IELTS Writing Task 1 (Academic) MASTERCLASS: Get Band 7+ | Shay Singh | Skillshare

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IELTS Writing Task 1 (Academic) MASTERCLASS: Get Band 7+

teacher avatar Shay Singh, Learn from the world's best IELTS course

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

43 Lessons (7h 53m)
    • 1. Welcome Aboard

      8:11
    • 2. Fundamentals of Writing Task 1

      5:52
    • 3. The 4 Main Types of Questions

      6:36
    • 4. How to Get a High Score

      7:22
    • 5. How This Course is Structured

      2:46
    • 6. First Ingredient: Task Achievement

      16:18
    • 7. Second Ingredient: Coherence and Cohesion

      9:07
    • 8. Third Ingredient: Grammatical Range & Accuracy

      2:52
    • 9. Grammar: Tenses

      20:15
    • 10. Grammar: Articles and Agreement

      8:38
    • 11. Grammar: Active vs. Passive Voice

      7:13
    • 12. Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences

      11:45
    • 13. Grammar: Complex Sentences

      11:48
    • 14. Grammar: Relative Clauses

      11:26
    • 15. Grammar: Combining Elements

      6:24
    • 16. Grammar: Punctuation

      21:02
    • 17. Grammar: Writing Numbers

      7:40
    • 18. Fourth Ingredient: Lexical Resource

      2:01
    • 19. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Trend Graphs

      9:43
    • 20. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Comparative Graphs

      11:48
    • 21. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Process Diagrams

      3:52
    • 22. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Maps

      16:51
    • 23. Introduction to Part 2 - The Recipe

      3:36
    • 24. The Basics of Writing Introductions

      3:51
    • 25. How to Write Introductions for Trend Graphs

      15:17
    • 26. How to Write Introductions for Comparative Graphs

      13:06
    • 27. How to Write Introductions for Process Diagrams

      3:58
    • 28. How to Write Introductions for Maps

      2:12
    • 29. The Basics of Writing Overviews

      3:56
    • 30. How to Write Overviews for Trend Graphs

      19:20
    • 31. How to Write Overviews for Comparative Graphs

      15:17
    • 32. How to Write Overviews for Process Diagrams

      8:28
    • 33. How to Write Overviews for Maps

      2:32
    • 34. The Basics of Writing Specific Details

      3:04
    • 35. How to Write Specific Details for Trend Graphs

      28:41
    • 36. How to Write Specific Details for Comparative Graphs

      26:21
    • 37. 39 How to Write Specific Details for Process Diagrams

      11:58
    • 38. How to Write Specific Details for Maps

      6:46
    • 39. Practice Question 1 in Real Time

      21:32
    • 40. Breakdown of Practice Question 1

      19:20
    • 41. Practice Question 2 in Real Time

      17:05
    • 42. Breakdown of Practice Question 2

      26:30
    • 43. Final Tips

      10:51
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About This Class

Welcome to this 8-hour Masterclass on the IELTS Writing Task 1 in which you will learn how to write the Task 1 essay in a  detailed, step-by-step manner. By the end of this course, you will know exactly how to structure your essay, how to organize your thoughts and how to present information in the right way, so that you can get Band 7+ on your test. This course is full of practice questions and examples and contains detailed explanations with full breakdown of strategies. I invite you to view the course curriculum to see what you will learn inside.

This course is divided into 3 main parts. Think of it like cooking your favorite meal. First, you need the ingredients - so in Part 1, I will show you the four ingredients that you need to write a rock solid essay. Next, in Part 2, you will learn our secret recipe and strategies for writing the essay step-by-step for all the different question types. And finally, in Part 3, I will show you how to combine the ingredients and the recipe and put it all together into a unified whole.

Upon completing all 3 parts of this course, you will feel confident in writing a powerful Task 1 essay that will allow you to get a high score and pursue your goals of working or studying in English-speaking countries.

About Me:

My name is Shay and I'm a CELTA-certified English teacher with specialization in the IELTS exam. So far, I've trained over 25,000 students to achieve Band 7+ on their IELTS exam, and I would love to do the same for you. My students call my courses "the world's best IELTS courses" and I invite you to read their reviews on our website, on our Udemy page, or here on our Skillshare page. 

