IELTS Writing Task 2 [MASTERCLASS]: Get Band 7+ | Shay Singh | Skillshare

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IELTS Writing Task 2 [MASTERCLASS]: Get Band 7+

teacher avatar Shay Singh, Learn from the world's best IELTS course

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

56 Lessons (10h 49m)
    • 1. Welcome Aboard!

      10:36
    • 2. Fundamentals of Writing Task 2

      7:24
    • 3. The 6 Types of Questions

      9:38
    • 4. How to get a high score

      8:55
    • 5. How this course is structured

      3:04
    • 6. First Ingredient: Task Achievement

      10:23
    • 7. Second Ingredient: Coherence and Cohesion

      9:38
    • 8. Third Ingredient: Grammatical Range and Accuracy

      2:52
    • 9. Grammar: Tenses

      17:06
    • 10. Grammar: Articles and Agreement

      8:38
    • 11. Grammar: Active vs Passive Voice

      7:13
    • 12. Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences

      14:44
    • 13. Grammar: Complex Sentences

      11:48
    • 14. Grammar: Correlative Conjunctions

      8:56
    • 15. Grammar: Relative Clauses

      11:23
    • 16. Grammar: Conditionals

      10:52
    • 17. Grammar: Combining Elements

      6:24
    • 18. Grammar: Punctuation

      17:54
    • 19. Grammar: Writing Numbers

      7:40
    • 20. Fourth Ingredient: Lexical Resource

      1:50
    • 21. Lexical Resource: Useful Expressions

      4:53
    • 22. Lexical Resource: Collocations

      10:36
    • 23. Lexical Resource: Topic Related Vocabulary

      8:44
    • 24. Lexical Resource: Word Formation

      19:40
    • 25. Introduction to Part 2: The Recipe

      12:33
    • 26. How to Create Outlines

      38:52
    • 27. How to Generate Ideas

      7:59
    • 28. How to Write Introductions - Basics

      9:12
    • 29. How to Write Introductions for Agree Disagree Questions

      7:35
    • 30. How to Write Introductions for Advantage Disadvantage Questions

      7:41
    • 31. How to Write Introductions for Problem Solution Questions

      5:45
    • 32. How to Write Introductions for Discuss Opinion Questions

      6:08
    • 33. How to Write Introductions for Opinion Questions

      4:41
    • 34. How to Write Introductions for Two Part Questions

      5:18
    • 35. How to Write Body Paragraphs - Basics

      20:42
    • 36. How to Write Body Paragraphs for Agree Disagree Questions

      11:13
    • 37. How to Write Body Paragraphs for Advantage Disadvantage Questions

      12:27
    • 38. How to Write Body Paragraphs for Problem Solution Questions

      15:09
    • 39. How to Write Body Paragraphs for Discuss Opinion Questions

      13:16
    • 40. How to Write Body Paragraphs for Opinion Questions

      10:39
    • 41. How to Write Body Paragraphs for Two Parts Questions

      10:54
    • 42. How to Write Conclusions - Basics

      3:00
    • 43. How to Write Conclusions for Agree Disagree Questions

      5:37
    • 44. How to Write Conclusions for Advantage Disadvantage Questions

      5:37
    • 45. How to Write Conclusions for Problem Solution Questions

      7:08
    • 46. How to Write Conclusions for Discuss Opinion Questions

      5:51
    • 47. How to Write Conclusions for Opinion Questions

      3:53
    • 48. How to Write Conclusions for Two Parts Questions

      6:19
    • 49. How to Check Your Work

      11:41
    • 50. Part 3: Cooking - Practice Question 1 in Real-time

      41:40
    • 51. Breakdown of Strategy for Practice Question 1

      18:58
    • 52. Breakdown of Ingredients for Practice Question 1

      15:37
    • 53. Practice Question 2 in Real-time

      41:54
    • 54. Breakdown of Strategy for Practice Question 2

      24:15
    • 55. Breakdown of Ingredients for Practice Question 2

      16:04
    • 56. Final Tips

      10:37
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About This Class

Welcome to this 10-hour Masterclass on the IELTS Writing Task 2 in which you will learn how to write a powerful Task 2 essay in a step-by-step manner. In this course, you will find detailed explanations and easy to follow instructions on how to write a Band 7+ essay. We'll breakdown the strategies for organizing your essay and presenting your ideas in the most effective way for every single question type. By the end of this course, you'll feel confident in writing an amazing Task 2 essay. Please view the course curriculum to see exactly what topics we will cover in this course.

This course is divided into 3 main parts. Think of it like cooking your favorite meal. First, you need the ingredients - so in Part 1, I will show you the four ingredients that you need to write a rock solid essay. Next, in Part 2, you will learn our secret recipe and strategies for writing the essay step-by-step for all the different question types. And finally, in Part 3, I will show you how to combine the ingredients and the recipe and put it all together into a unified whole.

Upon completing all 3 parts of this course, you will feel confident in writing a powerful Task 2 essay that will allow you to get a high score and pursue your goals of working or studying in English-speaking countries.

About Me:

My name is Shay and I'm a CELTA-certified English teacher with specialization in the IELTS exam. So far, I've trained over 25,000 students to achieve Band 7+ on their IELTS exam, and I would love to do the same for you. My students call my courses "the world's best IELTS courses" and I invite you to read their reviews on our website, on our Udemy page, or here on our Skillshare page. 

