How to use Synthesizers for Music Production | Mikael Baggström | Skillshare
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15 Lessons (2h 14m)
    • 1. Welcome to my Synthesizer Guide

      1:36
    • 2. The Waveforms

      13:27
    • 3. The Filters

      10:50
    • 4. The Envelopes

      19:24
    • 5. The LFO

      11:15
    • 6. Polyphony

      6:15
    • 7. Unison Mode

      5:04
    • 8. Analog Mode

      4:21
    • 9. Sync Mode

      6:30
    • 10. Saturation

      7:56
    • 11. How to make a Bass Synth Sound

      15:03
    • 12. How to make a Pluck Synth Sound

      10:08
    • 13. How to make a Pad Synth Sound

      10:05
    • 14. How to make a Lead Synth Sound

      11:11
    • 15. Congratulations

      1:14
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About This Class

Welcome to my Guide on Synthesizers for Music Production

Hello Music Composers & Producers! My name is Mike, and I will now teach you how synthesizers work, and how you can make your own sounds for your music productions.

You will get:

  1. A Complete Guide of the Main Synthesizer Features

  2. Live Examples of Sound Design on Synthesizers

  3. And a lot of Practical Tips & Tricks

You will learn how to create:

  • Pluck Synth Sounds

  • Pad Synth Sounds

  • Lead Synth Sounds

  • Bass Synth Sounds

  • Riff Synth Sounds

...and basically any sound you want, by learning how to design and shape sounds from scratch, with a synthesizer.

My name is Mike, music composer and sound designer since 1998. And I truly love to inspire, motivate and educate creative people like you.

Now it is time for you to take action, and dive into the world synthesizers for music production.

Meet Your Teacher

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Mikael Baggström

Music Composer | Sound Designer | Video Producer

Teacher

Hey Friends and Creative People!

My name is Mike, and I am a Music Composer, Sound Designer and Artist. I Share my Story, Journey, Experience and Knowledge, to Inspire and Empower Creative People like you. =)

MY PASSION

I believe that learning should be fun. I love to bring my personality into my teaching style. I also try to make my courses dynamic, to be more interesting to you. =)

You are more than welcome to visit my website to learn more about who I am.