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Transcripts

1. Welcome Aboard: Hey, everyone, welcome to this writing task. One course in this course were going to be sailing in our master ship and taking a journey to learn all the things you need to know to get a great score on your Isles exam. So let's begin with our map. Over here there's our ship, and on the other side is the flag where we're trying to get to. And here's the journey that we're going to be taking. We're going to learn many things in this course, but just to give you a brief overview, here are some off the things that were going to be learning. Well, look at the different types of questions that you will see in the writing task. One essay. Well, then look at how you can get a high score. The things that you need to be doing will then see how you can meet all the task requirement. How to use cohesive devices effectively so that your writing sounds natural and fluent. We'll then see how to use grammar correctly. We're going to go over a lot of different grammar concepts such as compound sentences, complex sentences, relative clauses, conjunctions and much more will don't see how to use vocabulary in an effective way so that your essay can really stand out. Next, we're going to move into the strategy off constructing the essay itself. I'll show you how to write the introductions, how to write the overview for your essay and how to write the specific details so that you can highlight the main information for writing your essay. After that, I'm actually going to show you riel exam questions. I will be doing them in front of you in a really exam situation with a timer so that you can see how to write a good essay in the given time. Next, I'm going to provide you with a full breakdown off my answer so that you can see how all different parts of the essay work together. Lastly, I'm going to leave you with some final tips for your success. Here's a little bit about myself. That's me right there on my name is Shay. In this course, I'm going to be your Isles instructor and also the captain of our ship. That's my hat right there. So far, I've had over eight years off aisles teaching experience. I'm also a certified Celta English instructor at my university. I did my degree in communication and language and so far off taught in 11 countries around the world. I've helped many students to score a band seven or above, and I hope to be able to do the same for you. If you'd like. You can read our testimonials at the given link. And if at any point you have any questions, feel free to contact me at aisles at Master Shape dot Co. So now let's talk about what is the aisles? Well, it's a test off your English proficiency, and what it stands for is international English language testing system. There are two main types of files. There's the academic Eilts. This type of files is mainly used by colleges and universities for students who want to study abroad in an English speaking country. General aisles, on the other hand, is mainly used by employers for people who want to work abroad. I suggest that you contact your university or your employer to make sure that you're taking the correct aisles. So who makes the aisles? Actually, it's jointly owned by three separate agencies that are listed here as you can see Cambridge English is one of the agencies that are actually creating the aisles exam. And for this reason, I highly suggest that you get the Cambridge English books. This over here is an image off what the Cambridge English books look like. The exam papers in these books are very authentic and look just like the real exam. Also, since isles is a paper based test, I recommend that you practice doing the exam on paper. How can you take the isles? Well, first you have to register. You can do so by using the provided link. Next, you have to select which date you want to take the test in. Testing dates are available each month, so you shouldn't have a problem finding a date that works for you. Keep in mind, however, that in some testing centers you may need to register two weeks ahead of time. Next, select the date, the time and the location for your test. Fill out the application and pay the fee. At the moment, it costs about $200. Once you've done that, provide them with a copy of your passport on that should complete your Eilts application. Let us now go over the exam overview. Firstly, the aisles takes about two hours and 45 minutes to finish, and it has four parts reading, listening, writing and speaking. Each part has equal scoring. The exam is divided into two major sections. The first section is the paper exam. This includes three sections, the listening, reading and writing, and all three of these sections must be finished in one single session. The other part is the speaking exam. The speaking test can be scheduled separately, so if you don't want to, you don't have to take it on the same day. You can schedule it on some other day. Lastly, keep in mind that this is an English test. Some of my students feel that they may not perform as well on the test because they don't have any prior knowledge about other subjects. But actually you don't need any specialized background knowledge on any other subject other than English. There are no breaks in between the test, so you won't have any bathroom breaks or lunch breaks. So it's important that you develop your stamina at home by taking full length practice tests again. It is a paper based exam, so your handwriting and spelling are very important. If your handwriting is unclear or illegible, then you're going to lose points for that. On the other hand, if you spell words wrong, you're also going to lose points for that. Let us now break down the different sections on the timing off the Alice exam. The first part is listening, in which you have four sections on a total of 40 questions. He will have 30 minutes to finish the listening part. Next is the reading section, in which you will have three reading passages with 40 questions total, which you have to finish in 60 minutes. Then you're going to move to the writing section in which will have two tasks. The writing task one on the writing task to Writing Task One is the focus off this course. You will have a total off 60 minutes to finish both tasks. Lastly, you have to speaking part, which will last a total off about 11 to 14 minutes in length. This brings the total test time up to two hours and 44 minutes. Let us now talk about the answer sheet. You will have two different types of answer sheets on the left hand side, we have the answer sheet for the reading and listening. On the right hand side, we have the answer sheet for the writing part. So when you're writing your answers for task one and task to, you're going to have a sheet like this on if you need extra paper than you can ask her examiner. So that concludes this video. I hope you've enjoyed it so far in the next section. I'll give you a brief introduction to the writing Task one. I'll see you there. 2. Fundamentals of Writing Task 1: Hey, everyone, welcome back to this course in this section. I'll be teaching you some basic information that you need to know to take the writing task . One essay Let's get started. Here is some basic information. So first of all, you're going to be writing a report on an infographic. So when you're writing your essay, you're going to receive some kind of a chart graph table or a diagram on which you have to write a report. Next. Keep in mind that the task number one essay is worth half assed many points as task number two, so make sure that you leave enough time to finish the task number two. Okay, you don't want to lose points on Task number two, since it's worth twice as many points. So how much time should you spend on Task one? Ideally, that should be about 20 minutes. Okay, 20 minutes for task number one so that you have 40 minutes left over for task number two. As for the number of words that you need to write, you have to write at least 150 words. That is the minimum. I would say that you should try to aim for 100 80 words if you can. But definitely don't go over 200 words. Okay, because that can start to cut into your time that you have left over for the task Number two s A. Now. One more thing to keep in mind is that even if you're right, just 100 50 words, that's totally fine. Okay, It's still possible for you to get a band nine score with just 100 50 words. So the important thing here is the quality of your writing quality is always far more important than the quantity. For example, it's much better to write a short address it in which you have fewer mistakes than to write a much longer, I say with a lot of mistakes, so always focus more on the quality of your writing. Next, keep in mind that the essay is factual in nature. This means that you have to ride a very academic and a formal essay so your opinions are not required. So don't be using words like I you, we or us. Next, you're going to have many different types of questions on the writing task. One you may see Ah line graph question or a bar graph. Question a pie chart question. Ah, process or a diagram question. In some questions, you have to compare the data in other questions. You have to describe the changes that are happening over a period of time. However, regardless off the different types of questions that you're going to see, keep in mind that the same basic strategy applies to every single question type. The strategy does not change. All right, so this makes it much more easier and simpler to answer the question. Regardless of the type of question that you see now, you're going to be writing for paragraphs in total for your writing task s A, and you have to write a total off 8 to 11 sentences to write an essay that fits within the number of words that you need to write. Lastly, I recommend that you use a pencil when you're writing. This just makes your corrections much more easier and much faster, as opposed to using a pen, which may cause a mess on your answer sheet. Let me now break down the different paragraphs for you so that you can better understand what each of the paragraphs are about and how much time to spend and how many sentences to right? All right, let's take a look. So you have a total of four paragraphs. You have the introduction paragraph as your first paragraph. Then you have the overview paragraph for the second paragraph, and then you have your paragraphs number three and four. So what exactly do you have to write in each of these paragraphs? Let's take a look in the first paragraph, the introduction paragraph. You have to paraphrase the question language. Okay, so when you see a question, there's going to be a brief description about what the infographic is about. What you have to do is rephrase this question language in your own words. For the second paragraph, the overview paragraph, you have to summarize the key information that you see in the infographic. And then in the third and the fourth paragraph, you have to describe the key details, which are the main features that stand out to you about that Infographic. We'll cover all of this in much more detail later. Down the road. This is just a brief overview off what the paragraphs are about. Let's now take a look at how many sentences to write for each of these paragraphs. For the introduction paragraph, you only have to write 1 to 2 sentences. And then for the remaining paragraphs, you have to write 2 to 3 sentences for remaining paragraph. Lastly, how much time to spend on each of these paragraphs on the introduction paragraph? You should be spending 2 to 3 minutes for the overview paragraph. You should be spending 3 to 5 minutes. And then for the remaining paragraphs number three and four, you should spend five minutes on each of those paragraphs. So this will bring your total time up to 20 minutes, which is how much time you have to finish this essay. If you do have any leftover time, I suggest that you go back to your essay and spend that time to check your work. So that concludes this video. I hope you've enjoyed it. I'll see you in the next video in which we're going to talk about the different types of questions that you're going to see on the writing Task. One essay. I'll see you there 3. The 4 Main Types of Questions: in this video, we're going to look at the different types of questions that you're going to see on the writing task. One essay. Let's get started. So essentially, there are four main types of questions that you're going to see. Let's see what those are. The first type is going to be a trance question. In this type of question, you're going to have data that is plotted over a period of time so you may have ah pie chart, a line graph or a bar graph or some other type of infographic. For this type of question, you just have to describe the changes that you're seeing over a period of time. The next type of question is a comparative question. In this type of question, you just have to compare data between two different graphs or two different charts or two different data sets. The next type of question you may see is a process question and this type of question. You'll be given a diagram and you will have ah process, which is shown in a number of steps or stages. The last type of question that you can get is a map question in which We're going to be given a before version on an after version off a map, and you just have to describe the differences or the changes that you see in the two maps. All right, so those are the four main types of questions. Let us now take a deeper look into what each of these questions look like. Let's look at some examples, so we'll start off with trend graphs. So here's an example in which we have a line craft. As you can see, we have data that is plotted over a period of time. In this case, we have data that is plotted from the year 1980 to 2030. Another example is a bar graph. Again, we have data that is prodded over a period of time. In this case, we have data that is plotted over the years 1995 to 2002. Another example is a table here again, you have changes that are happening over a period of time. In this case, we have data from the years 1999 and 2004. So again, we have changes that are plotted over a period of time. You can also get a pie chart again. Notice that we have the years 2000 and the year 2050. And so we have changes that are expected to happen in this chart. So this is also a trend craft. Let us now look at a different type of craft, which are the comparative graphs. Let's see what they look like. So we have a bar graph here, Unlike the trend craft in which we have data prodded over a period of time. In this case, we don't have data plotted over a period of time. Instead, we just have data from one single year in this case, only the year 2010. So this is just a static snapshot off a data set. Okay, so we don't have change is being described over a period of time. Instead, what we have are different data sets for two different countries for Franz and the UK. Let's look at another example. Here we have a table again. We only have a static snapshot off one single year. No changes are happening here over a period of time, so here we just have different data sets. We have data for different countries, and then we also have data for different products. All right, you can also have a pie chart for a comparative graph. Here, you have to compare the data sets that you see between the two different pie charts. Here we have the household energy use, but we don't see any changes that are happening over a period of time. So that's how you know that this is a comparative graph. You have to compare the data. Let's look at one last example. Here we have a mix chart example. So you may get questions where you get mixed charts. What that means is, on the one hand, you may get a pie chart such as over here, and you have to compare that with a table, which is what we have over here. In other cases, you may get questions where you have to compare a table with a line graph or a bar chart with a pie chart. All right, so you can have any kind of combinations. But the important thing to note here is that you don't have changes that are plotted over a period of time. Instead, you just have to different data sets and so you just have to compare the two different data sets and highlight the main features. So that concludes the different types of comparative crafts that you can see on your test. Let's now look at some examples off process questions, so when it comes to process questions, you're going to get a diagram. In some cases, that diagram may be numbered, such as over here we have a numbered diagram where each off the stages or the steps off the process are numbered, and you're just required to describe the process that you see. On the other hand, you may have a process diagram where the diagram is unnumbered, so you don't have clearly laid out steps or stages. But still, if you look closer at the diagram, you can see that there are stages and steps that are visible so it doesn't matter if the process diagram is number or not numbered. All you have to do is described the process that you see and write a report on it. Let us now look at an example off a map question. So here we have a map question in most map questions. What you're going to get is two different versions off the same map. Usually you're going to get a before version off a map and then an after version of a map. And what you have to do is compare the changes that have happened or the differences that you see between the two maps. So those are all the different types of questions that you can expect to see on the test will cover more examples of this in much more detail in the upcoming videos. So that's it for this one. I'll see you in the next one, where we talk about how you can get a high score on your writing. Task one. See you there. 4. How to Get a High Score: Welcome back to the course in this section. I'm going to teach you what you need to do to get a high score. So first we need to understand how the writing task one. It's scored. So let's take a look. Basically, you're going to be created on four different categories in the aisles we call these bound descriptors. So essentially you have four different band descriptors on which you're going to be created . We have the four band descriptors listed here. The first is task achievement. The second is coherence and cohesion. The third is Kram article range and accuracy. And finally, we have lexical resource, which is your vocabulary. Note that each one of them accounts for 25% off your grade. Okay, so how is your overall great Calculated? Well, the examiners look at what score you got for each of thes band descriptors. Each band descriptor category is scored on a scale of 0 to 9 and then this score is averaged out and that is your total score. Let us now explore the band descriptors in a little bit more detail. So first of all, they are a great resource for preparing for your exam and why, that is, is because it will give you a very good sense off how aisles examiners are evaluating your test and how they assign bound scores to your writing. If you read the official ban descriptors list, it will tell you exactly what band you're going to get, depending on the things that you do or don't do. So let's take a look at the official list off the writing task one pan descriptors. So, as you can see here, we have the public version off the Isle Span descriptors. So what it tells you is what you need to do in exactly each category to get a certain bound score. So if you do the things that are listed under Band nine, then you're going to get a band nine for your score. On the other hand, if you do things that are listed under Band six or bound five, then you're going to get a band six or a five, depending on the things that you're doing or not doing. So I suggest that you take a look at this official list. I'm going to provide you with a link to this so that you can easily find it and read it in your own free time. But just to make all of this easier for you, I've went ahead and made an outline off all the important things that you need to be doing to get a great score. So let's take a look at that. If you want to get a good score on the aisles task achievement category, the first thing that you need to do is satisfy all the requirements off the task. What this means is that you need to answer everything that the question is asking you for. The second thing that you need to do is provide a fully developed response, so make sure that you give all the information that the question is asking you for and that you present highlight and illustrate all the key information and make sure that you gave a clear overview off the main trends, differences or stages off the infographic. What about coherence and cohesion? That's our second band descriptor. To get a good score in this band descriptor, you have to make sure that when you use cohesive devices, they attract no attention. What this means is that you have to use a cohesive devices. Naturally, they should not feel like you're forcing them into your writing. They should appear naturally and fluently. Next, you need to know how to do paragraph ing. We'll talk a little bit more about this later down the road. Then you also need to know how to sequence your information on your ideas. Logically, this means that you have to clearly arrange your ideas and your thoughts in a logical manner. And in a matter that the reader can understand, finally make sure that you use a wide range off cohesive devices. This means that you should not be over using or under using certain words or phrases. Make sure that you use a wide range and be sure to not repeat the same word too many times . Now let's talk about the chromatic alr, angel and accuracy. To get a good band score in this category, you have to make sure that you use a wide range. Off structures will discuss these structures in more detail later down the road, but to give you a brief idea off what I mean by structures, you have to use a variety of sentences such as compound sentences, Complex sentences. You have to use different types of conjunctions in your writing. Maybe use some relative clauses, some passive boys and maybe a wide range off tenses. Now, in your writing, you don't have to use all the structures that are available to you. You just need to show enough structures to show that you have command over the English Kraemer. All right, so we'll discuss more off that in the future Videos. Next, make sure that your errors are very minor. If you make small typos small mistakes that's generally okay. You can still get a great bound regardless of the little errors that you make. But in general, you should try to avoid as many mistakes as possible. Basically, the majority of your sentences have to be error free. That means that over 50% of your sentences cannot have any mistakes in them. And finally, you have to correctly use your punctuation. So punctuation includes things like the comma, apostrophe, full stop and so on. The last band descriptor is your lexical resource, which is your vocabulary. So to do a good job in this category, you have to use a wide range of vocabulary words. He was a lot of different vocabulary, words, different phrases and even used some uncommon words. This will also increase your score. Make sure that you use a variety off word formations and call occasions. Call occasions are basically groups off words that often appear together. We'll discuss all of this in much more detail in the future videos. Next, make sure that you convey the precise meaning. What this means is that you have to use your words purposefully. Basically, you should use a word to mean exactly what you want it to mean. Finally, make sure that you produce as few errors as possible in your spelling on word formation. So that concludes this video. I'll see you in the next section, in which we'll talk about how this course is structured on what to expect in the following videos. I'll see you there 5. How This Course is Structured: welcome back to the course in this section. I'm going to tell you how this course is structured and what to expect over the upcoming videos. So let's take a look. Essentially, this course is split into three different parts. I want you to think of this as cooking your favorite food. So what do you do when you're cooking your favorite food? Well, first, you need to gather a bunch of ingredients that you're going to cook with. Then you need to know the recipe. Maybe you consult a recipe book to find out how to make that dish, and finally, you put the recipe and the ingredients together to start cooking on. Prepare your favorite dish. So that's how this course is structured. The first part of this course is the ingredients section. In this, we're going to look at all the different ingredients that go into writing a great essay. So the four ingredients that we're going to talk about our task achievement, co vision and coherence, grammatical range on lexical resource. You may recall from the previous section that these are actually you're bound descriptors. These are the four different categories on which your writing essay is going to be scored, So I'm going to teach you all the things that you need to do to get a great band score in each of these categories. After we finished the ingredients section, we're then going to move on to the recipe section. This is where I'm going to show you the recipe book off. How to construct a great essay. We're going to go into the strategy off writing the task one essay. So I'll teach you exactly what you need to do to write a great introduction, an overview and then your paragraphs Number three and four, in which you have to write the key details off the infographic. Lastly, when we have the ingredients in the recipe, you're now ready to start cooking your dish. We're going to now move into the cooking section, the third and the final section off this course. We're going to be putting everything together, and I'm going to show you how to answer the writing task. One question. In a really exam situation, I will have a timer, and I will answer the question in front a few in the given time. Next, I'm going to break down my answers so that you can see how all the different parts off the essay work together. So that's it for this video. I'll see you in the next section in which we'll talk about what you need to do to get a great score on the task achievement. Don Descriptor, I'll see you there. 6. First Ingredient: Task Achievement: in this section, we're going to look at the first ingredient that goes into writing a great essay. We'll be talking about task achievement. So first, let's cover some basic information. According to the official list, Off band descriptors. In order to achieve a band seven or higher, you need to do the following things. First of all, you have to make sure that you cover all the task requirements by writing about everything that the question is asking you. Next, you have to make sure that to present ah, clear overview off the main trends, differences or stages that you see in the infographic. And finally, you have to make sure that you clearly present and highlight all the key features off that infographic. Now, in order to correctly present and highlight the key features, often infographic First, you have to know what information is important in the first place. For our example, over here we have a bar graph, so let's take a look at which features are important and should be discussed. First of all, the starting and the ending data points in a craft or a chart are always important, so you should always talk about the starting and the ending data points in our bar graph. Example, our graph is starting in the year 1995 on it ends in the year 2000. So in this case, what we can do is discuss the data points that are in the year 1995 and also discussed the data points from the year 2002. Next, we have the highest and the lowest points in the infographic. Now again similar to the starting and the ending data points thes are also very important. And if they're available in your graph or your chart, then you should always right about them. So let's see what are the highest and the lowest data point in this craft. First, I want you to take note that we have three different types of calls. We have the local fixed line call. We have the national and international fixed line call, and finally we have the mobile calls. So first, let's see what are the highest and the lowest data points for the first call type, which is the local fixed line call. All right, here we have the highest data point for the local fixed line call. And here we have the lowest data points for the local fixed line call. Next, let's take a look at the highest and lowest data points for national and international fixed line calls. So here we have the highest data point for the national and international calls, and here we have the lowest data point. Finally, we have the mobile calls here. We have the highest data point on here. We have the lowest data point. Turning points are also important when you're describing the graph or the chart. In this case, we have a turning point over here. Why? Because over here the local fixed line calls suddenly changed their direction from going upwards to going downwards. Therefore, this is a turning point. It's a point where the direction turns or changes. Now, sometimes you'll see interesting changes that may be happening in your graph for your chart . So what are some interesting changes that are happening in this craft? Well, you may have noticed by now that the local fixed line calls are increasing, starting in the year 1995 the increase up until the year 1999. But then suddenly they changed the direction and the start going back down. And what you'll notice here is that by the end off the graph, the local fixed line calls stop at a point, which is exactly the same as where it for started from. So the starting and the ending data point for the local fixed line calls are exactly the same. This is an interesting change. Another interesting change that you'll notice is that mobile calls undergo very fast change . I mean, look at this. Mobile calls are the least popular out of all three coal types, but by the end of the graph, they have grown faster than any other call type. Finally, we have striking differences in this bar graph. Noticed the blue circles. What stands out to you? One thing that stands out to me is that at the beginning of the year, local fixed line calls are the most popular, whereas mobile calls are the least popular. There's a huge difference between the two different call types. A striking difference. Let's look at another example off a striking difference here. Let's compare these two data points mobile calls at the year 1995 on mobile calls at the year 2002 notice the significant growth that the mobile coal type has gone through over the period of this graph. It's surprising to see that something that started off so small has grown to be so big. By the end of the graph, this is a striking difference. So these are all the features that are important and should be discussed. However, I want you to take note that if you feel that you're going over the time limit, then you should only choose the features that are the most important for the writing task. One. You're not required to discuss all the features off a graph. All you have to do is describe the most important features. Now let's look at another example to better understand which information is important here . We have a mixed charts craft. So what we have here is a pie chart mixed with a table. So what features are important in this? Infographic. Let's take a look. So you remember that we said that starting and ending data points are very important. But guess what? We don't have a starting and ending data point in the pie chart or the table. So in this Infographic. We won't be discussing the starting and the ending data points because they're not there. What we do have, however, are the highest and the lowest data points. The highest data point in the pie chart is this number here, the 35% is the biggest number. Out of all the numbers in this pie chart and the smallest data point, the lowest data point is this one over here, 7%. On the other hand, if you look at the total land degraded in the table, what you'll find is that 23% is our highest data point on 5% is the lowest data point. So these highest and lowest data points in this infographic are important features that we should be discussing in our essay. Now, what about turning point? Do you guys see a turning point in this infographic? I actually don't. And the reason for that is that this is a comparative graph. Do you remember the differences between comparative craft on a trance craft in a trance graph? We have information that is changing over a period of time in a comparative craft. We don't have a period of time so because we don't have changes happening over a period of time, we also don't have a turning point. So in this comparative craft we will not be discussing the turning point because there isn't one. What about interesting changes? Again, I want you to pay attention to the word changes. Changes is something that you will see in graphs or charts where there are changes happening over a period of time. So this means that you will see interesting changes in trend graphs, not in comparative crafts. What you can have on a comparative graph are striking differences. So let's take a look at some examples off striking differences in this infographic here. So, first of all, we can notice that when it comes to deforestation, North America only experienced 0.2% which is the smallest out of all the listed countries. On the other hand, Europe experienced the largest amount of deforestation, a total off 9.8%. So this is a striking difference that we see in the deforestation between North America and Europe. Another striking differences visible if we look at overgrazing, North America experienced the smallest amount of overgrazing only 1.5% whereas Oshie Onya experienced the largest amount of overgrazing, a total off 11.3%. So again, this is a striking difference that we see between North America and Oceania. We can also see striking differences in the total land degraded. North America experienced the smallest land degradation at only 5% whereas Europe experienced the largest at 23%. You will notice here that the highest and the lowest data points and the striking differences overlap with each other in this data set over here. So sometimes this can happen where the key information may overlap with each other and once again take note that not all key features are going to be present in every single type of craft or chart that you see. So it really depends on whether you get a trends graph or a comparative graph or a process or a diagram. Okay, now an important part off getting a good score on your task. Achievement is accuracy. It's very important that you accurately describe the information in the infographic. So first of all, you need to make sure that you are using the correct units off measurement. Secondly, make sure to use words like approximately about around nearly to avoid inaccuracy. Let's take a look at some examples off this. We have our bar graph over here. Let's take a look at the different ways that we can describe the data. So we're looking at the year 1999 for this example. Andare sentences in 1999 local fixed line calls reached a peak off 90 billion minutes. You will see that the local fixed line calls did in fact reach a peak off 90 billion minutes. Now here we don't have to use any off these words because this bar falls exactly on the 90 billion minute mark. It's exactly on the 90 billion minute line. Now, if you were to say in 1999 local fixed line called reached a peak off 90 minutes. You see 90 over here and you see minutes over here. Is that correct? Of course not. That is wrong. Why? Because here the minutes are listed in billions billions, so you have to write 90 billion minutes. That's correct. 90 minutes is wrong. On the other hand, if you write in 1999 local fixed line calls reached a peak of 90 that is also wrong. 90. What? 90 minutes? 90 seconds? 90 hours. What are we talking about? You have to be clear and use the correct units off measurement. Let's look at another example. Mobil's surged in use from about three billion minutes in 1995 to nearly 45 billion minutes in 2002. Notice our use off the words about on nearly why are we using these words? Well, we're using these words because if you look at 1995 we're not exactly sure about the number of minutes for the mobile calls in 1995. Similarly, in the year 2000 when we look at the mobile, calls were again not sure exactly where the bar graph falls because it doesn't fall on any off thes, clearly defined lines, so we're not sure. And to avoid inaccuracy, we use the word nearly. On the other hand, if you were to say mobile searched in use from three billion minutes in 1995 to 45 billion minutes in 2002 that's wrong. Why? Because you may have guessed that this looks to be like three billion minutes, but we don't really know for sure if this is, in fact three billion minutes on if this is, in fact 45 billion minutes, whenever you are estimating what the numbers are, you have to make sure to use words like approximately about around and nearly to avoid inaccuracy. All right, now let's talk about the structure off our essay because that is also an important part off task achievement. If you properly structure your essay, then it will be easy for you to answer whatever the question is asking you for. So let's take a look. As you will know, by now, we have a total of four paragraphs in our writing task. One essay in the first paragraph in the introduction paragraph, we have to paraphrase the question, language in our own words. In the next paragraph, which is the overview paragraph, we have to describe the starting and the ending data points and also the highest and the lowest data points off the infographic. Sometimes you may have a graph or chart where both of thes are not available. Maybe only one off them is present. If that's the case, then only discuss what is present. If they're both present, then discussed them both. Next four paragraphs number three and number four. What you're going to do is split your infographic in half. In the third paragraph, you'll talk about the first half of the infographic, and in the fourth paragraph you will be discussing the second half off the infographic. So to conclude a good structure will allow you to address all the different parts of the task and clearly present your ideas. And this is going to boost your task. Achievement score. So that's it for this video. I'll see you in the next one, where we discuss the second ingredient to your success, which is cohesion on coherence. 7. Second Ingredient: Coherence and Cohesion: In this video, I'll talk about the second ingredient, which is coherence on cohesion. So first, let's start with some basic information according to the bound descriptors. If you want to get a bound seven or higher, this is what you need to do. Firstly, you need to logically organize your information on ideas with a clear structure. So we've already discussed the structure in the previous section where we talked about the task achievement. But I wanted to mention it again over here so that you can see that a good structure is also part of the cohesion, because it allows your essay to naturally flow from one paragraph to the next. Next, you need to connect your sentences on your paragraphs together with cohesive devices. Cohesive devices include words like, however, moreover, farther more therefore etcetera. So to sum it up, cohesive devices are basically just words and phrases that link your ideas together and make your essay flow smoothly. It is this kind of flow to your writing that makes you sound fluent, essentially cohesive. Devices Act is the glue that stick your sentences and your paragraphs to each other. Now let's see how the different, cohesive devices work together in a paragraph. So here's an example, and all the words that are highlighted in the pink color are your cohesive devices. I want you toe also notice that we have some relative clauses over here and also some conjunctions. Some off them are subordinating conjunctions, whereas others are coordinating conjunctions. So take note that relative pronouns and conjunctions also act as cohesive devices because they clue your sentences together now, although relative pronouns and conjunctions act as cohesive devices were not going to be discussing these in this section. Instead, we're going to discuss the relative pronouns on the conjunctions in our grammar section, which is the next section. Now let's take a look at some examples off these cohesive devices. We can use cohesive devices for many different purposes, so let's go over some off the different uses. Firstly, you have the overview. When you're trying to give an overview on certain data, then you can use any of the words that are listed here. These words and phrases are also used to introduce basic information about the infographic . Next we have opening, so when you're opening your sentence or opening a new paragraph, you can use any of the words and phrases listed here. Next we have sequence. We often see sequence in process diagrams where you have a number off steps and stages described in a certain order. So when you're describing the different steps or stages of a process, you can use the words and phrases listed in this column. Next, we have addition. A lot of times you will need to add more information in your paragraph. Usually we use these words and phrases when starting a new sentence to add extra information. Next, we have comparison. A lot of times you will need to compare the two different data sets, especially when it comes to comparative crafts, so you can use the words and phrases listed here. Next we have contrast. This is similar to comparison. You may need to compare and contrast the data between two different types of infographics or data sets. Next, we have cause and effect. We use this when we want to express that something happened as a result off something else . Human need to use thes cause and effect words and phrases when describing process diagrams . Next we have emphasis. Sometimes you may see striking differences in a graph or chart or you, missy interesting changes or turning points. There may be certain data points, which you want to emphasize. In this case. You can use these words and phrases listed here. Next we have illustration. Illustration is used. If you want to illustrate something, you can use these words and phrases here to give examples on illustrate different data. Next, we have qualification. Qualification is something that we use when we're adding a condition toe a sentence. So to add a condition, we use words like, although unless except you will see more examples of this when I do the practice questions in the recipe section off this course Next we have reference. So you may need to reference back to some information which you've already mentioned, so that you don't have to repeat the same information again and again. In this case, you can use these words and phrases here. Next we have clarification. Sometimes you may want to clarify what you mean so that your meaning is clear to the reader . In this case, you can use the words and phrases listed here. Here are some more words and phrases that describe the different durations of time. This is going to be especially helpful to you when you're describing trend graphs. This is because in a trend graph, you have to describe a period of time. So this means that when you have a graph or chart in your data, there's going to be a beginning, a middle and an end. So, for example, if you want to describe the beginning off a certain data set, you can use phrases like in the first half of the year or at the start of the period. And so one. If you're describing a certain declaration, then you can say something like over the period covered by the graph. Or if you have a range of dates, you can say something like from the year 1990 to 2000. Or you can say something like between the years 19 92,000 and so one. You get the idea. And here are the phrases that you can use to describe the end of a data set or the end off a process. So now let's talk about paragraph ing. There are two main parts to paragraph ing. The first part is how to organize and arrange your paragraphs. We've already talked about that, so I won't be mentioning that again. The other part of paragraph ing is the format off your paragraphs. So essentially you have two options when it comes to the format off your paragraph. The first option is that you can IND end each paragraph, or the second option is that you can skip a line when you start a new paragraph. So let's look at examples. Here's the first option where you can invent the paragraph. This means that every time you start a new paragraph, you should leave some space before you write the first word in a new paragraph. So since we have two paragraphs here, we leave some space here at the beginning off the first paragraph on relieve some space here at the beginning of the second paragraph. These are called in Dent, and this is your first option. Your second option is to skip a line. So on the aisles answer sheet, you're going to have lines on which you're going to write. Your answer. All you need to do is that when one paragraph ends, you need to skip a line before starting the next paragraph. So that means that between any two given paragraphs, there must be a line which you skip. So feel free to choose any of thes two options that work for you. Just make sure that you don't mix the 24 months. All right, do not mix them and also make sure that you don't change them. Midway. Just choose one format and stick to it. So that's it for this video. In the next section, we'll go over the third ingredient. We'll be talking about grammatical range and accuracy. 