tests can be designed to cover both valid and invalid bounder values. It's a bit confused, but mourn more. You get into it more, you will understand. So a boundary value analysis can be applied at all. Test live us. It is relatively easy to apply, and it's, ah, defect. Finding capabilities was really high, so this technique, as known as a boundary analysis, is often considered as an extension off equivalents, petition or other black box testing design techniques. So in this example here, there are five boundaries, giving a total off 10 tests to cover the holder a specifications. The diagram also helps to clarify the minimal increments between values. For example, should we test just 30 and I know 39.9 39 point to 99? So it's one things that I would be raising the question off decision tables. Decision tables represent the behavior off a system that depends on the outcome off multiple decisions. They may be used to record complex business rules. That's a system used to be implemented. The table specifies the possible combination off conditions and the resulting actions. According to the abuses rooms. Each column off the table corresponds to abuses rule that defines a unique combination of conditions and which result in the execution off the actions associated with that room. Conditions are usually state the in volume form, for example, true or false or yes or no. The process of creating a decision tables as follows identified the the conditions There's tubes. So, like a description from from the test basis, identified the action stoops descriptions from the test basis, established the condition, interests all the possible combination of conditions, list the rules from the test basis and work out the action entries for each room. The outcomes associate with each combination, and each column corresponds to a test case in which the condition entry are the test conditions and the action entry. Are they expected results. If there are two conditions that then there are marks more about four posts possible combinations and for three conditions there can be up to eight possible combinations. If N is the number of conditions, then Ah, math would be a number of possible combinations equal to. And so let's work in this decision. Take, for example, the requirement is the delivering goods from warehouse to shops. For each shops delivery schedule. We look to see how far away the shop ease from the warehouse. Then we go through each item on the schedule. If the shop is further than 10 miles away, we had the item to the next weekly delivery for the area. Well, as it's a rush order, in which case we send it by overnight carrier when we have an item to be delivered. Luckily, for example, less than or equal to 10 miles, we added to the next day's delivery. Unless it's a rush order, in which case Joe delivers it with a state car immediately. So this can be represented as a decision table. Just just like this morning. The example. So if you look at it that broken down by the lines and the rubes, so in this example, each combination off conditions has, ah, this pacified action and every combination is tested. Austin. However, there will be combinations off conditions for which that is no specifications, action or on a specification generated. Then the tests will have to decide how many to just based on risk. When faced with complex requirements, it is often easier to understand the logic using a diagram attic technique in this case, a decision table like E P and B v A. It also helps to clarify the rules and established an emissions off big witches. The strength off decision table testing is that it creates combination of conditions that might not otherwise have bean exercise. And during the testing. Here's another example of decision table. So the requirement is delivering goods from warehouse to shops. For each shop's delivery schedule will look to see how far away the shop is from the warehouse. Then we go through each item on the schedule. If the shop is further than 10 miles away, we are the item to the next weekly delivery for the analyzes your shoulder, in which case we send it by overnight. When we have an item to be living locally, for example, last done or equal to 10 months, we added to the next day's delivery, however, all items that over the weight limit you need to go by special delivery. So if these accept his extended trip to the third pollution, then the number off action columns should expansion. Eight. However, there are surcharge goods, which allow columns to be combined if they have the same outcome, so they into different symbol miners means either yes or no. The l symbol, mark by E, indicates any other combinations. No explicit to specify interviews is route used off indifference and else reduced conditions interest but increased the risk off missing something state transition diagrams table on his three transition testing. Some system can be described in terms off states or modes that the system can assume, together with the events that cause a change from one state to another. These systems can be represented by a state diagram showing they state complement your system, my being the transitions or changes between states. The events are circumstance that calls transitions so they states off the system or subject on the test is our separate in identifying a dent, Bible and finishing number, state diagrams are often used for digital systems embedded, softer or technical automation General. However, the technique is also suitable for modern in abuses. Object having specific states or testing the screen dialogue flows example for Internet applications or abuses scenarios. State transition testing is a test designed technique in which test cases are designed to execute valid and invalid state transitions by creating state table showing the result transitions for each state combined with each possible event showing both valid and invalid transitions. So they stay. Transition diagram showing. And these operation of ah digital clock states are showing by a box or cynical with the name off the state. Transistors are showing by arrows indicate the change off state events, which calls transitions, are showing by text on the Arrows Test case can be David from the state positions diagram and to exercise. Eat off the possible transitions by creating nice statement metrics for every valid transition or arrow. The start, state and event represent test conditions, and the Finnish state is expected results, so creating a test case to cover each possible valid single transitions in the moderates. Known as zero switch covered, it provides the ability to detect the most obvious faults but will not detect more suitable ones on which would only be detectable by exercises. Sequences off transitions so n switch or Charles Sweet testimonies of former off estate transition testing, in which test cases are designed to execute all valid sequences off n plus one transitions . Therefore, zero switch testing means covering zero plus one or single transitions the State Matrix showing Onley valid positions down on the stable home. However, if we wanted to show both valid and invalid transitions who need to create the state table , the tables Philippine with the outcome off performing each transition from each start state . If these results is alone or not showing on the state diagram the corresponding service left block or marked as new to indicate a valid transition state tables are therefore useful test in a to the river. They invalid. No transition directly. The decision whether to test invalid as well as valid transition will depend on the context and risk same state transition events that cause a system to remain in the same state as showing with the recursive are these State transitions must also be included when defining test cases. For example, in the diagram below. If you press these, keep puttin on the MP three player, why did displaying it will start playing the next truck when test invalid transition zeros reached position on a straightens issued diagram. A same state transition counts as one just like any other Arab. This illustrates die straight transitions do not show all system functionality. Onley transition between states. Sometimes outcomes are showing off on diagram on the Darrow's, or there may be a separate text description are complaining the state diagram, which should also be used as a test basis. You scares testing. Use Case Testing is a black box testing designed technique in which test cases are designed to execute scenarios off use cases, so use gays sequence often sections in a dialogue between an actor and the component your system with a tangible result where an actor can be a user or anything that can exchange information with the system. Quote by I s two q V in 2010 so use cases are away off defiant high level requirements or business processes. Viewed from a user perspective, they may be described at the abstract level abuse issues, a case technology free, beauteous process level or at the system level system. Use case on the system functionality level contents off a use case testing the structure is very signature test procedure script. So is ideal for design test cases, particularly you. 80 with customer or user participation. Process flows in a use. Gays are written based on intent to use, which makes them. They're useful for designing acceptance testing by end users. The descriptions could act as the test procedure was missing, minimize and test development costs. However, they are detailed enough to test properly and therefore uncovered heroes. Use cases can also uncover integration defects, which individual components tested would miss so actually least pre and post condition mainstream. More likely scenario. Alternate scenarios and exceptions. Structure based techniques Also called white box techniques or white box test is I techniques used to explore the system or component X structures. The extent off the coverage off the softer can be measured for existing test cases, and further tests can be delivered systematically to increase even more coverage. So wide box testing. It's a test that you can see the cords. You can read the codes and you can test out the code level white box techniques. It can be applied at old test levels. Whatever this system can be represented in a structure or architecture diagram. So accompanied level. The structure of a softer, competent presented statements. Decision Branch. So, or even distant paths. Integration level. The structure. Maybe a coal tree. A diagram in which modules can call other models. System level the structure. Maybe a menu structure, business process or Web pages. Stripped it. Measurement off called structures in, ah, very comprehensive form off testing but can be complex, time consuming and resource intensive and maybe to detail for many abuses, it is most likely to be conducted. Why, extremely are road testing is required, such as safety critical systems, the defense control system, magical equipment softer it's required. So white box testing also called the structure of testing. So structure Testing co virgins that the key conception in search of testing these coverage so covered is expressed as persons age officer tickled by tests and old white box testing can be used to measure coverage off the street. The different