Friendly regards,
Mike from Sweden
Founder of professionalcomposers.com

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome to my Synthesizer Guide: Hello and welcome all music composers and producers. My name is Mike, and I will now teach you how synthesizers work and how you can make your own sounds for your music productions. You will get a complete guide off the main synthesizer features live examples, off sound design, all synthesizers and a lot of practical tips and tricks. You will learn how to create plucks in Sounds Bay's scene sounds, pads in Selves, leads in sounds, riff, sing sounds and basically any sound you won't by learning how to design and shape sounds from scratch with a synthesizer. My name is Mike founder off professional composers dot com. Music composer and sound designers is 1998. I truly loved, inspire, motivate and educate creative people. Now it is time for you to take action on Dive into the World of synthesizers for music production. 2. The Waveforms: Everything starts with a way form, which can be sued based meaning and also later all sample based meaning recorded audio. And there are also many types of synthesizers that use different techniques to create and shape the way forms. But basically the way forms or the main building material for any sound. The fundamental synth way forms here are the most essential way forms in their basic form. Sine wave, simple and soft sound triangle wave, homo and smooth sound square wave fete and a thick sound. So a wave short and rich sound. Those are the fundamental way forms, but of course there are endless variations and mixes between them. In fact, as soon as you start to shape, the way forms beyond the basics. Using any synthesizer features, you will start to change the final way. Form off the sound output on the synth. Some synthesizers even give you instant access to a huge variety of way forms. To start from that goes way beyond these basic shapes add more layers, multiple way forms. Most synthesizers have more than one oscillator or way form generator, which means you can layer two or more way forms to create more complex sounds. You can mix how much off each way form should be present in the mix. And on some things. You can even have independent filters and envelopes per way for June. The way forms fine tuning. If you have more than one way form, you can slightly de tuned them in sense if you want to create a fatter, thicker sound. But don't overdo it, because then the final sound will feel out Off tomb. I usually don't go above plus minus 10 cents per way form. This is very much like individual strings in an orchestra that have tiny variations in the tuning. This helps to create that big, rich sound of a food and som ble boost the low end sub oscillator. Many synthesizers also have an extra sub oscillator that you can activate and mix in the amount you wish. Basically, this is often simply an extra layered way. Form an octave below to add some more depth. If you have many way form layers on this synthesizer, you can simply make one of them an octave lower to create the same kind of effect powers with modulation P W M. If you use a square wave. There is also a feature called Pals with Modulation or P W. M for short, which means that you modulate this symmetry off the square wave. This can produce really aggressive sounds, especially if you automate the past with overtime with, for example, on LFO. Make some noise noise oscillator. Many synthesizers also have a noise generator, sometimes as one of the available way forms you can choose from. It might seem strange to add static noise to your sounds, but in fact it can be very useful. For example, if you use the envelopes to Onley, open up very shortly for the Noise Way form. This will create a percussive type attack in the sound. This is actually true for real instruments as well, like when plucking a string on a guitar or hitting a piano key. There is always some tiny bit of noise in the natural sounds, and noise simply means on pitched sound, just like when you hit a drum. So let's start with a sine wave, which is the simplest and softest off away forms. The closest resemblance is, for example, whistling foods and the classic test tone and cells like this next, let's play the triangle Way form, which is very similar to the sine wave, meaning very simple and basic in the sound. It has kind of a holo and smooth character, and the closest example I can think of these electric pianos and organs on this is the sound of a basic triangle way form. Next we have this square wave, which has a very fat and thick sound. For example, distorted guitars and orchestral breasts has this kind of bold power that comes from basically cutting off the way for me to bring up the level on power. And it can sound something like this. And finally this sore wave, which has a very short and rich sound with lots of harmonic overtones like, for example, orchestral strings and rich pad since let me play you an example of a basic soul wave. Now the examples I just played for you or the four main way forms in synthesizers in their most basic form. And this form is rarely used in music production because, frankly, it sounds way too simple and boring. Basically, the only show anger of music that uses the Basic way form is retro video game music. However, as soon as you started use synthesizer features, you change the way form and introduced variation Teoh, which makes it much more interesting. And also you can get lots of variations, basically unlimited variations off each fundamental way form by mixing and