8. Third Ingredient: Grammatical Range & Accuracy: in this section, we'll talk about grammatical range and accuracy. This is our third ingredient to writing a great essay. Now this is going to be a long section because there are many different parts to grammar. We're going to be breaking down everything from tenses. Two simple sentences to compound sentences to complex sentences will talk about conjunctions, active voice, passive voice and much more. So because there are so many things for us to cover in this grammar section, I've broken it up into several different subsections. Now I want you to keep in mind that this is not a crime. Of course, the main focus off this course is to teach you the strategy that you need to perform well on your Isles test. Ideally, you should already be familiar with these grammar concepts. However, since these concepts are important, I will still be going over them on discussing the most important aspects of grammar. So with that said, let's move on ahead. We're going to start off with some basic information. So according to the band descriptors, if you want to get a band seven or higher, here's what you need to do. So First of all you need to show a wide range of different sentence types on word orders. Basically, you just need to show off your ability to form a variety off compound sentences on complex sentences. Now complex sentences look very good in your writing, but this doesn't mean that all you have to write are complex sentences. Keep in mind that you should also write some simple sentences. Why? Because simple sentences are very easy to write on. Therefore, you're less likely to make a mistake on a simple sentence. You see, when you write longer sentences, you are more likely to make a mistake. On the other hand, if you write simple sentences, you can decrease your errors and therefore boost your accuracy. This is important because the vast majority off your sentences that means over 50% off your sentences have to be error free, so be sure to use a nice mix off compound sentences, complex sentences on simple sentences. Finally, you need to know how to use punctuation correctly. Punctuation includes things like the comma, apostrophe, capitalization and so on. We'll discuss this in more detail in the future videos as well. So that's it for this video. This was just a brief introduction to our grammar section. In the next video, we'll be talking about tenses. 9. Grammar: Tenses: Welcome back in this first subsection off grammar, we're going to be talking about tenses. So the first question that you may have when looking at a writing task one question is. Which tends should I use? So let's talk about that. Basically, if the year in the graph is before the present here. So right now, I'm recording this video in the year 2018. So if I see any date on my infographic, that is before the year 2018 for example, something like the year 1990 then I'm going to use the past tense. On the other hand, if the year in the infographic is after the present here, for example, something like 2050 then you have to use the future tense when writing your essay. And finally, if there's no ear that is mentioned, then you have to use the present simple tens. In general. When you write a sentence, it should be in the same tense. Okay, this means that you should not change the tents off the sentence midway through the sentence. However, there are some exceptions to this. There are certain rules for when to change the tens off a sentence midway. Usually you only change the tents of a sentence if the timing often action requires it. Okay, If the timing off a certain action that is happening in a sentence requires that you change the tens, then you should change the tents. Otherwise, you should write the entire sentence in the same tense. So let's explore this concept in a bit more detail. First, we'll talk about when not to change the tents in general. You should not change the tents off a sentence if there is no time change for the action. So let's look at an example of that. So here we have an incorrect sentence, the sentence reads. During the lecture, Jane stood up and drops her phone. What I want you to notice here is that the word stood isn't pasta ins, whereas the word drops is in present tense. Why is this incorrect? Because in this sentence, we don't have any time change for the action. You see the action off Jane standing up and dropping her phone happened at the same time. So because these actions happened at the same time, we have to use the same tense. So the correct version of the sentence would read during the lecture Jane stood up on dropped her phone. Okay, both actions are happening at the same time. Therefore we use the same tents. In this case, both words are in past tense. On the other hand, you could also write during the lecture, Jane stands up and drops her phone. This is also correct because both words are happening in the same tens. In this case, they're both in present tense. Now let's talk about when to actually change the tents. Firstly, you should only change the tents when there is a need to do so. So when is there a need to change the tens? Usually it's the timing off the actions within a sentence that decide whether we need to change the tents or not. So let's look at an example off that here we have a correct version off a sentence. The sentences. When Jane comes here, we will go to the movies, notice that we have two different tenses in this sentence. Here we have a present simple tense, and here we have a future simple tense. Why is this correct? Because the timing off the actions is different. You see, we have two different actions here. So here's our first action. Jane comes here. This action hasn't yet happened. It will happen in the future. When Jane comes here, we will go to the movies. This is the second action. I want you to notice that the second action will happen after the first action. So since we have two different actions happening at different timings, we need to change the tents midway through the sentence. Let's look at another example. Here we have a sentence. Sam reached for the apple after he had already eaten toe oranges. So I want you to notice that we have two different verbs here in two different tenses. The 1st 1 is reached, which is in past simple tents on our second tense. Here is the past perfect tense. I also want you to pay attention to the word after because this word tells us that there are two actions that are happening. One action happened after another action. So here we have our first action, which is what happened in the past. The first action is that Sam had already eaten two oranges. This is our first action and Here's our second action. Sam reached for the apple. This is our second action, which also happened in the past on it happened after the first action. Okay, so do you see how the timing off the actions is different in both of these examples? So whenever you have a situation like this where you have to discuss two different events or actions that are happening at different timings, then you're required to change the tense off a sentence. Now let's take a look at some infographics that you're going to see on the writing task. One question and let's determine which tents we should use in each of these examples. So the first example that we have here is a comparative craft. I want you to notice that we don't have any dates here. All we have are two pie charts with some data. In this case, since we don't have any dates that are mentioned, we have to write our essay in present tense. Here's another example. In this case, we have a bar graph and you will notice that we have a range of dates starting from the year 1995 all the way up to 2002. Now I'm recording this video in the year 2018. So 2002 is a year which has already passed. In fact, all the years that are mentioned in this craft have already passed. Therefore, you have to use the past tense when writing this essay here we have another example. In this case, we have a range of dates starting from the year 2020 all the way up to 2035. Since all of these dates are in the future in this case, when you're writing your essay, you have to use the future tense. Now here's our final example. In this line graph, we have a wide range of dates. Now, once again, I'm recording this in the year 2018. So all the dates that are before the year 2018 are in the past. The year 2018 is, of course, the present and all the dates after the year 2018 are the future. So when you're writing an essay on this graph, if you're discussing data that comes before the year 2018 you have to talk about it in past tense. When you're talking about data from the year 2018 you have to talk about it in present tense. And if you're talking about any data after the year 2018 then you have to talk about it in the future tense. So this is an example of a question where we have mixed tenses on which tends to use really depends on which data type you're talking about. Now I'm going to refresh your memory on the different tenses. As you may already know. By now, we have three main tenses, the present tense. The past ins on the future tends. We'll start off with the present tenses. So first we have our present simple tents we usually use present. Simple tends to show repetition, habit or generalization. So here we have our timeline. Here's the past. Here's the present right now, and here's the future. If you were to look at the simple present tense visually, what you would find is that the action happens again and again at every point throughout the timeline. This is because present simple tense is used to show auctions that happen again and again due to repetition habit or generalization. So an example of this is I eat rice every day. So I ate rice last month. I ate rice last week. I ate rice yesterday. I ate rice today or I will eat rice today. I will eat rice tomorrow. I will eat rice next month and so on. You get the idea. Here we have the structure of the present simple tents subject plus the base for Bob, plus the object. Now let's move on to the next tense, which is our present continuous tense. We use the present continuous tense to show an action that is happening right now. Okay, so here's our timeline and here's right now and it's happening in the moment it's happening in the moment. For example, I am eating rice right now or I'm recording this video for you. Right now, the structure of the present continuous tense is subject plus, um, is or are plus the continuous form of the verb plus the object. Next, we have the present perfect tens. We use the present perfect tense when we want to show that an action has happened once or many times before now. So if we look at the timeline, we'll see that an action has happened in the palest and that it is somehow related to the present. This action that has happened in the past has happened in reference to right now, one more thing about the present perfect tens is that the timing off this action is not important. We don't really care when this action took place. We know that it happened in the past, but we don't care about when exactly did it happen? For example, I have eaten all off the rice in this sentence. You know that I've eaten all of the rise and that this is an action which has already happened in the past. But you don't know when exactly. I ate the rice. So that's how we use the present perfect tense. And here's the structure for writing this tense. We have the subject plus half or has plus the past participle of the Werbe plus object. The last present ends is the present perfect, continuous tense we used. This tends to show that an action started in the past and has continued until now. So if we look at our timeline here, we can see that an action started in the past. Okay, this is where it started. Here's right now, and it has continued all the way from the past up until this moment right now, and it's still happening. So here we have an example. I have been eating rice for two hours. Okay, so I started eating rice two hours ago. I was eating rice one hour ago. I was eating rice 30 minutes ago, and I'm still eating rice right now. All right, Now let's talk about the past tenses. We're going to start with the past simple tents. So this tense is used to show that some action was completed at some specific time in the past. So here we have our timeline and here's the past, and we can see that an action took place at some specific time in the past. So, for example, I ate rice yesterday. So here's yesterday on. This is when I ate rice to construct this tense. You have to use this structure over here Next. We have the past continuous tense, and we used this tends to show that an action was ongoing for sometime in the past. So in our timeline, here is the past, and here's an action, and this action continued for some time in the past. I want you to notice that sometimes this action may be interrupted. This means that it's possible that in some cases there may be another action that happens right here on interrupt this first action, for example, I was eating rice when you arrived. So here's the first action. I was eating rice and I was eating rice for some time until another action happened. In this case, the other action is that you arrived. So just keep in mind that in some past continuous tense is we may have a second action, whereas in other past tenses we may not. So, depending on your sentence, the first action in the past continuous tense may or may not be interrupted. Okay, so here's the structure to this tense. Now let's talk about the next tense, which is the past perfect tense. We used this tense to show that something happened before another action in the past. So here's the past, and we have to past actions. Both of these actions took place in the past. Note that one past action took place before another past action. So here's our example. I had eaten all off the rice when you arrived. So here's the first action. The first action is that I had eaten all off the rice, and then we have the second action. You arrived. So in the past, perfect tense. We describe to past events in reference to one another on. To construct this tense, you have to use the structure provided here. Next we have the past perfect, continuous tense. Now we used. This tends to show that some events started in the past on this action continued for some time until another action happened in the past. So let's look at our timeline. Here we have the first action. The first action started in the past. It continued for some time until another action happened. So here's our example. I had been eating rice for two hours when you arrived. So this is when I started eating rice and I was eating rice for two hours and then you arrived. Here's the structure to this tense. Finally, we have the future tenses. Let's start with a future simple, tense we used. This tends to show that an action will happen in the future. So here's our timeline on. We expect that some action will take place at some point in the future. For example, I will eat rice tomorrow. So this is tomorrow and this is when I will eat rice. Here's the structure to this tense. Next we have the future continuous tense and we used. This tends to show that some action will continue for some time in the future. So here's our timeline and here's the future. Some action is going to start in the future on it's going to continue for some time. I want you to notice that this action may or may not be interrupted. So basically, in some cases this first action is going to be interrupted by another action. For example, I will be eating rice when you arrive. So here's the first action. I will start eating rice in the future. I will continue eating rice for some time until you arrive. OK, so here's the second action that may interrupt the first action in this case. The second action is that you arrive. So whether this first action will get interrupted or not just depends on what sentence you have here. we have the structure to this tense. Next, we have the future perfect tense, and we used this tense to show that some action in the future will happen before another action in the future. So here's our timeline, and here's the future. We have two different actions that are happening in the future and note that one future action happens before the other future action. So, for example, I will have eaten the pizza by the time you arrive. So the first action is that I will have eaten the pizza in the future by the time you arrive. This is the second future action to construct this tense. You have to use this structure here. Now let's talk about our final tense, which is the future perfect, continuous tense we use. This tends to show that some future action will continue for some time until another future action happens. So here, in our timeline, we have an action which will start in the future, and this action is going to continue for some time until another action happens in the future. For example, I will have been eating pizza for two hours when you arrive, So here's the first action. I will start eating pizza in the future. I will continue eating pizza for two hours until another action happens. Which is when you arrive. This is the second future action. So we used This tends to show that some future action will be finished by a certain time in the future. In this case, this future action will be finished after two hours, which is when you arrive. Now, this tense is very uncommon. Okay, so you're probably not going to use it in your writing, but I just wanted to mention it Anyways, just for the sake of completion on, for your knowledge, to construct this tense, you have to use this structure over here. So that concludes this video on tenses. I'll see you in the next grammar section in which we're going to talk about articles and agreement. 10. Grammar: Articles and Agreement: Welcome back in this grammar section will be talking about articles under agreement. So let's start with the definite article. The There are many different ways in which we use the definite article. The however, for the aisles s A. I will only mention the most relevant rules. The main thing that you need to know about using this article is that we used the when the reader knows exactly to whom or what we are referring. So let's look at the different scenarios in which the reader may know to whom or to what we are referring. So firstly, we used the when we're mentioning something again. For example, I planted a tree in my garden. The tree is now big notice that we use the word the here. The reason for this is that we've already mentioned which tree were talking about. The tree has already been mentioned in the previous centers, so we already know to whom or to what we are referring. We also used with superlative objectives. Superlative objectives are basically words like highest, lowest, best, worst, fastest quickest. Slowest on so on. We'll talk more about superlative adjectives when we get to the vocabulary section off this course. So here's our example. China had the highest growth rate. So notice that because we have a superlative objective here, highest, we have to use the We also used, uh when we're making a statement about all things referred to by a singular countable noun . So here we have a sentence. The dolphin is a very intelligent animal. So in this case, the singular countable noun is dolphin. So when we say a sentence like this, the dolphin is a very intelligent animal. We're basically making a statement about all things okay about all dolphins. We're not saying that one particular dolphin is intelligent. We're saying that all dolphins are intelligent. So by using the in this sentence, we have generalized what all dolphins are like. All dolphins are very intelligent. We also used when we're talking about certain groups of people for example the elderly, the poor, the wealthy, the employed on so one. Finally, we used the if the figure is an important part off a noun phrase. So here we have a sentence. The number of mangoes sold in Britain was surprisingly high. So in this case, number of mangoes is the noun phrase. So when we have a noun phrase, we have to use the word the Now let's talk about the articles and on now, similar to the definite article, the there are numerous rules to using the indefinite articles and an so again for the purpose off the Isles s is I'll only be discussing the rules which are the most relevant. So the main thing that you need to know about these indefinite articles is that you have to use or on with singular countable noun. And we used them with these singular countable noun when the reader does not know exactly to whom or to what we are referring. Okay, so keep in mind, the reader does not exactly know to whom or to what we are referring. So let's look at some examples off that we can use thes articles to show that something or someone is part of a group. For example, we could say there is a way to prevent crime rates from rising. Now here we're talking about one way. Okay, notice that this is just one way out off several. Why is this part of a group? Because there are many different ways There isn't just one way, however, we're just talking about one way. Next. We could also use thes indefinite articles if we're referring to all things off the same kind. So here's an example of that. A teacher has the responsibility off educating our Children. So notice here we used the indefinite article, uh, with teacher. Now, take note that we're not talking about any one specific teacher. We're talking about all teachers. What we're really saying is that all teachers have the responsibility off educating our Children. So here we have used a teacher to refer to all teachers. Next, you should not be using or on if you're referring to uncountable noun or florals. For example, the price off oil stabilized by January. Note that hear the word oil is an uncountable noun. We cannot count oil. Here's another example. There are many Italians living in New York. In this case, the word Italians is plural. So since we have a plural noun here, we cannot use any indefinite articles with it. Now let's talk about subject and for of agreement. When you're writing your sentence, you have to make sure that your subjects and Forbes agree with each other in number. So what that means is that if your subject is singular than the verb, must also be singular. If the subject is plural than the verb must also be plural. Let's look at some examples off that on the left hand side we have the incorrect sentences , and on the right hand side we have the correct sentences. So here's the incorrect sentence. Future discoveries is based on past knowledge. Why is this wrong? Because here we have a verb is which does not agree with the subject. Discoveries noticed that the subject discoveries is plural, whereas the verb is singular. So in order to correct that, we have to write. Future discoveries are based on past knowledge that is, has to be changed to our because discoveries is plural. Here's another example. People improves their life by learning from their past mistakes. Notice that the word people is plural, whereas the verb improves is singular. So to correct this sentence, you have to write people improve their life by learning from their past mistakes. People is plural. Therefore, the verb improved also has to be plural. Here's our last example reflecting on our past help us to make better decisions. I want you to note that the subject reflecting on our past is singular, whereas the verb help is plural. So to correct this sentence, we have to change the verb help to helps the correct sentence would read. Reflecting on our past helps us to make better decisions. So that's it for this video. Also you in the next grammar section in which will talk about active versus the passive voice. 11. Grammar: Active vs. Passive Voice: welcome to this Kraemer section on active and passive voice. So let's first start by understanding what is the difference between the active and the passive voice in the English language. When we talk about the voice off a sentence, we're basically talking about the relationship between the subject and the verb. So in English we only have two voices, the active on the passive. Here's what the active voice is. Basically, the active voice is when the subject does the work. So here's an example. The dog bait the boy. So dog is our subject on a bit is the verb. The subject does the verb, on the other hand, in passive voice. The verb is done to the subject. So in our example here we can see the boy was bitten by the dog. Our verb here is bitten and dog is the subject. So in this example, the verb is done to the subject. So do you see the difference between these two different sentences? Notice that both e sentences have the same meaning. However, there different in their structure. Let's explore these concepts in a bit more detail. We'll start with the active voice, so you may be wondering, When should I use the active voice? Here's the answer. The active voice is best used for conveying simple on straightforward ideas and actions. Now there are many reasons why the active voice is far more common than the passive voice. Let's explore some of thes reasons. First of all, the active voice is direct and concise, meaning that the active voice gets straight to the point. It is also easier to understand it's less awkward and structure on. It clearly indicates the relationship between the different parts off a sentence. So let's look at an example here. Here's a sentence. I fed my dog yesterday. Notice that this sentence is very clear and simple. The sentence is written in active voice on its very easy to understand. On the other hand, if you were to write this same sentence in the passive voice, you would have to write. My dog was fed by me yesterday. Do you see how strange and complicated this sentence sounds? It's very unnatural. Noticed that both of these sentences mean the same thing on both of these sentences are grammatically correct. However, this particular idea is best conveyed with the active voice because it's simple and clear. Now let's talk about the passive voice. If passive voice is so awkward in its structure, why do we use it and when do we use it? Passive voice is primarily used in two main situations. The first of thes situations is when we do not want to say or do not know who did the action. The second situation is when focusing on the recipient off the action is more important. So let's look at examples off both of these situations. Here's our first example. Shoplifters were arrested. Notice that in this sentence we don't have to say that shoplifters were arrested by the police because this is obvious. So this is an example off the first situation. We do not want to say who did the action. Why? Because it's obvious there's no need to say that shoplifters were arrested by the police because only the police can arrest people. Here's another example. My car was stolen in this case. We don't know who's told a car. So this is also an example off the first situation. We do not know who did the action. Now let's look at an example off the second situation in which we have to use the passive voice. Here's our sentence. The road is being repaired. Notice that in this sentence were only focusing on the recipient off the action. We're only interested in the road. We don't really care about the people who are repairing it. Here's another example. Here we have two sentences which mean exactly the same thing. The poem was written by Shakespeare. Shakespeare wrote the poem On the top we have the passive voice and here on the bottom we have the active voice. So both the sentences mean exactly the same thing. However, there is a difference. The difference is that in the first sentence, the focus is on the poem, whereas in the second sentence the focus is on Shakespeare. So depending on what exactly you're tryingto emphasize in a sentence, you may want to choose the passive voice or the active voice. So I hope that the differences between the active voice and the passive voice are clear to you. Now let's now talk about how exactly do you go about contracting the passive voice? Basically, if you want to form the passive voice, all you have to do is use different forms off the verb to be so. Here in this column we have a list of tenses, and here we have the structure for forming the passive voice. You'll notice that depending on which tents were talking about, we're changing the verb to be in different forms. So here are some examples. If we're talking about the present simple tents, we would say the food is eaten in the present continuous tense. We would say the food is being eaten in the present perfect tens. We would say the food has been eaten in the past. Simple tens. We would say the food was eaten, and so one. Now let me show you an example off the use off, active voice and passive voice in a paragraph. So in this example, we have the passive voice highlighted in this brown color, and we have the active voice in the black color. If you'd like, you can pause this video now and read this paragraph in your own time. So that concludes this video. I'll see you in the next grammar section, in which we'll talk about simple on compound sentences 12. Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences: Welcome back in this grammar section will be looking at simple on compound sentences. So first, let's start off with simple sentences. Now, if you're taking this course, I expect that you should already know how to construct these simple sentences. But just to remind you what they are, I'll quickly go over these. So a simple sentence is basically when you have a subject plus a verb plus an object. So those three things together make up a simple sentence. So we have a few examples here. The first sentence is taxes should be increased next. We have Children are the future of our nation, and last we have community service develops strong character individuals. So I want you to notice that each off the simple sentences is only conveying one main idea to convey more than one idea in a single sentence. We use either compound sentences or complex sentences. We'll be talking more about those very soon. So in these simple sentences, we have our subjects in the blue color div herbs are in the purple color and the objects are in the red color. I want you to notice that objects are optional. They don't have to be there for a simple sentence. But if you would like to add an object, you can do that as well. You'll also notice that simple sentences can include other basic elements such as propositions, articles and so on. Now let's move on to the compound sentences. So basically you have a compound sentence when you have two or more independent clauses that are connected together. An independent clause is complete idea. The idea is complete in and off itself. So in a compound sentence, we are connecting to complete ideas. Now the question is, what do we use to connect these two independent clauses? Will we connect these clauses by using what are called coordinating conjunctions? And when we connect these clauses using the coordinating conjunction, we use a comma. Coordinating conjunctions are words like four aunt nor but or yet so. So let's look at some examples. Here's our first example. Britain invested over £1 million in books on Frantz only invested 100,000. Now I want you to notice that the word aunt here is a coordinating conjunction. We're using this coordinating conjunction to connect to independent clauses. Both of these independent clauses are complete ideas in enough themselves. So how do you know if an idea is complete? Well, there's an easy way to find out. I want you to imagine that instead of the word on Dhere, there is a full stop. A period? Imagine that The first clause is a complete sentence. Britain invested over £1 million in books. Now, if you were toe end this sentence here, there would be no problem. It would be a complete idea. So if we want, we can simply end the sentence over here. Similarly, we could just say France only invested 100,000. That's also a complete idea. We can add a full stop there on leave this clause as its own sentence. So that's how you know if we have an independent clause. Basically, independent clauses are complete ideas. So we use compound sentences when we don't want to write these clauses as separate sentences. Instead of writing these causes as separate sentences weaken, just connect these two clauses by a coordinating conjunction. In this case, we have used the word Andi also noticed that we have used it with a comma. Let's take another example. Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999 but it was outranked by Britain the following year. Again, I want you to notice that we have to independent clauses here. The first independent clause is Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999. That's a complete idea. We can stop here and that will be fine. However, we want to add extra information in this sentence. So we use the coordinating conjunction. But and we have added a second independent clause here on the second Independent Clause is it was outranked by Britain the following year noticed that whenever we joined to independent clauses together we have to use a comma with dick ordinating conjunction. So we have used a comma here on reviews two comma here on when you use this comma on coordinating conjunction together to join two independent clauses, then what you have is a compound sentence. Now let me give you some examples off how to use different coordinating conjunctions, so we'll start off with our first coordinating conjunction, which is but here we have an example. The proposed legislation seems promising, but it has several drawbacks. Here's another example. It is common knowledge that exercise is healthy, yet many people never go to the gym's. Germany and Franz both experienced significant growth in 2002. Now what I want you to notice with this sentence is that we don't have a comma here. Why is that? Well, we don't use a comma. When we use a coordinating conjunction like and to join words or phrases together, you'll notice that the coordinating conjunction on it's simply connecting two words together. In this case, the two words are Germany and France. Here's another example. Those who are unemployed or underpaid are forced to consume unhealthy foods to save costs. Now, in this example, we also don't use a comma. The reason for that is that this conjunction here is simply connecting the words unemployed and underpaid together. Okay, it's just connecting these two words. It's not connecting independent clauses and therefore what we don't use any comma with it. So let's summarize when exactly you should use a comma with a coordinating conjunction on when she do not. So whenever a coordinating conjunction connects to independent clauses, we always use a comma. For example, we use a comma here and here because in both the sentences, the coordinating conjunctions but on yet are connecting to independent clauses together, an independent clause conveys a complete idea. On the other hand, if a coordinating conjunction simply connects words or phrases together, then we do not use a comma. As you can see here, this conjunction is only connecting words together so we don't use a comma on in this sentence here. The conjunction or is simply connecting the words unemployed on underpaid together Now on a final note on commas. Whenever you have a list, using the comma with the aunt is optional. So, for example, if you have a sentence like I love books, movies on music, the comma before the end in a list is optional. So if you want, you can use a comma, and if you don't want, you don't have to. Now here's our list of coordinating conjunctions. You're probably wondering, what are these two boys doing over here? Why are there so excited? Well, they're excited because they are what we call Fanboys, find boys are boys who are very excited and huge fans off something. They're really excited about something. Why are we talking about this? Actually, Fun Boys is an acronym for coordinating conjunctions So whenever you forget what the coordinating conjunctions are, you can use this acronym too quickly. Remember what all the coordinating conjunctions are? F stands for four a stands for on and for nor be for. But oh, for or why for yet On s for So So Those are all the coordinating conjunctions in the English language on using the acronym Fanboys is a very easy way for you to remember them. Now you may be wondering when exactly should I use the compound sentences? Generally speaking, you should use the compound sentences whenever you're trying to give extra detail or are richness to your sentences. So let's look at examples off that. Let's say that you have this table over here in your writing task. One question and you have to describe the data in this table. Well, if we're trying to describe the data here on the data here, we could say something like Sophie. Anya experienced off 13% land degradation, but none from over cultivation. So in this sentence, we have conveyed to separate ideas two separate ideas, both of which are complete, and we've done this without using two separate sentences. What we have done is we have given extra detail in a single sentence by using the coordinating conjunction. But let's look at another example. Here's another table on If we're trying to describe the data from Switzerland, we could say, considering bananas. Switzerland earned the highest revenue in 1999 on it also more than tripled its sales in 2004. So again in this sentence were conveying to complete ideas. The first idea is that Switzerland earned the highest revenue in 1999 which is this data point over here. And then we're saying that it also more than tripled its sales in 2004. So here we're describing the second data point. So do you see how our sentence sounds much better when we combine the two different ideas and convey them in a single sentence? This is what the aisles examiners are looking for. They want to see if you can write complex structures such as compound sentences, so used these compound sentences to show off your grammatical range. So that's all for this video. I'll see you in the next grammar section in which we're going to talk about the complex sentences 13. Grammar: Complex Sentences: all right. Now that we've talked about the simple on the compound sentences were now ready to talk about the complex sentences. So that's what this section is about. Let's get started. So first of all, what is a complex sentence? Basically, Ah, complex sentence is when you have a dependent clause, plus an independent clause. So you'll recall from the previous video that an independent clause is a complete idea. On the other hand, a dependent clause is an incomplete idea. So when we have a dependent clause on an independent clause put together, we call that a complex. Since now, what do we use to connect the dependent and the independent clause to each other? We use what is called a subordinating conjunction, so we'll talk about subordinating conjunctions very soon. First, let's take a look at some examples off complex sentences. So here's our first sentence. Whereas Britain invested over £1 million books, Frantz only invested 100,000 in this case, the word, whereas is de subordinating conjunction. I want you to notice that France only invested 100,000 is an independent clause. It's a complete idea on it can stand by itself That means that if we were to just write this clause as its own sentence, it would still make sense because it's a complete idea. On the other hand, if we were to say whereas Britain invested over £1 million in books, this is not a complete idea because we're using the word whereas to make a comparison. So when we say this sentence, we have to compare it with something else. Therefore, we cannot just stop the sentence here. We have to add some extra information to complete the sentence. In this case, we need to complete the comparison. Let's look at another example. Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999 although it was outranked by Britain the following year. Now, in this case, the word, although is acting as the subordinating conjunction on this subordinate in conjunction is connecting the dependent clause with the independent clause. So here in the blue color, we have the independent Clause. Switzerland ranked the highest in 1999 you'll notice that this is a complete idea. If you were to stop the sentence here, it would still make sense. On the other hand, the dependent clause is incomplete, so here. This dependent clause only makes sense when we join it together with the independent clause . Do you get it? So an independent clause is called independent because it doesn't need anything else. It can stand alone by itself. It's complete. However, a dependent clause is incomplete. It needs to depend on something else. As a rule, we place thes subordinating conjunctions at the beginning off the dependent clauses. So you'll notice that here we put the subordinating conjunctions at the beginning off the dependent clause on. We've done the same over here, so it doesn't matter if the dependent clause comes first or if the dependent clause comes second. The important thing here is that the subordinating conjunction has to be placed at the beginning off the dependent clause on when we used these dependent clauses in a sentence, we form what are called complex sentences. Now let's look at some examples off how we use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences. We'll start with the word, although here's our example. Although this proposal has some drawbacks, its advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. I noticed that this first half is the dependent clause on this Second half is the independent clause. Next we have to subordinate in conjunction. Despite here's our example. Despite the new regulations, many people still do not fully disclose their income to the government. The first half is the dependent clause on the second half is the independent clause. Next we have, unless walking is better than driving unless one is in a hurry. Here we have the independent clause before the dependent clause. Here's the next example. It is important to consider one's financial situation before traveling abroad. Unless one is wealthy. Notice that in the sentence we have an independent clause plus a dependent clause plus another dependent clause. So in this sentence we have one independent clause on too dependent clauses. Here's our last example. Certainly this could happen. Although the odds are remote here we have the independent clause on here We have the dependent clause. I want you to notice that in all of these examples replaced the subordinating conjunctions at the beginning off the dependent clauses. Now you may have noticed that sometimes with the subordinate in conjunction, we use a comma and other times we don't. So you may be wondering when exactly should we use a comma with a subordinating conjunction and when should we not? So let's talk about that. There are a few basic rules. The first of thes rules is that if the dependent clause comes before the independent clause , then you should place the comma at the end of the dependent clause. So in this case, here we have the dependent clause on Dhere. We have the independent clause. The dependent clause comes before the independent Clause. So in this case, we have to place a comma at the end of the dependent clause. The second rule is that if the dependent clause comes after the independent clause, then the comma is usually not used. So here we have examples off this here We don't use a comma in both of these sentences. Why? Because here we have an independent clause that comes before the dependent clause. So when we have a situation like this, in most cases we do not use a comma. However, I want you to notice that there are exceptions to this rule as can be seen in this sentence over here. The next rule is that if the subordinating conjunction is used to give extra information, for example If we're just adding extra information as an afterthought, then we must use a comma. So in this example, we've used this dependent clause to simply add extra information. Okay, this wasn't really required. We don't have to add this information. We could just put a full stop here and end this sentence right here. However, we chose to add extra information as an afterthought and therefore we have to use a comma. Lastly, I want you to note that the word, although, is an exception. Akama is almost always used whenever, although appears in the middle of a sentence, as you can see in the example over here. Now let's take a look at a list off subordinating conjunctions. Here we have our list, and I want you to note that this is not a complete list. However, these are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions that are used in the English language words like, though, although as though since because despite are very common and you're probably going to use them in your isles writing on speaking. So you may be wondering now, when exactly should I use the complex sentences in my writing? Well, we usually used the complex sentences when we're comparing and contrasting two different pieces of data or information. So let's look at an example off that. Let's say that you see this paragraph on your isles writing Task one, and you're trying to describe the data from the year 1995. If you're writing about the year 1995 you could say something like in general. It is evident that in 1995 local fixed line calls were the most prominent choice, whereas more Biles for the least popular. Do you see how we've used the subordinating conjunction, whereas to compare two different pieces off information? We're saying that on the one hand, the local fixed line calls were very prominent, meaning that they were very popular. On the other hand, Mobil's were the least popular, so we have compared to contrast ing pieces of information in a single sentence. That's the power off a complex sentence. Let's look at another example. Now let's say that you get this map question and you have to describe the differences that you see between the two maps. In this case, you could say something like although the island used to be vacant and undeveloped in the past, it is now fully developed on equipped with tourist facilities. Do you see how we're using the word, although to compare to contrast in pieces off information, we're saying that on the one hand, the island used to be vacant and undeveloped in the past. On the other hand, now it is fully developed and equipped with tourist facilities. So by using complex sentences, we have mentioned to contrast in pieces of information in a single sentence. So these are the type of sentences that the aisles examiners are looking for. They want to see if you are able to form such complex structures. So make sure that you use some complex sentences in your writing to show off your chromatic alr angel. So that's all for this video. I hope that you now have a clear understanding off what are simple sentences, compound sentences on complex sentences and that you now understand how to use them in your writing. I'll see you in the next grammar section in which we'll talk about correlative conjunctions 14. Grammar: Relative Clauses: Welcome back to the course in this video were talking about relative clauses. There are basically two types off relative clauses. The first type is the defining relative clause on the second type is the non defining relative clause. So let's look at what each of these are. We're starting with a defining relative clause. Basically, a defining relative clause is a clause which is necessary in a sentence. Without this clause, the noun remains incomplete. So basically the idea off the sentence remains incomplete. In other words, this type of relative clause defines the noun. The last thing that you need to know about the defining relative clause is that we don't use a comma before the relative pronoun. So let's look at an example to better understand all off this. Here's our example. Belgium is the country that sold the most coffee. Now the word that in this sentence is the relative pronoun, and you'll notice that the word that defines the noun that comes before it in this case it's defining the country, in other words, were clarifying which country Belgium is. It is the country that sold the most coffee. If you were to just stop this sentence right here. This sentence wouldn't really make any sense because then you would just be left with Belgium is the country and that is an incomplete sentence. Belgium is which country? What type of country. We need to clarify this noun to show the reader what exactly we're talking about. So that is what we mean by a defining relative clause. On the other hand, we have the non defining relative clause. A non defining relative clause is not necessary in a sentence. Why? Because the idea is still complete without it. So we don't really need the non defining relative clause. Well, if we don't really need it, then why do we use it? We use it when we want to give extra information about the noun in a sentence. Sometimes we want to extend the amount of information that we're providing about denounce. In this case, we used the known defining relative clause. The last thing to note about this clause is that with this clause, we do use a comma before the relative pronoun. So let's look at an example off this Belgium earned 1.7 million euros from coffee sales, which made it the most profitable country. So you'll notice that if we wanted, we could have just stopped the sentence right here. We could have just said Belgium earned 1.7 million euros from coffee sales. That's a complete idea. We don't have to continue this sentence. We could just stop right here. However, we decided that we want to add some extra information. Keep in mind this extra information is not necessary. We just want to provide this extra information anyway. So in this case, we've added the extra information with this relative pronoun here which that's our relative pronoun. And we've added this non defining relative clause, the clauses which made it the most profitable country. So we call this a non defining relative clause because this type of clause does not define the noun, whereas in the defining relative clause, this clause that we've added here defines the noun that we're talking about. So that's the difference between the defining relative clause on the non defining relative clause. Now all relative clauses use some kind of a relative pronoun. So in this example, refused the relative pronoun that in this example we've used the relative pronoun which and There are several other relative pronouns that we use with both. The defining on the non defining relative clause is. So let's explore what some off these relative pronouns are. We're going to start off with the relative pronoun who so we used this relative pronoun whenever we refer to people. So here's our example Sentence. Sam's mother, who lives in Scotland, has six grandchildren. So notice that we used a relative pronoun who to talk about Sam's mother. Sam's mother is a person, so therefore we used a relative pronoun who, on the other hand, if you want to talk about things in general, then you can either use which or that in this example we're using the relative pronoun, which to refer to overgrazing. So our sentences overgrazing represented the primary cause of global land operation, which accounted for approximately 30% off land degradation. Next, if you want to refer toa places, then you can use the relative pronoun who where, for example, you could say the only country where the population declined. Waas Australia. Notice that we're using the relative pronoun where to talk about country in this case, that country is Australia on Australia is a place. If you want to refer to a specific period of time, then you can use the relative pronoun when so you could say the period when mobile phones plummeted in demand. Waas The month of December Notice that we're using the relative pronoun who, when to talk about the period that period is the month of December. So we're talking about a certain period of time. If you want to refer toa possession, then you can use the relative pronoun who's, for example, you could say the only country whose sales declined waas Yemen. So in this case, were using the relative pronoun who's to talk about the country's sales. In this case, we're talking about Yemen's sales. Okay, so we're showing possession. Whose sales whose sales are we talking about? We're talking about Yemen's sales. I also want to point out that most of the times when we used this relative pronoun who's we usually use it to show the possession by a person. However, you could also use this relative pronoun to show the possession by a country or other announce. Here's our final example. If you want to refer to a certain reason, then you can use the relative pronoun who I. So here's our example. The reason why they migrated to the nearby islands is not clear. So in this case, why is referring back to this reason? Here it is clarifying which reason we're talking about. So those are all the relative pronounce on. This is how we use them to refer to different things. Now let's talk about the use of commas in the relative clauses. So the first thing that I want you to notice is that whenever we have a non defining relative clause, we have to use a comma. So we've used to comma here, here, on here. Do you remember what the non defining relative clause is? The non defining relative clause is when we're just giving extra information, it's not required. We don't have to do it. Why? Because the sentence is already complete without it, so we don't need it. But we're just providing extra information anyway. So whenever we have unknown defining relative clause, we use a comma. So our first example here is Sam's mother, who lives in Scotland, has six grandchildren. The middle part who lives in Scotland is just extra information. We don't really need it. If we were to remove this part on, just say sums. Mother has six grandchildren. That would be fine. That would be a complete idea on. We wouldn't really need this part anyway. However, if you choose to add this part in the middle, then you have to add a comma before it and after it to show that it is a separate piece of information. In our next example, we have overgrazing represented the primary cause of global land depletion, which accounted for approximately 30% off land degradation. Notice again. Now we could just topped the sentence here. We don't have to continue this sentence. However, we're just choosing to add extra information and since were choosing to add extra information, we have to use a comma. On the other hand, if you have a defining relative clause, then we don't use a comma. The defining relative clause is when we're clarifying what exactly we're talking about. The defining relative clause defines the noun. For example, in this sentence, the only country where the population decline was Australia. The relative clause where is defining the country that we're talking about? It is defining the noun. Okay, so we don't use a comma with the defining relative clause in this sentence. The relative clause when is defining the period of time in this sentence the relative clause whose is defining the country on in this example? The relative clause why is defining the reason So in all of these cases where we don't use any commas? So that's all for this video. Also, you in the next grammar section in which we're going to be combining all off the different elements of Kraemer that we've been learning so far, So I'll see you there. 15. Grammar: Combining Elements: Now, in our grammar section, I've shown you a lot of different elements so far. So in this video, I'm going to show you how you can combine all of these different elements to form complex structures in your IOS exam. So if you want to form more complex structures, whether that is for your aisles writing or even if it's for the Speaking section, what you can do is you can combine the different elements, such as the subordinating conjunction, coordinating conjunction, correlative conjunction, relative pronouns, and so on. So now I'm going to give you an example of that. So here's our sentence. I like to sleep in, but I can get up early if I have to go to work or meet up with my friends. Now notice I've got some words over here that are color-coded. So here in the green color, we have the coordinating conjunctions, and here in the red color, we have the subordinating conjunction. So this actually is what we call a compound complex sentence. The reason that we call this type of sentence a compound-complex sentence is because in this sentence we have a compound sentence as well as a complex sentence. Okay? And you can see that here we have both elements. We have the coordinating conjunction as well as the subordinating conjunction. So here you can see that we've combined the two different elements in this sentence. So here we've got a complex structure. And using something like this in your aisles exam is really going to boost your score in the Krammer category. Now I want to show you another example. We're going to make it a little bit more complex. Let's take a look. Alright, so here what we've done is we've added the relative pronoun as well. So let's read the sentence. Even though pollution is increasing at an alarming rate, I believe that we can still improve the health of our planet and reverse the environmental damage that has caused numerous ecosystems to collapse. All right, now this is a great sentence because it's a complex structure. So we've used a subordinating conjunction here, a coordinating conjunction here, and a relative pronoun over here. So here we've got a dependent clause. This first part here is our dependent clause, and then everything that follows is the independent clause. Now, in this case, we're not using this coordinating conjunction to form a compound sentence. Rather, we are using this coordinating conjunction in this case, to form what is called a complex verb structure. You don't really have to worry about what all these names and labels mean. The important thing here is to know how to use. Different elements, ok, so don't really worry about what they are called and so on. The important thing is that you can use them correctly in your writing in order to form complex structures. One more thing that I want you to take note of is that you don't really need to be using a lot of different complex structures to get a high score on your exam. If you just use one or two complex structures in your writing, that's enough. You really don't need to fill up your essay with too many complex structures. Okay, now I'm going to show you one final example where we combine all four of these different elements. Here's our sentence. Research has shown that people who consume meat have higher rates of disorders due to cholesterol, which not only contributes to heart disease, but also diabetes, high blood pressure, and a host of other problems. Whereas plant-based foods have been shown to alleviate such disorders. Okay, now here in the purple color, we've got our relative pronouns. Here, we've got a defining relative pronoun. This relative pronoun is defining the subject, is defining the people. What people are we talking about? We are talking about the people who consume meat. Okay? So it's defining the subject. And therefore this is called a defining relative pronoun. And what we have here is a defining relative clause. Here, we've got a non-defining relative pronoun, because in this case, we're simply using this relative pronoun to tag along extra information to add extra information to the sentence. So here we've used two different types of relative pronouns that defining and the non-defining relative pronoun. Now here in the blue color, we've used correlative conjunctions. Do you remember a correlative conjunctions are like a team. They are like a pair that we have to use together with each other. Now here we've used a coordinating conjunction. Now here we're not forming a compound sentence, but still, this is a great use of coordinating conjunction. And then here we've got a subordinating conjunction, which we've used to add a dependent clause at the end of their sentence. So we've got a lot of different complex structures here. And guys, I want you to note that you really don't need to use a sentence like this in your aisles exam to get a band nine. Okay, I've just shown you a really complex example here, just to show you what is possible. I just want to show you the range of possibilities so that you can see how you can combine these different elements in a wide range of different ways. It doesn't mean that you have to form sentences that are this complex in your writing or in your speaking. So I hope all of that is clear for you. Now, in the next few videos, we're going to be taking a look at pronunciation. 16. Grammar: Punctuation: in this grammar section were talking about how to use punctuation in your Eilts writing. So let's start by looking at all the different types of punctuation that you're going to be using in your writing. We're starting off with the periods. This here is a period. We use a period at the end off informative sentences in the paragraphs. So whenever you're ending your sentence, you use a period. Next we have exclamation marks. Now notice that we do not use exclamation marks in academic writing. This means that you should not be using any exclamation marks in the writing task one or the writing task to next. We have commas. Generally speaking, we used to calm us whenever we hear a brief audible pause. All right, so whenever you hear this brief, audible pause in a sentence, we use a comma. Next we have apostrophes. Apostrophes are used to show possession. For example, you could say Francis population. Okay. Whose population are we talking about? We're talking about Francis population. So we use the apostrophe up here. Or you could say Germany's cars whose cars? Germany's cars. So again, we use an apostrophe here. Now, keep in mind that you should not be using apostrophes to show contraction in your writing. So contractions are words like isn't doesn't so instead of writing isn't you Should write is not instead of writing, doesn't you should write, does not Next we have capitalization. Basically, we capitalize all the words that come at the start off the sentence on who? We also capitalize all proper noun so words like names off a country off a person and so on . Lastly, we have semi colons. We use semi colons to join two independent clauses together. And we do this if the two independent clauses are very closely related in ideas. Okay, Onley if they're related and we don't want to start another sentence, then we can connect the two independent clauses by just using a semi colon. Now I want to spend more time talking about commas since you're going to be using a lot of them now, there are many different rules to using commas, However, for your aisles as says, these four rules are the most relevant. So let's talk about these four most important rules when it comes to using commas. The first rule is that whenever the dependent clause comes before the independent clause, we have to use a comma at the end of the dependent clause. We've already talked about this before, but just to remind you, let's take a look at an example. So here's our complex sentence. The sentences. Even though junk food is unhealthy, many people consume it due to cheaper costs. So I want you to note that here we have two dependent clause. Even though junk food is unhealthy, that's are dependent. Clause on Here is our independent clause. So whenever the dependent clause comes before the independent clause, we use a comma at the end of the dependent clause. Now let's look at the next rule. We use a comma before any coordinating conjunction that links to independent clauses. Together. We've talked about this as well, but let's look at an example. Computers doubled in sales from 2003 to 2004 but their price had dropped to half. So in this case, we have to independent clauses. Here's our first independent clause aunt. Here's our second independent clause, and here we have a coordinating conjunction that is linking these two independent clauses together. So whenever we have ah coordinating conjunction that links to independent clauses. We use a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Next, we have rule number three. We use commas to separate the items in a list. So here we have an example of the list. People can improve their mood with a healthy diet, exercise and a healthy social life. So here we have our commas before exercise on before. And so whenever you have a list used the commas to separate the different items in the list , I want you to note that this comma here, which comes before the aunt is optional. So if you want, you can use it. If you don't want to, then you don't have to. Here's our last rule. Whenever you have an introductory cohesive device, we use a comma after it. Here we have a few different introductory cohesive devices. So if you're starting a new sentence human, start the sentence with the word finally or alternatively or, for example, as a result, and so on. So whenever you use such introductory cohesive devices, you have to use a comma after them. I want you to note that there are certain introductory cohesive devices with which we do not use a comma such as it is clear. Or this is due to remember the easiest way for you to find out if whether or not you should use a comma is to listen for a brief, audible pause. If you hear a brief audible pause, then you should use a comma. If you don't hear a brief audible pause, then you shouldn't. So I hope that's clear. Now let's talk about apostrophes now. Apostrophes air commonly used for two purposes. Firstly, there used to show contraction of words, for example, Words like isn't and doesn't we already discussed this so we can use apostrophes to show contraction of words when we put two words together on shorten them, So is not becomes isn't does not becomes dozen. We also use apostrophes to show possession. Now, I've already discussed that in your academic writing. You should only be using apostrophes to show possession. You should not use them to show contraction. Now let's take a look at how to use apostrophes correctly. So the first way that we used the apostrophe is when we have a singular now. So in this case, we add in apostrophe plus, we add an s to it. So let's look at an example of this. Our nation's population is rapidly increasing, so notice that nation is a singular noun and we want to show possession. Whose population are we talking about? We're talking about the nation's population. So to show the possession by a singular now we have to use an apostrophe. So here's our apostrophe on. We have to add an s to the word. So here's the S that we've added. Here's our next rule. If you have any singular noun or pronouns that end in the letter s, then we only used the apostrophe. So let's look at an example of that. Here's our sentence. Ensuring job satisfaction of the employees is the boss's responsibility. I want you to note that this is a singular. Now on. We want to show possession by a singular noun. However, this singular noun ends in the letter s. And when we have a singular noun that ends in the letter s, we only use the apostrophe. We do not add the s to it. So here, as you can see who we only have the apostrophe. Let's see another example the education of Children is their teacher's responsibility. In this case, we have a plural noun teachers, and we want to show the possession by this plural noun. So what do we do? We have a word that is ending in the letter s so again similar to our previous example. When we have a word that is ending in the letter s, we only use the apostrophe. So here, as you'll see in both of these cases, we only used the apostrophe next. If you have irregular plural mounds, then you used the apostrophe plus the letter s. Here's an example off that Children's views are usually shaped by their parents. I want you to note that Children is an irregular noun and it's an irregular plural now. So we say one child on to Children Notice that we don't say to Children's. We don't add an s when we're talking about the plural off child because the plural off child is Children. So if you want to show possession by this plural noun, then you have to add an apostrophe. Plus the letter s So we say Children's views are usually shaped by their parents. Note that we don't say Children's and then add the apostrophe. That's wrong. Now let's look at our final rule. We do not use the apostrophe for plural izing a regular now. So what do I mean by this? Let's look at an example here. There are numerous traditions in the world, So here we have an incorrect sentence. There are numerous traditions in the world. I noticed that the word traditions is plural, but to show a plural now we do not add an apostrophe in the aisles writing. We only add the apostrophe when we want to show possession. In this case, we're not showing any possession. So this apostrophe here is incorrect, and we have to remove this apostrophe to correct this sentence. Next, let's talk about capitalization. Here are the rules for it. Firstly, you should capitalize The first letter off the first word in a sentence. E is the first letter off the first word, so it has to be capitalized. Next, you have to capitalize. Proper Now owns proper now's include names and places. So here's an example. Research conducted by Harvard University in Massachusetts shows that so in this case, here are the proper announce. Harvard University is a proper noun on Massachusetts is a proper known so notice that since Harvard University is the name of the university, we have to capitalize the H on the you on. Since Massachusetts is the name of a place we have to capitalize the M. Here's the next rule. Whenever you have months or days of the week, you have to treat them as proper announce on. You have to capitalize them. So months like January and February have to be capitalized. Also days off the week, such as Sunday, Monday, Tuesday. They have to be capitalized. However, when you're talking about seasons such as summer, winter, fall, autumn, these seasons are not proper announced on they should not be capitalized. So here's our example. After a sharp growth in March, the profit from banana sales plummeted in December but recovered by the falling summer. So in this example, March is a proper noun because it's the name for months. December is a proper noun because it's also the name off. A month on summer is not a proper noun, since this is a season, Here's our last rule names off school subjects such as math, algebra, geology and psychology are not capitalized. However, the only exception to this rule is if you're talking about school subjects that include languages. So if you have a subject such as French or English, then they have to be capitalized. So here's our example. My favorite subjects in high school or Spanish and psychology. I want you to note that the S in Spanish is capitalized because this is a name off a language. But psychology is not capitalized. Now I want to show you some infographics and give you some more example. Sentences toe better describe how to use capitalization. So here we have our first example. In this case, we have a line graph. And here's our example Sentence the graph project that patrol on oil will continue to rise in demand. Now, I want you to notice something in this craft. Note that all of the labels in this graph are capitalized. Okay, so patrol and oil, coal, natural gas, All the labels are capitalized. However, when you're writing about them in your essay, you should not capitalize them unless their proper noun in this case what we don't have any proper noun. Therefore, you should not capitalize them in your writing. So when you write a sentence like this, noticed that the peon patrol is not capitalized. The O in oil is also not capitalized because thes air not proper noun. So keep in mind that when you see a graph, the words here maybe capitalized. But that does not mean that you should capitalize them. When you're writing your essay only capitalize the words that are proper announce. Let's look at another example in this craft we have data up from two different countries from Yemen on Italy. Notice that in this craft every letter in the word Yemen is capitalized on every letter in the word Italy is capitalized. Now this does not mean that when you're writing your essay you have to capitalize the words exactly as is shown in the infographic. Remember, you should only capitalize the proper announce in this case. In our sentence, we have capitalized the Y in Yemen on the I in Italy because these are proper noun. These are names off countries. Here's our final example notice In this bar graph, we also have some labels and in these labels, some words are capitalized and others are not again. You should not be capitalising words in your essay just because they're capitalized in the craft or the chart. Okay, you should only capitalize proper noun. So in this case, when we're talking about local fixed line calls, we're not capitalizing anything, even though we have the word local capitalized here. The reason that we don't capitalize it in our writing is because this is not a proper now. Okay, so here's our sentence. It is evident that local fixed line calls were the most prominent choice, whereas Mobil's were the least popular notice here as well. With the word Mobil's. The M is not capitalized, but here the word M is capitalized. So keep in mind that you should not capitalize something in your writing just because it's capitalized in the infographic. Now let's talk about semi colons. Basically, semi colons are used to indicate an audible pause that is longer than a comma but shorter than a period. Now take note that you will probably not need to use the semi colons in your essay. However, I just want to mention the main rules, just in case you do end up using them. So here's the first rule we used the chemical into link to independent clauses together that are closely related in ideas. For example, you can say some people write on computers, others prefer to write by hand. Okay, so here we have two independent clauses on these clauses are closely related in ideas because both of them are talking about how people prefer to write. Some prefer to write on computers. Others like to write by hand so we can connect these two independent clauses by using a semi colon. Next, avoid a semi colon when a dependent clause comes before an independent clause. So in this case we have the example. Although they tried, they failed. All right, notice that this use of the semi colon is wrong. In order to correct this sentence, we have to say, Although they tried comma, they failed. Here's our next rule. We use a semi colon before words like namely, however, therefore, Daddy's for example, for instance, etcetera on. We used the semi colon before these words when these words introduced a complete sentence. So let's look at an example of that Science is one of the most significant subject. However, the arts are justus important, so notice here we have our independent clause. Then we have a semi colon before the word however, and we use a semi colon before the word. However, because this word is introducing a complete sentence, the arts are just as important. I noticed that when we use a semicolon before a word like however or therefore or for example, we also have to use a comma here. Here's our last rule. We do not capitalize any ordinary words after a semi colon. So keep in mind semi colon is not a period. Okay, so we capitalize words when we're starting a new sentence but with semi colon we do not capitalize ordinary words because a semi colon is still part of the same sentence. So here we have our example I'm here You are over there Notice that we've capitalized the why in the U after the semicolon here This is wrong. We can only capitalize proper announce not ordinary words. So to correct this sentence we have to say I'm here Semi colon, you are over there The why in the u should not be capitalized. All right, so that's pretty much it for all the different punctuation rules now What I want to do is I want to test your knowledge off the punctuation rules that you've learned so far. So I want you to now pause this video on. Read this paragraph below. In this paragraph, there are 12 punctuation errors. And after you've paused the video, I want to read this paragraph and find all these 12 punctuation errors. So go ahead. You can pause the video now. Okay. I hope you've had a chance to look over this paragraph and find the 12 punctuation errors. I'm now going to give you the answer. Here we have the 12 different punctuation errors. Did you get them all? Let's see what the correct version of this paragraph looks like this. Here is the correct version. Off this paragraph again, I want you to pause this video and make sure that you've got all of the 12 punctuation errors. Correct. So that's all for this video. I'll see you in the next grammar section, which is also our last grammar section in which we're going to talk about how to write about numbers in your writing task. One essay. So I'll see you there 17. Grammar: Writing Numbers: Welcome back in this final grammar section, I'm going to show you how you have to write the numbers when you're writing your essay. So let's start off with numbers that are 10 on below. So whenever you have a number that is between the numbers zero and nine, you have to spell them out, meaning that you have to actually write out the numbers in the English letters. So here's an example of a sentence in its correct version, the sentence reads. It was found that four out of 10 students failed. Note that here the number four is less than 10. So for that reason, we have to spell it out. However, if you're talking about the number 10 then you have toe right the number in the numeric format. Okay, so we only spell the numbers that are between zero and nine. Now let's look at another example. This time we have an incorrect sentence, this sentence reads. She has four sisters, aged 68 13 and 17. Note that here we have some numbers that are spelled out in the English letters, whereas other numbers are written in the numeric format. So that's why the sentence is incorrect because whenever we have a list, it is best to write the numbers numerically. So here's what the correct version off this list would look like. All the numbers that are in the list 68 13 and 17 have to be written down numerically, whereas if a number is not in a list such as the number four over here, then you have to spell it out in the English letters. Now let's talk about numbers that are 10 and above. In this case, you have to write the numbers that are 10 and above in numerals in the numeric format. OK, the only exception to this rule is if these numbers appear at the start of a sentence. So let's see some examples. Here we have an example where the number 10 or above appears in the middle of a sentence. Note that the number 60 is above 10 and appearing in the middle of a sentence. In this case, we have to write this number in the numeric format. Let's see another example. In this case, the number 70 which is greater than 10 appears at the beginning off the sentence, and therefore it has to be spelled out in the English letters. But if a number above 10 does not appear at the beginning off a sentence, then we have to write it in the numeric format. Now let's talk about how to write numbers when you're discussing time. Generally speaking, we use numerals to discuss times of the day. Another point that I want to make about discussing times is that any of thes four months for writing AM or PM are correct so you can write AM or PM like this. You can also write AM and PM like this with the dots in between. Or you can write AM and PM like this in lower case letters with the dots or in just lower case letters without the DOT. All of these are accepted four months for writing AM and PM. Now this is how we commonly described time. You can say it starts at five o'clock in the morning, so when you're talking about five o'clock, you can spell it out in the English letters, or you can say it starts at 5:35 a.m. In this case, refused the numeric format. You can also say it starts at 6 a.m. Again, we've used a numeric format here. You can say it starts at 4 p.m. Where you only mention the number four. You don't have to add the colon on 00 to show for PM. You can just right number four. Now here's an uncommon example. It starts at 4 35 We usually don't describe time in this way. It's more natural to write for 35 in the numeric format. Now, when it comes to writing the AM and PM, all of these different formats are accepted, so feel free to use any off them. Another thing to notice is that in this example, we haven't stated If we're talking about 4 35 AM or PM, are we talking about the morning or are we talking about evening? So make sure that you're clear about which time you're discussing. If you have to describe time in your writing essay. Now let's talk about writing dates. Dates are typically written in numerals, meaning you have to write them in numeric format. Take note that when we're talking about dates, we do not use the orginal numbers. Orginal numbers are numbers like 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th and so on. We do not use these orginal numbers when talking about dates. For example, here's an incorrect sentence. School begins on September 2nd 2019. Notice that here we've used an orginal number second, and that's why the sentence is incorrect. Here's the correct version of the sentence. School begins on September 2 2019. OK, so use the numerals. Do not use the orginal numbers. Now let's talk about how to describe percentages. We write the percentages as numerals as well. However, if the percentage appears at the beginning off a sentence, then we have to spell it out. So let's see some examples. Here's an example where the percentage appears in the middle of a sentence. In this case, we've written the 63% as a numeral. Here's another example in which the percentage appears at the start of a sentence. In this case, we've spelled out the percentage 80 and 1/2 percent okay, so if it appears at the beginning off a sentence, then it's best to spell it out. If it appears in the middle of a sentence, then write it in the numeral format. Let's talk about fractions now. Generally, we always spell out the simple fractions on when we're spelling out the simple fractions who we also use hyphens. Here we have an incorrect version off a sentence. Notice that this is incorrect because we've written this fraction in the numeric format. To correct this sentence, we have to spell out this fraction. So we have to spell out the fraction in the English letters on. We also have to use a hyphen. Lastly, we're talking about decimals. Whenever you have a decimal, you should write it in the numeric format. Also, as a general rule, you should try to avoid starting your sentences with the decimals. So let's look at an incorrect example. Here we have an example where we've spelled out 0.86 as English words. This is incorrect. The correct way to write decimals is in the numeric format, so we have to write 0.86 in the numeric format. Now, as a final rule, whenever you are in doubt about whether or not you should spell out the number or write it in the numeric format, it's usually best to spell out the numbers in the English letters. So that concludes our video on writing numbers. This was also the last video on our grammar section. In the next video, we're going to be exploring the next ingredient to writing a great essay, which is the lexical resource. In other words, who vocabulary? 18. Fourth Ingredient: Lexical Resource: all right, so so far we've covered the three different ingredients to writing a great essay. We've covered task, achievement, coherence and cohesion on chromatic alr a ndjn accuracy. Now we're going to talk about the fourth and the final ingredient to writing a great essay , which is a lexical resource. So in this video, I'm just going to give you some basic information. So let's begin according to the official Ban Descriptors list. If you want to achieve a band seven or higher on your test, here's what you need to do. Firstly, you need to use a wide range of vocabulary. This means that you need to know how to use synonyms on how to paraphrase the question language so that you can rephrase it in your own words. Also, you have to use this vocabulary to convey precise meaning. Okay, the words that you use have to be used purposefully. This basically means that you have to use the right word to convey the right idea. Next, you need to use less common vocabulary on phrases, so less common vocabulary includes words that are not commonly used. Also, you have to use some call locations, call occasions are just groups off words that often appear together. Next, you have to show to the Examiner that you know how to correctly fit the words and phrases together. And finally, to get a good score, you need to make very few mistakes with your spelling on your word formation. So this is just a brief overview in the future videos. We're going to delve much deeper into each of thes requirements. So that's all for this video. Also, you in the next video in which I'm going to give you some basic vocabulary that you need to know when writing the writing task One essay so we'll see you there. 19. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Trend Graphs: Welcome back in this video, I'll show you which will Cavalleri to use if you're describing a trend graph on your task One essay. So just to remind you this is what a trend craft looks like. You can have a trend craft as a line graph as a bar graph or as a table. So if you'll remember, we have a trend graph whenever we have changes that are being described over a certain period of time. So this video will only focus on the vocabulary that you need for describing such trend crafts. So when you have a trend graph, these are the types of changes that you're going to see. So in this image we have a line graph. However, I want you to note that even if you have a table or a bar graph, you will notice similar types of changes. So basically, you're going to have any of thes seven different types of changes, so you may have a data set where the measurements are increasing. The data might experience a big increase, or maybe the data remains constant. It is also possible that the data might decrease, or you may see a big decrease. You may also notice that sometimes the graph undergoes a decrease, but then it improves again. Lastly, the data that you see might go up and down. This is known as a fluctuation, so there are particular vocabulary words that you can use to describe each of these different types of changes. So let's take a look at those vocabulary words. So first we have increased. If you have an infographic where the data is increasing, then you can use any off these words listed here, such as Rise, climb, elevate. I noticed that here we have a verb on in the parentheses. We have the noun. Okay, so here's the word. Form off the word and here's the noun form off the word. So, for example, if you have an infographic where the data is increasing, you could say something like banana sales crew in 1990. You can also use the noun form of the word so you can say banana sales experienced a growth in 1990. Okay, so you can describe this data in both ways. You can use the verb to describe it or a noun to describe it. Next, you may have a big increase. If you have a big increase, then you can use any of thes words here, such as jump surge, double on so one Here we have the verb on here. We have to now, so you may say something like computer sales doubled in 1990. Or you can say computer sales experienced or doubling in 1990. Next, you may have a decrease. So if the data is decreasing, you can use any of thes words here, such as full drop decline. Here's the verb, and here's the now, so you may say something like computer sales dropped by 10%. You can also use the noun form so you can say computer sales experienced a 10% drop. Next, it's possible that the data might experience ah, big decrease. In such a case, you can use these words plummet or a plummet tumble or a tumble on so one so you can say something like banana sales plummeted in 1990. Or you can say banana sales experienced ah plummet in 1990. Next. It's possible that the data might remain stable over certain periods of time, so in these cases you can use these words such as stabilize or stabilization level off or leveling off on so on. So you could say banana sales leveled off in 1990. Or you can use this phrase as a noun so you can say banana sales experienced a leveling off in 1990. Now, if the data is decreasing, but then it starts to improve, then you can use these words to describe this type of change. You may say something like mobile sales recovered in 1990 or mobile sales experienced a recovery in 1990. Finally, if the data is moving up and down, up and down, then we call this a fluctuation. So you can say banana sales fluctuated in 1990 or banana sales experienced a fluctuation in 1990. So these are all the different ways in which you can describe the different types of changes. You can describe the types of changes using the verbs or using the noun. Now let's look at the quality of change when we're talking about the quality of change were mainly talking about adverbs and adjectives. So let's take a look. So sometimes there may be a slow change in your data, whereas other times there may be a very fast or surprising change in the data. It's also possible that there may be, Ah, steady change in the data or steady change means that the data is increasing at a steady rate or it's possible that the data might be decreasing out of steady rate. It is also possible that the data remains constant at a steady rate, meaning that it does not go up or down. On the other hand, you can have small changes, medium changes or big changes. So let's explore the different adjectives and adverbs that we use to describe these different qualities off changes. All right, so here we are. If you have a fast change, then you can use adjectives like rapid, sharp, quick, steep or swift. You can also use adverbs like rapidly, sharply, quickly, steeply on swiftly. So if you're writing a sentence, you could say something like there was a sharp rise in computer sales in 1990. Or you can also use odd words to describe the change. You can say computer sales sharply increased in 1990 if you have a surprising change. Okay, an unexpected change. Then you can use adjectives like sudden, striking, abrupt or odd words like strikingly on abruptly. So if you're writing a sentence in which you're describing a surprising change, you may say something like there was an abrupt rise in banana sales in 1990. Or you can say banana sales abruptly increased in 1990 so you can describe the quality off changes using the objectives or the adverbs. Similarly, you can use thes adjectives here on these adverbs here to describe these different qualities off change, including a slow change, a steady change, a small change, a medium change on a big change. So what you need to do on your task? One essay is really quite simple. All you need to do is mix and match different adjectives announce. So let me give you an example. So here we have our opening phrase here we have some objectives here. We have denounced on here. We have the measurement off the data. So all you need to do is mix and match these different columns. So here's an example. So you can say there was a significant growth in the price of cars. Notice that to construct this sentence, all we've done is used different words and phrases from different columns on. We've just mixed and matched thes different adjectives and now owns, So that's all you need to do, depending on what kind of data you have. All you have to do is choose adjectives from this side and match them with downs from this side. So if there's a marginal increase than you can say that there was a marginal increase, if there was a gradual decrease, you can see there was a gradual decrease. Now let's look at another example of this. You can do the same thing with adverbs on Forbes. So here we have our opening phrase. Here we have our list off adverbs. Here we have the verbs on here. We have the data points that were describing so again we're just mixing and matching the different columns so we can construct a sentence like this. The population marginally declined from 1 20,000 toe 118,200 so notice refused the opening phrase from this column. We've used the adverb from this column. We've used the verb from this column on. We've chosen to describe the data points in this manner, so when you're describing these trend graphs. You just need to mix and match adverbs and verbs and adjectives and pronouns. So that's all for this video. In the next video, I'll be taking you through the different vocabulary words that you need to know for describing comparative crafts, so I'll see you there. 20. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Comparative Graphs: all right. In this video, we're going to be looking at the vocabulary words that you need when describing comparative graphs in your task. One essay. So if you'll remember, this is what the comparative crafts look like. We can have a comparative craft as a bar graph as a pie chart or a table. So we have a comparative craft whenever we have a static snapshot in time. So unlike a trend graph where we have changes that are being described over a period of time in a comparative graph, we don't have a period of time. All we have is just a set of data as a static snapshot. Now I want to make a note about the vocabulary words that you're going to learn for describing the comparative graphs. I want you to note that whenever you're writing a task one as, say, you have to compare data in all types off writing questions, Okay, so that means that you have to compare data in the trend graphs. You have to compare the data in the comparative graphs in the process diagrams and in the maps. Okay, so it doesn't matter what type of writing task one question you have. You always have to compare data in all types off writing questions. However, in the comparative questions, you have to especially make comparisons because you don't have a period of time to describe . All you have is just comparisons. So comparisons become particularly important for comparative graphs. So let's look at the vocabulary words that you need to make comparisons. So first we're going over the short objectives. Here we have our adjective, and here we have the form off the adjective when we're comparing two items and here we have the form. When we're comparing three or more items, notice that when we're comparing two items, we add an e r at the end of the world on when we're comparing three or more items, then we add an E S t at the end of the world. For example, if you're talking about the adjective high and you want to compare two items, then you may say that one is higher than the other. Whereas if you're comparing three or more items than you may say, that one item is the highest out of all the listed items. So let me give you an example sentence. You may say the growth rate off banana sales was higher than grapes. Or if you're comparing three or more items than you may say, the growth rate off banana sales wants the highest out off all the listed fruits. Similarly, here's our next objective. If you're talking about the adjective low, then you can use lower down when comparing two items, or you can say the lowest. If you're comparing three or more items, for example, you may say the number of cars sold in Frantz was lower than in the UK, Or if you're comparing three or more items than you can say the number of cars sold in, Frantz was the lowest out of all the listed countries. Similarly, whenever you're comparing any off these objectives here, then you can use this form to compare two items, or you can use this form to compare three or more items. So here we have the adjectives. Big, great, large, small, strong. We have some more adjectives here. Short, slow, quick, fast, sharp, slight on long. Now these were the short objectives. Now let's take a look at long adjectives. The adjective popular is an example off a long adjective. It's long because when you're comparing two items with this adjective, you have to say more popular than or if you're comparing three or more items than you have to say the most popular. So with short objectives such as high when you're comparing two items, you can just say higher than or if you're comparing three items you could say the highest. Unlike the short adjectives, when you're comparing long objectives, you have to say more popular than or the most popular. So that's the difference between the short adjectives on the long adjectives. So let me give you an example of a sentence. Now, if you're talking about the adjective popular, you may say something like mobile phones became more popular than computers. Or if you're comparing three or more items, you may say, mobile phones became the most popular out off all the listed technological devices. Here we have another objective rapid. So if you're comparing two or more items, you may say something like the growth off mobile phones wants more rapid than computers. Or if you're comparing three or more items, you may say the growth off mobile phones was the most rapid out off all the listed technological devices. Similarly, whenever we're comparing two items, we used this form here on when we're comparing three or more items. We use this form here for all of the's listed adjectives. So here we have sudden, striking, abrupt, gradual, consistent. Here we have some more adjectives. Marginal, significant, considerable, substantial dramatic, drastic aunt. Remarkable. So before you take your isles exam, make sure that you know how to use the short adjectives on how to use the long adjectives to compare two items on to compare three or more items. Now, sometimes you may see irregular adjectives. So here are some examples off the irregular adjectives. So the adjective good is irregular because to compare two items, you cannot just add e r at the end. Or if you're comparing three items, you cannot just add E S t at the end. So, for example, if we're comparing two items, we don't say gooder, that's wrong. If we're comparing three or more items, we don't say good est. That's also wrong. We say better and best. So here's an example sentence. You may say something like the growth off Apple sales was better than mango sales, but banana sales performed the best. Next we have the adjective bad. So if we're comparing two items, we say worse. If you're comparing three or more items, we say worst All right. So similarly, we have all these irregular adjectives here to compare two items. You use this form off the irregular adjective on to compare three or more items. You use this form so we have the adjectives much, many or some. So for all these adjectives, we use the same form when comparing two items on. We use this same form when comparing three or more items. Then we have the adjective Little we're not talking about size here. We're talking about little in terms off amount. Then we have late in this case we're talking about time and here we have late again. This time we're talking about order. All right Now you may remember from our discussion on the bound descriptors that to get a good score on the lexical resource category, you have to use a wide range off vocabulary. So to show this wide range, you can use water called negative comparatives. So instead of only using positive comparisons, you can also use negative comparisons to show off your range. So here are some examples. So on the left hand side, we have a positive comparison on. On the right side, we have a negative comparison, So to make this comparison, there are two ways. So here we have an example sentence. The United States has a larger size than Australia. That is a positive comparison. On the other hand, you can make the same comparison by saying the size of Australia is not as large as United States. So note that here the meaning is the same. In both comparisons, however, you can show off your range by using some positive comparisons on some negative comparisons . Here's another example. Mobil's are more popular than fixed line calls. To turn this into a negative comparison. You can say fixed line calls are not as popular as Mobil's. Here's our last example. The demand for bananas crew faster than Apple's. For a negative comparison, you can say the demand for Apple's did not grow as fast as for bananas. So in your task, one essay. If you want to show off your range of vocabulary, you can throw in some positive comparisons as well as negative comparisons. All right, now, let's talk about the degree off difference in the same way that we use words like much, slightly on significantly to describe the degree of difference with positive comparatives. We can do the same with negative comparatives. So let's look at some examples here. We have a line graph for our example. So let's say that you're describing a degree off difference, which is very small. In this case, you can use an expression such as not quite as dash as so. Here's our example. Sentence. The growth off hydropower is not quite as much as nuclear energy. Here's another example where we have a big degree of difference. If we have a big degree off difference, we may say not nearly as dash as so. Here's our example. Sentence. Coal is not nearly as popular as patrol on Doyle, so you'll notice that the difference between patrol and oil on coal is quite big, whereas the difference between nuclear and hydropower is quite small. Here's our final example. If you have a degree off difference, that is very big. For example, here we're comparing hydropower to patrol, So here's patrol on here's hydropower. In such a case, we can use the expression nowhere near as dash as so. Here's our example Sentence. Hydropower is nowhere near as popular as patrol, so you can describe these degree off differences using positive comparisons with words such as much, slightly or significantly, or you can describe this difference using negative comparisons. So that concludes this video. I'll see you in the next video, in which we're going to talk about the vocabulary words that you need for describing process diagrams. 21. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Process Diagrams: in this video, I'll show you what vocabulary words you have to use when you're describing a process. So if you'll remember, this is what our process diagrams look like. On the one hand, you have processed diagrams where the stages and the steps may not be clearly numbered, whereas in other process diagrams, the steps and stages will be clearly laid out. So you may get any off these process diagrams on your task. One essay. So first, let's look at how to describe the composition off the process. So in this example, we have a process that shows the lifecycle off a salmon fish. So when you're describing this process in your essay, generally in the introduction, you have to summarize what the process is about. So in this case, you may say something like the diagram shows how salmon develop from eggs to adults. So this is one way to describe what the diagram is about. But you can also use center names for the word how, for example, instead of saying how you can use the phrase the process by which so you could say the diagram shows the process by which salmon developed from eggs to adults. All right, so you can say how or you can use the synonym for how, which is the process by which now, if the number off steps or stages is clear in the diagram, then you have to describe the composition off the number off steps or stages in your essay . So you may write something like This process is composed off three steps. Now notice that all the words that are in the blue color have synonyms, so this is one way to describe the composition off the process. But instead of the word process, you can also say cycle so you can say this cycle is composed of three steps. Now, instead of saying is composed off, you can say is made up off, is formed off or is comprised off so you can say this process is made up off three steps. Instead of saying steps, you can also say stages or phases so you can say this process is composed of three stages now, one were describing stages. There's a beginning middle on end to any process, so let's look at some words and phrases that we can use to describe the different stages in the process. So if you're describing the beginning of a process or the starter for process, then you can use these words and phrases here initially to begin with and so on. If you're describing the middle stage off a process, you can use any off these words or phrases here. If you want to describe that something is happening at the same time in a process. For example, if two things are happening at the same time in a process, then you can use the words and phrases here next. If you're describing the end awful process than you can use the words and phrases listed here on Finally, if you want to say that the process repeats itself, then you can use these phrases here. So that concludes this video on the vocabulary for process diagrams. In the next video, I'm going to show you what vocabulary words to use for describing maps 22. Lexical Resource: Vocabulary for Maps: Welcome back in this video, I'll be teaching you about the vocabulary words that you need when you're describing maps. So this is what a map question looks like. Essentially, you have two maps. One is the before version off the map, and the other is the after version off the map. Okay, so sometimes you may have dates on the maps. Other times, there may be no dates on the maps. Now, since we're talking about vocabulary in this video, I want you to first of all, pay attention to the vocabulary words that are already available to you. So if you look at the map here, you'll see that you already have many vocabulary words to work with. For example, here we see the word beach. Here we have C here we have a restaurant accommodation Pierre Farmland Forest Park on so one. So be sure to use these vocabulary words when you're describing the changes in the maps. Now we'll be taking a look at the vocabulary words for describing the different types of changes that you see on a map. So there are several different types of changes that are possible. Let's start off with addition Sometimes you'll notice that new items have been introduced into the map. These new items can include some kind of construction or building or hospital, railway lines or river, and so one. So in such a case, where you have new changes that are being added toe a map, you can use any of thes words here, so you'll notice that here we have the verb form off the word on here we have the noun form off the word. Okay, so we have worked on in the parentheses. We have the noun. So let me give you an example of how to use these words. Let's say that a new change was added toe a map. In this case, you can say something like many changes were introduced in the city in 2005. Next, you may notice that sometimes certain items have been removed from the map, they've been taken away. In this case, you can use these words here. Okay, so again, we have toe barb here on the now in the parentheses. So if you want to say that something has been removed from a map, then you may say something like after the removal off trees. Ah, parking lot was created, so you can also use the noun form to describe the change or the verb form. Sometimes certain items are made bigger in a map, so in this case you can say that the item was expanded, extended, enlarged and so one. For example, you may say the size of the housing area was expanded by 2005. On the other hand, sometimes things are made smaller in a map. In this case, you can use words such as reduce or reduction shrink or shrinking on so one. So you may say the size of the housing area was significantly reduced by 2005. Now we already know that when you have two maps, there's going to be some kind of a change. But there are many different types of changes. I'm to describe these types of changes. You can use the words here, such as transform or transformation, rebuild or rebuilding on so on. So you may say something like the city underwent a major transformation by the year 2005. Lastly, here are the specific types of changes that you, missy in your map. These types of changes include our urbanisation, pedestrian ization modernization on so one. I also want you to note that you can use these words listed here as adjectives. For example, you can use the words residential or been modern, industrial and rural to describe the map. I also want you to note that when you're describing your map, you may combine any off these words together when constructing your sentence. So here's an example where we combine the different words from this table. You may say, after the demolition off trees the city was urbanized into a modern landscape. So be sure to know how to use all of the's different words to describe the different types of changes that you see on a map. Next, let's talk about directions. Here we have an image off a compass. A compass is what we use for directions. So when you have a map, you'll have to describe the directions off the different things that are on the map. So if the things are on the top, we say north. If the things are on the bottom, we say south. If the things on the map are on the right hand side, we say East on if there on the left hand side, we say west on recall the middle off the map, the center. Now there are additional directions that fall between these points, so let's take a look at those. If you're describing something that is on the top right corner off the map, then you have to use the direction Northeast. If you're describing something that's on the lower right hand side off the map, then you have to say Southeast. If you're describing something that is on the lower left hand side of the map, you have to say Southwest on. If you're describing something that's on the top left hand corner, then you have to say northwest. So Northeast falls between north and east Southeast falls between South and east and so on . So let's look at an example where we use the different directions to describe where the different things are on a map. As a side note often times on the map. Question. You'll see this symbol here. This symbol describes the directions that are on the map, so N stands for North W for West. As for South E for East, and then an E stands for northeast and W for Northwest and so one. So let's start with our examples here we have a hospital on. We want to describe the location off this hospital. So you may say a new hospital has been built in the northwest off the town. OK, so this here is the northwest, Remember, Northwest is the top left hand corner off the map. Here we have a park. So you may say, Ah, park has been established just east off the new hospital. Okay, so here we used the phrase just east off. Now notice that East is actually the right hand side of the map. However, we're not saying that the park has been established to the east off the map. Instead were saying that the park has been established to the east off the hospital. So the east of the hospital means to the right side off the hospital. Here's another example. A restaurant has been constructed to the east off the new hospital. Now notice that again were using east to mean the right hand side and in this case, were using the hospital as our reference point. So we're not saying that the restaurant has been constructed to the east of the map. We're saying it has been constructed to the east off the new hospital. Now you may be wondering what exactly is the difference between just East, off and to the east off? Well, there is a difference when you say just east off, it means right next to okay. It means it's very close, very close. But when you say to the East off, it means that it may not be very close. Okay, so that's the difference between just East, off and to the east. Off one is closer than the other. Here's another example to the southeast, off the town. Ah, hotel has been developed. Now, this time we are talking about the southeast, off the map or the southeast off the town. So if you'll remember, Southeast means the lower right hand side of the map. Finally, we have a new street has been laid stretching from east to the Southwest. So here we have a new street that has been laid, and we're describing the two endpoints off the street. So we're saying that the street starts in the east side of the map on it ends in the southwest off the map. So Southwest, if you'll remember again, is the lower left hand side of the map. So that's how we use north, south, east, west, northwest, northeast, southeast and southwest. To describe the different directions on a map, notice that you don't have to just use the map as the reference point to describe the directions. You can also use other things that are already on the map as your reference points. So instead of saying that a park has been established in the north of the map, you can also say, or park has been established just east off the new hospital. Now let's look at some other examples for describing maps. So here's an example off something that you may see on your task. One essay. Here we have a map off a university, so let's look at the different ways in which you can describe this map. If you're describing the chemistry block on the parking area, you may say the parking area is across the chemistry block. Okay, Ah, cross means in front off, so the parking area is in front off the chemistry block. Now, instead of saying across, you can also use other synonyms you can say across from or in front of, so you can say the parking area is in front off the chemistry block. Let's see another example Now. You can also turn this sentence around and say the chemistry block is behind the parking area, so you can either use the chemistry block as the reference point. Or you can use the parking area as the reference point to describe your map. Notice that instead of saying behind, we can use other synonyms, such as to the back off, so you can say the chemistry block is to the back off the parking area. Here's another example. If we want to describe the road that runs in the middle off the map, we can say the main road runs through the center of the mop. In this case, were using the map as the reference point. But note that you can also use other things that are on the map as the reference point to describe the location off the road instead of saying runs through, you can use other synonyms, such as go through passes through crosses or runs along so you can say the main road goes through the center off the map. Instead of saying center, you can use other synonyms like middle, so you can say the main road runs through the middle off the map. Now let's describe the library and the physics block. We can say the physics block is next to the library in this case, or using library as a reference point to describe the location off the physics block instead of saying next to you can also say adjacent to beside opposite to near or close. So you may say the physics block is adjacent to the library. Here's another example. The biology block is between the library on parking area. So in this case, were using the library on the parking area as a reference point to describe the location off the biology block. Now, instead of saying between, you can use other synonyms, such as in the middle off, so you can say the biology block is in the middle off the library on parking area. Here's another example. The admin building is located in the Southeast area. Now, instead of saying located, you can use other words such as is situated, lies or simply is So you may say the admin building is situated in the Southeast area. Instead of saying area, you can say region sector, section or part. So you may say the admin building is located in the Southeast region. Here are some more vocabulary words Let's say that you have a map like this in this case, were trying to describe the location off the lecture theatre on the science laboratories. So you may say the lecture theatre overlaps the science laboratories overlap just means that one thing is partially covering another thing. So in this case, the Lecture Theatre is partially covering the same area as the science laboratories. So in this case, we use the word overlap. Here's another example. The library connects to the shuttle bus terminal. So here we have the library on here we have the shuttle bus terminal. Notice that here we have a little pathway that connects the library on the shuttle bus terminal. So to describe this connection, Or we can say the library connects to the shuttle bus terminal. Now, instead of saying connects to you can also use other synonyms such as joins or leads to. So you may say the library joins the shuttle bus terminal. Now here we have two footpaths on. We're trying to describe these two foot paths that are running through the middle off the map. So, you may say to footpaths are adjacent to the shuttle bus terminal or on parallel to each other. So here we have two footpaths on their adjacent to the shuttle bus terminal, meaning that there, next to the shuttle bus terminal on worse ing that they run parallel to each other, meaning that they run alongside each other. So instead of saying run parallel to, we can also use other synonyms we can say are parallel to or run along or run alongside. So, you may say to footpaths adjacent to the shuttle bus terminal run alongside each other. Here's our last example. We're trying to describe this little region off the map here. So to describe this, you may say, Aw, footpath intersects the main road leading from the terminal. Okay, so intersect means that when one thing crosses over or goes through something else In this case we have the footpath, which is going through the road. So in this case, you can use the word intersect instead of saying intersect, you can also say cuts through. So you may say, Ah, footpath cuts through the main road leading from the terminal. So I hope that by now you know how to describe the different directions on the locations off the different things on the map. This was our final video for the ingredients section, and we're now going to be moving on to the next part off this course, which is the recipe in the recipe part of this course. I'll show you exactly how to construct your task. One essay. So I hope you're enjoying this course so far, and I'll see you in the next video in which will start to discuss the recipe for writing a great essay. 23. Introduction to Part 2 - The Recipe: welcome to Part two off this course in this part of the course, we're going to start discussing the recipe for writing a great essay. So in this video, I just want to give you a brief introduction to this section. So this is what the basic strategy for constructing the F it looks like the first thing that you're going to do is you have to write the introduction. Now, when you write in the introduction, you have to paraphrase the description off the question in your own words. This means that in the question that you get for your task one essay, you're going to have a brief description off what the infographic is about. So what you have to do is in the introduction off your essay, you have to rephrase this description on you have to paraphrase it in your own words once or done with the introduction. Next, you have to write the overview off the essay. Now in the overview, What you have to do is you have to summarize the starting and the ending data points as well as the highest and the lowest data points on an infographic. So let's say that we have a line graph in such a case. What you would do is you would choose the starting data point and the ending data points. Okay, so this is where the graph starts on. This is where it ends. The next thing that you need to do is you need to choose the lowest data point and the highest data point. So that's what you have to do in the overview. Once we're done with that, you have to Then move on to paragraph number three in the paragraph. Number three, you have to describe the key numeric details off the graph. Note that in paragraphs number three and number four, we start to discuss the numeric details off the graph, meaning that we start to talk about the numbers on the actual data that is in the graph. But in the overview, we only gave a brief overview off the data points. Okay, we don't start to discuss the numbers just yet. We only discuss the numbers in paragraphs three and four. So in paragraph number three, what you have to do is you have to split the infographic in half. Then you have to discuss the first half off the infographic in paragraph three. In paragraph number four, you have to talk about the second half off the infographic. So again, similar to paragraph number three, you will be talking about the key numeric details in paragraph number four. So that's what we do for paragraphs number three and four, we basically take the infographic on. We split it in half. Then we discussed the first half in paragraph three and the second half in paragraph four. Now, once we're done with all off this, you may have some time remaining at the end. If you find that you do have some left over time, then I suggest that you go back to your essay on Spend that remaining time to check your work. So that's the basic strategy for writing the task. One essay in the falling videos. We're going to be going over each of these steps in much more detail and will be going through ah, lot off different practice questions to make sure that you understand exactly how to write each component off the essay. So I'll see you in the next video in which we're going to talk about how to write introductions 24. The Basics of Writing Introductions: in this video, I'll be giving you some basic information for writing the introduction. So the first thing that you need to know about writing the introduction is that you have to paraphrase the question, language in your own words. Next, make sure that you never copy the question language exactly as it appears on the question. Be sure to always rephrase it and put it into your own words. Otherwise you'll lose points for it the best way. To paraphrase the question, language is toe other use synonyms or change of the word. Order off the question language. You can also combine using the synonym language on changing up the word order. To paraphrase the question language, make sure that you keep your paraphrasing short and to the point, because when you're writing your introduction, you only have 2 to 3 minutes to write this introduction on. You only have to write 1 to 2 sentences in the introduction. Now I want to give you some ideas for starting the introduction paragraphs. So when you're opening up your essay and writing that very first sentence, you have to write the first sentence to the introduction for starting this introduction you can use any off the words that are listed in this table. So when you're describing what the infographic is about, you can combine the words that are listed in the different columns in any number of ways to construct your own sentence. So here's an example to show you how you can mix and match the different words in the different columns to construct an opening sentence. So let's say that we choose these highlighted words from each of the different columns to construct our sentence. In this case are sentence would read. The supplied illustration outlines the process by which, and then you can go on describing the process that you're talking about. So this table here is just to give you some ideas for starting the introduction paragraph. I'll be showing you more examples off how to start the introduction paragraphs in the falling videos when I take you through riel practice exam questions. Now let's talk a little bit about paraphrasing, since paraphrasing is very important for the introduction. As we have stated before, there are two main ways. To paraphrase, you can either use synonym language or you can change the world order so first, let's look at how to use synonyms. Basically, using synonyms means that you use a different word to express the same meaning. For example, if we have the word shows than instead of saying shows, we can use other words such as demonstrates or presents to mean the same thing. On the other hand, you can also change of the ward order. So instead of saying Australian people, you can say people off Australia. So in this case, we've changed up the word order without changing the meaning. So when you're paraphrasing the question language in your own words, you can use synonyms to rephrase the question language, or you can change up the word order. It may also be wise for you to combine both of these methods so that you have, ah, better paraphrasing off the question language. So that was some basic information on writing introductions. We're now going to delve much deeper into how to write introductions and will now see in detail how to ride the introductions for trend crafts, comparative crafts, process diagrams and maps. So in the next video, I want to show you how to ride the introductions for trend graphs 25. How to Write Introductions for Trend Graphs: Welcome back in this video, I'll be teaching you how to ride the introductions for trend crafts. So for our first practice question, we're taking a look at a line graph. This is what a writing task one question will look like on air exam. You're going to be given an infographic on here. You're going to have a brief description about that Infographic. And here you will receive the instructions for what to do in your task. One essay. Now, the highlighted part in this question is a description off what the infographic is about. What you have to do for the introduction is you have to rephrase this question language in your own words. So let's read this description together. This description reads. The graph below gives information from a 2008 report about consumption of energy in the U. S. A. Since 1980 with projections until 2030. So this description here is describing this infographic so you can see that here we have a graph on this is a 2008 report on its providing information about energy consumption from the years 1980 up until 2030. So some off it includes past data. Some includes the present data on some off the data includes future projections. So let's take a look at how, to paraphrase this question language into your own words for the introduction. So once again, here's the same question. Language, which we've just read. To paraphrase this question language, the first thing that you can do is to think about synonyms. Think about what are some different words to communicate the same meaning. So let me show you how to do this instead of the word gives we can use the word shows. Shows is a synonym for gives. Instead of saying information, we can say data instead of saying about we can say on Instead of saying consumption off energy, we can say energy consumption instead of saying USA, we can say U S population instead of saying since we can use the word from instead of saying projections, we can say forecasts on instead of saying until we can say up to. So once we replace all of the original words in the question language with our synonym words, here's what we have. The graph shows data on energy consumption by the U. S. Population from 1980 with forecasts up to 2030. You'll notice that in this sentence we have deleted this part in our rephrasing. We have not included anything about the Infographic being a report from the year 2008. Okay, this is not necessary information, so I've decided to delete this. But if you want, you can also keep this information. It doesn't really matter now. The other thing that you can do to improve your paraphrasing is that you can change up the word order. So, for example, we can use the words energy consumption. After the words U S population, we can move it right here. We can also move this part from 1980 with forecasts up to 2030. We can move this part here after the word data. If we were to change up the word order, this is what our paraphrased sentence would look like. The graph shows data from 1980 with forecasts up to 2030 on the US populations, energy consumption. So this is what we mean by paraphrasing. You have to take the original description off the infographic from the question, and you have to put it into your own words never used the exact language that is in the question in your introduction. Otherwise you'll lose points for that. You always have to rephrase it on. Put it into your own words. I want you to note that in this example, I've really broken down each of the synonyms to clearly show you how this process works. This doesn't mean that when you're taking your exam, you have to sit down and break up each of the different parts of the question language. In this way, this is just to show you what's going on in my mind when I'm paraphrasing the question language. So this is what is going on in my mind when I'm paraphrasing the question language. I'm thinking about which Senate in words I can use, and I'm thinking about how I can change up the word order off the question language. Okay, so that's what you should be thinking about. You should be thinking about what different synonyms you can use on how you can change up the word order. Now let's look at another example here we have another trend graph this time we have a bar graph in this bar graph. Here's our question, language and the question language reads. The chart below shows the total number off minutes in billions off telephone calls in the UK divided into three categories from 1995 to 2002. So here's the infographic on is showing US data on the telephone calls in the UK from the years 1995 to 2002 for these three different call types. So let's take a look at how, to paraphrase this question language. So here's the question language on First, we have to think about the different synonyms that we can use. So instead of the word shows we can say demonstrates, instead of saying the total number off minutes in billions, we can just say time spent. Instead of telephone, we can say phone instead Off UK, we can say British residents instead off three categories we can say different types on. Instead of saying from 1995 to 2002 we can say between 1995 on 2002. Now, once we replaced all of the original words and phrases with are synonyms, Here's what the sentence would look like. The chart demonstrates the time spent on phone calls by British residents between 1995 on 2002. Notice that in this sentence we have not mentioned this phrase here. Different types. We have not mentioned that there are different types of phone calls in our sentence. So what we can do is we can insert this part at another place. We can insert this part right here after the word on. Also, we can change of the word order so we can move this part after the word residents. We can move it right here. So after we've done this, this is what our paraphrased sentence would look like. The chart demonstrates the time spent by British residents on different types of phone calls between 1995 on a 2002. So again noticed that our paraphrased sentence looks very different from the original sentence. However, the meaning off our paraphrased sentence on the meaning off the question language are exactly the same. So that's what you have to do. You have to really paraphrase the question language so that it looks very different from the original question language. But you have to do this without changing the meaning. Okay, so the meaning has to stay the same, but you're paraphrasing should look very different from the original question. Language. Once again on your Isles writing test, you don't actually have to break down the question language in so much detail. As I've done here, I'm only doing this to show you what's going on in my mind when I'm rephrasing this question language. Let's look at another trend craft. This time we have tables in this table Question. Here is the description off the infographic. The description reads the tables below. Give information about sales off fair trade labeled coffee on bananas in 1999 on 2004 in five European countries. So here we have the two tables on. We have data on coffee on bananas from five different countries. I want you to note that here we have an asterisk. This is the little star symbol we have this asked the risk on top off the world fair trade . Whenever you haven't asked a risk or this star symbol, you have to look at the meaning of the word down here. Sometimes in the task. One question. There will be additional information about this word or there may be a definition about what this word means. So in this case, be sure to read the definition off this word. Fair trade basically means a category of product for which farmers from developing countries have been paid an officially agreed fair price. So this looks like a special word with a very specific meaning. So when we're paraphrasing, I want you to note that we will not be using center names for this word because it has a very specific meaning, which is especially defined down here so we can use synonyms for other words when paraphrasing. But we cannot use synonyms for this word. So let's take a look at how, to paraphrase this question language. So here's the description. And first we're going to think off the different synonyms now we can use. So instead of saying tables, we can specify it as two tables. Since we have two tables in this question, instead of saying give, we can say contain, I want you to note that the word contain is only a synonym for the word give in this particular scenario in this particular context, so the word contain is not really a synonym for the word gift. Not always, however, in this particular context, the word contain can be used as a synonym for the word gift. So when you're using synonyms, make sure that they fit the context off the sentence. Next. Instead of saying information, you can say data instead of off, we can see four. We can replace free trade labeled with just fair trade, and we can replace countries with nations. So once we've replaced all of the original words with the synonyms, this is what our sentence looks like. The two tables contain data about sales for fair trade, coffee and bananas in 1999 on 2004 in five European nations. To improve our paraphrasing, we can also switch up the word order so we can move the word sales before the word data on . We can move the word nations after the word five. So after using the synonyms and after switching up the ward order, this is what our final paraphrased sentence looks like. The two tables contain sales data for fair trade, coffee and bananas in 1999 on 2004 in five nations off Europe. I hope all of This is making sense so far on that you can see how easy it is to write an introduction. All you have to do is use synonyms, which are different words for conveying the same meaning on. You just have to change up the word order if you can, and that's all you have to do for the introduction we're going to now. Look at our final example this time we have a pie charts question on in this pie charts question. Here is the description. The description reads the charts below. Give information on the ages off the populations off Yemen on Italy in 2000 on projections for 2050. So here we have data from Yemen. Here we have data from Italy. Here we have data from the year 2000 and here we have projections from the year 2050. Now, let's paraphrase this question language. Here's the description. Unforced will go through the synonyms. Instead of saying gift, we can say provide. Instead of information, we can say data instead, off on we can see about Instead of populations, we can say residents instead. Off projections, we can say forecasts and finally, instead off using the phrase in 2000 on projections for 2050. We can just rephrase this entire part as over a 50 year period, because from the year 2000 to 2050 we have a period off 50 years. So after using all of the's synonyms, this is what our sentence looks like. The charts provide data about the ages off the residents off Yemen on Italy over a 50 year period. Now, human notice that we haven't used the word forecasts in our sentence here. So what we can do is we can insert this word right here after the word data. Do you remember what else we can do to improve our paraphrasing? If you guessed changing up the word order, then you are correct. So what we can do is we can move this part here over a 50 year period. We can move this part after the word data on before the word forecast. So once we've done that, this is what our final paraphrased sentence would look like. The charts provide data over a 50 year period, including forecasts about the ages off the residents off Yemen on Italy. So that's what you have to do whenever you're paraphrasing the original question language. Just think about the synonyms and think about how you can change up the word order. In the next video. I'll show you how to ride the introductions for comparative graphs, and I'll take you through different practice questions in the same way that I've done in this video for the trend graphs, so we'll see you there. 