covered measure of software code searchers somewhere statement coverage, decision coverage, condition coverage, multiple condition coverage all back. So, as you can see, they are pointing down, which means the weakest coverage point is they stay statement coverage as you go down to the options off coverage is Aziz. You do the old paths. Coverage is the strongest coverage off the mouth. We only need to know techniques for the statement and decision covered at foundation everybody. We need to be aware that strong techniques techniques exists. Statement testing in coverage. A statement is on atomic action. A single instruction to the computer, for example, grass amount equal nettle owned close tax test gauges are devised to execute specific executable statements at least once. These approach does not ensure complete covered of functionality, but it does provide a level of confidence that simple code errors have been detected. So this is another example. Estate meant covert equal number of exes. Statement over. Divided by total number of statement multiplied by 100 decision testing and coverage. The decision has two possible outcomes. Through in France. For example, if a value between 50 and 16 then do action a else do action be and if so, test cases are devised to execute specific decision outcome off bridges. So a statement coverage and you quote number off statement executed, divided by the total number of statements were supplied by 100 all decisions are statements , so 100% decision covert guarantees 100% statement covert but not vice versa. Decision testing is a form of control flow testing as it generates a specific flow off control through the decision points. No die in the example above. It is not necessary to test equivalents, partition or boundaries for these level off structural testing just one value in the range through and one outside which false would be enough to achieve 100% decision coverage. So 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean exhaustive testing. Here's an example. Office statement and decision covered software source code and flow sharks can both be used to assess covert. So in test One using a value of 34 x who calls the condition if X less than five to evolution to drew. So executing the statement Why equals this test executes oldie statements. So has achieved 100% statement covered test to using a value off eight for X will cause the condition to evaluate to false so the system will jump directly to the end. If statement is keeping the line, why equals zero? Both tests are required to achieve 100% decision covert so full statement covered can be achieved without exercising old the softer structure. This is why statement covered is considered the weakest covered measure and decision covered is a stronger measures. He's another example of his statement and decision coverage considered the following code segment. It's why is greater than 10 then Zad equal. It's divided by why Els Zed equals. Why divide by X, And in this example, there is statement on both the true from the false brushes. So two tests are required for 100% statement covered as well as for ah, 100% decision. So what about nukes? Loops are important. Softer construct. But Accounting path for white box test doesn't work quite the same way for loops as for simple decision. For example, these If the wild decision outcome is true when it's evaluate the first time, then control passes through the through brunch and moves back to the decision where it is reevaluated. As long as it remains true, The loop we'll continent when the decision outcome becomes false, Contra buses out to look to the statement after this means that both the true and false branches can be covert by a single test, which can never happen if decision Not that this assumed the loop is not infinite. If the decision is true the first time, it will eventually become false. If the wild decision outcome is false, when it's about a way to the first time, then the loop is never entered. The floor shot for loops looks a slightly different from if Decision. As the decision, Diamond has to control lines flowing into it, one from the preceding statement and one from the end off the experienced based techniques . Experience based testing is where tests are lived from the tested to skew our intuition in a day experience off similar applications and technologies. It is not based on analysis. Off specifications are a structure. It is generally less borrowed than a systematic technics like black box and white box. But it can be more effective if there is a lack of test in time or resources, and it can identify. A special test is not easily captured by a formal techniques. Testers used the expertise to identify key round arias to test, such as critical or most use functions, arias most likely to faith, for example, like defect clusters or complex code experience. The test designers are best suit for this approach, which is, if it's possible, should be used to argument the systematic techniques. It may be much less effective for inexperienced testers. Zero guessing you never guessed tested. Using the knowledge off the system and testing to anticipate possible defects. They designed tests to target normal suspected weakness or addresses aspect off the system that have caused problems in the past. Texas. You think laterally and consider how users could use the system, not just how they should use it, which, you know. The name is a specifications based testing, so aero guessing can often be used after black box testing. To call the specific problems was more the success off air. I guess it depends on the knowledge and few off tested, but the effectiveness can be grouped. It's several testers, users or developers contributing to identify the possible areas. Fault Attack instructed approach to error Guessing called the fault attack is to enumerated a list of possible defects and then designed tests to force each one. In turn, this defects and failure list can be used on experience Available defect in the failure data common knowledge about why softer fails at least off error. Messages from programs. Specification ideas from groups, off testers, users and developers. Exploratory test in exploratory testing. Combined testers experience with five restricted approach testers explored the softer and learn about it by testing. The technique involves conquering test design, test execution, test Morgan and learning based on the test charted containing test objectives and carried out within time boxes. It is an approach that it must use for where there are few or inadequate specifications and severe time pressure or, in order to argument, compliment order more formal testing. It can serve as ah, check on the test process to help insure that the most serious defects are found. Exploratory test. It is not purely random or ad hoc as it involves a high level plan in all test activities like design execution log incidents, it must be documented but unlikely Specifications based testing. Exploratory testing deviates from the scripts to explore areas off interest and learning more about the system. It may be used on its own or in conjunction with other techniques to ensure that testing is focused on the most important area and identify possible problems. Exploratory testing is common within our john methodologies, which often incorporates limited specifications documents with a short development time scale. Here is an example off exploratory testing process, so Number one starts with for higher level test design, as there is a limited or no specifications. This may be just to explore basic functions such as user input or to follow the Happy Path processing where nowhere of conditions are met. This must be documented in a test specifications like black box testing. Remember to execute the test is and what the outcomes number three investigate any unexpected results in standard black box testing. This would be recorded as incidents, and the rest off the scripted test would be executed. Asplund Putting Exploratory testing The plan is suspended, and the new tests are designed to explore Day and Mom Elise and learn about their cause. The dating from the plunger explore areas off interest is sometimes called the totals. Principle number four document old test designs and results so that the tests are repeatable. These also increases the documented knowledge about the system choosing test techniques. So are quite into day. I s two Q b is twenties have been unable to prove conclusively that one type of testing is better than another, so it is important to select the most appropriate, depending on circumstances. The choice off which test techniques to use depends on a number of factors such as type of system and regulatory standards, development of life cycle and test level customer requirements. Contractual requirements, level and type of risk test objective documentation available knowledge off the step tester's time and budget. So, for example, the factor off using a Web based system the appropriate test technique would be a state transition. Testing and the rules based requirements Decision table high risk are safety Critical, You see indicate I used white box testing, detailed specifications. Black box testing on available specifications, exploratory testing, availability of source code white box destined. Our giant methodology or limited time experience based technique. Choosing the Best test technique. Some techniques are more applicable to setting situation and test Legos. Others are applicable to old test levels in general. So the specifications based techniques I used in sequential development motors at a level of testing for business critical system, so structure based technique I used mostly are lower test levels, component testing component integration testing and is indicated for safety critical systems. Experience based techniques I used to argue mental system systematic techniques in interrogative our child development models. What grades and test cases test is. Generally use a combination off test taken extreme sure, a deck with coverage off the objective of the test. Now we came to the end of the section fault. So in summary, while you have learned so far, is the test condition. Test K's test procedures, specifications and test covert three categories. Off test case designed techniques, lightbox, black box and experience based technique. So his specifications. Techniques such as equivalents, partitioning, boundary value analysis, decision table testing, state transition testing, use gays testing You learn as well a structure based techniques known as white box testing this statement or decision testing more death and finally using era or exploratory testing . Applying experience. Base a technique. Okay, well, don't so allow you completely section for I make sure you go down the attachment and get bruises and that practice practice now while you know memories to fresh so you can get the most of this section itself. So now is the end of section for we're gonna move on to such a five. Before that, I have any questions. Drop down. Be a question here. If I have any comments about the video about older material deprivation, he's sores while we have Krul's on making. That's a loose woman for the next two to reload soon on. But if you really like it, it