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Transcripts

1. Welcome Aboard!: Hey, everyone, welcome to this course on the aisles writing task to In this course I'm going to teach you how to write a really great task to essay in a step by step manner. If you're coming to the scores from our writing task one course, then this course is going to complete your education for the aisles writing, because to get a band seven or higher on your child's writing, you need to perform well on the task. Wanna say as well as on the task to S A. The complete focus off this course is going to be on the writing task to. So let's get started. I want to begin by first giving you a brief overview off what you can expect to learn in this course. So I'm going to illustrate the journey that you're going to be taking with me using a map. So here's our map and this is our ship, and in this ship, you're going to be taking a journey to the other side of the map, which is where we have our flag, and this is the course that you're going to be taking in the first part of this course, we're going to learn about the different types of questions that you're going to see on the writing task to. You're going to learn how to get a high score, how to meet all the different requirements off the task to s a how to use cohesive devices in a natural and fluent way, how to use grammar correctly. We're going to be covering a lot of different Kraemer concepts in quite a lot of detail. Then I'm going to show you how to use the vocabulary for talking about a wide range of topics that you may see on the task to s a. Then in the second part of this course, we're going to move into the recipe. This is where I'm going to teach you the strategies for writing a great task to s A. I'm going to teach you how to prepare outlines so that you can speed up the process of your writing. I'm going to then teach you how to ride the introductions for different types of questions , how to write the body paragraphs to your essay, how to write a great conclusion. And then in the third part of the course, I'm going to be doing really exam questions. Where the timer next, I'm going to break down these answers into full detail so that you can see how all different components off the writing come together to create a really great essay. Finally, before we end our journey, I'm going to leave you with some final tapes for your success. Now I just want to make a special note for those students who are enrolled in any off our other courses for the outs exam. If you have taken any of our other courses for isles than I want to inform you that there are going to be certain parts in this course that are going to be repetitive, for example, Ah, lot off the grammar that you learn for the writing task one is going to be the same Kraemer that you learn for the writing task to. This is what I mean by repetitive because most off the grammar concepts that you need to learn will be the same across our different courses. The grammar does not change. So whenever I describe any information that has already been discussed in any off our other courses, then I will make a special note for you to let you know that a certain lesson or certain information has already been discussed in other courses. This way, if you have taken any off our other courses, then you can simply skip over the repetitive information so that you don't have to waste time on learning something that you already know about. But if you haven't taken any of our other courses, then you should not skip over anything, and you should watch every single lesson in this course. So with that being said, let us move on forward. I'm now going to be making my first note. I want you to note that in the remainder off this video, I'm going to tell you a little bit about myself, and I'll give you an overview off the Isles exam. So if you've already taken any off our other courses, then you will already be aware off this information on. You can skip the remainder of this video if you'd like, you can simply jump to the next video, But for everyone else, let's move on forward. Here's a little bit about myself. That's me right there on my name is Shay in this course, I'm going to be your Isles instructor and also the captain of our ship. That's my hat right there. So far, I've had over eight years off aisles teaching experience. I'm also a certified Celta English instructor at my university. I did my degree in communication and language and so far off taught in 11 countries around the world. I've helped many students to score a band seven or above, and I hope to be able to do the same for you if you'd like. You can read our testimonials at the given link. And if at any point you have any questions, feel free to contact me at aisles at Master Shape dot Co. So now let's talk about what is the aisles? Well, it's a test off your English proficiency, and what it stands for is international English language testing system. There are two main types of files. There's the academic Eilts. This type of files is mainly used by colleges and universities for students who want to study abroad in an English speaking country. General aisles, on the other hand, is mainly used by employers for people who want to work abroad. I suggest that you contact your university or your employer to make sure that you're taking the correct aisles. So who makes the aisles? Actually, it's jointly owned by three separate agencies that are listed here. As you can see, Cambridge English is one of the agencies that are actually creating the aisles exam, and for this reason, I highly suggest that you get the Cambridge English books. This over here is an image of what the Cambridge English books look like. The exam papers in these books are very authentic and look just like the real exam. Also, since isles is a paper based test, I recommend that you practice doing the exam on paper. How can you take the isles? Well, first you have to register. You can do so by using the provided link. Next, you have to select which date you want to take the test in. Testing dates are available each month, so you shouldn't have a problem finding a date that works for you. Keep in mind, however, that in some testing centers you may need to register two weeks ahead of time Next, select the date, the time and the location for your test fill out the application and pay the fee. At the moment, it costs about $200. Once you've done that, provide them with a copy of your passport on that should complete your Eilts application. Let us now go over the exam overview. Firstly, the aisles takes about two hours and 45 minutes to finish, and it has four parts reading, listening, writing and speaking. Each part has equal scoring. The exam is divided into two major sections. The first section is the paper exam. This includes three sections, the listening, reading and writing. And all three of these sections must be finished in one single session. The other part is the speaking exam. The speaking test can be scheduled separately. So if you don't want to, you don't have to take it on the same day. You can schedule it on some other day. Lastly, keep in mind that this is an English test. Some of my students feel that they may not perform as well on the test because they don't have any prior knowledge about other subjects. But actually you don't need any specialized background knowledge on any other subject other than English. There are no breaks in between the test so you won't have any bathroom breaks or lunch breaks. So it's important that you develop your stamina at home by taking full length practice tests again. It is a paper based exam, so your handwriting and spelling are very important. If your handwriting is unclear or illegible, then you're going to lose points for that. On the other hand, if you spell words wrong, you're also going to lose points for that. Let us now break down the different sections on the timing off the Alice exam. The first part is listening, in which you have four sections on a total of 40 questions. He will have 30 minutes to finish the listening part. Next is the reading section, in which you will have three reading passages with 40 questions total, which you have to finish in 60 minutes. Then you're going to move to the writing section in which will have two tasks. The writing task one on the writing task to you will have a total off 60 minutes to finish both tasks. Lastly, you have to speaking part, which will last a total off about 11 to 14 minutes in length This brings the total test time up to two hours and 44 minutes. Let us now talk about the answer sheet. You will have two different types of answer sheets on the left hand side. We have the answer sheet for the reading and listening. On the right hand side, we have the answer sheet for the writing part. So when you're writing your answers for task one and task to, you're going to have a sheet like this on if you need extra paper than you can ask her examiner. So that concludes this video. And in the next video, we're going to look at the fundamentals off the writing task to so I'll see you there. 2. Fundamentals of Writing Task 2: Welcome back to the course in this video. I'm going to give you some basic information for writing the task to essay. This is the fundamental information that is going to lay the groundwork for all of your education ahead. So the first thing that you need to know about writing the task to essay is that in these essays you have to describe a certain point of view, issue or a problem. Well, look at examples of this in the upcoming videos. Next, you need to know that the task to essay is worth twice as many points as Task one. Next, you're going to have a total off 40 minutes to finish the task to s A. In total, you have 60 minutes to finish both the task one and the task to essay. So you should be spending 20 minutes to finish the task One essay and then the remaining 40 minutes to finish the task to S A. In this task to essay, you have to write a total off four paragraphs. In total, this comes out to about 13 to 18 sentences. Next you have to write a minimum off 250 words this is the minimum requirement. Ideally, though, you should try to aim for about 280 words. It can be better to have a little bit higher ward count if you can. However, I want you to note that you can get a band nine with just the minimum requirement off 250 words. This means that the quality off your writing is much more important than the quantity. Once you have finished writing the minimum requirement off 250 words, quality becomes far more important than quantity. Next, I want you to note that unlike the academic task, one essay in the writing tough to you can use words such as I, you, we or us. However, don't overuse them. The writing task two is not a very formal essay. It's not as academic in nature like the academic writing task. One essay is so you can be a little bit more flexible with your language. Now there are many different types of questions that you can see on the writing task to, but I've broken down these different question types into six main categories, so we're going to cover this in much more detail in the next video. But essentially, there are six different types of questions that you can see on the task to F A. But the good news here is that even though there are six different question types, the same basic strategy applies to every single question type. This means that you don't have to learn different strategies for answering different question types. The strategy is the same, and we're going to break down the strategy in a lot of detail in Part two, off this course. Now, when you're writing the task to essay, you're going to be using a lot of different examples to illustrate your ideas to support your ideas. What I want you to note about using these examples is that when you are writing this essay , the examples that you use don't have to be truthful. They don't have to be true. The important thing is that this sound true. They should sound riel the aisles. Examiners don't care if you're telling the truth or not. The aisles. Examiners only care about your English. Can you write English? Are you good at writing English? That's what they care about. So don't worry about making up examples that aren't true. Next, in some questions, you're going to have to describe your position or your opinion on a subject. I want you to note that your position on your opinion can never be wrong again. The examiners only care about your English. They want to know if you know English. They don't care about your political opinions, which sides you choose. If you're right, or if you're wrong, it doesn't matter. So feel free to choose any side and express your views. Finally, I suggest that you use a pencil instead of using a pen when you're writing arrested so that you can make easier corrections. Okay, Now I want to move into the structure off the task to s A. I want to give you a visual representation off. What? The task to s it looks like and what you have to do. So here you can see all the different components off the task to s A. The first component is outline. Before you start writing the essay, you have to create an outline. This will make it easier for you to arrange your essay in an organized manner once we're done with the outline. You'll move on to writing the introduction. The introduction is the forest paragraph. Then you'll write the body paragraph number one and the body paragraph number two. These two paragraphs are the biggest paragraphs in your entire essay. Then you're going to end your essay with a strong conclusion. And finally, if you have any leftover time, then you should use that time to check your work. We're going to go over every single one of thes components in a lot of detail. Later, down the road here, you can see the number of words that you should be writing per paragraph. So here you can see that for the introduction, you should write between 40 to 50 words for the body paragraph number one and the second body paragraph. You have to write 90 to 100 words and finally, in the conclusion, you only need 30 to 40 words. Now, these are just general guidelines to give you an idea off how large each one off your paragraphs should be. It doesn't mean that you have to write this exact number of words here. You can see how many sentences you should be writing per paragraph you should write about three sentences for the introduction. 4 to 6 sentences for the body paragraphs and then 2 to 3 sentences for your conclusion. Finally, here is the amount of time that you should be spending for component. So you should spend five minutes to create the outline. Five minutes to write the introduction. 10 minutes per body, paragraph five minutes for the conclusion. And ideally, you should have about five minutes remaining at the end so that you can use this time to check your work. So that is the visual representation off the task to s A. And that brings us to the end off this video in the next video, we're going to be looking at the different types of questions that you're going to see for the task to s A I'll see you there. 