blending in between them like for example, so square has you have hero classic way forms. If you check this out, they all have a different character, but they are all way forms, and you can take this concept further by layering way forms. For example, layer in a triangle with a square and you get a different sound. Ah, which is much more interesting again. Next, I want to show you what pals with modulation sounds like. This is a feature on Lee available when you use square waves because you are essentially changing this symmetry off the square wave, and I will use this synthesizer because you can actually see what happens to the square wave. As you can see, this is a total symmetry version, and you can dial this away to here, which is thin here and thick inner in the later part and anything in between, so it will sound something like this in the beginning position and as soon as I start moving, this is well here that it sounds radically different. And one cool way of using pals with modulation, which can make your sound more aggressive and add movement into it, is to automate the pulse with modulation and, for example, automating it manually or routing, for example, a mode envelope or an LFO to control the movement off this feature. It can sound like this. Asi can hear really cool and aggressive sound. Next, I will show you what is noise generator can do to your sounds in your synthesizer. So first, let's define what noise is. Noise is short for static noise or white noise, which is the perfect representation off static noise all over the frequency spectrum, and it can sound similar to, for example, wind breeze or ocean waves. Basically, it is what you heard in old TV and radio broadcasts when you did not find a signal like this theme. However, why would you want at that crap to your sounds? Basically, because all sounds in the real world, as well as old analog synthesizers even had some kind of noise within the sounds, a detail or so for based synthesizer can sound basically to perfect. So when you, for example, hit a string on a guitar, there is some UNP itched sounds, meaning a noise attack in the sound, and not all a pure, fundamental way for so you can dial it in to a lesser degree, and you can also feel to return most synthesizers. As you can see here it is now in the full frequency spectrum, you might only want to add it in the high end or in the lowland on some synthesizers, like in all Miss Fear. For example, since you can use one of the ports as a noise generator, you can apply an eighties or envelope to it. You only have the noise in the percussive attack part off the sound, which is in fact even more natural. So I recommend using that when it is available. Now, the real fun begins when you start to mix and blend different way forms together and use synthesizer features to shape the individual way forms. For example, on this synthesizer I have three different way forms I can use, So let's start with this one and then a square wave here and then a triangle here. And I have already started by making this an octave lower, Meaning this is basically a sub order. Later, as you can hear, then I can use, for example, the volume nobis for each oscillator. Teoh blend. How much off the low end here, The triangle, the pulse or square wave and the S O wave here. So let's turn them on. I can also make the final sound fatter and richer by d tuning them slightly this one a bit lower and this one a bit higher. If I overdo it, you will start to hear that it sounds out of tune and really weird way. I basically use around minors 878 and plus seven eight. And of course you can use the range meaning which octave transposing the also later, up or down, this style is down. This is in the middle less use the higher on this one. Congratulations. You have now learned the essentials off the wave forms, also called oscillators off a synthesizer as well as how to mix and blend them together and use the main synthesizer features on the way forms to shape your final sound 3. The Filters: filters or one off the fundamental ways to shape the sound of a synthesizer. Basically, you can think of the filters like special types off equalizers that you used to form the range of frequencies. You want to focus your sound on the fundamental fielder types here, all the basic fielder types you can use. Low pulse reduces the higher frequencies. High pulse reduces the lower frequencies. Band Paul's reduces both lows and highs and leaves the need frequencies. No such filter the opposite off band pause. Instead of leaving the mids, you cut a hole in the mid range and leave the lows and highs. Some synthesizers also have specialty type fielders like the cum filter the foreman filter state variable filter, etcetera. These are more about character than shaping the main tone and frequency focus. But if you have them in your synthesizer, I recommend that you experiment with the sound they can produce. Also, some synthesizers can have to completely independent fielders that you can use to shape. The sound with these filters can either be applied in serious or in parallel mode. If your synthesizer have jewel filters, this can be a great way to add great complexity to your sounds. The main filter parameters cut off the cut off parameter sets the frequency point, which the filter will use as its starting point. For example, if you're using a low post filter type and set the cut off at 200 hertz, then 200 herds will be the starting position off the filter slope, where the high frequencies will start. To reduce resonance. By increasing the residence level, you