comes up. Share with your friends everywhere. For that, that's mobile. Skip to the next one for always Done 56 Next. 7. Test Management Section 5: Hi. This is a genital silver here again. So this is Ah, Section five out of six. So nearly there. So when these the section we're gonna be talking about, Probably about test management. So the test management is something that we're gonna be talking about the what the test organization and needs to do to prepare for the testing. So the tests planning estimation better talk about the test progress, the monetary and in control, the configuration management at the risk and testing the incident management. So there's loads of firm, important information there. And I do hope you being enjoying so far the videos and, uh, let's go, let's do it. So why you learn on these fifth section off the I s two Q b in these section, we're going to talk about, learn, try, identify risk and it's levels and types off risks the role of test lead the testers. Tusks, learn wall test approach means and how to use it. The importance off Master test blood. The standard for softer testing documentation. I triple. We ate tonight test bologna activities, the term the entry and the exit criteria test that summation and then end test Control, test organization and independence. The effectiveness off finding defects by testing and reviews can be improved by using independent testers, so development staff may participate in testing, especially at the lower levels. But they lucky off Objective ity often limits the effectiveness. So for large and complex or safety critical project, it is usually best to have multiple levels off testing, with some old off the levels done by independent testers. Testing tasks may be done by people in the specific testing road, or maybe done by someone in another role, such as a project manager, quality manager or business and domain expert. So options for independent independency in a test team include no independent testers. Developers testing their own code, which is a low and independent testers within the development teams or the developers doing the testing. No no independent test teams or group within the organization. Independent testes from the abuses organization or user community in their been in tests, especially since for specific test type Sir Charles usability tests and security testers, or certification, which involves the regulatory testers, independent testers outsource or external to the organ organization. So more independent the testers are it is better for for the objectivity off the tests. So these benefits off the weapon, intestines included. They will see other and different defects and are unbiased. Ah, they verify assumptions, made the during specifications and implementation off the systems. And they bring experienced excuse quality and standards. And the Dropbox off. Having independent test is is the isolation from the development team leading to possible communication problems. They may be seen as a bottleneck or blamed for delays and release, and they may not be familiar with the abuses projects or systems. And developers may lose a sense offer responsibility for quality. So task off the test leader and tester. Most testing consists of two distinct roads. Test leader and tested. The activities and tasks performed by people in these two roads depend on the project and the product context. The people in the roads and the organization. So the test leading the test today, sometimes they overlap what they do, but they have a specific key points that they do if you see on this comparison here. So the test leader and the tester they send timely states is reports desolate intestine. They have flexibility and the test ladies mainly focuses on assist team in the deliverables and the timely work allocation to testers and the tester completely assigned tasks and discuss issues with leads. Now this is a typical test leader tasks. So the roll off the test leader or text manager test coordinator may be performed by a project manager, a developed manager, quality assurance manager or the manager off a test group. So typically detest Lee. The plans monitors and control the tests and activities and the tasks described later. Later point so typical test later tasks may include the right to review the test policy and strategy for the organization. Coordinate the plan with project managers and others. So controverted testing perspective to other projects. Activities such as a development, integration and implementation from the tests, including selecting test approaches, estimating the time, effort and cost of testing. Acquiring resources, defining test levels, cycles and planning incident management assesses the test objectives, context and risks. Initiate the specification preparation, implementation and the execution of tests, monitor the test results and check the exit criteria. Adopt blending based on the test results in progress and take any action necessary to compensate for problems. The set up a dick a dick with, ah configuration management off test aware for traceability introduced suitable metrics for measuring test progress and evaluating the quality off the testing and that the product decide what should be automated to what degree and how. Select twos to support testing and organized any training into useful for testers and supervised the implementation off the test environment and the right s summary reports based on the information gathered during testing tusks off the tester. So testers or test analysts who work on the test analysis, test design specific test types or testing automation. Baby specialises in these rooms, so dependent on the test level and their risks related to the product and the project. Different people may take over their role of tester, keeping some degree off their independence so typically tested out. The component and the integration level would be developers, and the test is that the acceptance test level would be included. Abuses experts and users and testers for the operational acceptances might be operators or system administrators, so a typical test a task may include review and contributed to test plans. Analyze and review user requirements, specifications and models for test ability create test specifications. Set up the test environment with appropriate technical support. Preparing the choir test data. Implement tests on old test levels executed and log tests evaluate results in record incidents. Use test tubes as necessary and the automate tests measure performance off systems as necessary. And finally, review test is developed by others. These parts We're gonna talk about the planning and the estimation, and the is gonna be quite a bit off text. But bear with me um, the objectives off learning in these parts, it's planning activities. So the objectives is a recognized. The difference levels off objectives on testing. Plenty summarized the purpose off and content off the test spline test design specifications and test procedure documents according to the standards. Off softer test documentation, I trip away standard 8 to 9 from 1919 8 Differentiate between conceptually different test approaches. Search as ANALITICO model based and methodical process is standard compliant, dynamic, heuristic consultative in the regression of ours. Ah, different age between the subject's off test planning for system and scheduling test execution writer test execution scheduled for a giving set off test cases considering prioritization and the technical and logical dependence is least test the preparation and execution activities that should be considered during tests. Planning. RICO. Recall Typical factors dying influenced the effort related to testing. Differentiate between two conceptually difference estimation. Approach the metrics based approach and of the expert based approach. And finally, you learn about recognized. Justify a deck with entry and exit criteria for specific test levels and groups off test gazes for integration, testing, acceptance destine or test cases for usability testing so moving only to the test planning activities. So tax planning estimations a breakdown off the planning and control face off their fundamental test process discussed in Chapter one you know, the sexual one. It outlines the purpose off their tax planning within the development and that the implementation project and of the main Tennessee activities. So tax planning is continues activity and it's performed in oh lifecycle process and activities. And ah, I mean the actual breaking down the planning activities is the first test activity to be carried out at the each test level, but it is ah continuous process and is performed throughout the life cycle. Feedback from test activities is used to recognize changing risk starts eso that the planet can be adjusted, so planning is is a lot more than scheduling. It may also include the attempt to determine the scope and risks and identify the object. Activists is off testing, defining the over approach to testing, including definition off the test levels and entry and exit criteria. Lincoln ING to other software life cycle activities. Search as acquisition development operation and maintains assigning resources for the different activities defined. AH deciding testing tasks Rosa scheduled in the evaluation of test results. So defining the amount level of detail were structure and template for the test documentation. Selecting metrics for monetary in controlling testing and finally setting the level off detail for the test procedures. Levels off planning. So test blindly maybe documented in hierarchy off documents, each one defining the approach taken to testing projects within on organization. So his divided in three test policy tested strategy and test plan. So the test policy ah, document correct Characterizing the organization's philosophy toward software testing. It is set at the highest level off the organization and it is over, oh, approach to quality assurance given general guidelines for Hope Project testing, It may be the I T departments philosophy. If that is no organization, you know, document. So the testes strategy, its quota ah, high level description off the test level to be performed and the detested within those levels for an organization or program. A divisional program sets out today testing strategy based on the test policy and identify their risks. So there are two main aspect, ah risk to be resolved by testing the softer and the testing approach used to address the risk and the test plan. It's a quote, Ah, a document describing the scope, approach resources and the schedule off the intended tested activities. So each project adopts the strategy to create a test plan for that particular project. So he's ah ah, a graphical hierarchy off the off the planning so like a mental before. So there's ah, test policy, the test strategy and then the master plan and only the master plan for the project itself . So there's ah company and test plan specific for the components. When gets to that point and moving on to the integration component, and then the system testing test flown into the acceptance tests plan. So it's over parts off off the planning so they might be father plans for test levels like maintenance testing in regression testing, static