3. The 6 Types of Questions: in this video, I'm going to show you the sixth different types of questions that you're going to see on the writing task to, so let's get right into it. The first type of question that you can expect to see is the agree, disagree question in this question. What you have to do is you have to agree or disagree with a certain point of feel. For example, this question says some people believe that unpaid community service should be compulsory part of high school programs, for example, working for a charity, improving the neighborhood or teaching sports two younger Children. To what extent do you agree or disagree now, just like every other writing task to question, you have to give reasons for your answer, and you have to support your reasoning. To do this, you can include relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience, as you should already know by now, you have to write at least 250 words in your essay. So how do you know if a question is an agree, disagree question? Well, that's quite simple. You're going to see that the question asks you to agree or disagree. That's how you can identify this type of question. One thing to keep in mind about this type of question is this. Question says, to what extent do you agree or disagree? This means that your opinion is required. The question is asking you the extent to which you agree or disagree, so you must express your opinion on. You are also allowed to express it strongly if you want, because the word extend gives you permission to express a strong opinion. Now this is what I want you to note about the agree or disagree question. It is best if you simply choose one side. Do not try to discuss both sides and do not try to justify both sides. As you'll soon see, there are certain questions in which you are required to discuss both sides. But this is not one of those questions. It is possible to write a partly agree as a It is possible to do that. You can partly agree with a certain point of view or partly disagree with a certain point of view. However, I don't recommend that you do this because when most students write a partly agree say it often ends up, turning into, Ah, discuss both sides as a and we don't want to do that. That is not what this question is about. So my recommendation to you is to simply choose one side and make it simple for yourself. Simplify the question and just talk about one side and later down the road. When you see me answer this type of question, I will only focus on answering this type of question by choosing one side. Okay, now, let's take a look at the next type of question. The advantage and disadvantage questions are also very common on the else exams. In such questions, you're going to be provided where the basic premise This is the basic argument off the topic. In this case, this is what a question says. Some experts believe that it is better for Children to begin learning a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school. Do the advantages off this outweigh the disadvantages. So the first thing to note about this question is that whenever you see words such as advantages on disadvantages, that's how you can identify this type of question. The next thing to keep in mind is that similar to the agree or disagree question here. You also have to choose one side only. This is not a discuss. Both sides question the question. Does not say discuss both the advantages on the disadvantages. Okay, so you have to choose one side on only focus on that one side. Note that the question also does not ask you for your opinion. The question does not say what do you think? So for this reason, you should not state your opinion. It is not required. So all you need to do is simply discussed. The fact. Give reasons for your answer on include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. The third type of question that you can see is the problem solution question. Here you're presented with a problem, and the question is asking you, What do you think are the causes of these problems on what measures could be taken to solve them? So when the question asks you about the causes of the problems on what can be done to solve them, you can easily identify this as a problem solution question. The next thing to note about this question is that it is asking you. What do you think this means? That your opinion is required, but you don't have to strongly express it. Notice that the question does not say to What extent do you think it's also not really asking you for your opinion? It's simply asking you to speculate the problem and the solutions, so you have to express your opinion, but you should not strongly express it now. The fourth type of question that you can see is the discussed opinion question. These questions are easy to identify because the question says to discuss both these views on Give your opinion. That's how you know that this is a discuss opinion question. So let's take a look at this example. Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and that other measures are required. So what you have to do in this type of question is you have to discuss both these arguments on you have to also discuss your own opinion. Now take note that the question says, give your own opinion. This means that your opinion is required on. You are also allowed to strongly express it because this is your own opinion. So if you want to strongly express it, that's totally fine. The other thing to note is that this question says that you have to discuss both these views. This means that it is okay to agree with one side or both sides. So unlike the agree, disagree question on, unlike the advantage disadvantage question here, you can agree with just one side or both sides. You are free to choose. But regardless off whether you agree with one side or both sides, you still have to discuss both these views. Finally, a quick little note. If you favor one side more than what you have to do in this type of question is you have to insert your opinion in the body paragraph that you favor or agree with. We're going to cover how to answer each and every single one of thes question types in a lot more detail in the future videos. This is just a quick overview off the different types of questions. Now let's look at our next question. The next type of question is the opinion question. So here the question says Some people claim that not enough off the waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. To what extent do you think loss are needed to make people recycle more off their waste? Here, you're simply required to express your opinion. It says. To what extent do you think? And that's how you know that this is an opinion question, and this phrase also tells you that your opinion is required. This is an opinion question. After all, you have to express your opinion on you are allowed to strongly express it. The question says, to what extent? So this gives you permission toe strongly express your opinion. I want you to note that for this type of question, it is best to simply pick one side and express it strongly because it's easier and safer. Now let's move on to our final type of question. This is the two parts question in this question. You have two different parts. That's how you can easily identify this type of question. The first part says, in what ways has technology affected the types of relationships people make. The second part of the question is, has this become a positive or negative development? So in this type of question, you have to discuss both aspects off the discussion. Take note that this question does not ask you for your opinion, so you should not state your opinion since it is not required. So that brings us to the end of this video. You now have a basic understanding off the different types of questions that you can expect to see on the writing task to in the next video. I'll show you how you can get a high score. 4. How to get a high score: Welcome back in this video. I'm going to show you what you need to do to get a high score. So let's get into it. Basically, your writing task two is going to be scored on four separate band descriptors. These are basically different categories on which your essay is going to be assessed. The first band descriptor is task achievement. The second is coherence and cohesion. Next is grammatical range and accuracy. On the last one is lexical resource. This is just vocabulary. Each one of thes band descriptors account for 25% off your grade. So when the examiners are grading your essay, what they do is they assign you a score between 0 to 9 for each of these different categories. Then they average out this score, and that becomes the total score for your writing task to now let's take a look at these band descriptors in a bit more detail. So the first thing that you need to know is that thes band descriptors are an important resource for preparing for your exam, and the reason for that is that these band descriptors will give you a better sense off how pious examiners evaluate your essay and how they assign you ban scores for your writing tasks. When you properly understand the criteria for these band descriptors, you will know exactly what you need to do and what you shouldn't do to get a certain score . So let's take a look at what these band descriptors look like. Now this here is the official ban descriptors list by the British Council. I highly recommend that you take a look at this list on that You properly understand what you need to do to get a certain bound. This list will tell you exactly what you need to do in each category to get a certain band . For example, if you want to get abound nine, then these are the things that you need to be doing. If you want to get a band eight, then these are the things that you should be doing and on and on. It goes for each of the band scores listed here, so I will provide you with a link to days so that you can read this list in your own time. However, for now, what I've done is I've simplified all of this for you basically off summarized everything that you should be doing to get a pan seven or higher on your writing task to S A. So let's take a look at that. So first, we're going to take a look at what you need to do to score well on the task achievement category. So to get a high score on the task achievement category, firstly, you need to address all the different parts of the essay. This means that you should provide all the information that the question is asking you for next, you must present a well developed response to the question with relevant extended on supported ideas. Basically, you need to develop a full response to the question, and you need to use relevant information. You also need to extend upon your answer by providing supporting ideas. Next, you must hold a clear position throughout the response. This means that if you choose a certain side or a certain position, then you need to maintain that position throughout the essay, and you need to support this position. In doing this, it is important that you avoid over generalization. In other words, you need to use specific information to support your ideas so that your essay can remain focused. Now let's take a look at what you need to do to score well on coherence on cohesion. Firstly, you need to use cohesion in a way that attract no attention. This means that you need to use cohesive devices. Naturally, it should not feel like you're forcing them into your writing. They should appear naturally. You also need to do well on paragraph in your essay paragraph ing mainly refers to formatting your essay in a certain way. On the other part of paragraph ing includes structuring your essay in a logical way. The logical organization off. The paragraphs within your essay are part off paragraph ing, so we'll cover all of this in much more detail in the future. Lessons. Next, you need to sequence your information on your ideas. Logically, this means that the ideas that you present should follow a natural order. It should be easy for the reader to follow along with what you're saying on with your ideas and the argument that you're making. In other words, there should be a clear progression throughout your essay. Ideas should a logically follow each other next. You should use a range off cohesive devices, meaning that you should not under use certain words or over use certain words. You should use a wide variety off cohesive devices, and finally you need to present a clear central topic within each paragraph, meaning that the ideas within your paragraph should remain focused. And they should only discuss one main idea at a time. Now let's look at what you need to do to score well on the Kraemer category to perform well on the Kraemer category. Firstly, you have to use a wide range off grammatical structures. Grammatical structures include things like the compound sentence, complex sentence, relative pronouns, active voice, passive voice and so one. We're going to cover all of this in much more detail in the future lessons. Next, you need to make sure that you make very few errors. Take note that it is possible to get about nine even if you make some minor errors. However, generally you should try to avoid as many errors as possible. In other words, the majority off your sentences should be error free. This means that over 50% off your sentences should not have any mistakes in them. Lastly, you also need to use punctuation correctly. Punctuation includes things like the comma, apostrophe period, semi colon and so on. The last category on which we're going to be created is the lexical resource. In other words, for Cavalleri to get a high score on the lexical resource category, you need to use a wide range of vocabulary fluently and naturally. You also need to be able to use vocabulary words to convey precise meanings. This means that you should be able to use a word to mean exactly what you want it to mean Now. Using a wide range of vocabulary also means that you should use some less common lexical items. Less common lexical items just means using vocabulary words that are not very common words that are infrequently used by the public. In addition, two days you must also use some call locations. Call locations are groups off words that often appear together. They are like a pair, a team that often appears as a group. We're going to look at all of this in a lot more detail in the future lessons. The last thing that you need to do to score well on this category is you need to avoid as many mistakes as possible. It is possible to get a high band, even with some minor errors or occasional slips. However, you should try to avoid this, and you need to make sure that your spelling on word formation are correct. So that brings us to the end of this video. In the next lesson, I'm going to show you how this course is structured on what you can expect to learn over the following videos. I'll see you there. 