will create a spike at that cut off filter frequency. For example, if you have the cut off values set at 200 hertz and you then start to increase the resonance value, you will get a peek at that frequency. And if you increase the residents by a lot, you will move the filter towards self oscillation. A common way to use the residence parameter is to modulate it over time to create a short, edgy character in the sound. The most common live example of this is the legendary 303 bass lines in DB per octave. First you need to set the fielder type, but he also have variations off each Mutar type. Often they will be named something like six db per octave or 12 db per octave. These basically sets how steep the filter slope is. The higher the number, the steeper the slope. For example, 12 db per octave means that for the frequency range equivalent off one full octave, the filter slope will have reduced the level by 12 decibel power tip. Add some movement with the filters. Filter sweeps is one of the most common techniques to use in a synth performance, which basically is when you automate the cut off frequency value over time. Most often, the cut off filter frequency over synth is pre mapped, but of course, you can also automate these manually in your D W sequence. For example, slowly opening up the field way build up into your music. You can, of course, also automate the restaurant snob. If you want that edgy, schorpen driving character in the sound. First, I will show you the sound of a low post filter, but I will start with the cattle value all the way up, meaning if I play this out on and turn off the filter, it doesn't sound different because the filter doesn't do anything, since the cut off frequency is all the way up as soon as I started. Dialled is down. Listen to the sound gets warmer and Melo water because the low pass filter is pushing these higher frequencies down. I can also show you what happens if I have these at, Let's Say This value. And then I changed the decibel per octave to, let's say, 24. It sounds way warmer because the slope is steeper compared to the six db. Next, we have the high pass filter and the same here replies. If I have it at the lowest studying, there is no difference. But as soon as I increase, the cattle frequency starts to get brighter by removing the lower frequencies from the sound. The same applies here again with the fielder slope on. And finally we have the band pass filters where you can choose where you want the sound to be focused. Let's say, here in the lower and middle the alien. Now I have switched to only sphere because I want to show you some specialty filter types as well. You have already heard the low post hypos and band pulse fielder types, which all the essential filter types on all synthesizers. Basically next, let's listen to the state variable fielder type, and I have chosen this preset and style in some settings. Well, let's listen to this sound without a filter on. Listen, what happens as I turn it on and off state variable filter, of course, at character Asil Specialty filters dust, but also some movement in the Salmasi Canio. Compared to this, then some other specialty filters that are quite common is the foreman filter, which is basically mimicking the vowels off the human voice like Ah oh, I e. And so one was into this as I turned the cut off. Ah, why Ohio? Well, it sounds like that totals, and here is the most important lesson for you. Every type of filter, even on the same sitting on the cut off and residents value has unlimited variations in the tonal character and moved off the filter. That's why you can see, for example, enormous fear, lots and lots of presets, off low pass filters, high pass filters and someone even on the same setting. 12 db here 12 db 12 db, and so on. These are although post filters on this filter will sound different from for example, another synthesizers filter these one which is mimicking the classic mini Moog. Sounds like this, for example, which is of course, different from the same type of filter on ominous fear. Even if I have the same settings on, Of course, it also depends on what kind of way, form and way for mix you start out with. Now I want to show you what happens when you have the residence value high as you automate the cattle frequency. This will give it that aggressive, sharp sound that is famous in old three or three rave type synthesizers. As you can hear in the blade movie and throng legacy, for example, compare these to the residence all the way down, which is an ordinary cattle frequency modulation. Look at the no be here. I have media learned it to my mod wheel. Ah ah! But if I have the residence all the way up which is close to self isolation, it will really start to get some bite in the field. To release into this. You can, of course, automated the cattle frequency as well as the residents, nor on any synthesizer. Just be aware that the final sound will be drastically different, depending on your way for mix and character of your way forms, as well as the filter type and fielder characteristics on the specific synthesizer view juice. For example, on this Moog synthesizer, if I have the residence all the way up, this will truly self also late and you will hear, like if I ultimate the couple frequency, almost like in alien or spacey type of sound. So unless you're going for that sci fi type of sound, I recommend probably using a lower residence like this. And then, ah, like so, congratulations. You have now learned the essentials off how the filter works in synthesizers. The different filter types, the