testing, etcetera. But I'm not showing in here. Levels off planning, according to I. Triple We 8 to 9 1919 8 So he stunted for software development documentation. So most abuses adopt the I triple We standard 8 to 9.1919 8 Test plan outlining for Don't come into the test Plenty, but even the standard it's not being using. The approach to test plane should be more like the same. So the new standard have for for for 8 to 9. It's actually the Aiso i e. C I Tripoli to 9119 But for the iess, too, could be an exam. Learn 8 to 9 should be sufficient, at least for now into the U predated with the new uh, with the new standards. But for now, you should be OK to learn that 8 to 9 to to be able to pass at the foundation level exam. So So in the next light, I'm gonna be show you the test plan contents with next light. But before I move on, so he's is something to help you memorize What? What? They The table that I used to to go through the plan. So I got this from someone who works before. Well experienced guy, like 20 years and in testing. So little something to help you memorize all these is Ah, space dirt S O s for a scope. Pay for people a four approach safer criteria E for environment needs. Defoe deliverable tests I for identify an introduction are for risks and contingencies and t for testing tusks and the schedule. This is just like something for you to remember why they're doing the exam. I found it quite useful. So moving on. So, uh so the test plan content. This is a table. There is a bit more there, so I couldn't fit in one's light. So the the I triple we triple E 8 to 9 Tesla and content. It's a strain here. So the test planned content the test plot. Identify you. Should they start off with Ah, unique I d. So like a number four for when you can Referring back and you can use identify and find it . So then moving on into introduction execute similar in background test items. So is a list off softer modules that you're gonna be testing the features to be tested. So application functionalities and the older functions and, you know, off the software. So the features not to be tested so out of scope together with the features to be tested, defined scope of testing so they approach. So how is gonna be the approach for testing? So from the testis strategy modified for projects or analytical, preventive reactive, so depends how you can approach. So the column form it'll to the 10. You know how if he has passed and failed, so they did the criteria for that. So it's strictly this is the criteria for decidedly for test passes are failed by is usually used for entry and the exit Great tria criteria. So the suspension criteria and the resumption requirements. So the circumstances that would prevent testing from continuing search as extremely ball qualities softer, continuing with the test plan the test deliverable so they standards for test specifications like logs, incidents, reports, etcetera and testing tasks, and specialized task not covered in the approach so environmental needs. So you need, you know, softer data hardware, network software licenses, everything that you need to to be able to carry on with with the test. So responsibilities home manage testing risks, incidents, reporting and training etcetera. So its staffing and training needs. So training in tests, excuse or tools for testers and users involved in test. So you might find that you need to give some more restrictions for Junior Zo or for other people in the abuses that are not testes. You need to show them where they to get to things and how they go through the tests. So they schedule. So the timetables, the minus stones delivered dates based on estimation strategy. This is gonna be working. You know, we for PM zoo project managers. So risks and contingencies. So project and product risks and workarounds in case off failures. And I'm sure this will happen. And a Provo. So who has the authority to sign off these and other testing documents? Business Quite important as well To sign off the testing in each in each phase that you move along N three criteria entry criteria defined when to start testing, such as the beginning off a test level when I set off testers is ready for execution. So typically entry criteria. My include a test environment available and ready test to configured in the test environment. Testable code available. A test data available, including configuration data, floggings, etcetera at test summary report or evidence available from previous testing, including quality and coverage measures. Third part of softer, delivered and softer license boat. Other project dependence is in place, so entry criteria for one test level my much the exit greater off the previous levels. For example, the inter criteria are 80% off system test completed for inter criteria for you. 80 Usual. I accept him. Stassi unit testing is completed with brunch covered reports, which is for an entry to a system testing an old augmentations present and that has bean signed off exit criteria. The exit criteria defined when to stop testing at the end off a A test level or when a set off tests has a specific goal. So this decision should be based on ah, measure off softer quality achieved as a result of testing rather than just one time spent on testing so typically exits criteria may consist off measures off test in Thorin is, for example, coverage of code requirements, functionalities or risk an estimate off a defect density or reliability cost. So residual risk search as, AH, number off defects outstanding or requirement not tested. Schedule search as those based on the time to market. A typical example might be old path Discovered off code high and medium risk areas completed. No out studying high severity incidents. All security testing completed successfully and exit prettier may differ greatly between different levels. For example, covered off code for a component testing coverage, off requirements or risk for system testing. Nonfunctional measure search as usability in acceptance, Testing test approaches. The test approach should be set out in the test strategy, then refined and implemented in test plans and test designs for a specific project. It is the starting point for planning test activities, choosing the test design techniques and defining entry and exit criteria so test approaches might be preventive. Where testers are designed as fairly as possible reactive where the test designs comes after the softer has been produced. Typical test approaches include a analytical approaches search as a risk based testing where testing is directed to arias offer greater risk model based approach such as ah, stochastic testing using static Oh, information about failure rates such as reliability, growth models or usage search as operational profiles. Methodical approaches such as failure based, including aero guessing and fault attacks. Checklists based and a quality color theory. Sick based. The process or standard compliant approaches such as those is specified by industries. Specific standards or the virus. Agile methodologies dynamic and the heuristic approach, such as exploratory testing, where testing is more reactive to events than preplanned. And the where execution and evaluation are concurrent tasks. Consultative approaches such as those where tests coverage is driven primarily by the advice and guidance off technology and or abuses. Domain expert Outside the test team and regression of various approaches, such as those that include reuse off existing test material, extensive automation or functional regression tests. And there is thunder test suits. Um ah. Choosing on approach is so different approaches might be combined, for example, a risk based, dynamic approach. The selection often approach the pens own context, risks hazards, safety regulations, available resources and skews testing objectives, types, off system and the technologies test estimating test managers need to estimate the time, effort and cost of testing tasks in order to plan test activities identifying resources requirements and drew up a schedule. Two possible approaches are the metrics based approach. So based on analysis off similar projects on typical values and that the expert based approach based on assessment by the owner off the tasks or domain experts. So how long it would this testing take and how much will it cost? Metrics based estimation. Example. So ah, based on eyes, thundered percentages using ah work distribution model. So testing these notorious more difficult to test them all the project activities, such as a requirement analysis and development standard percentages, uses industry or company based historical data to calculate the proportion off time to the testing stage. Take for different project types. Then, if you can size the over a project, you can work out how much test in effort is required without estimating the test us directly. So, alternatively, if you can obtain more accurate estimates for unknown testing part off the project, you can apply their appropriate proportions, for example, using the this figure here. Ah, which a no official, by the way. If the development manager provides an estimate off of for today's for coding and unit testing, then that is equivalent to more or less 60% off the total development and testing time. So system and integration tested roughly 25% and it would take 17 days. And acceptance tests in about 15% is ah, about 10 days. So obviously not all project are the same. So, for example, like a package purses, ah would require integration acceptance rather than just unit testing. Expert based estimation. Example. So it is on a maker, estimators and work breakdown structure. So experiences is to the most widely used approach. Asking the task owner means they are more likely to commit toe that line. And I also think through every details off the job, for example, remembering about such a test state, etcetera. So breaking a large task into bite size chunks make it easy to understand and leads to more accurate estimate. So in this table here as an example, so ah, task is read a functional specification. Um, about two days identify functions to test one day, attend walk throughs. One. They defined test conditions three days right test cases and scripts about five days and attended the test data about two days and setting up the environment one day, so that gives you an estimator for 15 days worth. So here are the factors to consider when estimating the test in effort may depend on a number of factors in including product of factors such as a quality off, the specifications in size and complexity off the product and requirements for reliability , security and documentation. Development process Factors in the stubble is the village off the organization tools used test process. Excuse off the people involved in time pressure. So quality factors, for example, the number off defects and that the amount off rework require it. So functionality forms the core approach to estimating. But all sorts off environmental factors come into play to so rework is a major consideration feeling, Incident reports retesting. Changing documents can take an equivalent time to the initial tests. Moving on into a test progress and monitoring and going to talk about controls, role for their own, and so the objectives to learning, he is recall. Common