5. How this course is structured: here, there in this video, I'm going to show you how this course is structured. Basically, I'm going to give you an overview off this writing task to course so that you can have a better idea off what to expect in the future lessons. So let's get started. Essentially, this course is played into three different parts. What I want you to do is I want you to imagine that you're about to prepare your favorite food. If you were going to prepare your favorite food, what would you do? Well, the first thing that you would probably do is you would gather a bunch off ingredients, so that's the first part of our course. In the first part of this course, we're going to gather all the different ingredients that are required to write a great essay. These ingredients include task achievement, cohesion and coherence. Grammatical range on Mexico Resource. These are the four band descriptor categories on which the aisles examiners are going to create your essay. So in the first part of this course, I'm going to show you exactly what you need to do for each of the different categories to get. Ah, high Band Okay. So once you have all the ingredients, what do you do next to prepare your favorite meal? If you are terrible at cooking like I am, you're probably going to consult a recipe book. Well, that's the second part of this course. In the second part of this course, we're going to go over the recipe for writing a great task to S A. In the recipe section, you're going to learn the strategies for writing a great essay. I'm going to show you step by step, how to write the outlines for your s a how to ride the introduction paragraph, how to write the body paragraphs on how to write a strong conclusion. Once we have the ingredients and the recipe, we will then be ready to put everything together and start cooking. In the third part of this course, we're going to put everything that we've learned together in this part. You're going to see me, right? The task to essay in real time with a 40 minute timer. This will give you a better idea off how to write a great essay in riel exam situation. Then after I'm finished with writing the essay, I will then break down my answer in complete detail so that you can see all the different parts in the different components that come together to create a band seven plus s A. So now that you have a better understanding of what to expect from this course on how this course is structured, you're now ready to move on to the next lesson in which you'll learn how to get a high band on the first ingredient, which is the task achievement category. 6. First Ingredient: Task Achievement: in this video, you're going to learn what you need to do to get a high score for the task achievement category. Let's begin with some basics. If you want to get a band seven or higher on your task achievement category, here's what you need to do. Firstly, you need to cover all the requirements off the task by writing about everything that the question is asking you for next, you need to present a clear position or opinion throughout your essay. You must also present extend on support your main ideas with supporting details, and finally, you need to avoid over generalization. Now, a big part off the task achievement category is decided by the structure off your essay. If you have a good structure, then getting a high score for the task achievement category becomes easier. So now let's talk about this structure. This is the overview off the structure off your writing task to s A. So here on the left hand side, we have the paragraphs, and here on the right hand side, we have the requirements that you need to follow for the corresponding paragraphs. So for the introduction paragraph, what you need to do is first you have to introduce the topic. Next, you have to paraphrase the question language, and then you have to state the thesis. The thesis is composed of two parts. The first part is to state your main ideas. The second part of the pieces is to state your position or your opinion. Then in the second paragraph, which is your body paragraph number one, you have to discuss on support your position with the main idea number one, and to support this main idea Number one, you have to provide supporting details on examples. Then, in the second body paragraph, you have to do more or less the same thing here. Instead of talking about main idea number one, you have to talk about main idea number two and similar to the body Paragraph number one. You have to support this main idea using supporting date hills on examples. The last paragraph is the conclusion paragraph For this paragraph, you have to summarize the main points of the essay on You have to restate the thesis, including your own position on opinion, notice that this structure is very important for getting a good score on the task achievement category. The reason for this is that a good structure allows you to address all the different parts of the FAA, and they also help you to clearly present your ideas. We'll talk about how to construct each one of these paragraphs in a lot more detail in Part two, off this course when we talk about the recipe. Okay, now you heard me say before that you must avoid over generalization. Now you may be wondering what exactly is over generalization. So let's talk about that. Basically, over generalization is when you make a statement that may be true in some cases, or in many cases, but not in all cases. So whenever you make a statement that is sometimes true but not always true, that is an over generalization on you must avoid it. For example, here we have this sentence. Living in big cities is stressful because they are too overcrowded. So what's the problem with this sentence? You see, grammatically speaking, this sentence is perfectly correct. There is no grammatical error in the sentence. However, the sentence is an over generalization. You must ask yourself, Is this true for everyone who lives in big cities? well, I don't think that living in big cities is stressful for everyone. You see, The reason is that some people enjoy big cities. Therefore, this sentence is an over generalization. Let's look at another example. Children do not exercise nowadays again. Is this true for every single child? Of course not. There are some Children who do exercise. Therefore, this sentence is also an over generalization, so you need to avoid making such statements in your essay. Okay, so the next question is, how do you stop over generalizing? Here's how to avoid over generalizing. All you have to do is simply soften your statement with the words below. You can use any off these words here to soften your statement. For example, you can use mortal language words such as could, may might and so on. You can also use these adverbs to show the frequency off something. You can use words such as often. Sometimes usually I'm so one. You can also use these quantify IRS to describe the quantity. You can use words such as many, some few and so on. Now I just want to make a quick little note about the words soften on often when you're pronouncing this word here, you can pronounce it with the T sound as often. Or you can also pronounce it without the t sound as often. Okay, they're both correct. But when it comes to this word here, we do not say soft in okay, The correct word is soften soften without the t sound just like the word. Listen, when you listen to something we don't say, Listen, we say, Listen, the T is silent. All right? Now let's take a look at an example often over generalization. So here we have a generalization. Living in big cities is stressful because they are too overcrowded. Now this is an over generalization. So if we want to correct the sentence, this is what we can do. We can change this sentence too. Living in big cities can be stressful because they tend to be too overcrowded. Notice that we have used the phrases can be on tend to be too soft in our statement. Now, this sentence is in fact true. Whereas before it wasn't really true. Living in big cities is stressful because they're too overcrowded. This is not really true for everyone. However, this sense is true because living in big cities can be stressful because they tend to be too overcrowded. Similarly, you could also say living in big cities can be stressful for some people. So that's how you can stop over generalizing. Now let's take a look at a few more examples just to make sure that we really understand this concept. So here on the left hand side, we have a generalization off course. This is incorrect. And on the right hand side we have the correct version off this generalization. So here we have a sentence. Children do not exercise. Nowadays. We already know that this is not true because some Children to exercise. So if we want to correct this statement, we can say Children tend not to exercise nowadays. Notice that we have softened the language. Let's look at another example. Living in another country is difficult. Well, this is not really true for everyone. So if we want to correct this statement, we can say, Generally speaking, living in another country can be difficult. Okay, by using the word can we have softened language? We have made it true. Let's look at the next example, taking an exam is trustful again. This is not really true. Some exams are not stressful because they're too easy. So to correct this statement, you can say taking an exam is often stressful. Okay, by using the word often you have solving the language. All right on to the next example. Learning a new language is challenging again. Not really true, not for everyone. So we can correct this sentence by saying, in many cases, learning a new language can be challenging. Here's our next example. Living in a city is more convenient to correct this. We can say living in a city is typically more convenient. And here's our last example. Prison is more effective for reform. To correct this, we can say prison may be more effective for reform. Okay, so statements like these are over Generalizations on tow. Avoid over generalization. You should try to use words and phrases such as often can be typically, maybe on so on. So that wraps up this video on task achievement. You're now ready to move on to the second ingredient, which is cohesion and coherence. So I'll see you in the next video 7. Second Ingredient: Coherence and Cohesion: in this video, I'm going to talk about coherence and cohesion. You're going to learn how to use cohesive devices fluently in your writing. Let's begin with some basic information. So if you want to get a band seven or higher on the cohesion category, then here's what you need to do. Firstly, you have to logically organize your information on ideas with a clear structure. Remember, structure is part off your coherence and cohesion. Score because a good structure holds your paragraphs together and it connects your paragraphs to each other. Next, you have to connect the sentences and your paragraphs together using cohesive devices. Cohesive devices are words such as however. Moreover, furthermore, therefore, on so one, and lastly, you have to stay focused by presenting only one main idea for paragraph. So we'll talk more about this in the future. But generally speaking, you should have only one main idea per body paragraph, and you have to support that main idea using supporting details. So we look at all of this in much more detail in part two off this course. Okay, now let's talk about what exactly are cohesive devices? Basically, cohesive devices are just words and phrases that link your different ideas together. Their purpose is to make your essay flow smoothly. You can think of them as the glue that sticks your sentences and your paragraphs to each other. Let me show you an example. Here we have a sample paragraph in this paragraph all the words and the phrases that are written in the pink color, our cohesive devices. These are the words and the phrases that glue the different sentences and the paragraphs in your essay to each other words such as to begin with namely, such as, additionally, resulting in. And there are many more now what I want you to notice. Here is this word on note that this is a coordinating conjunction on this word down here, which this is a relative pronoun on. What I want you to notice about. These two words is that they also act as cohesive devices because these words help you to connect one idea to the next. They clue your sentences together. Now we're going to talk about conjunctions and relative pronouns in much more detail in the grammar section. But here, I just want you to note that these words can also act as cohesive devices. All right now, let's take a look at some off the most common cohesive devices that you can use in your writing. Let's start off with overview. Sometimes you have to give an overview on your main idea. So when you're giving an overview on your main idea, you can use words and phrases such as overall generally, generally speaking on so on. Next, we have opening. If you are opening a new paragraph or if you're opening a new idea, then you can use the words and phrases listed here. Next we have sequence. Sometimes you have to explain that one thing came before the next. For example, if you're talking about a certain time line, then you may need to talk about before on after. So whenever you're talking about any kind of sequence, you can use any off the words and phrases listed here. Next, we have addition. A lot of times you will need toe. Add extra sentences. You will need toe add extra information. In this case, you can use words such as additionally furthermore, moreover, on so on, let's keep moving on. Next. We have comparison. Ah, lot of times, you're going to have to compare the different pieces of information. For example, let's say that you hold a certain position about a certain legislation for recycling. For example, in this case, you have to compare different pieces off information to show why you think that recycling is good for the community or why you think that recycling is not good for the community. Either ways you have to compare information next we have contrast. Contrast is similar to comparison because usually you don't just compare data. You compare and contrast the data whenever you contrast the data. Basically, you're showing the reader an alternative point of few. You want to show a different point of view, so this is very handy for when you want to contrast data or information. Next, we have cause and effect. A lot of times you will have to talk about the cause of something a problem. For example, this is very common. You will have to talk about the cause off a certain problem, and you will have to talk about the effect that that problem is having on the world. So these are the words and phrases that you can use to talk about cause and effect. Next, let's talk about emphasis. Sometimes you want to emphasize a certain point of view. You want toe. Highlight certain information to show that this is important. In this case, you can use any of the words and phrases listed here. Next up, we have illustration. Ah, lot of times you will have to illustrate your point of view. You may have to say, for example, and then you may want to talk about your example. Next, we have qualification. Sometimes you may have to make a statement, but with a certain condition attached to it. So when you want to include a certain condition in your statement, then you can use any of the words and phrases here next. We have reference. Ah, lot of times you will have to reference back to certain information, and you may choose to do this because you don't want to be repetitive. You don't want to keep repeating a certain word. In this case, you will have to use reference words and phrases, and finally we have clarification. Sometimes a certain idea that you're talking about may not be very clear, so you may want to clarify what you're saying so that the reader can properly understand what you've said. So you may want to clarify by saying to put it simply or in other words or in fact, on so one. All right, now let's talk about paragraph ing. So I already mentioned to you that paragraph ing has two parts. The first part is having a good structure. When you have a good structure, your paragraph will be logically arranged. So I've already given you the overview off the structure and we'll discuss this in much more detail in part two off this course, so I won't be talking about that just yet. For now, what I want to focus on is the format off your essay. So when you're writing your essay, you have two options. Option number one is that you can indent each paragraph whenever you start a new paragraph . Okay, that's option number one. Option number two is that you can skip a line between each paragraph, so let me show you what I mean. If you choose to indent each paragraph, this is option number