filter settings and characteristics, plus how to modulate the filter over time to add movement, for example, slowly opening it up or closing it called the filter sweep, plus using higher residence settings to add more bite and character, especially when automating the cattle frequency 4. The Envelopes: the envelopes. The main way to shape the sound off a synthesizer over time is with envelopes. A synthesizer can also have several envelopes that control different parameters, the two most common or the AMP. Envelope, and the filter envelope, which are standard features on all synthesizers. Sometimes they are simply called envelope one envelope to and so on, which you can then route to any parameter. And sometimes you even have a dedicated mode envelope that you can use to control any parameter in your synthesizer envelopes or based on four sittings that shape a parameter over time. A check DK sustained and released, also called a D as our for short. This is how, in 80 years old envelope work, attack time, the time it takes for the parameter to go from the starting position to its peak position. DK time. The time it takes for the parameter to go from the peak position down to the sustained level sustained level the level after the initial peak. If set to zero, the parameter will die after the decay time release time the time from after the decay time position to the final state off the parameter a D s or envelope controlling the EMP. So let's start with the most important envelope the AMP 80 years or envelope. This will control the ant level off the synthesizer over time, meaning the volume changes off the sound from the moment the note starts until it fades out to silence. These is how the EMP, 80 years old envelope works. Attack time sits how long it takes from when you hit a note until the sound regents, it's full level. If you increase the attack time, the sound will fade in. If you have it at zero, the sound will reach its full volume instantly. DK time. As you continue to hold down the note, the decay time decides how much time it takes for the sound level to go down to the sustained value sustained level. The sustained value sets the amount of level reduction off the sound during the decay time release time. The release time sets how long the sound takes to fade out after you release the note, just like a guitar ringing out even after you plucked the string 80 s or envelope controlling the filter. Now the fielder envelope works in a similar way but it will control how much the cut off parameter changes over time instead of the EMP level. First, you must decide how much the envelope should control the filter, which you do with a knob in the filter section, often called end envelope. And then you set the 80 s or envelope to open up the filter over time in the same way as the AMP envelope opens off the AMP. Over time, however, the AMP envelope has both the initial and final state as zero, meaning no volume compared to the filter envelope where the initial value off the filter is the cut off frequency you have it set to, and the final state is also the very same cut off frequency value. So basically, the filter envelope simply takes the starting position off. The cut off frequency opens it up with the timing controlled by the 80 years or envelope, and then goes back to the starting position after the final release stage off the envelope Power tip 1 80 years or envelope controlling any parameter. Sometimes you get an extra envelope called mode envelope or simply a number. This envelope is not pre mapped to the AMP or filter like the standard envelopes. Or but instead you can route it manually to any parameter. This is getting into more advanced in thesis, but I have to say that a mode envelope is incredibly powerful because it means any parameter can be controlled over time. For example, let's say you have mapped on LFO to the tuning over way form, which can, for example, produced a vibe Rato effect well, instead, off having it constant. You can then route the mod envelope to control the depth parameter off that LFO. So that is Onley opens up after a while and then closes again, meaning the librato will come in after you holding note for a while and then go back to know librato. In the end off the mod envelope stage power to to invert the envelope. Sometimes you can also invert the envelope, which means that the parameter it controls will not move upwards but downwards. For example, let's take the filter envelope again. Instead of slowly opening up the filter and then going back to the initial stage, the envelope will move the filter cattle frequency downwards and then go back to the starting position again. This means that you can start with the filter in an open, bright setting and then use the filter envelope in inverted mode to, for example, quickly close it and then go back to the initial state again. Power tip. Three Note velocity to control the envelope. Often you can also die alehouse much. The velocity will affect the envelope. The most common example is to have the velocity, meaning how hold you press the key effect. The AMP envelope. Practically, this means that the higher velocity value means the AMP. Envelope will open up more meaning a louder sound just like you get when you press a piano key holder. So let me show you the AMP. Envelope first, and I will go through all values. Attack, decay, sustain and release. So the attack as I hit a note. It is the time it takes for the sound or the EMP to reach its full level, its peak level. As you can see here, if I move it further to the right, it