26. How to Write Introductions for Comparative Graphs: Welcome back in this video. We're looking at how to write introductions for the comparative craft questions. So if you'll remember, this is what a comparative graph looks like. It's a type of graph or a chart. Where we don't have change is being described over a period of time. We just have a static snapshot off some data. So this is an example of a practice question that you may see on your Isles exam. In this example of comparative craft, we have a bar graph, and here we have a description off what this bar graph is about. So this description reads. The chart below shows the expenditure off two countries on consumer goods in 2010. So here we have the data for different consumer goods for two different countries. Franz on the UK So now let's look at how to paraphrase this description, you'll recall from the previous video that the first thing that we do when we're paraphrasing is we think off the different synonyms that we can use. So in this case, instead, off saying shows we can say illustrates instead of expenditure, we can say amount of money spent instead off two countries. We can specify the two countries. In this case, we have Frantz on the UK Finally, instead of saying goods we can say products, So once we've replaced all of the's words with are synonyms. This is what our sentence looks like. The chart illustrates the amount of money spent in France on the UK on consumer products in 2010. Now I want you to note that instead of saying the word products here, we can specify the products that we're talking about. So in our bar graph example, we actually have five different consumer products, namely cars, computers, books, perfume on cameras. So instead of saying product weaken, list these products, the other thing that you can do is you can change of the word order so you can move this part on consumer products. You can move it right here after the word spent. So once we've done all off that this is what our final paraphrased sentence looks like. The chart illustrates the amount of money spent on five consumer goods, cars, computers, books, perfume on cameras in Frantz on the UK in 2010. Let's move on to the next example this time we have a table question and here's the description off the table, this description reads. The table below gives information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries in 2002. So here's our table on. It's giving us information about these products from five different countries. So let's see how to paraphrase this. Well, first, look at the synonyms instead of gives we can use. The word illustrates. Now I want you to note that the word illustrates is not always a synonym for the word gifts . However, in this particular context we can use the word illustrates as a synonym for the word gifts . Because the word illustrates fits the context off the sentence, we can use this word as a synonym. So when you're thinking off the different center names that you can use, I want you to think off different words that fit the context off the sentence. The word that you used as a synonym has to make sense. Let's move on instead, off information we can say data instead of on who we can say about. Instead off consumer spending, we can say how much consumers spend instead of different we can use the word various instead of items we can say products on services on instead of five different countries. We can specify exactly which countries were talking about in this case. We're talking about Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden on Turkey. So once we use all of the's synonyms, this is what our sentence looks like. The table illustrates data about how much consumers spend on various products on services in Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden on Turkey in 2002. Now it's also possible to change up the word order in the sentence. So let's do that as well. We're going to move this part hair after the word consumers. So once we've done that, this is what our introduction looks like. The table illustrates data about how much consumers in Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Turkey spent on various products and services in 2002. So that's our paraphrased question language, and that's all we need to write for our introduction. Remember, the introduction is only 1 to 2 sentences long. Let's move on to our next example. This time we have a pie. Charts question. The chart below shows how energy is used in an average Australian household. The second chart shows the greenhouse gas emissions, which result from this energy use. So here we have a description about both the pie charts that are in our infographic. So it's telling us that the first pie chart is about the Australian household. Energy use on the second pie chart is about the greenhouse gas emissions that result from this energy use. So let's go ahead and paraphrase this question language. Well, first, look at the synonyms. Instead of saying the first chart and second chart, we can combine them together and simply say, the two charts instead of shows we can say represent. Instead, off energy is used, we can say the use off energy instead of average. We can say typical. Instead, off Australian household, we can say household in Australia. Instead of saying greenhouse gas emissions, we can say emissions off greenhouse gas instead, off result we can say resulting on. Finally, instead of saying use, we can say consumption. So once we use all of the's synonyms, this is what our sentence looks like. The two charts represent the use of energy by a typical household in Australia on emissions off greenhouse gas resulting from this energy consumption. Next, we're going to change up the ward order. So we're going to move this word, resulting here after the word Andi. So once we've done that, this is what our final introduction looks like. The two charts represent the youth of energy by a typical household in Australia on the resulting emissions off greenhouse gas from this energy consumption. So that's all you need to do when you're writing or introduction. You just have to paraphrase the description in the question language, and you can do this in just one sentence. Now let's look at our final example here we have a mixed charts question. So here's the description for this infographic. The pie chart below shows the main reasons why agricultural land becomes less productive. The table shows how these causes affected three regions off the world during the 19 nineties. So the description off the question is telling us that the pie chart is describing the causes off worldwide land degradation. Whereas the table is showing us the causes off land degradation by region. Let's look at how to paraphrase this question, language forced this synonyms instead of shows, will say present instead, off main will say primary instead of reasons will say causes. Agricultural land can be replaced with farmland. Less productive can be stated as degraded shows can be replaced with highlights. How can be rephrased as the manner in which causes can be stated as factors affected can be replaced with influenced regions can be stated as areas on during can be replaced with the word in. So once we've used all of these synonyms, this is what our sentence looks like. The pie chart presents the primary causes why farmland becomes degraded. The table highlights the manner in which these factors influenced three areas off the world in the 19 nineties. Now notice that in this case we have to separate sentences. Now, if you want, you can leave it as two separate sentences for your introduction because it's fine to have an introduction that's one or two sentences long. However, we can improve the quality of her paraphrasing by making some additional changes. So let's go ahead and make those changes. The first thing that we can do is instead off using to supper sentences. We can actually combine these two sentences using a subordinate in conjunction. The other thing that we can do is we can change up the word order. So here we have the word degraded. We can move this word right here in place off the word Why So once we've done that, this is what our final introduction looks like. The pie chart presents the primary causes for the degradation of farmland. While noticed at the word while is are subordinate in conjunction. This subordinating conjunction is connecting these two sentences together while the table highlight the matter in which these factors influenced three areas off the world in the 19 nineties. Now I want you to note one more thing when it comes to changing up the word order. In this case, when we moved the word degraded here in place off the word fly, we also have to change the form off this word. So here we've written for the degradation of farmland. So we've changed this word degraded, which is an objective. We've changed the form of this word from an objective to announce degradation is a noun. Also, we've added some additional words to fit it into this sentence. We've said fourth the degradation of farmland so keep in mind that sometimes when you're changing of the word order, you may also have to change the form of the word from a noun toe, a verb or a verb toe, an adjective and so on. Also sometimes Humanae to add additional words to fit it into the sentence. So I hope that all of this is clear to you. I want to once again point out that when you're sitting in your exam, I don't want you to break down the synonyms for the different words from the question language. In this way, you don't have time for this in your exam. Remember, You only have 2 to 3 minutes to write an introduction off. Only broken up the synonyms in this way to show you what's going on in my mind. What? I'm constructing the introduction. So all of this that I've mentioned here, including the synonyms, including changing up the word order, using conjunctions to join the sentences together. All of this should be happening in your mind when you're constructing your introduction, OK, you don't have to actually write any off this down on paper. This should be happening in your mind. So I hope that that is clear for you. That is going to be the end of this video. In the next video, I'm going to show you how to ride the introductions for process diagrams, so I'll see you there. 27. How to Write Introductions for Process Diagrams: in this video, we'll look at how to ride the introductions for the process diagrams. So here's our practice question, and here's the description. Off the process, the description reads. The diagrams below show the lifecycle off a species off a large fish called the salmon. So here's our diagram on here we can see the lifecycle off a fish called the salmon. Let's see how to paraphrase this. So here's the question. Language On first, we'll look at the synonyms Instead of diagrams, we can say illustrations. Shows can be replaced with highlight life cycle can be changed, too. Cycle off life large can be replaced with sizable and cold can be rephrased as known as so after replacing the original words in the question language with our surnames. This is what we have so far. The illustrations highlight the cycle off life off a sizeable fish known as the salmon. Now, in this sentence, we can insert the phrase the process by which note that this is a youthful phrase that you can use whenever you're describing any type of process. So we're going to insert this phrase right here after the word highlight. Next we can change up the ward order. So we're going to take this part here sizeable fish known as the salmon, and we can move this part right here. So once we've done that, this is what our final introduction looks like. The illustrations highlight the process by which a sizeable fish known as the salmon complete their cycle off life. So for the introduction, that's all you have to do. You just need to write one sentence or maybe two sentences and paraphrase the question language in your own words. Let's look at the next example. This time we have an unnumbered process type crime. Here is the description off this process. On this description reads the diagrams below show the stages on equipment used in the cement making process on how cement is used to produce concrete for building purposes. Let's go ahead and paraphrase this. So here's the question. Language unforced. The synonyms Diagrams can be replaced with two representations, since we have two representations in this question show can be replaced with illustrate stages can be replaced with steps. Tools is a synonym for the word equipment we can replace, used with required cement making process can be replaced with for producing cement. How cement is used to produce can be replaced with converting it into on building purposes can be replaced with construction needs. Now, in this example, we're not going to be changing the word order off the question language. This is because changing the word order is not always required. So in this example, we're just going to use the synonyms and leave it at that. So this is what our final introduction looks like. The two representations illustrate the steps and tools required for producing cement and converting it into concrete for construction needs. So I hope that all of this is making sense to you so far and that you now have a good understanding off how to write introductions in the next video. I'm going to show you how to ride the introductions for the map questions 28. How to Write Introductions for Maps: in this final video on writing introductions will look at how to ride the introductions for map questions. So here's a practice map question, and here's the description. Off the maps, the description reads. The two maps below show an island before and after the construction off some tourist facilities. So here we see a before version off the map on here we see an after version off the map, so let's go ahead and paraphrase this description. First, we'll look at the synonyms we can replace show with Compare we can replace before and after with prior to and following. Construction can be replaced with developments, and finally, tourist facilities can be replaced with tourism purposes. So after using these synonyms, this is what our paraphrasing looks like. The two maps comparing island prior to on following some developments for tourism purposes . Now, to add some more originality to the sentence, we can insert the phrase carried out right here. We're not going to be changing up the word order in this example, since it's not always required. So after using the synonyms on inserting this phrase, this is what our final introduction looks like. The two maps compare an island prior to on following some developments carried out for tourism purposes. So, as you can see, it doesn't matter what type of question you get on your Isles writing task one. Whether you get a trend question a comparative graph question, a process diagram or a map. The process for writing the introduction is exactly the same for all question types, So I hope that by now you know exactly how to write a good introduction. In the next video, we're going to look at how to write the overview paragraph for your task one essay so I'll see you there. 29. The Basics of Writing Overviews: Welcome back to the course. Now that you know how to write a good introduction, we're going to move on to writing the overviews. So in this video, I'm going to show you how to write the second paragraph two. Your task. One essay. So first, let's go over some basic information that you need to know. Firstly, the overview paragraph should not include any specific or numeric details. So what this means is when you see any numeric information on an infographic, such as the number off units or percentages or any other type of data, you should not describe that data in the overview paragraph. This is very important. The numeric details should only be discussed in paragraph number three and number four. So in the overview paragraph, we just have to describe the general information about the trends, differences or stages. The best way for you to describe this general information is to simply describe the highest and the lowest data points at the start off the graph and the end off the graph. Or if you have a comparative graph where you don't have a beginning and an ending, then you just have to describe the highest and the lowest data points in the two infographics that you're comparing. The overview needs to be only two or three sentences long, and you will only have 3 to 5 minutes to finish the overview. Now, As you know, you cannot include numeric details in the overview. However, if you have dates or times listed on your infographic, then it's fine to mention those. So this here is a sample answer to a task. One question. As you already know, you only have to write four paragraphs for the task. One essay. So these here are the four paragraphs. We have the introduction here. We have the overview here and here. We have paragraphs number three on number four. So this highlighted part here. The second paragraph is what we call the overview, and in this overview, you're going to be giving some basic and general information about the infographic. Now here are some useful phrases that you can use for starting overview paragraphs. You can use thes words and phrases to open your paragraph, and you can use thes words and phrases listed in the B column to introduce your general information. So what you can do with this table here is you can simply mix and match the different openings on the introductory language to start your overview paragraph. So, for example, you can mix and match these parts that are highlighted here. So you could say in general it can be clearly observed that, and then you can go ahead and introduce the general information on your infographic so you can mix and match these roast in any way that you want. For example, you could say on the whole it is conspicuous that, and then you can go ahead and introduce her ideas. So these are just some useful phrases that you can use to start the overview paragraphs in the falling videos. You'll see me using these phrases for starting different overviews in the practice questions that we discussed for the trend. Graphs, comparative graphs, process diagrams on the map questions. So also you in the next video in which we're going to delve much deeper into writing the overviews, and we're going to start with writing the overviews for trend crafts 30. How to Write Overviews for Trend Graphs: in this video, I'm going to show you how to ride the overviews for the trend graphs. So here's a practice question, which is a line graph. So you've seen this question before when we wrote our introduction. So now that we've already written the introduction for this question, we're now going to write the overview. If you want to refresh your memory, you can pause the video and read the question prompt right here. Now, the first thing that you need to do whenever you're writing the overview is that you have to look at the starting data points and the ending data points on. You have to look at the highest and the lowest data points at the start off the graph on the highest and the lowest data points at the end off the graph. So our line graph starts at the year 1980 it ends in the year 2030. So these two points are are beginning on our ending data points. Now let's take a look at what are the highest and the lowest data points. So here we can see that for the year 1980 this is our lowest data point this lowest data point belongs to these three energy sources. On the other hand, this is the highest data point for the start of the graph, and this data point belongs to patrol on Doyle. Now, let's take a look at the highest and the lowest data points for the end of the graph. So here we can see that this point right here is the lowest data point for the year 2030. It belongs to hydropower. On the other hand, this data point is the highest data point for the year 2030 on it belongs to patrol on oil . So in our overview, these are all the points that we're going to be talking about and highlighting. I want to remind you that in the overview we do not mention any numeric details. This means that you should never mention the numbers five quadrillion units or 35 quadrillion units. In your overview, these numeric details should only be discussed in paragraph. Number three on number four in the overview were just giving some basic information. So now let's go ahead and write our overview paragraph. We're going to start our overview by talking about the year 1980 we're going to first talk about the highest and the lowest data points for the year 1980. So here's our first sentence. It reads generally in 1980. Patrol on oil were the dominant energy sources, while nuclear, solar, wind on hydropower were the least utilized fuels. So in this sentence were saying that in the year 1980 patrol and oil were the most dominant energy sources, while these three energy sources were the least utilized. So now that we've talked about the highest and the lowest data points for the year 1980 we're now going to be talking about the highest and the lowest data points for the year 2030. So here's our next sentence. Additionally, in 2030 gasoline on oil are forecasted to remain the leading sources of energy, whereas hydropower is predicted to take the bottom most position. So in this sentence were saying that in the year 2030 gasoline and oil are predicted to remain the leading sources of energy. Note that instead of using the word patrol, we've used a synonym for patrol, which is gasoline. So we're saying that patrol and oil are forecasted to remain the leading sources off energy , whereas hydropower is predicted to take the bottom most position by the year 2030. So that's all you have to do for the overview. Our overview is now complete. It only needs to be two or three sentences long. So we've covered all the main features off our graph. We've talked about the highest and the lowest data points at the start off our graph on the highest and the lowest data points at the end of her graph. And that's all you have to do for the overview. Now let's take a look at our next example. This time we have a bar graph. You've seen this example before when we wrote the introduction for this bar graph. If you like, you can pause the video and read the question prompt here. But since we've already discussed it, I'll just move on to the overview so similar to our previous example in which we had the line graph in this bar graph, we're going to do the same thing. We're going to look at the highest and the lowest data points at the start on at the end off our graph, so here we have the starting and the ending data point. This bar graph starts in the year 1995 on it ends in the year 2002. Now we have to look at the highest and the lowest data points. So in the year 1995 we can see that this is our highest data point on it belongs to local fixed line calls, whereas our lowest data point belongs to the mobile calls for the year 2000 to the highest data point is right here. It belongs to the local fixed line calls on our lowest data. Point is here belonging to the mobile calls. So now that we know exactly what to include in our overview, let's go ahead and write the paragraph. We're going to start with the highest and the lowest data points in the year 1995. So here's our first sentence. It reads. In general, it is evident that in 1995 local fixed line calls were the most prominent choice, whereas Mobil's were the least popular. So this sentence is saying that in the year 1995 local fixed line calls were the most popular and mobile calls were the least popular. Now, for our second sentence, we're going to move on to the year 2002. Here's our sentence by the year 2002 although Mobile calls crew in popularity, there remained the least popular choice, while local fixed line calls maintained their top position. So in this sentence were saying that by the year 2002 mobile calls had grown in popularity . As you can see here, however, they still remained the least popular out of all the three call types, and the local fixed line calls remained the most popular. So now that we've talked about the highest and the lowest data points at the start and the end of her graph, our overview is now complete. That's all we have to do. Let's look at our next example. This time we have a Tables question again. You've seen this table's question before when we did the introduction. So this time we're going to just write the overview for this question. So the first thing that we're going to do is we're going to look at the highest and the lowest data points at the start and the end off the table so we can see that the table starts in the year 1999 on it ends in the year 2004. So here are data points. Switzerland has the highest data point in 1999 on Sweden has the lowest data point in 1999 On the other hand, in the year 2000 for the UK has the highest data point on Sweden once again has the lowest data point. So this here is for coffee. Our next table is for bananas. So let's take a look at the highest and the lowest data points for bananas. So here we can see that the highest data point in 1999 belongs to Switzerland on the lowest data point belongs to Belgium. Moving on to 2000 for the highest data point belongs to Switzerland on the lowest belongs to Denmark. So now we know exactly what to talk about in our overview. Basically, you just have to describe all of the's highest and lowest data points that are circled in the red color. Now you can describe this information in any way that you want. Whichever way is comfortable for you works fine. So, for example, if you want to talk about all the data points in the year 1999 1st and talk about all the data points in the year 2004 next you can do that. On the other hand, if you want to first describe the data points for coffee and then describe the data points for bananas next, you can do that as well. You can describe this data in any way that you see fit. It doesn't matter how you describe it. The important thing is that you describe all the data points that we've discussed. So as long as you discussed the highest and the lowest data points, you'll do a good job in the overview paragraph. Now, in my example, I want to describe these data points by starting with the country Switzerland. The reason I want to start with Switzerland, in my example, is because I notice that Switzerland has the highest data point in 1999 and it also has the highest data points for the years 1999 and 2004. So I'm going to start there. So here's my first sentence, it reads. Overall, Switzerland had the highest coffee sales in 1999 and dominated banana sales in both 1999 on 2004. So in this one sentence, I've described three different data points. Now I'm going to move on to my next sentence, and I'm going to talk about the next set of data points. This time I'm going to start off with talking about Sweden because Sweden has the lowest data points for the years 1999 on 2000 for when it comes to coffee. So here's my sentence. Sweden sold the least coffee in both 1999 and 2004. Now I've decided that I'm not going to stop this sentence here. I want to continue this sentence and I want to form a complex sentence. So here's what I'm going to do. I'm going to add the data for these two data points as well in the same sentence, So I can do that by using the subordinate in conjunction, whereas so here's the second part off our sentence, whereas Belgium and Denmark sold the least bananas in 1999 on 2004 respectively. So what I'm saying here in the second part of the sentence is that Belgium sold the least bananas in 1999 on Denmark sold the least bananas in 2004. Notice that whenever we use the word respectively, it means that the information that comes before in the sentence and the information that comes later in the sentence directly corresponds to each other. So if I say Belgium and Denmark sold the least bananas in 1999 and 2000 for this means that the year 1999 is talking about Belgium, whereas the year 2004 is talking about Denmark. So Belgium corresponds to 1999 on Denmark corresponds to 2004. So that's how we use the word, respectively. So for this question, this is all that we're going to write for the overview. You may have noticed that we have not talked about this data point in our overview. Now, if you want, you can include this data point in your overview. You actually should if you can. However, I decided to not include this data point because I did not want my overview to become too long. Remember, you only have 3 to 5 minutes to write the overview paragraph. Also, you don't have to talk about every single key information in your infographic. When you're writing the overview, you only have to discuss the most important data points. Now, all these data points that are circled in the red color are important. So since I've talked about almost all off them, I decided that leaving this data point out is not going to make much of a difference. So I've decided to leave it out for two reasons. The first reason is that I don't want the overview to become too long because you only have 3 to 5 minutes to write the overview. And the second reason is that I've covered almost all of the important features off this table. So that's all we're going to ride for our overview for this question. Now, let's take a look at our final example. This time we have a pie charts question. So the first thing we do, as you may know by now, is we look at the highest and the lowest data points at the start on at the end off our infographic. So in this case, we're going to start off by looking at Yemen. So our data for Yemen starts in 2000 and it ends in the year 2050. So let's look at the highest and the lowest data points. So here we have our no waste data point for 2000 on here we have the highest data point for the year 2050. This is our highest data point on this is the lowest data point. Let's move on to Italy now. So here's our lowest data point. And here is the highest for 2000 on for 2050. This is the lowest on this is the highest. Now, once again, you're free to write this information in any way that you want. If you want to talk about the years 2001st and then talk about the years 2050 next, you can do that. On the other hand, if you want to first talk about the data set from Yemen and then talk about the data set from Italy, you can do that as well. For this example, I'm going to talk about the year 2001st. So first I'm going to talk about the highest data points in the year 2000 and then I'm going to talk about the lowest data points for the year 2000 and then I'm going to move on to the year 2050. So let's begin. Here's our first sentence overall in 2000 0 to 14 year olds on 15 to 59 year old composed the majority off Yemen on Italy, respectively. So what we're saying in this sentence is that in the year 2000 0 to 14 year olds composed, the majority in Yemen on 15 to 59 year olds composed the majority in Italy. So you may remember from our previous discussion, whenever we have the word, respectively, it means that the part that comes before in the sentence and the part that comes after in the sentence directly correspond to each other. So this means that when we're talking, about 0 to 14 year olds were talking about Yemen on when we're talking about 15 to 59 year old, we're talking about Italy, so that's how we use the word, respectively. Now, let's add on some additional information to this sentence. We're now going to be talking about the lowest data points in the year 2000 for both Yemen on Italy. So we're going to extend the same sentence by using a semi colon and using a conjunction. So the second part off our sentence reads, whereas residents over 60 years off age on between 0 to 14 years off age comprised the minority in Yemen, on Italy, respectively. So in this second part of our sentence were saying that residents over 60 years of Fage comprised the minority in Yemen on residents between the ages off 0 to 14 comprised the minority in Italy. So now that we've talked about the year 2000 we're now going to talk about the year 2050. So here are the data points for the year 2050. But you know what? We actually have a bit of a problem. The problem is that we only have 3 to 5 minutes to write the overview. And talking about all of these data points is going to take too long off a time. So what we can do is, instead of talking about each individual key feature on its own, as we've done here for the year 2000 we can simply write the following calculations reveal that both nations will experience significant changes in their demographics by 2050. So by doing this, you highlighted that by the year 2050 significant changes are going to take place in the demographics. And you've done this while saving yourself precious time. I would like to remind you that you don't have to talk about every single key information in the infographic. You just have to talk about the most important key features. And if you think that there are too many key features that are important, well, then just describe some off them. So that's what we've done here. We've talked about all the key features that we could talk about in the given time. So this right here is our complete overview, and that's all that we need to write. So that, my friends, is the end of this video. In the next video, I'm going to show you how to write the overviews for comparative crafts 31. How to Write Overviews for Comparative Graphs: Now that you know how to write the overviews for the trend grafts, we're now going to look at how to write the overviews for comparative graphs. So here's our first practice question. We have a bar graph here. We've already discussed this question prompt when we wrote the introduction for this question so I won't be going over this question prompt again. But if you like, you can post the video now and read the question prompt. So let's move on to writing the overview. So you may recall that the first thing that we do when writing the overview is that we have to look at the highest and the lowest data points. Now we don't have a trend graph here in a trend graph. We look at the highest and the lowest data points at the start of the graph, and we also look at the highest and the lowest data points and the end of the graph. But we don't have a period of time here, since we don't have a trend graph. Instead, we just haven't Infographic, which is comparing two different data sets in this example. The two different data sets are for these two countries, France and the UK. So what you need to do in this case is you just need to look at the highest and the lower state of points for Franz. And then you have to look at the highest and the lowest data points for the UK. So let's go ahead and do that. So, as you can see here we have the highest data point for Franz. And here we have the lowest data point for Franz. Now it's time to look at the highest and the lowest data points for the UK. So here we have the highest data point for the UK, and here we have the lowest. So these are all the different features that we're going to be discussing in our overview. Now, when you're writing your overview, you're free to write about this data in any way that you want. So, for example, if you want to first talk about the highest data points and then talk about the lowest data points, you can do that. On the other hand, if you first want to talk about the highest and the lowest data points from Franz and then talk about the highest and lowest data points from the UK, then you can do that as well. So it doesn't matter how you describe this data. The important thing is that you describe it in an accurate way. So for my example, I'm going to start off by first talking about the highest data points. And then I'm going to talk about the lowest data points next. So let's see what that looks like here. We have the highest data points for both France and the UK, and we see that these highest data points belonged to cars. So here's our first sentence on the whole cars dominated as the leading consumer product in both the UK and France in the given period. So we're saying in the sentence that cars dominated the sales in both countries in France and the UK in the given period, which in this case is the year 2010. For our next sentence, we're going to look at the lowest data points in this case. The lowest data points are for perfume on cameras, so here's the second sentence. Additionally, perfume and cameras occupied the bottom most positions in the UK and Franz, respectively. So what this means is that the UK spend the least amount of money on perfume, whereas Franz spent the least amount of money on cameras. So that completes our overview. That's all we have to write. Our overview only needs to be two or three sentences long. So since we've discussed all of these different data points are, overview is now complete. Now let's move on to our next example. This time we have a tables question. So here's the question prompt for this question. I've already discussed this question prompt when we wrote the introduction, so I won't be going over it. Instead, I'll move on straight to the overview. So if you need to read the prompt, you can pause the video. Now in the overview paragraph, we have to give some basic information about the key data points in our infographic. So usually these key data points are the starting, and the ending data points on the highest and the lowest there are points. Now, you'll notice that in this table over here, we don't have a starting at an ending data point because we don't have a period off time. In this example, however, we do have highest and lowest points. Therefore, we have to describe the highest and the lowest at a point in our overview in this example. Now I want to make a quick note about the highest and the lowest data points. You're completely free to choose the highest and the lowest data points. However you like. In this case, you have two options. Option number one is you can look at the highest and the lowest data points by countries, so you can see what's the highest data point for Ireland on was the lowest data point for Ireland. Similarly, you can look at the highest and the lowest data points for Italy, Spain, Sweden and Turkey. Your second option is to look at the highest and the lowest data points by category. For example, you can look at the heisted a point on the lowest data point for food, drinks and tobacco. Then you can look at the highest data point on the lowest data point for clothing and footwear, and then you can look at the highest and the lowest data points for leisure and education. In this particular example, it's better to talk about the highest and the lowest data points by category, because this way you will have to describe a lesser number off data points. And this is important because you only have 3 to 5 minutes to write the overview paragraph . So let's go ahead and take a look at the highest and the lowest data points for our first category. So here you can see that the highest data point belongs to Turkey on the lowest data point belongs to Sweden. Let's move on to clothing and footwear. In this category, Italy has the highest data point. Aunts Frieden has the lowest. Finally, in the leisure and education category, Turkey has the highest point on Spain has the lowest. So now we have all the data point. Now we're going to talk about in our overview paragraph. So let's go ahead and write our overview paragraph. Now we're going to start off with our first sentence, in which we're going to talk about food drinks, Allen tobacco. So our first sentence reads in brief. Turkey had the highest spending on food, drinks and tobacco, whereas Sweden spent the least on these items. So here we're simply describing the highest and the lowest data points notice that we are not describing any numeric details at this point. In the Overview paragraph, you only have to give basic information. We only talk about the numbers in the third and the fourth paragraph. Now let's move on to our second sentence. In the second sentence, we're going to talk about our second category, which is clothing and footwear. In the clothing on footwear category, Italy took the lead while Sweden occupied the last spot. Now let's look at our final sentence in the final sentence. We're going to talk about the final category. Finally, the Turkish population made the most significant investment in education and leisure, whereas the Spanish invested the least. Okay, it's as simple as that. You simply have to describe the highest and the lowest data points. Let's move on to our next example. This time we have a pie charts question similar to the previous examples. You've already seen this question before when we wrote our introduction. So I'll just move straight to the overview. So the first thing that you need to do is you need to look at the highest and the lowest data points for the first pie chart, and then you need to look at the highest and the lowest data points for the second pie chart. So in this case, in the first pie chart here are our highest and the lowest data points. The highest data point belongs to heating, and the lowest data point belongs to cooling for our second pie chart. This is our lowest data point on this is our highest data point. Now, when you're writing your overview, your Frito arrange this information in any way that you want. For example, first you could talk about the first pie chart and then in the next sentence, you could talk about the second pie chart. On the other hand, if you want to talk about the highest data points first and then talk about the lowest data points in the next sentence, then you can do that as well. So, in my example, I'm first going to describe the highest data points in both the pie charts. And then I'm going to describe the lowest data points in both the pie charts. So here's our first sentence. In general, Australian residents utilize the most energy in heating while emitting the most substantial amount of greenhouse gas fire, water heating. Now let's talk about the lowest data points in our next sentence. So here's our next sentence. On the other hand, cooling expense the least amount of energy on also produces the least greenhouse emissions . So we've written two sentences in this overview, and we've talked about all the important data points that we've circled in the red color. So our overview is now complete. Now let's move on to our final example. Here we have a mix charts question. We've already written the introduction for this question. So let's move on to the overview. The first thing that you need to do is you need to find the highest and the lowest data points in the two infographics. The easiest way to do this in this example, is to find the highest and the lowest data points for the pie chart and then find the highest and the lowest data points for the table. So first, let's look at the pie chart. So in our pie chart, here we have the highest data point. It belongs to overgrazing, and here we have the lowest data point. Now let's move on to the table now. You may be wondering which highest and lowest data points should you talk about. Should you talk about the highest and lowest data points by category, for example, deforestation over cultivation on overgrazing? Or should you look at the highest and the lowest data points by the region, which are North America, Europe and Oceania? Or should you look at the highest and the lowest data point by the total land degraded? So we have three different options here to talk about the highest and the lowest data point . We can describe the highest and the lowest data points by these categories. Here we can describe it by the region's here, or we can describe them by the total amounts listed here. Which one should we choose? Let me give you a little hint. You only have 3 to 5 minutes to write the overview, and you only have to write two or three sentences for the overview. This means that you should choose the option with the least amount of data points in this example. This choice here contains the least amount of data points because in this case we only have two data points. Here is our lowest data point, and here is our highest data point. So in our overview, we're going to be talking about these four data points. The easiest way to describe these data points is to first describe the data points from the pie chart and then describe the data points from the table in the next sentence. So here's our first sentence. It reads in brief overgrazing. Off land is the leading cause off global land deterioration, while on specified reasons, account for the lowest amount off land decay. So we're saying that overgrazing is the leading cause off landed here. Oration on other unspecified causes account for the least amount of land decay. Now it's time to describe these data points from our table. So here's our next sentence. Furthermore, Europe has experienced the most significant amount off total land degradation, whereas North America has suffered the least. So here's our highest data point, and we're saying that Europe has experienced the highest amount of land degradation on North America, has experienced the least amount. So we've written two sentences in our overview, and we've talked about the highest and the lowest data points in the pie chart as well as the table. So our overview is now complete. Now, before I end this video, I want to make one final reminder. Never mentioned these key numeric details in the overview. So numbers such as this 7% 35% 5% or 23%. These numbers should never be mentioned in the overview. In the overview, you're just giving some basic information. We only mention these key numeric details in paragraph number three and number four. So that's all for this video. Good job, everyone, for coming this far into the course In the next video, I'm going to show you how to ride the overviews for process diagrams. So also you there. 