metrics used Teoh for monitoring, test preparation and execution, explaining compared test metrics for test reporting and the test control, for example, defects found in fixed and tests. Boston failed eso related Thio Thio Purpose and Use and also summarized the purpose and the content off the test summary report document According to the this standard for softer test documentation there, I triple we 8 to 9. So the trust progress monetary and so there is a throughout the project. The progress off test activity should be monitored and checked frequently in order to provide feedback. Invisibility about testing to stakeholders and managers. Assess progress against estimated schedule and budget in the test. Spline measuring testing qualities such as a number of defects off covered, achieved against the exits criteria assesses the effective in ease off the test approach with the respect off objectives. Collected data for future project estimation. So the metrics used to measure progress. Shoot, if possible, be based on objective data. For example, numerical analysis off test activity rather than subjective opinion. These metrics may be collected money Leo automatically using test to search as test management tools, execution tunes or defect defect trackers. So the test manager may have to report on deviation from the text blown search as a running out of time before completion off criteria it is achieved. Um, so the metrics include percentage off work done in test case in the environment Preparation test case Execution. Number of test cases run, not run tests, cases. Pasto. Failed defect information defect density defects found and fixed failure rate and rate test results. Ah, coverage off requirements. Risks code dates off tests, milestones testing costs including the cost compared to the benefit off, finding the next defects or to run the next test. The best metrics are those that are much the exit criteria. For example, coverage risk and the defect data and estimates time and cost Defining the test plan. Typical progress metrics. So bloody McGrath, The using A test planning to or spreadsheet is a great way to monitor test activity against the plan. The graph below is a typical and allows test manages to check that the number of tests past does not diverge too far from the number executed. So is always good to use something to measure the go and the progress and why you are so to yourself and the test manage and other stakeholders. So this is something that you're going to see. Ah, why new working on tests number off incident reports. So other graph common used by test managers just to show how far since and inside dealt with as they are raised. If the lines do not start to converge towards the end off the project, test ministers can take appropriate action search as adding more resources to fixes. Oh, are addressing quality problems. So this is ah ah, a graft that the test manager or the team manager would be looking at the the number off incident reports and the timeline. So, um, so this is the two lines with the incident reports against the closed incident reports. Test control. If test monetary shows that the progresses is slipping from the planet, targets or the exit criteria are not being met them. Test managers may have to take some guiding or control actions to get back on track, so options for actions may off to be limited. But my included re prioritize the test and activities, for example, focused Essen on higher risk objectives. Change test schedule, for example, allocates more time to testing reassigned resources, for example, assigned more testers or more developers working on fixes. Set entry criteria for deliverables from developers, for example, set minimal quality level at the start of testing and ah adduced exit criteria. For example, reassesses Act Acceptable Quality Measures Test reporting Test managers will report regularly on the test progress to project managers, project sponsors and other stakeholders. The report should be a summary of test endeavor, including what testing actually occurred. Statistics on key metrics and the dates on which milestones were met. So report will be based on metrics collected from testers and maybe consolidated to using spreadsheets or test management tools. It is then analysed by project stakeholders to support recommendations and decisions about future actions. So assessment off defects, remaining economic benefits off continued testing, outstanding risks, level off confidence in tested, softer effectiveness, off objectives, approach and their tests is an example of a test summary report. So the test summary report is a part off the I triple We standard 8 to 9-1919 8 and easy to use it to summarize test activity at the end of a test level. The outline off the standard Report is as showing below. So the report item to Sue Marie, it's the The What Was tested includes softer items and versions, test environment and the references to other documents such as test plans, logs and incident reports. So variances are the change from the plan or test specifications such as a test is not followed as spirit, blood and the tests performed in the addition to the plan. So comprehensiveness assessment is the assessment off the test processes describing futures , not testing and reasons summer off results so high a level description off incidents fixes outstanding issues and its state off. A resolution evaluation is their assessment off softer quality and estimate off softer reliability and failing risk, and that finally, this summary off activities so details off the test processes such as elapsed time cost resources and personal personal used configuration management. The purpose off configuration management is to establish and maintain the integrity of system product throughout the project life cycle. It applies to all products connected with softer development, such as software companies, data and documentation, and testing, such as a test flown. Instead, suspects tests, procedure and test environments. Configuration management is therefore more than just version control. It's also about knowing what version are deployed in different environments are different times. It shows that term every item off test aware, softer and test documentation is uniquely identified version controlled tractor for changes related to each other and related to the development items. Although these items may be physically start in many locations, configuration management describes and links them in a common controlled library. These insurance dato identified documents and softer items are refreshed. The under being grizzly in the test documentation, which avoids test, is being run against the wrong, softer version risk and testing. So a testing involves their analysts off a risk off something that could may and happen with the softer. So I tip off our device, I would say, Whenever you see the word risk within the answer the answers ABC and the within the exam. Uh, just think about the word risk. So to me, in my experience with the exam there, the word risk would be most of the time, more likely to be the right answer. So just bad. These in mind So risk is a It's a very important word, uh, in testing. So in these parts are gonna be discussing more like describing a risk as a possible problem that would threaten their achievement off one or more steak Roaders or project objective it ease these the idea to talk about that is so you remember that the level of risk is determined by their likelihood off something happened and maybe an impact harm resulting, if it does happen, so distinguished between the project and the product risks recognized. Typical product and project risks Describe use and examples how risk analysis and risk management baby used for test planning. So moving on. Ah, risk based testing is seen as the best approach to enabling the best attesting to be done in the time available. And these section or we're gonna be cover measuring, categorizing and managing risk in relation to testing. So according to I s too could be, Ah, quote the risk is defined as, ah as, ah, the likelihood or the impact. So the quote by I s two q B is a factor that could result in future. Negative consequences usually express as impact and the likelihood so a risk is a specific event, which it would cause problem If it's if it occurred, individual risk can be assessed in in terms off likelihood. And so the probability off the event hazard or situation of Curren and the impact the undesirable consequences if It happens, for example, financial rework embarrassment, legal safety T. O ah, the image off the company. So we're gonna be talking to nexus light. So there's two types off risks. So the project risk and that the product risk. So what is a project? Risks project risks are the risks that affect the project or test teams. Ah, capability to deliver its objective search as, ah, technical issues. So problems in defining the right requirements the extent the requirements can be met. Giving existing constraints test environment not ready on time. Poor quality, off design code or tests, late data conversion or migration planning. Um so our organizational factors could be a this killed training and stuff shortages personnel issues political issues such as problem with testes, communication day needs and test results or failure to follow up on the information Found intestinal reviews unrealized stick a expectations off testing and supply issues so it could be a failure off. 1/3 part contractor issues product risks, so product means the software or sister. Potential failures in this softer are known as product risks as they are risk to the quality off the system, so product risk is include failure promise after delivered potential for software hydra to cause harm to a ninja video. Our company, Paul softer characteristics. So, like functionality, reliability, usability or performance ball, data, integrity and quality. So, for example, data migration issues, data conversion problems date a standard violation. So, uh, it means as well a softer does not work as intended. So this is a product risk risk assessment matrix. So for it risk identified, it's a likelihood, and the impact must be assessed. These may be in American measures like 1 to 10 or simply low median and high, combining likelihood and impact measures into on over. A risk measurement allows risk from different areas to be compared assessed and a privatized so risk in that they are. Assessments should be recorded in the test plan, perhaps using a matrix similar to these. So, as you can see on this one, we have the function. The risk is that capture customer details, so the likelihood of failure is marked it as a medium. So the reasons off diets ah, human era on the pressure. So the impact of failure ah, medium the reasons is a limited checking, and they over a risk kids meet him and ah, moving onto to is ah, print customer details eso I likely hold a failure low. It's a simple program, no human intervention. So the impact off failure is medium. So the reasons is embarrassment. If Kuzma contacted with wrong details, so the over a risk is, ah, a medium low. And the third example here of a function is Santa Cozma details, so the likelihood off a failure is medium. So the reason off the eyes a new technology for network part off