increases the time on the further I moved in, the longer it takes for the sour fading after I hit a note. But if I have it right at the start. It will have an instant attack. Then we have the decay time, which is the time it takes for the EMP to go down to the sustained level. But since I don't have the sustained level, it's simply if Max it doesn't matter. I put to the Decatur. However, if I decrease the sustained level, let's say to 40% now you hear that it starts with them or shore plucky character, and then in volume fades down to the sustainable. I can move it further in so that it is even pluck here. Uh huh. And the more I decreased a sustained level, the more contrast in the attack plucky sound in the beginning and the sustained level you will get. So if I put it further down right here at the bottom, you will get extremely pocket sound which dies right after I have hit the key holder. Usually you want to have something left. And then if you move it to the right to increase the decay time, it opens up a bit more. It's still plucky, but you have to decide how short the clock is with the decay. All the time here and how much it goes down in level with this sustained value. Uh, and then finally, we have the release time, which is after I released the key. Now it is at the lowest of Ah. So as soon as I released the key, this sound completely dies. But if I increase this a bit, it will fade out. Author, I really sticky. The more I increase it, you might want to have something in released to make it sound Mawr live like an acoustic instrument. All right, that was the ant envelope. Now let's check out the filter envelope, which doesn't control the AMP but the filter, the cattle frequency off the filter. So let's put this up here on full ah way. Have a nice clean sound, and then we will adjust the filter. First. You need to decide how much the filter will control the cut of frequency with this end of no beer. So let's put it at Max, so they feel to really pushes the cut off frequency. Then, since the main setting is to increase, open up the filter, let's move this way down. In fact, let's move these so that it doesn't do anything. Let's put it a bit higher now. There's a simple, very soft sound, since the filter is on low pulse setting hair with high disability. OK, now I want to open it up with the filter envelopes. Let's increase this. And the 80 s or settings here work in the same way as the ant Angelo in time, meaning that the attack time sets how fast and this cut off frequency will move up after I hit a key. So let's push that at the initial sitting at Max here, the shoulders, amount of times it opens up instantly and then make let's make it pluck sound. In fact, go down to here and slight release. So now we have a really plucky filter in the beginning of the sound. Let's make it bit longer, like so, listen to this now and without the If I put this at zero now, the filter involved doesn't do anything. The difference. The difference is that I have dialed in the settings for the cattle frequency to instantly move to the heights setting, and then it will have a short time very short time, 48 milliseconds to go back to the sustain value, which is almost at the lowest setting, almost at the initial value. And then it will move down to the initial value. Don't remember what it was. Let me show you a second example. Let's plays the fielder at the highest setting and let's put it a serious thought. This is, you know. Now I want to use the filter envelope in inverted mode to quickly close the envelope and then open up again. So let's do that. Ah, let's do it so fairly quickly change the parameter and then it goes, fades out like so again, and I will invert it by moving to negative values. Sometimes it's simply an invert button on the filter. Now let's listen to this. Ah, initial value is the sharp open up filter, and then it's fairly quickly moves down a lot to the lowest setting. In fact on. Then it's fades back again, like I have dialing here to the initial for something. So which could be another useful way to create yourselves. So let's go back to this. No. Begin the end amount or depth control, which changes how much the filter envelope controls the cut off frequency at zero. It does nothing. The higher I turned this up, the more the filter cattle frequency will change in the timing controlled by the fielder envelope. So at the food setting, this value will go straight to the top, meaning a completely open fielder and then back again, with the timing controlled by the envelope and at a slighter setting like let's say, here, at 50% it will open up from the initial value half way two in between, the fullest setting on the initial value and then go back again. So the shorter you have this value at, the less the filter will change. Always like the here, and the more I open it up, the further to the right or open the filter will become controlled by the filter envelope depth and at the fullest setting. It opens up with this setting. It created Pluck is our by opening up the fielder sharply and brief way and then closing it back again to the initial value. Finally, let's check out the velocity value for the envelope, so the velocity is how hard you press each key on your media keyboard or the velocity value inside your sequencer. So at the lowest setting zero, it doesn't matter how hard I pressed icky I. It will still get the same volume in this case, since it's the envelope. But if I increase the velocity slider here, it will make more and more difference between the softer and the harder. I press each key. So at