32. How to Write Overviews for Process Diagrams: in this video, I'll show you how to ride the overviews for the process. Diagrams. So you have seen this process diagram before, when we wrote our introduction. So let's move straight to the overview. So here we have a numbered process diagram. This means that we have the number off stage is clearly listed out here as the numbers 12 and three. So the first thing that you need to do when you're writing the overview for the process diagram is you need to list the number of steps in the first sentence. So let's see what that looks like. Here is our first sentence. On the whole, it is clear that salmon go through a series off three stages to complete their life cycle. So that's what we have to do in the first sentence. We have to describe the number off stages in the process. So when you have a number of process diagram, this is very easy to do because you can simply count the number of steps in the next sentence. What you have to do is you have to describe the first stage off the process on the last stage off the process So in this case, this here is the first stage of the process and here is the final stage. Now I want you to note that even in the process diagrams, we do not mention any specific details. Okay, so you should not be mentioning any key details similar to how you don't discuss any key numeric details in the trend. Crafts and comparative crafts in the process diagrams. You have to do the same thing. You cannot discuss any specific details. In the overview. We only discussed the specific details in paragraphs three on four. So let's describe this forest and final stage in our second sentence to this overview. So here it is. They initially hatch from eggs as tiny fish on continue to develop into full sized adults over a number of years. So notice that here we're just giving some basic information were saying that in the first stage the salmon hatch from eggs as tiny fish and then the developed over a number of years into full sized adults, which you can see in the final stage here. So that's all you have to talk about in the overview toe. A process diagram. Just talk about the number of steps or stages in the first sentence and then talk about the first and the final stage in the second sentence on your overview is complete. Let's look at our next example. This time we have a process diagram, which is unnumbered, meaning that we don't have the number of steps or stages clearly laid out for us. So what you have to do in this case is you simply have to count the number of steps or stages. So let's go ahead and count the number of steps in these diagrams. So here we can see that in the first stage, limestone and clay go through a crusher. That's the first stage. In the next step, they go through a mixer. Next they passed through our rotating heater. Here we have a rotating heater. And finally, in the last stage, the limestone and clay go through a crime under, and that's when they get converted into cement. So if we were to count the number of steps here we can see here is number one. Here is number two. Here is number three on here is number four. So in our first process diagram, we have a total off four steps. Now let's go ahead and count the number of steps in our second process diagram. So in this process diagram, we can see that there are four different ingredients. Free half cement, water, sand and gravel on all four of these different ingredients go through a concrete mixer and they get blended up. They get mixed up, so here you can see that we actually only have one stage. Only one process is happening here to produce concrete. So in our second process diagram, we only have one stage. So you may recall from our previous discussion that the first thing you need to describe in the overview off a process diagram is the number off steps or stages. The next thing that you have to describe in the overview is you have to describe the starting point off the process and the ending point off a process. So let's take a look at the starting and ending points off cement production. So here we have the starting points. Limestone and clay go through a crusher. That's the first step off the process, and here we have the final step off the process. The final step is that this cement is put into bags again. You should not be describing any specific details or numbers in your overview. Now let's take a look at the starting point and the ending point for concrete production. Here we can see that this is the first step to concrete production and this is the last step. So all you have to do in the overview is you have to describe thes two points, the starting and the ending. I want you to note that were not particularly looking at the steps here. So when we look at the starting and ending points in a process, we're not necessarily looking for the stages. So we're not looking for the first stage and the last age. Instead, we're just seeing what's at the beginning of the process on what's at the end of the process. So here in the beginning, off the process, we have a bunch of ingredients notice that this is not a stage. However, at the end of our process here, we do have a stage, which is the only stage in this process. So in the overview, when we're describing concrete production, we're going to be talking about these two points, the beginning and the ending. So let's go ahead and take a look at the first sentence to our overview. Overall, limestone and clay passed through four stages before they are turned into cement on bag for use. So in our first sentence to our overview, we're describing the first process. Diagram were saying that limestone and clay passed through these four stages before they are backed for use. So what we've done in this overview is, first of all, we have described the number off stages in the first process. Also, we have described the starting point off the process and the ending point off the process. In the next sentence, we're going to describe concrete production. So here's our next sentence. Producing concrete, however, is a simple one step process where in various substances are blended in a concrete mixer. So in this sentence we have given some very basic information. First of all, we've said that there is only one step to this process. Next, we've described that there are a number of ingredients which are mixed into a concrete mixer. So here we've given some very basic information about this process diagram. So now that we've discussed the number of steps and stages in both the process diagrams on , we've also given information about the starting and the ending points off our process. Our overview is now complete. So that concludes this video also you in the next video in which we're going to talk about how to ride the overviews for map questions. 33. How to Write Overviews for Maps: Now let's talk about how to ride the overviews for map questions. This is our final video on writing the overviews. So here's our practice question. You've seen this question before, when we wrote our introduction in this map, we have a before and an after version off the map. So actually writing the overview toe a map question is quite simple, because all you have to do is you have to describe the before version off the map in the first sentence on, you have to describe the after version off the map in the second sentence, so you'll notice that here we essentially have the starting data point on here we have the ending data point. So all you need to do in the overview off a map question is, you just need to summarize some basic differences between the two maps. So let's go ahead and take a look at our first sentence. Overall, it is evident that the vast majority off the island used to be undeveloped in the past. That's all we have to write. We're just giving some very basic information that in the past, the vast majority off the island was undeveloped, empty or unused. Then in the next sentence, we have to describe what happened after. Now, here's our second sentence. However, it underwent significant construction at a later period, resulting in the development off infrastructure on facilities which did not exist before. So again, we're just giving some very basic information. We're saying that at some later period the island underwent major construction, So that's all you have to write in the overview toe. A map question. You just have to summarize the basic differences in the before and the after versions off the maps. So that concludes our section on how to write the overviews for your task. One questions. I hope that you now have a clear understanding off how to write a great overview for trend graphs, comparative graphs, process diagrams and map questions. In the next section of this course, I'm going to show you how to write the specific details to your essay, so we're going to talk about how to write paragraphs number three and four so we'll see you there 34. The Basics of Writing Specific Details: So now you know how to write the introduction and the overview. Two Your task. One essay. The last thing that you need to talk about to finish your essay are the specific details. So in this video, I'm going to give you some basic information on writing the specific details. So when you're writing your specific details, you have to include key information on a numeric details off your infographic. Now, I've mentioned this before that if you have a lot of data in your infographic, then you should not right about every single data point. Because this is a waste of time. You should only be writing about the data points, which are the most important. So when you're writing the specific details, meaning when you're writing paragraphs number three and four, here's what you need to do. First, you have to split your infographic into two halves. Then, once you've split infographic into two halves, you have to talk about the first half in paragraph Number three, and you have to talk about the second half in paragraph number four. So when we do our practice exam questions, I'm going to take you through a lot of different examples to show you exactly how to do this. The last thing that you need to know is that each off your detail paragraphs have to be two or three sentences long, and you should only spend about five minutes on each of thes detail paragraphs. Now here's a sample answer for a task. One question. I've shown you this example before, So in this example, this highlighted part here is what we call the detail paragraphs. So here's our introduction. Here's the overview. And here in paragraphs number three and number four, we have our specific details. Now I want to give you some phrases that you can use for starting your detailed paragraphs . So here's our list. You can use any off these phrases to start your detailed paragraphs, for example, you can say over a 28 year period, or you can say specifically categorically speaking, I'm so one. Here are some more phrases which you can use, so I suggest that you pause the video on take notes on these phrases so that you can use them when you're practicing. Writing the task. One essay. So that's all for this introductory video on how to ride the detail paragraphs in the next video, I'll take you through several practice exam questions to show you how to ride the specific details for trend graphs. 35. How to Write Specific Details for Trend Graphs: in this video, I'll take you through different practice questions to show you how to write the specific details for trend crafts. So let's begin. So here's our first example. You've seen this practice question before, when we wrote the introduction on the overview. So if you need to read this question prompt again, then you can pause the video now and read it in your own time. So first we're going to be writing paragraph number three. So let's go ahead and write the specific details now. So the first thing that you need to do when you're writing the specific details is you need to split this graph into two halves. So the simplest way to split this craft is to split it vertically like this. So when you do this, you can describe the first half off the graph in paragraph three on. You can describe the second half in paragraph four, so let's go ahead and start with paragraph three. So this is how we're going to split our graph in paragraph three. We're going to discuss the years from 1980 2 2008 So let's go ahead and take a look at the first sentence off our paragraph three. So here's our first sentence over a 28 year period starting at 1980 patrol on oil rose and consumption from 35 quadrillion units to about 40 quadrillion units. So in the first sentence were describing that over this 28 year period, patrol and oil rose from 35 quadrillion units. Up to 40 quadrillion units note that in this first sentence were only discussing patrol on oil. Also in paragraphs three and four, you have to discuss the key numeric details. This means that you have to mention numbers such as 35 quadrillion units or 40 quadrillion units and so on. Now let's take a look at the second sentence in this second sentence were talking about coal and natural gas. So the second sentence reads. Coal and natural gas performed similarly as both increased from around 17 quadrillion units on 20 quadrillion units, respectively, to about 23 quarterly in units. So here were saying that the performance off coal and natural gas was similar between the years off 1980 to 2008. Now I want you to notice here that in this case when we're describing the starting point for coal. We don't really know what exactly the starting number is. All we can do is we can estimate this number. So when we estimate this number, it looks like it's around 17 quadrillion units. Okay, so notice that you have to use words such as around or about to maintain accuracy, so you cannot say that call increased from 17 quadrillion units because that's inaccurate. If you want to be accurate, you have to say that it increased from about 17 quadrillion units or around 17 quite trailing in it, because you have to show to the reader that you are estimating this number. The same thing is true. When we're estimating this data point here, we have to say about 23 quadrillion units. However, when we're describing this data point, we don't really have to use the word around or about because we can see that the data point falls exactly at 20 quadrillion units. So keep that in mind. If you want to maintain accuracy, you have to use words such as around about or nearly whenever you are estimating what the data points are. Now let's take a look at the final sentence in our paragraph Number three. This time we're going to be talking about these energy sources down hair. So here's our sentence. During the same period, nuclear energy gradually climbed from nearly three quadrillion units to seven quadrillion units, while solar wind on hydropower fuels remain static at approximately three quadrillion units . So we're saying that during the same 28 year period, nuclear energy gradually climbed, meaning it slowly climbed, whereas wind, solar and hydro power fuels remained static at approximately three quadrillion units. So again noticed that when we estimate the numbers were using the word approximately to maintain accuracy. So that's all you have to do for paragraph number three. You simply have to take her infographic on, split it in half. Then once you've split it in half, you have to talk about the first half in paragraph three. Now, I want you to note that you're completely free to describe this information in any way that you want. In my example, I chose to describe it in this manner. I described patrol and oil in the first sentence. Then I described coal and natural gas in the second sentence, and then I described these remaining energy sources in the final sentence. However, if you want to change the arrangement off the information in your paragraphs, you're completely free to do so. The important thing here is that you describe the first half of the infographic in an accurate way. Also, when you're describing this first half of the infographic, you don't have to talk about every single data point. I want you to note that in my paragraph here, I've only described the starting data points and the ending data points. I'm not really spending any time to describe these data points here because thes data points are not very important. Also, I only have five minutes to write this entire paragraph, so make sure that your only writing about the most important data points usually these data points are the beginning and the ending data points. So this is what we've done for not just patrol and oil, but also for all the other energy sources. We have only described the beginning and the ending data points. So now our paragraph number three is complete. Now it's time to write a paragraph Number four. So for paragraph number four, we're going to look at the second half off our infographic, which is this part here. So in paragraph number four, we're going to be describing data points starting at 2008 on ending in the year 2030. So let's take a look at the first sentence off our paragraph four over the duration off the forecasts ranging from 2008 to 2030. Patrol on oil consumption are expected to elevate up to nearly 48 quadrillion units. So in this sentence were first talking about the performance off patrol and oil. We're saying that patrol and oil increased from this data point. This is the data point which we've already discussed in paragraph three. We're saying that it has increased from this data point up to nearly 48 quadrillion units. Again, we're estimating here about 48 quadrillion units. Now, let's take a look at the second sentence. This time we're going to be describing coal and natural gas. So here's our sentence. Coal and natural gas are estimated to increase up to about 32 quarterly in units on 25 quadrillion units, respectively. So here were saying that coal is expected to increase to about 32 quadrillion units on natural gas is expected to increase to about 25 quadrillion units. Let's take a look at our final sentence here. We're going to be talking about these remaining energy sources. So here's our sentence. Finally, nuclear solar wind on hydropower energy will stay nearly constant throughout the projected period. So for saying that these energy sources are not going to experience a lot of change, they're going to stay pretty much constant. Notice that here we have not described any data points. You don't have to describe every single data point here. We have simply said that these energy sources are going to remain pretty much constant. So now that we've described the second half off, our infographic are paragraph number four is now complete. In fact, our entire essay is now complete so far for this task. One question. We've written the introduction in a previous video. We've also written the overview in a previous video on we've written the third and the fourth paragraphs in this video. So our entire task one essay is now complete. Now let's take a look at our next example. Here we have our bar graph again. You've seen this question before when we wrote our introduction and the overview. So this time we're going to be writing the specific details. So let's get to it. So the first thing we do is we're going to split this craft into two halves, so let's go ahead and do that. Here's the first half, and first we're going to be writing the third paragraph. So here's our first sentence. It reads specifically, from 1995 to 1998 local fixed lines, national and international fixed lines on Mobil's all increased in use. So we're saying that between this period off 1995 to 1998 all of these different call types experienced growth. So here we can see that the local fixed line calls have increased. Here we see that the national and international fixed lines have also increased, and finally, here the mobile calls have also increased, so we've seen growth across all the different call types. Let's look at our second sentence in this second sentence. We're starting to describe the key numeric details, so let's read it. Local fixed line calls steadily rose from around 72 billion minutes to approximately 90 billion minutes, whereas national and international fixed lines climbed from about 38 billion minutes to nearly 48 billion minutes. So here were simply describing the starting and the ending data points for each of these different call types, for example, or saying that local fixed line calls increased from about 72 billion minutes toe about 90 billion minutes, whereas national and international fixed lines climbed from about 38 billion minutes to nearly 48 billion minutes. Now we're going to be describing the numeric details for mobile calls. So here it is. Mobile calls experienced the fastest growth, nearly tripling from a mere three billion minutes toe approximately nine billion minutes. So now that we've described all the key numeric details off the first half off our bar graph, our paragraph three is now complete. I want you to note again that are completely free to describe this information in any way that you want. In my example, I first given some very basic information about the performance off all the different call types. And then in the second sentence, I described the key numeric details for local fixed line calls and national and international fixed line calls. And then in the final sentence, I described the numeric details for mobile calls. However, if you want to change the order in which you present this information, then you're completely free to do so. Now let's move on to paragraph four. Now we're going to look at the second half off the bar graph, So here it is. We're going to be looking at the years 1999 to 2002. So let's read the first sentence toe our fourth paragraph from 1999 to 2002 local fixed lines experienced a reversal on substantially declined back down to about 72 billion minutes. So here were saying that during this period, the local fixed line calls started going back down. Also, we're giving the key numeric detail. We're saying that it went back down to about 72 billion minutes. Let's move on to our second sentence. In contrast, national and international fixed line calls continue to steadily rise to nearly 60 billion minutes during the same period, while mobile calls remarkably searched to about 45 billion minutes. So in the second sentence were describing the information from both East called types were talking about the national and the international fixed line calls aunt were also talking about the mobile calls. So we're saying that national and international fixed line calls continue to steadily rise , whereas the mobile calls remarkably surged to about 45 billion minutes. So notice here that when we're describing our data point, we're not talking about every single data point here. We're only talking about the most important data point. Usually these most important data points are the beginning and the ending data points. So now our paragraph four is complete. And with that, our entire task one essay is now complete for this bar graph question. So we've already written the introduction on the overview. In previous videos on in this video we finished Paragraphs Number three on four. So our essay is now complete, and that's all you have to write. Let's move on to our next example. Here we have a tables question similar to the other examples. You've seen this question before, so let's move on to the specific details. So first, what do we do? Do you remember who re split it into two halfs now? The easiest way to split this Infographic is to simply talk about the first table in paragraph three on Talk about the second table in paragraph four. So in paragraph three, we're going to be talking about coffee. So let's take a look at the first sentence off paragraph three regarding coffee. Switzerland was the most profitable in 1999 yielding three million euros. So in the first sentence we're talking about Switzerland. The reason we're talking about Switzerland is because Switzerland is the highest data point for the year 1999. So we have to discuss this data point because this is key numeric information. Let's look at our next sentence. However, in 2004 although it had doubled, it's sales. It was far outranked by the UK, which soared from just 1.5 million euros in 1999 2 off whopping 20 million euros in 2004. So here were saying that although Switzerland had doubled, it's sales, so notice that we have not said that Switzerland reached six million euros in sales. Instead, we just said that it doubled in sales. That's fine. You don't have to mention the numbers every time you can also simply say that it doubled in sales, so we're saying that Switzerland doubled in sales. However, it was still outrank by the UK, which soared from just 1.5 million euros toe a whopping 20 million euros. Now in our final sentence, we're talking about Denmark, Belgium on Sweden. So we've already talked about the UK and Switzerland in the previous sentences, so these are the only countries that are now remaining, so let's go ahead and talk about them. Conversely, Denmark and Sweden experienced minimal growth on Belgium, experienced a modest increase from a 1,000,000 euros in 1999 to 1.7 million euros in 2004. So here we're not really describing the exact data points for Denmark and Sweden. We're simply generalizing this information by saying that Denmark and Sweden experienced minimal growth. So again you don't have to talk about every single data point. You only have to talk about the most important data points. So in this case we've decided to talk about the UK because it experienced a significant growth. We've also decided to talk about Switzerland since it is the highest data point for 1999 on we've decided to talk about Belgium because it did experience a modest growth from a 1,000,000 euros to 1.7 million euros. Now again, you're completely Frito. Arrange this information in any way that you want. I've decided to talk about these data points. However, if you decided to arrange this information differently or mention the data points for Denmark on Sweden, that would also be fine. The important thing is that you discuss all the important numeric details in the first half off the infographic. So since we've done all off that are, Paragraph three is now complete. Now let's move on to paragraph four. This time we're looking at the second table. Here is the first sentence considering bananas. Switzerland not only earned the highest revenue in 1999. 15 million euros, but it also more than tripled its sales in 2004. So here we're again, starting with Switzerland. Why? Because it's the highest data point for 1999 and we're saying that it increased its revenue from 15 million euros to more than triple that number. Let's look at our next sentence. The UK and Belgium made modest growth from an average off 0.8 million euros in 1999 to around 4.3 million euros in 2004 while Sweden and Denmark both declined by a factor of about a 1,000,000 euros. So we're saying that UK and Belgium both made some modest growth from an average off 0.8 million euros in 1999 to 4.3 million euros in 2004. Notice that here what we've done is we've simply taking the average of thes two numbers on . We've taken the average off these two numbers. So instead of describing these two countries as separate data points, we've combined them together on simply described their averages. This way we can save our time on. We don't have to describe too many data points. It's okay to talk about UK and Belgium as averages here because there's not a very big difference between them. You can see that they only undergo a very modest growth, so it's okay to talk about them in terms off averages. However, you cannot do this with the highest and the lowest data points. Notice that with Sweden and Denmark we've done a similar thing. We're saying that Sweden and Denmark both declined by a factor off about a 1,000,000 euros . So instead of describing these data points individually, we've simply combined these data points together on made a general statement that they both declined by a factor of about a 1,000,000 euros. So now that we've described all the key numeric details in the second half off the infographic, our Paragraph four is now complete. And with that, our task one essay for the table question is also complete. Now let's move on to our next example. Here we have a pie chart question. You have seen this question before as well. So let's move on to writing the specific details. Now you have a choice here. If you want, you can split this infographic horizontally or, if you want, you can split this infographic vertically. For my example, I'm going to split this infographic horizontally. So in paragraph number three, I'm going to talk about Yemen on in paragraph four. I'll talk about Italy, so let's take a look. Our first sentence, considering Yemen, the most notable age group in 2000 were 0 to 14 year olds who formed the majority at 50.1% . So here were first describing the highest data point for the year 2000 and we're saying that 0 to 14 year olds form the majority at 50.1%. Let's look at our next sentence. Ages 15 59 year olds also comprised a significant portion off Yemen's population in 2000 at 46.3% on are projected to constitute the majority at 57.3% by 2050. So now or talking about 15 to 59 year olds on were saying that they also comprised a significant portion off Yemen's population at 46.3%. On that, they're expected to constitute the majority by 2050 at 57.3%. Let's look at our final sentence. Members over 60 years of age formed the smallest group at only 3.6% in 2000 on are estimated to slightly rise to 5.7% in 2050. So here, in our final sentence, we're talking about members over 60 years off age on were saying that in the year 2000 they formed the smallest group at 3.6% and that by 2050 they're expected to only slightly rise up to 5.7%. So notice that in our paragraph number three, the way that we have arranged our information is that in the first sentence we talked about the 0 to 14 year olds in the second sentence. We talked about 15 to 59 year olds on Finally, in the last sentence, we talked about senior citizens over 60 years of age, So this is how I've decided to arrange this information. However, if you want to arrange it in some other way, then you're completely free to do so. Now that we are finished with paragraph three, it's time to move on to paragraph four. So in paragraph four, we're going to look at the data set from Italy. So let's take a look at our first sentence regarding Italy in 2015 to 59 year olds constituted the majority at 61.6% whereas 0 to 14 year olds formed the minority at 14.3%. So here were saying that in the year 2000 15 to 59 year olds constituted the majority at 61.6% whereas these 0 to 14 year olds form the minority at 14.3%. Now let's take a look at our final sentence. It is forecasted that by 2050 15 to 59 year olds will still comprise the majority, though they will decline in size to 46.2% while 0 to 14 year olds will shrink to 11.5%. So here were saying that according to the forecast, by the year 2050 the 15 to 59 year olds will still comprise the vast majority at 46.2%. However, they will have declined in size in comparison to the year 2000. We're also saying that the 0 to 14 year olds are also going to shrink to 11.5% now. I want to remind you that not every single metric needs to be mentioned. Remember, we only have to talk about the most important data points. However, if you do have extra time, then go ahead and discuss the other data points as well. However, if you don't have time, then you have to prioritize which data points are the most important. The general rule that you need to remember is that the highest and the lowest data point at the start off the graph on the highest and the lowest data point at the end of the graph are the most important data points. So as long as you discussed those data points, you don't really have to discuss other data points. However, if you do have the time, then you should go ahead and discuss them. However, if you don't have the time, then don't waste your time describing data points which are not that important. For example, in our graph over here, we did not mention this data point. The reason for this is that this is not the highest or the lowest at a point. Onda. We wanted to stay within the time limit, so we decided to not include it. So now that we've described all the key numeric details in the second half of the infographic, our paragraph four is now complete. And with that our task one essay for the pie charts question is also complete. So I hope that all of this is clear to you on that you now know how to write the specific details for trend graphs In the next video, I'm going to take you through different practice questions to show you how to write the specific details for comparative graphs, so we'll see you there. 36. How to Write Specific Details for Comparative Graphs: So now that you know how to write the specific details for trend crafts, we're now going to look at how to write the specific details for comparative graphs. So in this video, I'll take you through several different practice questions to show you exactly how it's done. So here's our first practice question. We have a comparative bar graph here. You've seen this question before, when we wrote our introduction and the overview in previous videos, so I won't be going over this question prompt here. However, if you need to read this question prompt again, then you can simply pause the video and do so. So let's move on to writing the specific details. So the process off writing the specific details is exactly the same. No matter which type of infographic you get so similar to the trend graphs in the comparative graphs, you also have to split your infographic into two halfs. So let's go ahead and do that. In our third paragraph, we're going to be talking about these data. Points here were only going to be talking about cars on computers, so let's take a look at our first sentence. Categorically, the French population spent £400,000 on cars, while the British exceeded this expense by about £70,000. So here were saying that the French population spent £400,000 on cars, whereas the British population exceeded this amount by about 70,000. So the UK spent about £70,000 mawr on cars than France. Notice that here we've used the word while to form a complex sentence. So whenever you're comparing two different data points, you can use subordinating conjunctions such as while, whereas on DSO on to form complex sentences. Now let's look at our second sentence in our second sentence. We're talking about computers. On the other hand, the French spent a total of about £380,000 on computers, which was £30,000 more than what the British spent so here were simply describing the spending off Franz on computers, which is about £380,000 on, were also stating this specific detail, which is the spending for UK. So we're saying that the UK spent about £30,000 less than what the French spent So in this paragraph, I've decided to talk about cars first and then I've talked about computers in the second sentence. However, the arrangement of the information is completely up to you. If you want to talk about computers first and cars next, that's also fine. Let's move on to our fourth paragraph Now for the fourth paragraph, we're going to be looking at the second half off our infographic. So in the second half we're going to be talking about books, perfume on cameras. So let's take a look at the first sentence off our fourth paragraph. Moving on to other categories. Frantz invested £300,000 in books, whereas the British invested a little over £400,000. So here in our first sentence, we're talking about books. We're saying that France invested £300,000 in books where, as the UK spent just a little bit over 400,000. So notice that since we're estimating the number here, we're using the phrase a little over to maintain accuracy. Now, in our second sentence, we're going to talk about perfume in terms off perfume. Franz expanded £200,000 while Britain was close behind. So here were saying that France spent £200,000 on perfume, whereas the British spent a little bit less, Britain was close behind. Now let's look at our final sentence in which we're going to talk about cameras. Lastly, the UK spent nearly £370,000 on cameras, while Frantz only spent about Ah, £150,000. So again, we're simply describing the data points here. We're saying that the UK spent nearly £370,000 Notice that we are estimating this number. So that's why we're saying nearly to maintain accuracy. So the UK spent nearly £370,000 on cameras, whereas the French only spent about 150,000. So now that we've described all the data points in the second half off our infographic, our fourth paragraph is now complete on with that our entire task. One essay for this comparative bar graph question is also complete. Since we've already written the introduction and the overview in previous videos and we've written the third and the fourth paragraph in this video are task one as say, for this practice question is now complete, so it's time to move on to our next example. Here we have a comparative table. You have seen this question before as well when we wrote the introduction and the overview . So now let's move on to writing the specific details. So again we followed the same process. We have to split this table into two halves. Now you're completely free to split this table in any way that you want. If you want to split this table horizontally like this, then you can do that. Or if you want to split this table who vertically, then you can do that as well. So in my example, I'm going to split this table vertically. So in my third paragraph, I'm going to talk about these two columns and in my fourth paragraph, I'll talk about this column now if you want. It's also fine to discuss just this column in the third paragraph on to talk about these two columns in the fourth paragraph. You can do that as well. Remember, you're completely Frito. Arrange this information in any way that you see fit. The important thing here is to describe the important data points in the two halves off your infographic, so let's go ahead and take a look at our third paragraph Here's our first sentence regarding food, drinks and tobacco. Turkey was the highest spender at 32.14% followed by Ireland, 28.91% on Spain, 18.8%. So in this sentence were describing all the highest data points for this category. We're saying that Turkey was the highest spender at 32.14% followed by Ireland, meaning that Ireland was the second highest spender at 28.91% on Spain was the third highest spender at 18.8%. So here we're simply describing the top three data points for food, drinks and tobacco. Now in our second sentence, we're going to be describing the lowest data points. So we're going to talk about Italy on Sweden. Italy, on Sweden spent 16.36% on 15.77% respectively. So here were simply describing the lowest data points by saying that Italy spent 16.36% on Sweden spent 15.77%. Now in our next sentence, we're going to be describing the performance for this category clothing and footwear. So first we're going to be describing the highest and the lowest data points. So here's our sentence. Considering clothing on footwear, Italy spent more than any other country 9% as opposed to the lowest expenditure, which is visible in Sweden at 5.4%. So here, or simply describing the highest data point on the lowest data point now in our final sentence, we're going to be describing the remaining data points. The other three nations spent an average off about 6.5% each. So here what we've done is we've simply combined the data points for Ireland, Spain on Turkey because we only have about five minutes to write the third paragraph. So for that reason, we're going to keep our final sentence really short by simply combining these countries. So here we've just taken an estimated average noticed that this 6.5% is not an exact average. It's about 6.5%. So with that or third paragraph is now complete. We've talked about every single data point for these two categories. Now it's time to talk about our final category, which is leisure on education. So let's move on to our fourth paragraph and write the first sentence moving on to leisure and education, Turkey invested 4.35% followed by Sweden which invested 3.22%. So in this sentence we're talking about the two highest data point which belonged to Turkey and Sweden. So Turkey spent 4.35% and Turkey was followed by Sweden, which was the second highest spender at 3.22%. Now in our next sentence, we're going to be describing these remaining data points. Italy Ireland, on Spain expended a total off 3.2% 2.21% on 1.98% respectively. So here were saying that Italy spent 3.2%. Ireland spent 2.21% on Spain spent 1.98%. Remember that whenever we use the word respectively, it means that the part that comes before in the sentence is directly related to the part that comes after in the sentence. So the word respectively also shows us the order off the information. So in this sentence here's our order, 3.2% is referring to Italy, 2.21% is referring Toa Ireland on 1.98% is referring to Spain. So if you want to ST ah, list off data points in a particular order than the word respectively can be really useful . So since we've talked about all the data points in our final category, our fourth paragraph is now complete. And with that, our task one essay for the comparative table practice question is also complete. So we've written the introduction on the overview in previous videos, and in this video we finished the third and the fourth paragraph for specific details. Now let's move on to our next example. This time we have a pie Charts question in this question. We're going to be comparing these two pie charts here. So again, you're completely free to split this information in any way that you want. For example, if you want, you can talk about the first pie chart in the third paragraph, and you can talk about this second pie chart in the fourth paragraph. On the other hand, you can also split this information like this. So, for example, in the third paragraph, you can talk about heating, water, heating and other appliances and then in the fourth paragraph, you can talk about the remaining energy sources, so feel free to choose whatever is more convenient for you. In my example, I'm going to be splitting this information by energy sources. So let's go ahead and take a look at On third paragraph upon a closer look. It is evident that heating contributes to about 2/5 off the total energy consumed in Australian homes, while only leading to 15% in greenhouse emissions, making it the least detrimental category. So when this sentence were first talking about heating, we're saying that heating contributes to about 2/5 off the total energy notice that instead of saying 42% were saying to fifth to show off our vocabulary if you want, you can also just right 42%. That's fine, but if you want, you can also describe this number as a fraction, so heating contributes to about 2/5 off. The total energy consumed in Australian homes on heating also releases the least greenhouse gas emissions, which is only 15%. So this makes heating the least detrimental category. Now you may be wondering that there are data points which are lower than 15. So how can we say that heating is the least detrimental category? Well, the reason for this is that if you look at the ratio off the energy use to the gas emissions, you'll find that heating has the best ratio. For example, cooling hair has the lowest data point. The greenhouse gas emissions are only 3%. However, here you can see that for every 2% off energy use, it contributes 3% to gas emissions. So when we look at which energy source is the least detrimental, we have to look at which energy source has the best ratio. Here's another example. Here we see that 4% of the energy is used for lighting. However, for every 4% off energy use, it contributes to 8% off greenhouse gas emissions. So this means that lighting is polluting the environment in exactly double the proportion. So I hope that's clear for you. So, for that reason, were saying that heating is the least detrimental category. So we've talked about heating in our first sentence. Now we're going to talk about water heating followed by heating is water heating, consuming upto 1/3 off the energy on, leading to 32% off the hazardous A mission. So here were saying that following heating, meaning that the next highest data point is for water heating. So instead of saying that water heating uses 30% of the energy, were describing it as a fraction, we're saying up to 1/3 of the energy. So again we're not saying that it's consuming. Exactly 1/3 were saying it's consuming up to 1/3 so, meaning that it can be a little bit less which it is, since 1/3 is 33% and here are data point is 30% now. In this sentence were also saying that water heating contributes to 32% off the hazardous a mission. So the hazardous a mission that we're talking about is the greenhouse gas Now, So far we've talked about heating. We've talked about water heating and now we have to talk about other appliances. So here's our final sentence. Finally, unspecified appliances consume 15% of the energy while admitting almost 1/4 off the total greenhouse gas. So instead of saying other appliances were using a synonym here, we're saying unspecified appliances consume 15% of the energy while at the same time omitting almost 1/4 off the total greenhouse gas, so 1/4 is 25%. So we're saying almost 1/4 so 28% is close to 25%. So we're saying that unspecified appliances contribute to about 1/4 off the greenhouse gas emissions that we can see in this entire pie chart. So now our third paragraph is complete. Let's move on to our fourth paragraph. This time we're going to be talking about cooling lighting on refrigeration. So here's the first sentence. Surprisingly, refrigerator and lighting only use 7% on 4% off the total energy, respectively, but pollute in precisely double the proportion. So here were saying that lighting and refrigeration are the most detrimental categories because refrigeration on lighting only youth seven on 4% off the total energy. However, they pollute the environment in exactly double the amount. So in this sentence we've talked about lighting and refrigeration. So in our next sentence, we're going to talk about cooling, finally cooling expense. The least power in Australian homes are just 2% on also account for the lowest percentage off total greenhouse emissions at 3% but it to pollutes in a higher proportion than the energy it utilizes. So here were saying that cooling uses the least amount of energy in Australian homes, and although cooling accounts for the lowest percentage off the total greenhouse emissions that are listed here, it is still detrimental to the environment because it also pollutes in a higher proportion than the energy it utilizes. So it only utilizes 2% but it pollutes in a higher proportion at 3%. So now that we've described the second half off our infographic, our fourth paragraph is now complete. And with that, our task. One essay for this pie charts question is also complete. Now we're going to move on to our final example for the comparative graph questions. So here we have a mixed charts question. You have seen this question before, as well when we wrote the introduction and the overview. So now let's write the specific details. So first we're going to split this infographic into two halves. The easiest way to split this is to talk about the pie chart in the third paragraph on Talk About the Table in the fourth paragraph So first, let's look at our third paragraph in detail. Overgrazing represented the primary cause of global land deflation at more than 1/3 followed by deforestation on over cultivation, which accounted for 30% and 28% off land damage, respectively. So here we're describing the top three data points. We're saying that overgrazing was the leading cause off land degradation at 35% followed by deforestation at 30% meaning that deforestation was the second highest contributor and the third highest contributor was over cultivation at 28%. Notice that here we've decided to describe this data point as a fraction. We're saying that it contributed to more than 1/3 off land degradation. Now let's talk about this data point here. Unspecified causes were responsible for the remaining proportion off worldwide land deterioration at 7%. So here, instead of saying other, we're using a synonym unspecified causes, and we're saying that these unspecified causes were responsible for the remaining land degradation, or in our case, we've used the word deterioration, which is a synonym that means the same thing. So now that we've talked about every single data point in our pie chart, our third paragraph is now complete, So let's move on to our fourth paragraph. This time we're going to be talking about the table, so let's begin. Conversely, causes off land damage varied significantly between regions. So here for just making a very general statement that the amount off land damage was different depending on the region. Europe was the most affected region, with nearly 1/4 off its land degraded 9.8% from deforestation, 7.7% from over cultivation on 5.5% from overgrazing. So here we've simply described all the data points in the parentheses, So if you want, it's OK to describe the data points in the parenthesis. But make sure that you don't overuse this. It's better to show the Examiner that you know how to describe the data points in many different ways. So now that we've described the data points for Europe, let's move on to our next sentence here. We're going to be talking about the data points for Oceania. Oh, she Anya also underwent substantial land decline primarily due to overgrazing. So here were saying that Oceania also underwent substantial land degradation. However, the main cause off the land degradation experienced by Oceania was due to overgrazing, which contributed to 11.3% off total land degradation. Now we're going to move on to our final region, which is North America. So here's our sentence. Finally, North America had the smallest ratio off land degradation, with a total off only 5% out of which 3.3% was caused by over cultivation on 1.5% by overgrazing. So in this sentence were saying that North America experienced the smallest amount off land degradation with a total off only 5% out of which over cultivation was responsible for 3.3% on overgrazing was responsible for 1.5%. So now that we've talked about all the important data points in our table, our fourth paragraph is now complete. And with that our task. One essay for this mix charts question is also complete. As a general rule, you should try to describe all the data points in your graph or chart. However, if you don't have the time, then you have to prioritize which their points are the most important and just describe those important data points so we're going toe end our video here. I hope that writing the specific details for comparative crafts is now clear to you. In the next video, we'll show you how to write the specific details for process diagrams, so we'll see you there. 