and used the package and that the impact of failure is high. The reasons is a customer billed incorrectly abuse into wrong address. So the over a risk of these function is a meeting high, so answer a risky has been assessed. There are two possible actions which can be put in place to reduce the risk. A mitigation which is, ah, preventive or proactive action to reduce the likelihood off the risk happening and the contingency, its emergency or reactive approach to reduce the impact if the risk happens. So risk based testing. So a risk based approach, Teoh testing provides proactive opportunities to reduce the levels off product risk. Starting in the initial stages off a project. It involves the identification off a product risk is and they using guiding test planning and control specifications, preparation and execution of tests. So risk based testing draws on the collective knowledge and insights off the project to stakeholders to the term the the risks and the levels off testing required to addresses those risks. For example, developers can identify the most complex code uses may describe them. Most used functions manager may highlight the areas with the biggest financial impact in etcetera. In a risk based approach. The risk has identified might be used to the attempt to test techniques to be employed. For example, White box destined for safety, critical system. Usability testing for customers. Input screen security testing for a commerce system. So and that the old one is the term the extend of testing to be a card out. For example, what to test in not to test what a test first and last in a water test most and least. Onda and also prioritize testing in an attempt to find the critical defect as their this possible. For example, use traceability matrix to link test designed to priority requirements. Great test execution scheduled to run tests in the most efficient order and focus on defect clusters. And lastly, the term that whether any known testers activities could be employed to reduce risks, for example, provide training to inexperienced designers or improve the communication. So in addition, testing may support the identification off new risks helped to attend the what risks should be reduced and the lower uncertainty about risks. Incident Management aan incident is any unplanned event that requires for the investigation during test execution. Discrepancies between actual and expected results are locked as incident and must be investigated. Incidents may be raised us at any time throughout the software development lifecycle against documentation during static testing as well as code or assistant on the test. It is important that music's should have an incident management process to track incidents from discovery and classification to correction and confirmation off solution and finally, closure systems management standards often reserved the term incident on Lee for production . Fraught folds causes off incidents. Testers tend to assume that all failures are caused by a defect in the softer, but there are many possible causes, so after the effect requirement or specification defect environment problem. For example, hard rail operations system or network fault in the test procedure or script, for example, Incorrect on beagles or missing Step. Incorrect test data. Incorrecta expected results and test There's a rope, for example, not following their procedure correctly. Test incident reports. Incidents must be recorded in incident reports either mine early or using an incident management to There are many reasons for reporting incidents, including provide feedback to enable developers and other parties to identify, isolate and correct defects. Enable test leaders to track the quality off the system and the progress of testing. Provide ideas for test process improvement. Identify defect clusters maintain a history off defects and they resolutions supply metrics for assessing exit criteria. He's an example off the test incident report based on the I three Polje standards 8 to 9. So the section would include something like the report item, which is a report. Identify the description Is Cesar unique reference for each incident, So the summary would be the summer off Circle Senses in which the incident occurred, referring to softer item and the versions, test case, test procedure and test log, and that the description description is the incident in details including the input they expected and actual results. Anomalies time and date environment. Attempt to repeat freedom. Steps to reproduce a testers and observes the the comments off a tester while you know while you observe and what happened and the impact. So the identification off what impact this incident will have on the progress of testing. So most organizations find the I triple H 29 standard is not detailed enough for their needs and find it useful to include further details such as a sever 8. Tool Support for Testing Section 6: Okay, well done. This is the last section, Section six. So it is actually gonna be talking about the tools and support the testing. So I do apologize. Is gonna be more text driving this last graphic on these, But I will be giving some examples of some tools related to a certain approaches tests approach that you're gonna be using or before using out there. So if you go back to my blood, that was There's some links there. There's some examples and summer some of these times that I talk about here. Um, so hang in there. Let's get into it. I know you looking forward to complete this course so you can go through the full mark tax tax them, so let's go for it. Okay, let's make a start on the section six. The last section off your road to success and passed the I s to keep being exam. So where you gonna learn on this section? We're gonna talk about test twos and the benefits off using a test twos. The risks off using test twos. There are some twos, the specific for test s static testing. So there's tools for dynamic testing test specifications. Tools for execution and logging and tools for performance and monitoring. And, ah, the introduction to test to into a new organization where the key factor you need to decide to introduce a test to types off test tools, test automation or computer aided software testing. CST is widely using test organizations to support the test process. Testers can be used for a number of activities that can support testing, including tools used in a directly intestine task. For example, test execution data generation result comparisons tools that helped to to manage the test process. For example, management of test requirement data incident and tools used to monitor and report activities there in testing, for example, performers, memory file activity and generic tools that can be used to help testing, for example, spreadsheets sequel debugging tools so testers may use to support for a number of reasons, depending on the context. Improve the efficiency of testing for example, scripted test execution support, monarch activities, for example, test planning, designing or reporting an ultimatum. Repetitive tasks. For example, regression tests automation activities that are difficult to do money early. For example, it's static analysis, so large a scale performance testing and increased reliability of testing for example, automating large data comparison or simulating behavior test tools. Classifications. There are a number of tools that support different aspect of testing. Tools can be classified based on several criteria, such as a purpose commercial free, open source, shareware technology used it. And so far, tools are classified in the eyes to could be foundation syllables according to the test. In activities that they support, sometimes clearly support one activity. All those may support more than one activity, but there are classified under the activity, which they arm or closely associated. For example, test execution to may incorporate a beauty contest, Comparator, but it is classified as a test execution to rather than a comparator. To one of the most important feature of tools is the ability to interact and integrate with other tools tools from a single provider, especially those that have been designed to work together, maybe boldly, into one package. Some tools offer support eyes more appropriate for developers than testers. For example, Tuesday I used drink, component or and companies integration tests and such as Ah, tools are marked with a D on the descriptions in the least, Azaz I go through the day slides with you to support for management, off testing and tests management tools apply toe all tests activities over the entire software life cycle. Test management tools. These are umbrella tools which provides interfaces for executing tests, tracking defects and Minasian requirements. They also support the traceability of test subjects to requirements and specifications and might have an indefinite of version control capabilities. O R. Interface to an external configuration. Management to They typically support quantitative analysis and reporting off test activities and the ah wide virus of four months requirements. Management tools These tools star abuses requirements in a central Reports Star, which incorporates unique identify IRS descriptions, are functional and nonfunctional requirements. Attributes such a source priority rational religion and stages links between requirements. So these tools may also help with identifying consistent, overlapping or missing requirements and can support tracing the requirements to our individual tests. So a RM automated requirement measurement is a free to provide by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to scan requirements. Specifications for specific words and phrases indicative off quality problems such as a week at Fu Zi oa ambiguous terms that were inevitable lead to a miscommunications incident manage Mental called the defect Tracking Tools these to store and manage incident report, such as defect failure, change request or perceived problems and anomalies, and manage the lifecycle off incidents. Officially, we for support for started, stick or analysis. They support the logging off incidents territory six like type priority severity, and they status the rejected Ready and defend it. This may be bundled with other test management tools or available separately included some Fritos. Many tools can produce graphs based on different perimeters from the mass off incident. Data dies typically logged during testing, So there are several tools out there on the most common czar. Juror Montes Book Zilla Hate B L A L M. Quality Center configuration management tools. Although not strictly testing tools that this can support their test process, they are necessary for storage inversion management, off test aware and the related softer, especially when configuring more than one harder, softer environment in terms off operating system versions compilers, browsers etcetera. So they starve Version butte configuration, information, support, tracking and control of testing and development products, and provide directly integration with many testing tools. So, uh, configuration management tools may have to cut their for many platforms and artifact across a large organization. So as a specialist tools, it's likely to be better than one