the fullest setting, if I press soft or if I press hard, there's a huge volume difference because the velocity off the notes will change how the AMP envelope reacts so I can play play accents like that, and the velocity value works in a similar way on the filter envelope. So let's say you have the end amount at 20 here. Well, in the serial setting doesn't matter how hard pressed thinking it will only open up 20% meaning from here to, let's say, here. But if I increase this, the holder I pressed a key, the more the velocity will change how the filter envelope amount reacts. So if I press it hard, this will open up to the full setting, even though the end amount is at 20. So if I play this, you hear a difference when I pressed hard. It sounds like his sharper attack in the plaque sound. Now, finally, let me show you the power off an extra envelope that is no tied to the AMP and filter like the two standard in groups, or this is often called a mold envelope. And it works in the same way as these two envelopes, meaning the 80 s or settings will control the timing or change of a parameter over time. Instead of the amp and the filter cattle frequency, you can route and map the mod envelope to control any parameter in your synthesizer. So, as you can see here up in modulation, I have routed the mod envelope of one, which is this one, as the source in this case, I have chosen to map it to the pitch cores, meaning very hold changes to the pitch of the sound. Let's mute it now so you can hear the initial sound like so then I have changed the eighties or parameters here in the mode envelope to control the timing off this parameter in this case, since that is what I have read it, too, to open up and then go down to the initial value again, like so. So if I now press this after I released a mute before now, if I press this to a mute it now the mold envelope work to open up the course peach over time and then back and you can actually see it. Here, let me open up the envelope. Visualize er's. You can see how the parameter changes over time, opening up the pitch in this case and then fast going down again like this. I have chosen that because it is in an extreme setting. You can, of course, use it in reverse mode. If you want to make it. Ah, bill down in pitch, let me play it in a higher in old. In fact on, Of course, it can change the depth in this envelope to which means how much it changes the parameters . So let's use a lower setting compact full over here as well. So if your synthesizer hasn mode envelope, I highly encourage you to experimenting with mapping it. Two different parameters in your synthesizers to control it over time with the eighties or settings and how much it will be controlled is set by de depth in a beer. Congratulations. You have now learned the essentials off how the envelopes work in his synthesizer. The AMP filter and moat envelope. Eight years or settings filter any amount velocity setting, reversing the envelope, plus many practical live demonstrations. So go ahead and practice using the envelopes of your synthesizer right now. 5. The LFO: the L F O the LFO is short for though frequency oscillator. The difference between the LFO on the also later is used as way forms for the sound is that the LFO is used to add a continuous movement for any parameter you routed to. Here are the main sittings of a standard A level we'd form the type of way form used for the LFO. The default LF away form is a sine wave, which means a smooth back and forth motion. You can also set it to a square wave, which means instant switches between end values. Look at the way form you choose and visualize the movement off the parameter you control with the LFO rate or speed the time of a food way form cycle off the LFO, which is often sink to a note value. For example, 1/4 note or an eighth note. If you want a clear rhythmic effect or two bars for amore, gradual motion the Mount or depth How much the LF all will change the parameter it is routed to. For example, if you mapped the LFO to control the filter frequency, the higher the amount is set at the more movement the LFO will add to the filter frequency delay How long it takes for the LFO to start its movement cycle. For example, if you use the LFO to add a vibe roto, you can add some delay to make the V brought to come in After you hold the note for a while . How to use an A level. First, you need to decide what parameter you want the LFO to control. Remember, you're adding a cycling movement to this parameter. Then you need to set up the telephone settings for how you want to affect the parameter you routed to on some synthesizers. You have more than one LFO to use, which means you can have different settings on different Ella falls and ralph them differently. Sometimes you can also route the same LFO two several synth parameters, which can add even greater complexity to your final sound. All right, so I will give you five different examples of using an LFO to control any parameter in yours synthesizer. I have already set up five different elephants settings, controlling five different parameters and enormous fear, which is the same I will show with his own they have a modulation metrics where you can see these more clearly. As you can see here the source LF for 1 to 5 and these five different settings. So let's go through them one by one. The 1st 1 is controlling pitch because I want to have that the broad toe effect. So I have routed early for 12 pitch fine, which is this sitting here on? It's now at Ciro's. It doesn't do anything. Ah, basically, I am using a sine