37. 39 How to Write Specific Details for Process Diagrams: in this video, we'll talk about how to write the specific details for process diagrams. So here's our first practice question. You've seen this question before, when we wrote the introduction on the overview for this question in previous videos. So if you need to read this question prompt again, then you can pause the video and do so now. So let's go ahead and talk about the specific details. As you already know by now, the first thing that we do is you have to split your infographic into two halves. So in this process we have a total off three steps, as you can see here, stage number one here is number two on hairs number three. So when you're trying to split this infographic into to have you have two options, either you can talk about stage number one on stage number two in paragraph three, and then you can talk about stage number three in the fourth paragraph. On the other hand, you can also talk about stage number one in the third paragraph, and then you can talk about stages number two and three in the fourth paragraph, so you're completely free to divide this information in any way that you want. For my example. In the third paragraph, I'll be describing only the first stage. And then in the fourth paragraph, I'll talk about stages number two on three. So let's go ahead and take a look at our third paragraph. Specifically, salmon lay their eggs among small stones scattered at the base. Off reads that grow in the slow moving upper river. So here all we're doing is that we're simply describing whatever we are seeing here for the first stage. So here we can see that salmon lay their eggs right here. These are small stones that are scattered, meaning that they are spread out at the base off the reeds. So, as we can see, these here are called reads. It looks like there's some kind off underwater plants. So here were saying that salmon lay their eggs among small stones that are scattered at the base off the reeds, and these reeds, which are under water plant, grow in the slow, moving up her river. Now let's look at our second sentence. The eggs seem to require between 5 to 6 months before the fish can hatch. So now we're describing this information here. We're saying that these eggs seem to require about 5 to 6 months before the fish hot meaning before the fish take fourth. So when they come out of their eggs, they take birth and we call this process hatching. Now let's take a look at our final sentence. At the youngest stage, when the salmon is only between 3 to 8 centimeters in length, it is referred to as a fry. So now we're talking about this information down here. We're saying that when the fish is only 3 to 8 centimeters in length, it is called a fry. So now that we've described all the information in the first stage off the salmon life cycle, our third paragraph is now complete. So now let's move on to our fourth paragraph. So this time we're going to be talking about stages number two on three. So let's take a look at the first sentence off our fourth paragraph in the intermediary stage off their life. At about four years off age on 12 to 15 centimeters in length, they come to be known as Smaltz, so the word intermediary means middle. So were first talking about this second stage, which is the middle state, and were saying that in this middle stage off their life, when salmon are about four years off age on 12 to 15 centimeters in length, they come to be known as Smaltz. Let's look at our next sentence in this stage. They swim out to the fast flowing lower river until they reached the age off about five. So we're saying that in this age the fish swim out to the fast flowing lower river until they reach the age off about five. Now, in our final sentence, we're going to be talking about this third stage. So let's take a look at our sentence at this point as fully developed adults salmon ranging from 70 to 76 centimeters in length. They set out for the open sea, and the process is repeated. So we're saying that in this stage the salmon become fully developed adults that range between 70 to 76 centimeters in length, and at this point they set out for the open sea, and then we can see that the process is repeated again. The salmon now once again give birth to eggs, which hatch into tiny fish on this cycle is once again repeated. So now we've described every single stage in the two halves off our infographic. So now our task. One essay for this process question is now complete. Since we've already written the introduction and the overview in previous videos on, we've written the third on the fourth paragraphs in this video, we have finished our task. One essay for this question. Now let's move on to our next practice question. Here we have an unnumbered process diagram. You've seen this question before as well. So let's move on to writing the specific details. So the first thing we do, we're gonna split this infographic. So we'll be talking about the first process, which is cement production in the third paragraph, and then we'll talk about concrete production in the fourth paragraph. So let's take a look at our third paragraph upon a detailed look. It is clear that producing cement first requires limestone and clay to be pulverized into powder with the use off a crusher. So here we're opening our detailed paragraph by using the phrase upon a detailed look. This is a great way to start your third or your fourth paragraph. So we're saying that upon a detailed look, meaning that if we look closely at our infographic, we can see that the first step is that toe produce cement. We have to take our limestone on clay on. We have to pulverize it, meaning that we have to crush it into powder using a crusher. So this is the first step we have to crush the limestone and clay using a crusher. Now let's look at our second sentence. These substances then pass through a heated rotating cylinder, followed by a grinder, which marks the end off the cement production process. So here were saying that after this stage these substances, which are limestone and clay, they passed through this rotating cylinder, which is also heated, as you can see from the label here. And then after passing through this rotating heated cylinder, the substance is passed through a grinder, and this finishes the cement production process. So now we finally have cement from our original substances. Now let's look at our final sentence. This finished product is finally filled into bags for shipment on use, so we're saying that now our product is finished on this finished product is put into bags for shipment on use, so that completes our third paragraph. Now let's move on to our fourth paragraph. Now we're going to be talking about concrete production. So let's take a look at our fourth paragraph in comparison producing concrete ism or straightforward process due to its simplicity on minimal requirement off equipment. So here were saying that in comparison to cement production, concrete production is much more simpler. It's more straightforward. Why? Because it's a simple, one step process in which we need minimal equipment. As you can see, the only equipment that we need for this process is the concrete mixer. Let's move on to our second sentence. This process requires a mixture off four substances in specific proportions. So we're saying that to begin this process, we need these four substances in very specific proportions so we can see that the proportions off these substances are listed here as percentages. So since these percentages are key numeric details, we have to talk about them in our detail paragraph. So let's go ahead and do that. A composition off 50% gravel, 15% cement, 10% water on 25% sand are all placed into a concrete mixer, which blends on transforms thes substances into cement. So we're saying that we take all these substances in these specific proportions and replace them into this concrete mixer, which blends all these substances on, transforms them or changes them into concrete. So now that we've described all the different stages off the two halves off, our infographic are specific. Detailed paragraphs are now complete, and with that or task one essay for this process question is also complete. So that brings us to the end off our video. In the next video, I'm going to show you how to write the specific details for map questions. 38. How to Write Specific Details for Maps: Welcome back. This here is the final video on how to write the specific details. In this video. We'll be talking about how to write the specific details for map questions. So let's get to it. Here's our first practice question. You've seen this question before, when we wrote our introduction and the overview in previous videos. So if you need to read this question prompt, then you can simply pause the video and read it in your own time. So let's move on to writing the specific details. So first, we're going to split our map into two halves so you can simply talk about the before version in the third paragraph on. Then you can talk about the after version in the fourth paragraph. So let's go ahead and take a look at our third paragraph. Specifically before the development off tourist amenities, the island remained facon on unused. So here we're simply describing that before the development off thes tourist facilities, the island was vacant and unused. As you can see, there are no facilities or infrastructure here. Here is our second sentence. There was a small beach at the Western tape off the island with a couple of trees about 50 meters to its right. So here were saying that there was a beach at the western tip off the island. Remember, the west is on your left hand side. So we're saying that this speech was on the western tip off the island with a couple of trees that are about 50 meters to the right. So here were simply using this scale to measure the distance between the beach on these trees. So here we can estimate that the distance is about 50 meters. Make sure that you use the word about to maintain accuracy. Let's look at our final sentence. A few more trees existed in the eastern region of the map, but all other areas remained empty on undeveloped. So we're saying that there were a few more trees in the eastern region. However, all the other areas off the map remained vacant and undeveloped. So now we fully describe the before version off the map, so it's time to move on to writing the fourth paragraph. Now we're going to talk about the after version off the map, so let's take a look at our fourth paragraph. This island later underwent striking developments which create ah stark contrast between the two versions off the given maps. So here were saying that this island underwent striking developments, meaning that it underwent major developments or significant developments on these significant developments create a stark contrast. We use the word stark to express that there are huge differences between the two maps. They look completely different now. Let's move on to our next sentence where no infrastructure existed before the development off tourist facilities has now led to the construction off several trucks on footpads leading to accommodation in the western on central regions off the map. So here were saying that in this region where there was no development before, now we can see a lot of development. This development off tourist facilities has led to the construction off several tracks and footpads. So here you can see that the tracks and footpaths are shown on this map using these dotted lines. So here we have the footpaths on Dhere. We have the tracks. We're also saying that this construction has led to the construction off accommodation in the western on the central regions off the map. Now let's write our final sentence Additionally, a reception area has been built between the two housing sectors which leads to a restaurant in the north. Appear to the South Onda swimming area at the western tip. So here were saying that in addition to all this construction, the accommodation and the tracks and the footpaths, there has also been a reception area which has been built between the two housing sectors. Now we're also saying that this reception area leads to a restaurant in the North Pierre in the south and it also leads to a swimming area on the western tip. So now we've described all the important changes that have taken place in our map. So our paragraph four is now complete. And with that our task one essay for this map question is also complete. So that's all for this video. We're now finished with part two off this course. So now you know all the strategies for constructing each paragraph. Author Task one s a. So now you know how to write the introduction, how to write the overview and how to write the specific details in the third and the fourth paragraphs. Now in Part three, we're going to be taking everything that we've learned in part one of this course when we talked about ingredients on in Part two off this course in which we talked about the recipe on, We're going to put it all together in the cooking part, or the third part of this course. I'm going to do really exam questions in real time with a 20 minute timer so that you can see exactly how to write a great essay in the 20 minutes that you are given in your Isles exam. And then we're going to break down the answers to show you all the different components off a great essay, so I'll see you there. 39. Practice Question 1 in Real Time: So now you know what ingredients you need to construct a great essay. Andi, I've also given you the recipe for correctly structuring your essay. Now, in this third part off our course, we're going to be putting everything together. We're going to combine the ingredients with our recipe, and in this part we're going to start cooking. Basically, you're going to see me right in answer to a riel aisles writing task. One question and I'm going to set a 20 minute timer and write this essay in front of you in real time. Now I just want to make a quick note before we get into writing the task. One essay I said a 20 minute timer, and I recorded this essay first, and then I've added my commentary as a voiceover after having already recorded the essay. Now let's take a look at our practice question number one. So here's our practice question on here. I'm simply spending some time reading the question on making sure that I understand exactly what the question is asking me. So once over at the question and looked at my infographic, I'm now ready to start writing my first paragraph in this introduction paragraph. I'm simply paraphrasing the question language that describes what this line craft is about . So I noticed the synonyms that I'm using on. Also, take note off how I'm changing up the word order to rephrase the question language. I've also given some additional information by including the time period over which our line graph is plotted. - Now , here I'm ready to start writing my second paragraph, which is the overview. And here I'm simply looking at the highest and the lowest data point at the beginning of for graph on at the end of our graph. So here I've decided to start my overview by using the phrase generally speaking, - Now here I'm first describing the lowest at a point here. One of our low estate appoints occurs at the start of the graph. So in the sentence so far, I've not only described the lowest at a point, but also described the starting data point for our line craft. So in our first sentence, we've described the lowest data points. We've said that the lowest did appoint occurs at 6 a.m. On also in the late evening at 4 p.m. In the second sentence or describing the highest at a point. We've said that by eight AM the station reaches its peak volume. And then we've said that by 10 p.m. The total amount drops significantly. So by describing what happens at 10 p.m. we've described are ending data point. Now that we've finished our overview, we're ready to start writing the detailed paragraphs. So in our detail, paragraphs were first going toe split our infographic into two halves, so we're going to split our line graph vertically in the middle. We're going to talk about the first half in the third paragraph, and then we'll talk about the second half in the fourth paragraph, so you'll notice that we're starting to describe the key numeric details now. So here we're describing numbers such as, Ah, 100 passengers, or that the number of passengers surges over the next two hours on so on. So you can only describe these key numeric details in your detail paragraphs, which are your paragraph number three on four. - We're now describing our highest data point, which is when our number of passengers reaches a total of 400 which is by 8 a.m. So we're describing these data points because these are important data points. Remember, we always have to describe the starting data point and the ending data point on. We also have to describe the highest and the lowest data points notice are Yusof vocabulary. We're saying that the volume quickly plummets to show that there's a sharp drop in our graph. So make sure to use vocabulary words such a status to convey the accurate meaning. So here I'm describing the data point for 10 a.m. I've decided to include this data point because this data point is a turning point. This is a data point where our graph goes from going down to going up again. So here I've decided to talk about another turning point. This data point happens at 2 p.m. When our total volume off passengers reaches a total off 300. So at this data point, our graph goes from going up to going down again. So that's why this is a data point which is a turning point, and we've decided to talk about it. But we've decided to end our third paragraph here since that completes the first half off our line graph. Now we're going to talk about the second half in our fourth paragraph. - Now we're simply describing the behavior off our line graph. We're saying that starting at 2 p.m. The number of passengers continues dropping until it reaches another turning point. OK, which also happens to be one off our lowest data points in our line graph. So here we've given the numeric details for this data point. We're saying that it continues dropping until reaching the lowest point off 100 passengers . So now we're describing another turning point, which happens at 6 p.m. At 6 p.m. The number of passengers changes from going up to going down again. So since this is an interesting development in our line craft, we're going to talk about it now . In the same sentence. I'm describing another turning point, which happens at 8 p.m. Now we're going to be talking about our final data point for this line graph. Our line graph ends at 10 p.m. So we're simply going to describe this data point and and our fourth paragraph there notice the use of vocabulary words here. We've used phrases such as passenger volume on steadily rises to show off our vocabulary on to convey the precise meaning. So now we've described all the important data points in the second half off our infographic on our fourth paragraph is now complete on with that our entire task. One essay for this practice question is also complete. So here you'll notice that we still have a minute remaining. So what we're going to do in this remaining time is or going to go back to our essay on, we're going to read our essay and we're going to check for mistakes. We're going to make sure that we haven't made any simple mistakes or errors that can be easily fixed. So here I'm simply going through my essay on checking my work. So I've checked my work and I see that there are no mistakes to be fixed. So I'm now finished with my task One essay. So that brings us to the end of this video. In the next video, I'm going to break down this answer into much more detail. I'm going to break down the different ingredients that have went into writing this essay on also break down the recipe that has gone into writing this essay. So I'll see you in the next video in which we're going to be breaking down all the different components on. We'll take a look at how everything has come together to create a great essay. 40. Breakdown of Practice Question 1: Welcome back. Now that you've seen me do this practice question number one in real time, we're now going to break down my answer to see all the different components that we need for a great answer. So let's go ahead and take a look. So this was the practice question, which we answered in our previous video. So now I'm first going to break down the strategy for writing the answer to this question, and then I'll break down the ingredients so will first begin by talking about how to write the introduction. So here, in the question, prompt in the red color, we have what we call our question language on for the introduction, we have toe paraphrase this question language by using synonyms on by changing up the word order. So in my answer, here's how I rephrased this question language. The given line graph illustrates data on the number of passengers in the underground station in London from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. So I used synonym for the word shows by changing it to illustrates instead of writing passenger numbers, I've changed it to the number of passengers I've specified What type of craft. We have by saying that we have a line graph on Ive also added some additional information by telling the reader the period over which our line graph is plotted. So that's all I've done for my introduction. Now let's move on to the next paragraph, which is the overview. So in our overview, which is our second paragraph, we have to look at the starting gate a point. The ending data point the highest data point on the lowest data point. So that's exactly what I did when I wrote my answer in the previous video. In my answer, I described the highest and the lowest data points. Plus, I described the starting and the ending data points. So this is what my second paragraph looked like. Generally speaking, the underground station has the lowest number of passengers early morning at 6 a.m. On in the late evening at 4 p.m. By 8 a.m. The station reaches its peak volume on by 10 p.m. The total amount drops significantly. After finishing my overview paragraph, I then moved on to writing the specific details. So to write the specific details, I split my infographic into two halfs. So I discussed this first half in the third paragraph on I discussed this second half in the fourth paragraph. So let's take a look at how I described the first half of the information in the third paragraph. To be specific. There are only 100 passengers at 6 a.m. but this number surges over the next two hours on reaches a peak off 400 passengers by 8 a.m. However, this volume quickly plummets over the next two hours on settles at about 180 passengers by 10 a.m. before climbing again toe a total off 300 passengers over the next four hours. So notice that here our first described this data point at 6 a.m. I've said that there are only 100 passengers here. Then I've said that this number quickly surges on. It reaches a peak, meaning the highest point off 400 passengers by 8 a.m. However, this number quickly plummets over the next two hours by 10 a.m. On settles at about 180 passengers and then this number climbs again toe a total off 300 passengers. So in my third paragraph off only described the data points which I thought were the most important. So I've described this data point because this is where our craft starts. Then I've described this data point because this is the highest data point. Then I described this data point because this is a turning point. This is where our graph changes direction from going down to going up again. And then I've described this data point, which is the last data point for the first half off our infographic on. It is also a turning point because at this point, our graph changes direction from going up to going down again. Let's now move on to our fourth paragraph here. We're going to describe the second half before line graph. So let's take a look at what I wrote for my fourth paragraph. Starting at 2 p.m. The number of passengers continues dropping until reaching the lowest point off 100 passengers by four PM But over the next two hours, the number rapidly increases to nearly 370 passengers before plummeting again over the next two hours. Toe a little under 1 50 by 8 p.m. After this point passenger volume steadily rises over the next two hours by around 50 passengers. So here were saying that starting at this point at 2 p.m. The number continues dropping until it reaches the lowest point, which is ah, 100 passengers by four PM But over the next two hours, this number rapidly rises to nearly 300 on 70 passengers. However, after this point, it quickly plummets again over the next two hours to a little under 150 passengers. After this point, this number steadily rises again over the next two hours by around 50 passengers. So notice that similar to the first half off our infographic in the second half, we've also only described the most important data points. So we described this data point, which is the starting data point for the second half off our infographic. This data point is also a turning point where the line graph changes direction from going up to going down again. Then we described this data point, which is the lowest it a point for our line graph here. Then we described this data point Since this is a turning point, this is a point where our line graph changes direction from going up to going down again. And then we described this data point, which is another turning point on. Finally, we described this data point, which is the ending data point for our line graph. So now our fourth paragraph is complete. So when we put together all of our different paragraphs the introduction, the overview Paragraphs number three on number four. This is what our entire task one s a looks like. Here we have a total of four paragraphs where in the first paragraph we've paraphrased the question language in the second paragraph. In the overview, we've given some general information about the starting and the ending data points plus the highest and the lowest data points. Then in the third paragraph, we've talked about the key numeric details noticed that we've started to describe numbers in our third on our fourth paragraph on, we've split this information such that we've talked about the first half of our line graph in the third paragraph on. We've talked about the second half off our line graph in the fourth paragraph. Now, I want you to notice a few more details about this answer first I want you to note that here we've used words such as about a little under around on nearly to avoid over generalization. So this is very important for maintaining accuracy. Whenever you are estimating the numbers, you have to use softer words such as this to maintain accuracy. The second thing I want you to note is the paragraph ing on the spacing. Basically, this just means that in my answer here, off separated the paragraphs by leaving a line between any two given paragraphs. So now we're finished with breaking down the structure off our answer. So now we're going to be breaking down the different ingredients that have went into our answer. So we're going to start off by first talking about cohesive devices. So you may recall that cohesive devices are words and phrases that helped tow Clue are sentences and ideas together. Basically, these words and phrases increase the fluency off our writing. So here you'll notice that we've used many different types off cohesive devices. For example, here we've used the word given to reference back to the line graph that we're referring to here. We've used what's called a discourse marker to start our paragraph, we've said, Generally speaking, here's another discourse marker to be specific here. We've used the word, however, to show contrast on. You'll also notice that here we have some coordinating on subordinating conjunctions which are also acting as cohesive devices to link our ideas together. So I suggest that you pause the video on, take a closer look at these cohesive devices so that you can understand exactly how to use them. Next we have coordinating conjunctions, So all the coordinating conjunctions are highlighted here in the green and the blue color. Now, I want you to note that here in the green color, we have coordinating conjunctions which form compound sentences. So if you'll recall, ah, compound sentence is when we have to independent clauses that are joined together by a coordinating conjunction. Now here we also have coordinating conjunctions in the blue color. However, these court in it in conjunctions do not form compound sentences. However, I want you to note that they're still great to use and you should include them where you can because they do connect long phrases together on. They do help you to form complex structures. So this will definitely help your score as well, just as much as writing a compound sentence would now other than coordinating conjunctions . In our answer, we've also used subordinating conjunctions, So if you'll recall, we usually use subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences. Complex sentences are when we connect an independent clause on a dependent clause using a subordinate in conjunction. Now let's move on to our next ingredient here. We have relative pronounce in this answer. We don't have any relative pronounce. So I want you to note that even though we don't have relative pronouns in this answer, our answer is still a great answer. I want you to note that you don't have to have every single ingredient to have a great answer, even if you have, ah, few off the ingredients that you've used really well. You can still get a band nine on your exam. Let's move on to our next ingredient here. We're talking about the voice off our answer. So if you'll recall we have two different types of voices in the English language. We have what's called the active voice on. We have what's called the passive voice, so the active voice is when the subject does the verb and the passive voice is when the verb does the subject. So in this answer, I've written everything in the active voice. We have not used any passive voice here. Now let's move on to our next ingredient here. We're looking at the different tenses that we have in our answer. In this answer, we only have one tens. We only have the present simple tense. So all the presents, simple tenses are highlighted in the green color. Let's move on to our next category. Here we have call locations. Call locations are groups off words that often appear together. Essentially, these air chunks off words that frequently appear together in the English language. For example, late evening is a group of words that are often used together with each other. Early morning is another pair of words that often appear together. Another call location is over the next four hours. Usually we use the word over when we're describing a period of time. So in this case, were describing a period off four hours. So therefore, over the next four hours is a croup off words that fit together with each other. So for that reason, this is another call location. So I suggest that you pause the video now and go through these qualifications to get a better understanding off them. Now, you may be wondering why we have some call locations that are so long. Actually, I've highlighted this entire part not because we have a really long col occasion. That's not the reason. The real reason is that hear the words are called locating with each other as a chain, you see, So one word colic. It's with another word and this word colic. It's with next word and this word colic. It's with the next word. And therefore we have a long string off words that all Qala Kate with each other. So let me show you what I mean. Let's take a look at this string off words over here. In this case, we have several different call occasions. Our first col occasion is passenger volume. Our second call location is volume arises. Okay, so volume often goes up rises. So this is another call location. Another car location is steadily rises steadily rises. Then we have horizons over. Okay, that's our next call location. Then we have over the next two hours and then we have horizons by. So here we have the word by and here we have the word arises. So here you can see how intricately all the different words are ka locating with each other how all the different words fit together with each other. If you're wondering what's the best way to learn the call occasions? Well, the best way is to actually do a lot off rating so that you can get used to seeing the words that often appear together with each other. Now we're going to move on to our final ingredient. We're going to talk about the vocabulary. You have to use new words if you want to get ah, high vocabulary score. So here I've highlighted all the new words in the blue color, and I've highlighted all the vocabulary words that are used in the question language in this brown color. So all these words that we've used here, such as drops, significantly surges these air new vocabulary words on when you use them in your writing, you're going to get points for that on your vocabulary category. However, when you use words such as number or passengers in this particular case, you're not going to get any points for that, since these words have already been used in the question itself. So to get ah, high vocabulary score, you have to use new words. So I suggest that you pause the video now on. Make sure that you know the meaning for all of the words that are highlighted in this answer. So that concludes this video. I hope that by now you have a better understanding off how all the different components come together to form a great answer. Now, before I end this video, I want to make a very important note. I want you to note that you should never try to force these ingredients into your writing. If you try to force these ingredients into your writing, your writing is going to sound unnatural. And this may also waste your time as you try to think about how to fit the different ingredients into your answer. So don't do that. Don't try to force the ingredients into your answer on. Don't tryto fit the different ingredients into your answer. Whenever you use any off these ingredients, they should come to you. Naturally, I've only shown you this breakdown to give you a better understanding off how all the different components work together in a good answer. But I don't want you to force these ingredients into your answer. So that's my final note. We're going toe end this video here. I'll see you in the next video in which I'm going to take you through a second example off doing another practice question in real time. And then we're going to break down that answer as well in the same way that we've broken down our practice Question number one in this video, so we'll see you there. 41. Practice Question 2 in Real Time: in this video, we'll be doing a second practice question in real time, so let's get to it. So here I'm starting off by first carefully reading my question. Now I'm looking at the infographics. I'm making sure that I have a good understanding off what the question is asking. - So now that I know what the question is asking me for and what the infographics are about, I'm now ready to start writing my introduction paragraph here. I'm simply paraphrasing the question language. I'm using synonyms on changing up the word order to rephrase it in my own words. - Notice the synonyms. For example. Instead of saying abroad, I've said overseas here I'm forming a complex structure by using the conjunction, whereas so that completes our introduction. Have basically paraphrased the question language. I've described what the table is about, and I've also described what the bar graph is about. Now it's time to move on to writing the overview, our second paragraph. And here I'm simply looking at the highest and the lowest data points in the table and the bar graph. Notice that I'm starting my overview by using the phrase in general. This is a great way to start your overview. You can use words such as in general or overall, to start your overview here. I'm describing the highest at a point for the table here. I'm combining the data from the bar graph. Since we're talking about the year 1998 I'm also including additional information from the bar graph in the same sentence here. I'm using the phrase on the contrary to make a comparison. I'm now describing the lowest data point in the table. Now I'm combining this information about the lowest data point, which is in 1995. I'm combining this information with the bar graph. - So now my overview is complete and I'm ready to start writing the detail paragraphs. So, for the detail paragraphs, we have to split our infographic into two halfs. So here I'm going to talk about our table in paragraph three and I'll talk about the bar graph in the fourth paragraph. Notice I've started my third paragraph with the word specifically, you can use this word when you're giving specific information about your infographic here. I'm starting to describe the key numeric details for the table, and I'm starting off by talking about the different categories. So here on starting off by first talking about holidays. - So notice that here I'm simply providing the numeric details for the year 1994 and the ending Data Point, which is 1998. Remember, you only have to talk about the most important data points. So now that we're done talking about holidays, it's time to start talking about the next category, which is business trips on visits to family and friends. - In this sentence, I'm simply combining are two categories, which are business trips on trips to friends and relatives. I'm combining these two categories into a single sentence, un describing the data point for both these categories at the beginning and at the end off our table. So now that we're done without third paragraph, we can now move on to describing the second part off our infographic. In this case, we're going to be describing the bar graph. So we're starting our fourth paragraph by using the phrase regarding destinations. This is another phrase that you can use when starting the detail paragraphs Noticed that here again, we're not describing every single data point in our bar graph were simply describing the starting and the ending data points. Remember that you don't have a lot of time when writing the task. One essay. You only have a total of 20 minutes, so it's important that you prioritize your time and do not make your essay too long. Now we're using the phrase, on the other hand, to make a comparison. Since we've already talked about our first region, which is Western Europe, we're not talking about the remaining regions which are North America and other unspecified regions. So we're going to be combining the information for these remaining regions into a single sentence. Notice that here we're not describing every data point again. In fact, in this case, we've made a general statement that the remaining regions had under 4000 visits each year from 1994 to 1998. Now that I have some remaining time, I'm spending that time to track my essay on to make sure that there aren't any mistakes or errors. - Okay , so I've checked my work and I see that there are no mistakes or errors to be fixed. So here I'm finished with my task. One essay. So that concludes this video in the next video. I'm going to be breaking down this answer in much more detail, and I'm going to show you all the different components that have went into writing this essay, so I'll see you there. 42. Breakdown of Practice Question 2: Welcome back. Now that you have seen me write the answer to practice Question number two, we're now ready to break down my answer on to look at all the different components that make this a great answer. So let's go ahead and break it down. So here's our question Number two. If you need to read this question prompt again, then you can simply pause the video and do so. Now. Here we have a mix charts question. So we have a table over here on. We have a bar graph over here on. What we have to do is we have to compare the data between these two different infographics . You'll notice that here we have to not only compare the data, but we also have to describe the trend that is occurring over a period of time. In this case, are period of time is from the years 1994 to 1998. So let's go ahead and start by writing the introduction. So here we've highlighted our question language in the red color, so the text and the red color describes what are infographics are about. So what we need to do when writing the introduction is we have to paraphrase this question language in our own words. So let's go ahead and do that. We're going to do that by using synonyms on by changing up the word order. So let's take a look at what we have. The given table compares the figures off a cross sectional study that investigated the reasons why AH, 100,000 U K residents traveled overseas from 1994 to 1998 whereas the given bar chart demonstrates the country's they visited during this time. So let's take a look at how we've paraphrased our question language here. First, you'll notice that we've replaced first chart with the given table. We've replaced shows with compares instead of saying results, we've said figures. Instead of saying survey, we've replaced it with cross sectional study. Instead of saying people we have written UK residents we've replaced abroad with overseas on, we've eliminated the word period on simply stated our period, which is from 1994 to 1998 now for our second infographic. Instead of saying second chart, we've said the given bar graph, instead of shows we've written, demonstrates notice Now we could also use the word compares. However, we don't want to be repetitive. We want to use new words to show off our vocabulary. Now, we've replaced destinations with the countries they visited on instead of saying over the same period. We've said during this time. So we've used a lot off different synonyms to rephrase this question language for our introduction. So that's all we need to write for our introduction. Now let's move on to breaking down our second paragraph, which is our overview. Now, for the overview, you may recall that we have to look at the highest and the lowest data points in our infographic. So let's