one. If you decide to indent each paragraph, what you need to do is you have to leave some space before starting a new paragraph. So you leave some space here on you, leave some space here, and you would leave some space here again when you start the next paragraph. Now, let's take a look at option number two. Option number two is to skip a line. If you decide to skip a line, all you need to do is before starting a new paragraph. You just have to skip a line in between on the aisles essay, you're going to be given a sheet of paper and on the sheet of paper there are going to be lines on. You have to write on these lines. So when you're starting a new paragraph, all you need to do is simply leave one line and then start the next paragraph. Okay, so both of them are correct. Feel free to choose either option, but make sure that you don't mix the two formats. Do not mix them on. Do not change them. Midway. Just choose one format on stick to it. All right, so that wraps up this video in the next section. We're going to be talking about who this is scary grammatical range and accuracy. This is our third ingredient, so I'll see you there 8. Third Ingredient: Grammatical Range and Accuracy: in this section, we'll talk about grammatical range and accuracy. This is our third ingredient to writing a great essay. Now this is going to be a long section because there are many different parts to grammar. We're going to be breaking down everything from tenses. Two simple sentences to compound sentences to complex sentences will talk about conjunctions, active voice, passive voice and much more. So because there are so many things for us to cover in this grammar section, I've broken it up into several different subsections. Now I want you to keep in mind that this is not a crime. Of course, the main focus off this course is to teach you the strategy that you need to perform well on your Isles test. Ideally, you should already be familiar with these grammar concepts. However, since these concepts are important, I will still be going over them on discussing the most important aspects of grammar. So with that said, let's move on ahead. We're going to start off with some basic information. So according to the band descriptors, if you want to get a band seven or higher, here's what you need to do. So First of all you need to show a wide range of different sentence types on word orders. Basically, you just need to show off your ability to form a variety off compound sentences on complex sentences. Now complex sentences look very good in your writing, but this doesn't mean that all you have to write are complex sentences. Keep in mind that you should also write some simple sentences. Why? Because simple sentences are very easy to write on. Therefore, you're less likely to make a mistake on a simple sentence. You see, when you write longer sentences, you are more likely to make a mistake. On the other hand, if you write simple sentences, you can decrease your errors and therefore boost your accuracy. This is important because the vast majority off your sentences that means over 50% off your sentences have to be error free, so be sure to use a nice mix off compound sentences, complex sentences on simple sentences. Finally, you need to know how to use punctuation correctly. Punctuation includes things like the comma, apostrophe, capitalization and so on. We'll discuss this in more detail in the future videos as well. So that's it for this video. This was just a brief introduction to our grammar section. In the next video, we'll be talking about tenses. 9. Grammar: Tenses: in this video, you're going to learn about Tencent's. So first, let's talk about which tens you'll have to use on the writing task to. Generally speaking, the majority off your essay will have to be written in the present simple tens. This is because often times you will have to give opinions. For example, you might say that I believe taxes are good or you may have to state facts or your position . For example, you may say something like punishing Children does not work, but I do want you to be careful to realize when other tenses are required. There will be times when you will have to use other tenses. In general. You should not change the tens halfway through the sentence unless the timing off in action requires it. All right, so let's explore this concept in a bit more detail. First, we'll talk about when not to change the tents In general. You should not change the tents off a sentence if there is no time change for the action. So let's look at an example of that, So here we have an incorrect sentence, the sentence reads. During the lecture, Jane stood up and drops her phone. What I want you to notice here is that the word stood isn't pasta ins, whereas the word drops is in present tense. Why is this incorrect? Because in this sentence, we don't have any time change for the action. You see the action off Jane standing up and dropping her phone happened at the same time. So because these actions happened at the same time, we have to use the same tense. So the correct version of the sentence would read during the lecture Jane stood up on dropped her phone. Okay. Both actions are happening at the same time. Therefore we use the same tents. In this case, both words are in past tense. On the other hand, you could also write during the lecture. Jane stands up on drops her phone. This is also correct because both words are happening in the same tens. In this case, they're both in present tense. Now let's talk about when to actually change the tents. Firstly, you should only change the tents when there is a need to do so. So when is there a need to change the tens? Usually it's the timing off the actions within a sentence that decide whether we need to change the tents or not. So let's look at an example of that. Here. We have a correct version off a sentence. The sentences. When Jane comes here, we will go to the movies. Notice that we have two different tenses in this sentence. Here we have a present simple tense. And here we have a future simple tense. Why is this correct? Because the timing off the actions is different. You see, we have two different actions here. So here's our first action. Jane comes here. This action hasn't yet happened. It will happen in the future. When Jane comes here, we will go to the movies. This is the second action. I want you to notice that the second action will happen after the first action. So since we have two different actions happening at different timings, we need to change the tents midway through the sentence. Let's look at another example. Here we have a sentence. Sam reached for the apple after he had already eaten two oranges. So I want you to notice that we have two different verbs here in two different tenses. The 1st 1 is reached, which is in past simple tents on our second tense. Here is the past perfect tense. I also want you to pay attention to the word after because this word tells us that there are two actions that are happening. One action happened after another action. So here we have our first action, which is what happened in the past. The first action is that Sam had already eaten two oranges. This is our first action. And here's our second action. Sam reached for the apple. This is our second action, which also happened in the past on it happened after the first action. Okay, so do you see how the timing off the actions is different in both of these examples? So whenever you have a situation like this where you have to discuss two different events or actions that are happening at different timings, then you're required to change the tense off a sentence. Now I'm going to refresh your memory on the different tenses. As you may already know, by now we have three Main tense is the present tense. The past ins on the future tense. We'll start off with the present tenses. So first, we have our present simple tents we usually use present simple tends to show repetition, habit or generalization. So here we have our timeline. Here is the past Here's the present right now And here's the future. If you were to look at the simple present tense visually, what you would find is that the action happens again and again at every point throughout the timeline. This is because present simple tense is used to show auctions that happen again and again due to repetition, habit or generalization. So an example of this is I eat rice every day. So I ate rice last month. I ate rice last week. I ate rice yesterday. I ate rice today or I will eat rice today. I will eat rice tomorrow. I will eat rice next month and so on. You get the idea. Here we have the structure of the present simple tents subject plus the base for Bob, plus the object. Now let's move on to the next tense, which is our present continuous tense. We use the present continuous tense to show an action that is happening right now. Okay, so here's our timeline. And here's right now, and it's happening in the moment it's happening in the moment. For example, I am eating rice right now or I'm recording this video for you right now. The structure off the present continuous tense is subject plus, um is or are plus the continuous form of the verb plus the object. Next, we have the present perfect ends. We use the present perfect tense when we want to show that an action has happened once or many times before now. So if we look at the timeline, we'll see that an action has happened in the past and that it is somehow related to the present. This action that has happened in the past has happened in reference to right now, one more thing about the present perfect ends is that the timing off this action is not important. We don't really care when this action took place. We know that it happened in the past, but we don't care about when exactly did it happen? For example, I have eaten all off the rice in this sentence. You know that I've eaten all off the rise and that this is an action which has already happened in the past, but you don't know when exactly. I ate the rice. So that's how we use the present perfect tens. And here's the structure for writing this tense. We have the subject plus half or has plus the past participle of the Werbe plus object. The last present tense is the present perfect, continuous tens we used. This tends to show that an action started in the past and has continued until now. So if we look at our timeline here, we can see that an action started in the past. Okay, this is where it started. Here's right now, and it has continued all the way from the past up until this moment right now, and it's still happening. So here we have an example. I have been eating rice for two hours. Okay, so I started eating rice two hours ago. I was eating rice one hour ago. I was eating rice 30 minutes ago, and I'm still eating rice right now. All right, now let's talk about the past tenses. We're going to start with the past simple tents. So this tense is used to show that some action was completed at some specific time in the past. So here we have our timeline and here's the past on recon. See that an action took place at some specific time in the past. So, for example, I ate Rice yesterday. So here's yesterday on this is when I ate rice to construct this tense. You have to use this structure over here. Next. We have the past continuous tense, and we use This tends to show that an action was ongoing for sometime in the past. So in our timeline, here is the past and here's an action, and this action continued for some time in the past. I want you to notice that sometimes this action may be interrupted. This means that it's possible that in some cases there may be another action that happens right here on interrupt this first action, for example. I was eating rice when you arrived. So here's the first action. I was eating rice and I was eating rice for some time until another action happened. In this case, the other action is that you arrived. So just keep in mind that in some past continuous tense is we may have a second action, whereas in other past tenses, we may not. So, depending on your sentence, the first action in the past continuous tense may or may not be interrupted. Okay, so here's the structure to this tense. Now let's talk about the next tense, which is the past perfect tense. We used this tents to show that something happened before another action in the past. So here's the past, and we have to past actions. Both of these actions took place in the past. Note that one past action took place before another past action. So here's our example. I had eaten all off the rice when you arrived. So here's the first action. The first action is that I had eaten all off the rice, and then we have the second action. You arrived. So in the past, perfect tense. We describe to past events in reference to one another on. To construct this tense, you have to use the structure provided here. Next we have the past perfect, continuous tense. Now we used. This tends to show that some events started in the past on this action continued for some time until another action happened in the past. So let's look at our timeline here. We have the first action. The first action started in the past. It continued for some time until another action happened. So here's our example. I had been eating rice for two hours when you arrived. So this is when I started eating rice and I was eating rice for two hours and then you arrived. Here's the structure to this tense. Finally, we have the future tenses. Let's start with a future simple, tense we used. This tends to show that an action will happen in the future. So here's our timeline on. We expect that some action will take place at some point in the future. For example, I will eat rice tomorrow. So this is tomorrow and this is when I will eat rice. Here's the structure to this tense. Next, we have the future continuous tense, and we use. This tends to show that some action will continue for some time in the future. So here's our timeline, and here's the future. Some action is going to start in the future on it's going to continue for some time. I want you to notice that this action may or may not be interrupted. So basically, in some cases, this first action is going to be interrupted by another action. For example, I will be eating rice when you arrive. So here's the first action. I will start eating rice in the future. I will continue eating rice for some time until you arrive. OK, so here's the second action that may interrupt the first action in this case. The second action is that you arrive. So whether this first action will get interrupted or not just depends on what sentence you have here. We have the structure to this tense. Next we have the future perfect tense and we used This tends to show that some action in the future will happen before another action in the future. So here's our timeline and here's the future. We have two different actions that are happening in the future and note that one future action happens before the other future Action. So, for example, I will have eaten the pizza by the time you arrive. So the first action is that I will have eaten the pizza in the future by the time you arrive. This is the second future action to construct this tense. You have to use this structure here. Now let's talk about our final tense, which is the future perfect, continuous tense we use. This tends to show that some future action will continue for some time until another future action happens. So here, in our timeline, we have an action which will start in the future. And this action is going to continue for some time until another action happens in the future. For example, I will have been eating pizza for two hours when you arrive. So here's the first action. I will start eating pizza in the future. I will continue eating pizza for two hours until another action happens, which is when you arrive. This is the second future action. So we used This tends to show that some future action will be finished by a certain time in the future. In this case, this future action will be finished after two hours, which is when you arrive. Now this tense is very uncommon. Okay, so you're probably not going to use it in your writing. But I just wanted to mention it Anyways, just for the sake of completion on, for your knowledge, to construct this tense, you have to use this structure over here. So that concludes this video on tenses. I'll see you in the next grammar section in which we're going to talk about articles and agreement. 