they're on. They're bonded with a case or test, too, so they again there's. There's several tools out there, but they're the most common ones. You're going to see our days as the end. Subversion and torture is at ESPN to support for a static testing. Static testing tools provide a cost effective way of finding more defects at on early stage in the development process. So again there's several tools out there. The most common ones are eclipse intelligently idea ah, visually studio review tools. So these tools, also known as a review process support tools, assists with a review, processes, checklists, review guidelines and defects. They are used to store in, communicate reviewers, comments like a reporting on the effects and effort and store metrics for casual analysis. In the process improvement. They can be of further help by providing aid for online reviewers for large or geographically dispersed teams. So review tools are most useful for former inspections, which utilize data basis forms, checklists is and casual analysis. So again there's a several tools out there. The most common Maher intelligent idea. Ah find bugs Check style jaar content. Static analysis tools. The letter D stands for developer. These tools help developers and testers find defects in source code. Priority Dynamic testing. So static analysis tools can provide complexity feedback for developers via various industry and define metrics. And they can analyze the structures and independence is and helping planning in risk analysis. So subtle code A rose on fault Grown code can often be found far more quickly. Using these tools than by visual inspections or testing could may also be reviewed and assorted using user defined criteria, including metrics, often generating automatic reports and a blocking code when a threshold is exceeded into the problem is resolved. So it's static. Analysis may also be customized to check that organizationally standards are maintained as well as industry wide measures. So ecstatic and Alison should allows messages future ing. Otherwise, the output can be overwhelming, so a typical tool that is well known out in the market. There's several of them. But those are the well known ones, which is an intelligent idea on Eclipse Visual Studio from Microsoft Modelling tools. The D stands for developer. These tools are used to validate soft tomatoes, for example, physical data model activity model process model by enumerating inconsistencies and find defects. So these tools can often aiding generated some test cases based on the model. Although mainly used by designers and developers, modelling tools that records state transition diagrams or use case can also be suitable for testers, even if they don't outer generate tests. The way that sequence or state diagram actual transition is ideally suited to their even tests so similarly are used Gates that describes pre and post conditions, and the Siri's off steps simplifies the test design process. So there's several tools out there with the most common ones are Microsoft Visual, my sequel Workbench, And that means it clips you women to tools 24 test specifications. So test design tools. So these tools are used to generate executable tests, testing poots like data or test oracles like expected results automatically from requirements. So a graphical using to face design models such as abusing rules is take diagrams in the data models or code so called based test generator, similar to its static analyzes and our languages specific. So Typically, they identify in certain points for exceptions, testing or identify path the and and then path conditions especially used for when there is , ah, undocumented. Softer. So they generated. Tests from a state or object motor are used for very finding implementation off the modern . The software but are seldom sufficient for verifying over expected off the software or system. So the test design tools can save valuable time and provide increased the robustness off testing because off the completeness off the tests that the two congenital wait. So in this example, test designed to sow gathered the requirements that gooey the design mother, state, data object and source code and and I can help you test it, we've you know, the testing puts the executable tests is in the test. Oracle's you know, the expected results from from it continuing with the 24 test specifications. This is the data preparation tools we're going to talk about. So test data preparation tools manipulate databases, violence or data transmissions to set up test data to be used there in the execution of tests. So test data preparation tools enable data to be selected from existing database. All created a fresh on. If Tess's are using copies of production data with sensitive information, these tools can ensure security through their data. Unknown emitted. Large scale of random data can be generated according to define business roots, so based data records will need to be set up in a certain state, which will enable test cases to work. This may require complex Siri's off a transaction stretch ive, but can more easily achieved by artificial means. So again, out there, there's several tools about these data preparation tools, but the most common ones is my secret workbench. GS ups in data tech two for test execution and logging test execution tools. These tools enable tests to be executed automatically or same automatically using starting put and the expected outcomes through the use of the Scripture language. They can also be used to record tests and usually support description, language or gooey based the configuration or parametric ization Off data. Another customization in tests. Test execution tools usually provide a test log for each test run and can compare actual and expected results. A guru you capture playback two forms the heart off the most of execution tools, keystrokes and mouse pointers actions are intercepted by the two in the starting TACIS script, which will enable replay the state off gree objects such as windows, feuds, bottoms and other controls, as well as a display output is also recognizing. Recorded scripts can then be repeated or amended to vary the test room Data desk aces and expected results may be held in separate tests. Repositories in the varied EZ as required. So all the others load off tools. But the most Commons ones are Zephyr. Test flow for juror Qiwei Complete hate be quality Center Ibn Rush, you know 24 tests Execution and organ test harness unit tests. Frameworks Tools Eastern's for developer A unit test harness or framework facilitates the testing off components or parts off a system by simulating the environment in which the test object will run through the provision off mark object as the stoops all drivers. This is particularly useful for component integration testing, such as top down or bottom up testing, test harnesses and drivers. I used to execute softer and the test which may not have ah use interface or to Rome groups off existing automated test scripts, which can be controlled by the tester stubs are used to simulate routines, which have not had bean written and can print or display the values passed to them. Drivers I used to pass viable is to a routine on the test and print or display variables returned from them. Simulators I used to support test where code or other systems are either unavailable or impracticable to use, for example, when you're testing to cope with a nuclear meltdown. So there are several tools out there the most common one J unit, if you use in Java and unit. If using. C Sharp .net Qutb Hate be Cellini in an eclipse Intelligently idea. Two. Full test execution and logging test Comparator tools test comparative tools. I used to compare actual results and expected results by analyzing differences between files, databases or test results. Standalone comparison tools normally do with a range of five or database for months, but many tests execution tools have beauty and comparatives that deal with characters, screens, gooey objects or big mop images. These tools often have the filtering or masking capabilities so they can Indian or rows or columns off data or are isn't screams. Converter tools which check printed output are more specialized as they need to avoid it, throwing up differences on viable print data like page numbers, line numbers, run dates and times. They do need to check whether the same message and values are present on the brink files for the same identify, for example, master file record code. So there are several tools out there, but the most common ones are ultra. Compare wind marriage dif dark and wind If two foot test execution Logan coverage measurement tools. These tools measured the percentage off specific types off coded structures that have been exercised by a set off dynamic tests. They may measure coverage off statements of branches or decisions and calls to modules or functions. They are used during a white box testing to measure actual coverage. A tive by a set off a structural tests. Such toes maybe intrusive, for example, day odd extra code to the software and the test to measure the coverage. This is known as the probe. Effect covered Letterman tools typically produced a detailed coverage reports or graphs showing what code has been executed. The number of times, particularly statements or decision outcomes, have been executed and known executable a statement, such as declarations and comments. Aero hundreds can be a specifically included or excluded from the reports. Results and results can be tell to include all tests, runs or just day current ruin. It may be possible to view and monitor covert increasing online while the software is running, and results may be exported to I spreadsheet for further analysis. So there are several tools out there. The most common ones are J test compared to Ra, Emma and Kovar. Test well C T C Plus plus two for tests. Execution, logging security tools. These tools are used to evaluate security characteristics off softer, such as the ability off the software to protect data confidentially, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability and non repudiation. They can also check for viruses and the denial of services. Attacks three to the nature off these tools, they're mostly focuses on a particularly technology platform and purpose. These are essential in order to protect confidential business systems and that sensitive data from attacks on Web based or distributed systems. They are often very sophisticated tools, and they are more likely to be used by a security specialist than by a typical tester. So again, there's a several tools out there. The most common ones are SQL map. Google No Good to fall ***, Zed Attack Proxy or Z, A P close up to support for performance and monitoring. So dynamic analysis tools So D stands for developer dynamic analysis tools. Provide a runtime information on the state of softer on the test. They find Defects are evident on Lee. When softer is executing. Search us the time dependence is or memory leaks. For example, the memory on workstation they continuously declined, leading ultimately toe on untidy application failure. They are typically used by developers in component and component integration, testing and when testing me the way so applications after that connects software