10. Grammar: Articles and Agreement: Welcome back in this grammar section will be talking about articles under agreement. So let's start with the definite article. The There are many different ways in which we use the definite article. The however, for the aisles s A. I will only mention the most relevant rules. The main thing that you need to know about using this article is that we used the when the reader knows exactly to whom or what we are referring. So let's look at the different scenarios in which the reader may know to whom or to what we are referring. So firstly, we used the when we're mentioning something again. For example, I planted a tree in my garden. The tree is now big notice that we use the word the here. The reason for this is that we've already mentioned which tree were talking about. The tree has already been mentioned in the previous centers, so we already know to whom or to what we are referring. We also used with superlative objectives. Superlative objectives are basically words like highest, lowest, best, worst, fastest quickest. Slowest on so on. We'll talk more about superlative adjectives when we get to the vocabulary section off this course. So here's our example. China had the highest growth rate. So notice that because we have a superlative objective here, highest, we have to use the We also used, uh when we're making a statement about all things referred to by a singular countable noun . So here we have a sentence. The dolphin is a very intelligent animal. So in this case, the singular countable noun is dolphin. So when we say a sentence like this, the dolphin is a very intelligent animal. We're basically making a statement about all things okay about all dolphins. We're not saying that one particular dolphin is intelligent. We're saying that all dolphins are intelligent. So by using the in this sentence, we have generalized what all dolphins are like. All dolphins are very intelligent. We also used when we're talking about certain groups of people for example the elderly, the poor, the wealthy, the employed on so one. Finally, we used the if the figure is an important part off a noun phrase. So here we have a sentence. The number of mangoes sold in Britain was surprisingly high. So in this case, number of mangoes is the noun phrase. So when we have a noun phrase, we have to use the word the Now let's talk about the articles and on now, similar to the definite article, the there are numerous rules to using the indefinite articles and an so again for the purpose off the Isles s is I'll only be discussing the rules which are the most relevant. So the main thing that you need to know about these indefinite articles is that you have to use or on with singular countable noun. And we used them with these singular countable noun when the reader does not know exactly to whom or to what we are referring. Okay, so keep in mind, the reader does not exactly know to whom or to what we are referring. So let's look at some examples off that we can use thes articles to show that something or someone is part of a group. For example, we could say there is a way to prevent crime rates from rising. Now here we're talking about one way. Okay, notice that this is just one way out off several. Why is this part of a group? Because there are many different ways There isn't just one way, however, we're just talking about one way. Next. We could also use thes indefinite articles if we're referring to all things off the same kind. So here's an example of that. A teacher has the responsibility off educating our Children. So notice here we used the indefinite article, uh, with teacher. Now, take note that we're not talking about any one specific teacher. We're talking about all teachers. What we're really saying is that all teachers have the responsibility off educating our Children. So here we have used a teacher to refer to all teachers. Next, you should not be using or on if you're referring to uncountable noun or florals. For example, the price off oil stabilized by January. Note that hear the word oil is an uncountable noun. We cannot count oil. Here's another example. There are many Italians living in New York. In this case, the word Italians is plural. So since we have a plural noun here, we cannot use any indefinite articles with it. Now let's talk about subject and for of agreement. When you're writing your sentence, you have to make sure that your subjects and Forbes agree with each other in number. So what that means is that if your subject is singular than the verb, must also be singular. If the subject is plural than the verb must also be plural. Let's look at some examples off that on the left hand side we have the incorrect sentences , and on the right hand side we have the correct sentences. So here's the incorrect sentence. Future discoveries is based on past knowledge. Why is this wrong? Because here we have a verb is which does not agree with the subject. Discoveries noticed that the subject discoveries is plural, whereas the verb is singular. So in order to correct that, we have to write. Future discoveries are based on past knowledge that is, has to be changed to our because discoveries is plural. Here's another example. People improves their life by learning from their past mistakes. Notice that the word people is plural, whereas the verb improves is singular. So to correct this sentence, you have to write people improve their life by learning from their past mistakes. People is plural. Therefore, the verb improved also has to be plural. Here's our last example reflecting on our past help us to make better decisions. I want you to note that the subject reflecting on our past is singular, whereas the verb help is plural. So to correct this sentence, we have to change the verb help to helps the correct sentence would read. Reflecting on our past helps us to make better decisions. So that's it for this video. Also you in the next grammar section in which will talk about active versus the passive voice. 11. Grammar: Active vs Passive Voice: welcome to this Kraemer section on active and passive voice. So let's first start by understanding what is the difference between the active and the passive voice in the English language. When we talk about the voice off a sentence, we're basically talking about the relationship between the subject and the verb. So in English we only have two voices, the active on the passive. Here's what the active voice is. Basically, the active voice is when the subject does the work. So here's an example. The dog bait the boy. So dog is our subject on a bit is the verb. The subject does the verb, on the other hand, in passive voice. The verb is done to the subject. So in our example here we can see the boy was bitten by the dog. Our verb here is bitten and dog is the subject. So in this example, the verb is done to the subject. So do you see the difference between these two different sentences? Notice that both e sentences have the same meaning. However, there different in their structure. Let's explore these concepts in a bit more detail. We'll start with the active voice, so you may be wondering, When should I use the active voice? Here's the answer. The active voice is best used for conveying simple on straightforward ideas and actions. Now there are many reasons why the active voice is far more common than the passive voice. Let's explore some of thes reasons. First of all, the active voice is direct and concise, meaning that the active voice gets straight to the point. It is also easier to understand it's less awkward and structure on. It clearly indicates the relationship between the different parts off a sentence. So let's look at an example here. Here's a sentence. I fed my dog yesterday. Notice that this sentence is very clear and simple. The sentence is written in active voice on its very easy to understand. On the other hand, if you were to write this same sentence in the passive voice, you would have to write. My dog was fed by me yesterday. Do you see how strange and complicated this sentence sounds? It's very unnatural. Noticed that both of these sentences mean the same thing on both of these sentences are grammatically correct. However, this particular idea is best conveyed with the active voice because it's simple and clear. Now let's talk about the passive voice. If passive voice is so awkward in its structure, why do we use it and when do we use it? Passive voice is primarily used in two main situations. The first of thes situations is when we do not want to say or do not know who did the action. The second situation is when focusing on the recipient off the action is more important. So let's look at examples off both of these situations. Here's our first example. Shoplifters were arrested. Notice that in this sentence we don't have to say that shoplifters were arrested by the police because this is obvious. So this is an example off the first situation. We do not want to say who did the action. Why? Because it's obvious there's no need to say that shoplifters were arrested by the police because only the police can arrest people. Here's another example. My car was stolen in this case. We don't know who's told a car. So this is also an example off the first situation. We do not know who did the action. Now let's look at an example off the second situation in which we have to use the passive voice. Here's our sentence. The road is being repaired. Notice that in this sentence were only focusing on the recipient off the action. We're only interested in the road. We don't really care about the people who are repairing it. Here's another example. Here we have two sentences which mean exactly the same thing. The poem was written by Shakespeare. Shakespeare wrote the poem On the top we have the passive voice and here on the bottom we have the active voice. So both the sentences mean exactly the same thing. However, there is a difference. The difference is that in the first sentence, the focus is on the poem, whereas in the second sentence the focus is on Shakespeare. So depending on what exactly you're tryingto emphasize in a sentence, you may want to choose the passive voice or the active voice. So I hope that the differences between the active voice and the passive voice are clear to you. Now let's now talk about how exactly do you go about contracting the passive voice? Basically, if you want to form the passive voice, all you have to do is use different forms off the verb to be so. Here in this column we have a list of tenses, and here we have the structure for forming the passive voice. You'll notice that depending on which tents were talking about, we're changing the verb to be in different forms. So here are some examples. If we're talking about the present simple tents, we would say the food is eaten in the present continuous tense. We would say the food is being eaten in the present perfect tens. We would say the food has been eaten in the past. Simple tens. We would say the food was eaten, and so one. Now let me show you an example off the use off, active voice and passive voice in a paragraph. So in this example, we have the passive voice highlighted in this brown color, and we have the active voice in the black color. If you'd like, you can pause this video now and read this paragraph in your own time. So that concludes this video. I'll see you in the next grammar section, in which we'll talk about simple on compound sentences 12. Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences: In this video, we're talking about simple and compound sentences. So first, let's start off with simple sentences. Now, if you're taking this course, then I'm going to assume that you already know how to construct simple sentences. Otherwise, you probably would not have bought discourse. So I'm assuming that you already have a good understanding of what simple sentences are and how to use them. But still, I want to quickly go over it. For some of you who may be confused or who perhaps know how to use them, but are not exactly sure of what a simple sentences. I'm just going to quickly go over that now. So guys, we have a simple sentence when we have a subject and a verb. Okay? So those two things make up a simple sentence. Now, an object is optional. We don't really need an object, but most of the times you are going to have an object in your sentence, in your answers. Okay? So here are three different examples. So here we have a simple sentence, taxes should be increased. So here we don't have any object. We just have the subject in the blue color, the verb in the purple color. And that said, here's our second example. Children are the future of our nation. Ok, so this time we have an object. The future of our nation is the object. Not the nation, but the future of the nation? Does the object Das will we're talking about. The final example is community service develops strong character individuals. This time the object is strong character individuals. The verb is develops to develop something, and the subject is community service. So that in a nutshell, is a simple sentence. Now, it doesn't matter if you know the structure and the format of all of these things, guys, I have a confession to make. I actually did not know what the exact format of a simple sentence is for a very long time, even up until the early days at my university, even as a native speaker, I did not know how exactly to differentiate subject from the object. And many other different grammatical nuances. Many other things about grammar that I did not understand. But regardless of that, I was able to speak fluently. I was able to write wonderfully. So you don't really need to know the elements of grammar in the sense that you don't have to know how they're structured, what are they called? You don't have to know if it's a subject or an object. The important thing always is to be able to use the language, okay? As long as you can use the language, you're going to get a good score. So always focus on that and don't worry, if you don't know what a subject is or what an object is, the important thing is that you know how to write the sentences. And if it helps you to write better sentences by understanding what a subject and an object is. Then by all means, go ahead and spend some time understanding the differences. But keep in mind always the important thing is to be able to write good sentences or speak correct sentences. Now, as you can see from these examples, that simple sentences can also include other basic elements, such as prepositions, articles, etc. Now let's talk about compound sentences. So compound sentences are a little bit more complex than the simple sentences. Let's take a look. In a compound sentence, we have two independent clauses. So whenever you have one independent