components . A continue of performance loading stress testing tools. So the performance testing tools monetary and report on how our system behaves on the priority off assimilated users conditions in terms off a number of concurrent users. They run purple patterns, frequency and the relative percentage off transactions. The purpose off a performance tests and is to show that the system has the capacity to 100 large numbers off users and transactions, their normal operation and the few parents to comply with any service level agreement as a lays on response times. Low testing assesses they capability off the if restructure 200. They expected loads, while the stress testing evaluates the system beyond its expected limits, the simulation off load is attributed by means off great and virtual uses carrying out selected such of transactions is spread across. A virus test machine is commonly known as a load generators performance. Testing tools normally provides reports based on test logs and graphs. Off load against the response times. Larger companies may have the specialist performance test the teams to design tests and analyze the results, so there are several tools out there. The most common ones are SQL Mop Google Look No Gulf to Fall. Vega Zad Attack Proxy Goes up two for performers and monetary monitor in tools. Monitoring tools continuously analyze, verify and report on users off his specific system resources such as CPU memory disk capacity network and give warnings off possible service problems. These are really part of systems management tools rather than being the specialized tested tools, but can be used during dining testing to highlight system resources issues, which might have an impact on the availability performers or the SLS. There are several tools out there. The most common ones are new relic wing feedback acts Watch and the Engineers Performance Monitor two. For performance in monetary data quality assessment tools. These tools assesses data quality and the integrity for data centric projects such as data conversion, migration projects and a data warehouse applications. They can review and verify data conversion and migration rules and ensure that process data is correct, complete, accessible and compliant with the pre defined the standards. There are several tools out there. The most common ones are in for Matic. A data validation research from r T ts i c e d g Q and data gaps. E T. L validated effective use off tools for software testing So the potential benefits and risks. So you summary the potential benefits and risks off test automation and to support for testing and also to these gonna help you remember special considerations for test execution tools, ecstatic analysis and the test management tools. So simply pushes your lease in a two Does not guarantee success with that to each type of too may require additional effort to achieve real, and that lesson benefits there are potential benefits and opportunities with the use of tools and testing. But there are also risks effective use of tools potential benefits so the possible benefits off using tools are reduced. Repetitive work. For example, regression tests reentered the same test data. Checking against coding standards ensure greater consistence and repeatability. For example, tests executed in the same order with same frequency improve a currency by removing human era provided objective assessment and reporting off static measures. Coverage and system behavior. Maintain history of test documents. For example, Test plans, specifications and logs provide easy access to information about testing for example, statistics and the graphs about test progress and incident rates, effective use of tools and potential risks so risk is off. Using tools are unrealistic expectations for the two, including functionality and years off use. Underestimating the costs, time and effort required to introduce a to and to achieve significant and continuing benefits, including training they need for changes in the testing process and a continues improvement . Overreliance on the tools, such as using automated tests when monaural testing would be better, neglecting conversion, control off the tests, assets within the truth and neglecting relationship ships and the interoperability issues between tools such as a requirements, management tools and tools from multiple vendors to supplies. Issues such as a poor, responsible support or supplier going out of abuses, suspicion off open source or free toes. Inability to support a new platform. Special consideration for some types of tools. Some tools have particularly issues, which need careful consideration before being implemented within a testing organization. Static Analysis Tools. These tools Executed test is use in automated test scripts generated by recording the actions off a mineral tester using capture replay technology. This type of tool often requires significant effort in order to achieve significant benefits. Such a scriptures contain both the actions and the data from the recorded tests, which limits the flexibility to retain the greatest benefit. It is necessary to Deco productions and data, which can then be modified to create a more flexible set off potential tests. This process and the ongoing maintain itself. Automated scripts require technical expertise in the Scripture language, either by the testers or by the specialises in test automation are data driven. Test approach separates out the testing poots the data, usually into a spreadsheet, which then can be edited without knowledge off prescription language. The generic Tessa script contained the original actions can then be run many times against different data in the spreads it or against data generated. Using algorithms based on the configurable parent is at the wrong time versus they. A keyword driving test approach separates out the actions in the form off a standard keywords into spreads it. These can be modified by testes, even if they are not familiar with the Scripture language. To define new tests. Taylor to the application being tested. Test management tools Test management tools need to interface with orderto such as requirements, management and the defect management tools or spreadsheet in order to produce useful information in a fomer that fits the need off the organization. It is therefore essential to ensure that these tools can communicate successfully, particularly if they are from different suppliers introducing her to selection consideration. So in these last part, as we come to an end, you will understand that they state the main principles off. Introducing a two into organization states the the goes off a proof of concept for two evaluation and the piloting phase for two implementation and recognize that factors other than simply acquiring the two are required for good to support. So the considerations are the introduction off. Testing to it is costly, so it must be threated like any other business project with clear business objectives and an estimate of cost benefit. Right. You, based on a concrete business case to justify the stranger before introducing into into organization is important to assess their testing, maturity, strength and weakness off the testing process and team, and to identify opportunities for process improvement using tools. Any perspective, ah two must be evaluated against the clear requirements and objective criteria. A feasibility study proof of concept can be established to demonstrate to the two performed effectively with softer in the test and with the current infrastructure, and to identify any changes needed for effective use of to the two. Supply must be evaluated to clarify what's provisions they make for training, service support, open grades and commercial aspect. The testings requirements for coaching and mentoring should also be considered, especially the team's testing automation skills. Introducing the selected to before making a commitment to implementing A to within our organization. Ah pilot project is usually undertaken to ensure the benefits off using the two can actually be achieved the objectives off. The pilots are to learn more detail about the to evaluate how it is feet with the existing processes and practices and identify changes required in the test process and assess whether the benefits will be achieved at a reasonable cost. It is also an opportunity to decide on standards, ways off, using, managing, starring and maintain. The two in the test is assets, for example, naming convention for files and tests, creating libraries, defining modularity, off task suits and common conventions for use deployments. Successfactors Full deployment off the two should be based on a successful result from the evaluation off the pilot. They should be assessed along with implementation. Plan to ensure it is right to proceed and that everything is ready for a successful roll up . Successfactors for deployment off a two within organization include a role outing incrementally across the organization. Adapt and improve process two feet with views. Provide training and coaching mentoring for new users. Define uses guidelines. Implement away to gather, uses information monetary use in benefits. Provide support for the testing for giving to and I gather lessons learned from old teams. Now that we got to the end of the section six, I want to thank you to follow me. So far, you know into to congratulate you that you finished the six model. So in this particular six section six What what have you learned so far? So we talked about mainly about the tester tools so that the benefits of the test does the risk of test tools, at least off to for management in the testing and the test and the list of tools for ecstatic testing list of tools for test specification like dynamic list of tools for tests and execution and logging tools for performance and monetary, and its steps for introducing it to into an organization well done. So if you're watching this really right now means you completed the whole six sections. So we came Teoh one end. And so all the things from me for my videos that you were being getting it's a preparation for you to go and sit on the examine and passed. I'm confident. That said, these information is sufficient for you to go and pasta Axum. So just before you go, just still forget to go into the market some down the end of the papers I have practiced that as much as you can. So you do more confident eso you can go and pass. So I do wish that you go and take this expectation and pass just like I did and many other people did old over the world. So just before you go a swell And don't forget to comment on leave your feedback That helps me immensely and also like it on the share with your friends and colleagues. And I do hope See you in the in another video in the future with the advanced climbers Take so take care Thank you and goodbye. 9. Congratulations! Course Complete.: Congratulations. If you're watching these region right now, it means you're going through all the sections. You're going through All the mark papers that some papers. I believe that you have everything you need now to go and pass the exam. OK, so I wish you all the best and let me know how you get on. Make sure you shared this video with your colleagues and friends. Bye for now. Thank you.