clause joined to another independent clause, then you have a compound sentence. And examiners love these kinds of sentences. So be sure to use some compound sentences in your answers, but make sure that you don't try to force them in there. As always, your writing or you're speaking, should sound natural. It should not be forced. So what is an independent clause? And independent clause is where we have a complete idea. So whenever the idea is complete, it can be called an independent clause. Now here we have something that joins these two independent clauses. This thing that joins these two independent clauses is actually called the coordinating conjunction. And we always use a comma before the coordinating conjunction if we are using it to join two independent clauses. Now here are the different coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. So these are our seven coordinating conjunctions, and these are the only coordinating conjunctions out there. Now let's take a look at an example. Britain invested over 1 million pounds in books, and France only invested 100 thousand. So here in the blue color, we have our independent clause. Then in the red color, we have our coordinating conjunction with a comma over here. And then in the blue color, again, we have another independent clause. So I want you to pay attention at this point that the idea in the independent clause is complete. What does that mean? So if I say Britain invested over 1 million pounds in books, and if I stop right there, let's say I put a period and I stop right there. Do I really need to continue to make sense of this sentence? No. I can stop right here, because this idea is complete. Now in this case, what I'm deciding to do is I'm deciding to add extra information to a thought which is already complete, to an idea which is already complete. So here we have our other complete idea. France only invested a 100 thousand. So if I just wrote the entire sentence, let's say that we remove this part that comes before and we simply say, France only invested a 100 thousand. Is that a complete idea? Yes, complete idea. It can stand alone by itself. It does not need any extra words or phrases to complete it. It's already complete. So that's what we mean by a compound sentence when we connect two complete ideas with a coordinating conjunction. And these are the coordinating conjunctions. Let's take a look at another example. Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999, but it was outranked by Britain the following year. Here again, we are using a coordinating conjunction, but over here we have, but to connect two independent clauses, to connect two complete ideas. So Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999. That is a complete idea. It was outranked by Britain the following year. That is a complete idea. Matter of fact, you'll notice that actually what we have here, our simple sentences. So here we have a simple sentence, here, we have a simple sentence, here we have a simple sentence, and here we have a simple sentence. So another way to think about compound sentences is to think about it like this. You are connecting two simple sentences. You are connecting two simple sentences together using a coordinating conjunction. So these coordinating conjunctions are always going to be placed between two independent clauses and always with a comma. And when we do that, we have what we call a compound sentence. Now let's talk about these coordinating conjunctions, words that we use to connect different independent clauses. So the first coordinating conjunction we have here is, but. So here's an example. The proposed legislation seems promising, but it has several drawbacks. Now here, you will notice that this is a complete idea. It is a simple sentence. And this is another complete idea, also, a simple sentence. Now here is our next coordinating conjunction. Yet it is common knowledge that exercises healthy yet many people never go to the James. Do you see here we have a coordinating conjunction connecting two independent clauses. Here's our third example, and Germany and France both experienced significant growth in 2002. Now here we've got a little bit of a tricky sentence. Germany and France both experienced significant growth in 2002. Now here we have used the word and, and this is a coordinating conjunction. However, this example is not a compound sentence. This is not a compound sentence because in this case, the coordinating conjunction is just connecting words together. Germany is a word, is not an independent clause. It's not a complete idea. Germany is not a complete idea, it's not a simple sentence. This is not a compound sentence. The reason why that is, is because in this case, the word or is simply connecting words together. It's connecting unemployed or underpaid. C is connecting those two words together. So here, it's not really connecting complete ideas. Unemployed, that is not a complete idea. Neither is this. You Can I just say underpaid are forced to consume unhealthy foods to save costs. Because it's simply connecting words together. We're saying those who are unemployed or underpaid, unemployed or underpaid. So it's connecting those two words together. These are not complete ideas. Now let's talk about commas. You will have noticed that whenever a coordinating conjunction connects two independent clauses together, we always use a comma, as you can see over here. And over here. However, when the coordinating conjunction is simply connecting words together, or sometimes they may be phrases. If we're connecting words or phrases together, then we do not use a comma because this is not a compound sentence. So we don't use a comma here, and we don't use a comma here. Now here's my one last note on using commas with coordinating conjunctions. Placing a comma before and in a list is optional. So I'm sure that you have seen that sometimes people place a comma before AD and sometimes they don't. This is just a matter of preference. Choose whatever you like. Some people like to do this. Some people don't like to do this. So choose whatever way. It doesn't matter. Just keep in mind that it's only optional in a list. We're talking about a list here. Speaking of lists, here is a list of coordinating conjunctions. Fanboys. What exactly are fanboys? Right here we have two fanboys. Fanboys are boys who are really big fans of something, who really enjoy something, who are really passionate about something. Maybe it's a certain music band, maybe is an artist of some kind. Maybe it's an actor or something that you can become a fan of. So when we have boys who are really passionate about something like this, like a music band or whatever have you, then we call them fanboys. And fanboys is an acronym for these coordinating conjunctions for and, nor, but, or, yet. And. So That's a really easy way to remember what the coordinating conjunctions are. But once again, more important than trying to remember all of these coordinating conjunctions is to know how to use them. So that's the best way to remember coordinating conjunctions. You don't really have to remember a list of them. You just have to know how to use them. So this here is just a little abbreviation with which you can remember so that you can put these words into practice. So that's going to be the end of this one. In the next video, we're going to be talking about complex sentences. 13. Grammar: Complex Sentences: all right. Now that we've talked about the simple on the compound sentences were now ready to talk about the complex sentences. So that's what this section is about. Let's get started. So first of all, what is a complex sentence? Basically, Ah, complex sentence is when you have a dependent clause, plus an independent clause. So you'll recall from the previous video that an independent clause is a complete idea. On the other hand, a dependent clause is an incomplete idea. So when we have a dependent clause on an independent clause put together, we call that a complex. Since now, what do we use to connect the dependent and the independent clause to each other? We use what is called a subordinating conjunction, so we'll talk about subordinating conjunctions very soon. First, let's take a look at some examples off complex sentences. So here's our first sentence. Whereas Britain invested over £1 million books, Frantz only invested 100,000 in this case, the word, whereas is de subordinating conjunction. I want you to notice that France only invested 100,000 is an independent clause. It's a complete idea on it can stand by itself That means that if we were to just write this clause as its own sentence, it would still make sense because it's a complete idea. On the other hand, if we were to say whereas Britain invested over £1 million in books, this is not a complete idea because we're using the word whereas to make a comparison. So when we say this sentence, we have to compare it with something else. Therefore, we cannot just stop the sentence here. We have to add some extra information to complete the sentence. In this case, we need to complete the comparison. Let's look at another example. Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999 although it was outranked by Britain the following year. Now, in this case, the word, although is acting as the subordinating conjunction on this subordinate in conjunction is connecting the dependent clause with the independent clause. So here in the blue color, we have the independent Clause. Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999 you'll notice that this is a complete idea. If you were to stop the sentence here, it would still make sense. On the other hand, the dependent clause is incomplete, so here. This dependent clause only makes sense when we join it together with the independent clause . Do you get it? So an independent clause is called independent because it doesn't need anything else. It can stand alone by itself. It's complete. However, a dependent clause is incomplete. It needs to depend on something else. As a rule, we place thes subordinating conjunctions at the beginning off the dependent clauses. So you'll notice that here we put the subordinating conjunctions at the beginning off the dependent clause on. We've done the same over here, so it doesn't matter if the dependent clause comes first or if the dependent clause comes second. The important thing here is that the subordinating conjunction has to be placed at the beginning off the dependent clause on when we used these dependent clauses in a sentence, we form what are called complex sentences. Now let's look at some examples off how we use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences. We'll start with the word, although here's our example. Although this proposal has some drawbacks, its advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. Noticed that this first half is the dependent clause on this second half is the independent clause. Next we have to subordinate in conjunction despite here's our example. Despite the new regulations, many people still do not fully disclose their income to the government. The first half is the dependent clause on the second half is the independent clause. Next we have, unless walking is better than driving unless one is in a hurry. Here we have the independent clause before the dependent clause. Here is the next example It is important to consider one's financial situation before traveling abroad. Unless one is wealthy. Notice that in the sentence we have an independent clause plus a dependent clause plus another dependent clause. So in this sentence we have one independent clause on too dependent clauses. Here's our last example. Certainly this could happen. Although the odds are remote here we have the independent clause on here We have the dependent clause. I want you to notice that in all of these examples replaced the subordinating conjunctions at the beginning off the dependent clauses. Now you may have noticed that sometimes with the subordinate in conjunction, we use a comma and other times we don't. So you may be wondering when exactly should we use a comma with a subordinating conjunction and when should we not? So let's talk about that. There are a few basic rules. The first of thes rules is that if the dependent clause comes before the independent clause , then you should place the comma at the end of the dependent clause. So in this case, here we have the dependent clause on Dhere. We have the independent clause. The dependent clause comes before the independent Clause. So in this case, we have to place a comma at the end of the dependent clause. The second rule is that if the dependent clause comes after the independent clause, then the comma is usually not used. So here we have examples off this here We don't use a comma in both of these sentences. Why? Because here we have an independent clause that comes before the dependent clause. So when we have a situation like this, in most cases we do not use a comma. However, I want you to notice that there are exceptions to this rule as can be seen in this sentence over here. The next rule is that if the subordinating conjunction is used to give extra information, for example If we're just adding extra information as an afterthought, then we must use a comma. So in this example, we've used this dependent clause to simply add extra information. Okay, this wasn't really required. We don't have to add this information. We could just put a full stop here and end this sentence right here. However, we chose to add extra information as an afterthought and therefore we have to use a comma. Lastly, I want you to note that the word, although, is an exception. Akama is almost always used whenever, although appears in the middle of a sentence, as you can see in the example over here. Now let's take a look at a list off subordinating conjunctions. Here we have our list, and I want you to note that this is not a complete list. However, these are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions that are used in the English language words like, though, although as though since because despite are very common and you're probably going to use them in your isles writing on speaking. So you may be wondering now, when exactly should I use the complex sentences in my writing? Well, we usually used the complex sentences when we're comparing and contrasting two different pieces of data or information. So let's look at an example off that. Let's say that you see this bar graph on your isles writing Task one, and you're trying to describe the data from the year 1995. If you're writing about the year 1995 you could say something like in general. It is evident that in 1995 local fixed line calls were the most prominent choice, whereas more Biles for the least popular. Do you see how we've used the subordinating conjunction, whereas to compare two different pieces off information? We're saying that on the one hand, the local fixed line calls were very prominent, meaning that they were very popular. On the other hand, Mobil's were the least popular, so we have compared to contrast ing pieces of information in a single sentence. That's the power off a complex sentence. Let's look at another example. Now let's say that you get this map question and you have to describe the differences that you see between the two maps. In this case, you could say something like although the island used to be vacant and undeveloped in the past. It is now fully developed on equipped with tourist facilities. Do you see how we're using the word, although to compare to contrast in pieces off information, we're saying that on the one hand, the island used to be vacant and undeveloped in the past. On the other hand, now it is fully developed and equipped with tourist facilities. So by using complex sentences, we have mentioned to contrast in pieces of information in a single sentence. So these are the type of sentences that the aisles examiners are looking for. They want to see if you are able to form such complex structures, so make sure that you use some complex sentences in your writing to show off your grammatical range. So that's all for this video. I hope that you now have a clear understanding off what are simple sentences, compound sentences on complex sentences and that you now understand how to use them in your writing. I'll see you in the next grammar section in which we'll talk about correlative conjunctions 14. Grammar: Correlative Conjunctions: in this Kraemer section were talking about correlative conjunctions. So let's see what they are basically these air conjunctions that come in pairs and they act as a team. In order to make these conjunctions work, you have to use both of them in different places in a sentence. These conjunctions also act as cohesive devices because the connect words and phrases together. So let's look at some examples off that here we're looking at the correlative conjunctions either on or now notice that they come as a pair. They work as a team. So here's our example. Many ignore recycling either out of ignorance or laziness, so this sentence can only convey its correct meaning. If we use both of these correlative conjunctions in different places in a sentence, we can't just use one off them. Otherwise it doesn't work. Let's look at another example this time we're looking at both and here's our example. Vegetables are both nutritious on tasty. Now I want you to notice that whenever we use correlative conjunctions, Akama is not usually used between the two components off a correlative conjunction. Okay, so we don't usually use a comma. However, there is an exception and that exception is that if there are other elements that are present, so let's look at an example off that here we have the correlative conjunctions neither nor our sentences Neither Germany, which only grew by 2.4% nor Frantz saw significant growth in banana sales. Now here you'll notice that we've used a comma with which and the reason for that is that in this sentence there are other elements present. So what are the other elements in this case, The word which is a relative pronoun So in this case, were adding extra information right in between the two components off the correlative conjunction. So in order to separate this extra information, we use a comma to make it clear to the reader, will explore relative pronounce in much more detail in the next video. I want to now explore the structure off the correlative conjunctions because there's a very specific structure to these conjunctions. The most important thing about their structure is that the first part off the pair should always be exactly parallel inform to the structure after the second part, So basically, in other words, now should be linked to announce our objectives should be linked. Toe adjectives proposition all phrases to proposition all phrases and so on. So let me show you what I mean. Here we have two versions off the same sentence. One is the incorrect version and the other is the correct version. So here's the incorrect version. Parents should neither yell at their Children nor be punishing them. Now, I want you to notice that here we have our correlative conjunction neither. That's the first part of the conjunction and nor is the second part off the conjunction. So what we're saying is that whatever comes after the first part off the conjunction should be exactly parallel to what comes after the second part off the conjunction. So here you can see that the verb yell is not parallel informed to the second part. Be punishing if we want to make thes Forbes parallel. What we need to do is changed the be finishing part to punish okay, because then we have exactly parallel verbs. On the one hand, we have yell. On the other hand, we have punished. So now the structures are parallel. The correct sentence is parents should neither yell at their Children nor punish them. So that's what we mean by parallel structures. Let's look at more examples off this. Here we have the incorrect sentence I used to love both swimming competitively on to play golf. Here are correlative, conjunctions are both and on. And so after the first part of the conjunction, we have swimming, which is a continuous form of the verb, and after the second part of the conjunction, we have to play golf. This is the base for Bob, so you'll notice that the form off the verbs are completely different in the first part on the second part. So in order to correct this sentence, we have to make the words exactly parallel to each other. So how do we do that? Well, we have to change to play into playing, so the correct sentence would read. I used to love both swimming competitively, aunt playing golf. Now the structures air parallel. On the one hand we have swimming on. On the other hand, we have playing, swimming and playing. Now they're parallel in their structure. Here's another example. Vegetables not only are delicious but also healthy. Here is the first part of the conjunction not only and here's the second part, but also now this sentence is incorrect because after the first part of the conjunction, we have a verb farm and an adjective delicious, whereas after the second part of the conjunction, we only have one adjective. So in order to correct this sentence, we have to remove this are on changes location. We have to move it after vegetables so the correct sentence would read. Vegetables are not only delicious but also healthy, so you'll notice now after the first part of the conjunction, we have one adjective and after the second part of the conjunction, we also have one adjective healthy. So now the structures are parallel. Here's our last example. Parents can either send their Children to a traditional school or toe a home school. Are correlative conjunctions here are either on or so after the first part of the conjunction, we have send their Children to a traditional school. You'll notice that we have a verb over here send, whereas after the second part of the conjunction, we don't have any for Bob. We just have a proposition, an article on a noun. So if we want to make this sentence parallel and its structure. Here's what we need to do. We need to change this part over here. Send their Children. We need to move this part before the first part off the correlative conjunction so the correct sentence would read. Parents can send their Children to either a traditional school or ah, home school. Now the structures are parallel because after the first part of the conjunction, we have an article on the noun phrase. And after the second part of the conjunction, we also have an article on a noun phrase. I hope that's clear for you. Now let's take a look at a list off correlative conjunctions. Here are some off the most common correlative conjunctions us and as both and either or neither nor not, but not only, but also and lastly weather. Or so you can see that these correlative conjunctions are fished, bumping each other on. That's because they work together as a team. So that's all for this section on correlative conjunctions. Our ship will now be sailing to the next grammar section, which is relative clauses 15. Grammar: Relative Clauses: Welcome back to the course in this video were talking about relative clauses. There are basically two types off relative clauses. The first type is the defining relative clause on the second type is the non defining relative clause. So let's look at what each of these are. We're starting with a defining relative clause. Basically, a defining relative clause is a clause which is necessary in a sentence. Without this clause, the noun remains incomplete. So basically the idea off the sentence remains incomplete. In other words, this type of relative clause defines the noun. The last thing that you need to know about the defining relative clause is that we don't use a comma before the relative pronoun. So let's look at an example to better understand all off this. Here's our example. Belgium is the country that sold the most coffee. Now the word that in this sentence is the relative pronoun, and you'll notice that the word that defines the noun that comes before it in this case it's defining the country, in other words, were clarifying which country Belgium is. It is the country that sold the most coffee. If you were to just stop this sentence right here. This sentence wouldn't really make any sense because then you would just be left with Belgium is the country and that is an incomplete sentence. Belgium is which country? What type of country. We need to clarify this now to show the reader what exactly we're talking about. So that is what we mean by a defining relative clause. On the other hand, we have the non defining relative clause. A non defining relative clause is not necessary in a sentence. Why? Because the idea is still complete without it. So we don't really need the non defining relative clause. Well, if we don't really need it, then why do we use it? We use it when we want to give extra information about the noun in a sentence. Sometimes we want to extend the amount of information that were providing about denounce. In this case, we used the known defining relative clause. The last thing to note about this clause is that with this clause, we do use a comma before the relative pronoun. So let's look at an example off this. Belgium earned 1.7 million euros from coffee sales, which made it the most profitable country. So you'll notice that if we wanted, we could have just stopped the sentence right here. We could have just said Belgium earned 1.7 million euros from coffee sales. That's a complete idea. We don't have to continue this sentence. We could just stop right here. However, we decided that we want to add some extra information. Keep in mind this extra information is not necessary. We just want to provide this extra information anyway. So in this case, we've added the extra information with this relative pronoun here which that's our relative pronoun. And we've added this non defining relative clause, the clauses which made it the most profitable country. So we call this a non defining relative clause because this type of clause does not define the noun, whereas in the defining relative clause, this clause that we've added here defines the noun that we're talking about. So that's the difference between the defining relative clause on the non defining relative clause. Now all relative clauses use some kind of a relative pronoun. So in this example, refused the relative pronoun that in this example we've used the relative pronoun which and There are several other relative pronouns that were used with both. The defining on the non defining relative clause is so let's explore what some off these relative pronouns are. We're going to start off with the relative pronoun who so we used this relative pronoun whenever we refer to people. So here's our example Sentence. Sam's mother, who lives in Scotland, has six grandchildren. So notice that we used a relative pronoun who to talk about Sam's mother. Sam's mother is a person, so therefore we used a relative pronoun who, on the other hand, if you want to talk about things in general, then you can either use which or that in this example we're using the relative pronoun, which to refer to overgrazing. So our sentences overgrazing represented the primary cause of global land operation, which accounted for approximately 30% off land degradation. Next, if you want to refer toa places, then you can use the relative pronoun who where, for example, you could say the only country where the population declined. Waas Australia. Notice that we're using the relative pronoun where to talk about country in this case, that country is Australia on Australia is a place. If you want to refer to a specific period of time, then you can use the relative pronoun when so you could say the period when mobile phones plummeted in demand. Waas The month of December Notice that we're using the relative pronoun who, when to talk about the period that period is the month of December. So we're talking about a certain period of time. If you want to refer to possession, then you can use the relative pronoun who's, for example, you could say the only country whose sales declined waas Yemen. So in this case, were using the relative pronoun who's to talk about the country's sales. In this case, we're talking about Yemen's sales. Okay, so we're showing possession. Who sales. Whose sales are we talking about? We're talking about Yemen's sales. I also want to point out that most of the times when we used this relative pronoun who's we usually use it to show the possession by a person. However, you could also use this relative pronoun to show the possession by a country or other announce. Here's our final example. If you want to refer to a certain reason, then you can use the relative pronoun who I. So here's our example. The reason why they migrated to the nearby islands is not clear. So in this case, why is referring back to this reason? Here it is clarifying which reason we're talking about. So those are all the relative pronounce on. This is how we use them to refer to different things. Now let's talk about the use of commas in the relative clauses. So the first thing that I want you to notice is that whenever we have a non defining relative clause, we have to use a comma. So we've used a comma here, here, on here. Do you remember what the non defining relative clause is? The non defining relative clause is when we're just giving extra information, it's not required. We don't have to do it. Why? Because the sentence is already complete without it. So we don't need it. But we're just providing extra information anyway. So whenever we have unknown defining relative clause, we use a comma. So our first example here is Sam's mother, who lives in Scotland, has six grandchildren. The middle part who lives in Scotland is just extra information. We don't really need it. If we were to remove this part and just say sums, mother has six grandchildren. That would be fine. That would be a complete idea on we wouldn't really need this part anyway. However, if you choose to add this part in the middle, then you have to add a comma before it and after it to show that it is a separate piece of information. In our next example, we have overgrazing represented the primary cause of global land depletion, which accounted for approximately 30% off land degradation. Notice again. Now we could just topped the sentence here. We don't have to continue this sentence. However, we're just choosing to add extra information and since were choosing to add extra information, we have to use a comma. On the other hand, if you have a defining relative clause, then we don't use a comma. The defining relative clause is when we're clarifying what exactly we're talking about. The defining relative clause defines the noun. For example, in this sentence, the only country where the population decline was Australia. The relative clause where is defining the country that we're talking about? It is defining the noun. Okay, so we don't use a comma with the defining relative clause in this sentence. The relative clause when is defining the period of time in this sentence the relative clause whose is defining the country on