wave with this rate, which is the speed and to control the fine pitch, which is Ah, basically doing a the broader. So let me first are mute the NFO and then I will increase the depth job as I hold down the note and he will hear. And also see here more and more pitch the broader coming in. Listen to this. Ah, so I basically made an extreme setting usto not really here the end result. You can then, of course, changed the way form if you want to or the rate If you couldn't listen to this now, uh, to change the broader speed. So this is to be brought a depth now and this is the speed. You can also use the delay setting here so that they be brought, who comes in or the little starts working after a vial. So if I do you like this and if I hold down the note now, it will start with out of the broader on the pitch and then come in after a while. Ah, uh ah. And if I hold down the notes in the big ultimo uh, meaning they overlap, the NFO will continuous, continues cycling. But if I released the notes in between, uh, I don't hear any broader until I hold the note for a while longer. Ah, because then it will restart the LFO cycle so the delay slide will become active again. All right, so that was example one. Let's move on to the next one, which is LFO two maps to the cut off frequency. I have changed the way form to a triangle here, and I also sink did to the greed, meaning I can set the speed to a note value in this case, an eighth note. And I've also used a lower depth setting because I don't want extreme changes to the cut of value. So now if I hold down the note, the LFO two will make his cycling movement on the cut off frequency knob. So listen to this. Ah, at extreme settings, you will hear it drastically. Uh uh. At zero of course. Telephoned us? Nothing on the cut of frequency. Ah, again, you can use the delay knob. Teoh, make the movement after a while. Ah, and change the way form if you want to. Something completely different. Uh, let's move on to the third example which is lfo three controlling the panning off this inter sizer. So I mute this and here I've set a sine wave at a very slow rate. As you can see here it's moved slowly back and forth in a smooth motion because of the sign way but at full setting, meaning four right and four left here. So if I hold down a note, you can listen where when the sound is panned to the full writer lift Ah, any cycling movement because that is what an LFO adds to a parameter that you routed to right. Let's move on to the fourth example which is l a full, full controlling synth hard sink because the horsing care can change the sound radically. I hold out out moving this like, uh, in here, it starts to sound very aggressive, but instead off manually modulating these, you can use an LFO, which is what I have done here to control the horsing parameter. Now, if I hold down the note, this parameter is changing in the same tension. So listen to this without ah with the perhaps not so extreme setting. So let's move it slightly left and right. Like this. Uh And then my fifth example is eligible five which you, by the way, route like this, the source and the target which enormous fear can basically be any parameter. So mapped it to amplitude, which is a sound output level on here. I wanted it to create a kind of a gating effective read me, get effect. So I said it to square way, too. As you can see, it instantly shifts between the outer positions because I have it at full depth. So I've said it to sink to 1/16 note value without it, it sounds like this. Ah, but with it you will hear the 16th note driving rhythm like so And you can of course, changes to another rhythm if you want. Like so and it sounds so drastic because off the square wave, if I changes to sign, you will. Still he'll hear the rhythmic effect but a much smoother transition. Uh ah. So let's sum this up the LFO or L. A focus adds a cycling movement to any parameter that you routed to first you set the source, which in this case is L. A. For one. If your synthesizers have several illa phones to choose from, you have to first assign the source as the LFO You set up, then you routed to a target, meaning the parameter. You want to just say the residents no well, find the residence. No, but see the filter residence, then you apply the way form. You want the cycling movement to have this speed off the movement as well as if you want to sink it to a great value. Then you said the amount meaning the depth, how much up and down the LFO will change the parameter with its way for and then you can also introduce a delay before the LFL starts to move the current parameter. So if you have a delay when you hit a note, it will take some time before the elephants starts to act. And it will repeat if you release a note and start on the new note. But if you president knows in Lo Gatto meaning overlap, the LFO will continue. Cycling Congratulations. You have now learned the essentials off how an L. F. O works in his synthesizer, basically creating a cycling movement on any parameter you routed to take action now and practise routing the LFO two different parameters on your synthesizer and adjust the settings to learn how they will work in action. 6. Polyphony: police. Funny the people, if any, setting simply states how many knows you can play at the same time? If they polyphony is set to one, the Sindh can Onley play one note at a time. If you want to be able to play harmonies and chords, you need to set the prolific me to a higher setting. However, sometimes you actually want to have the same. In Mona Fornek mode, for example, four bases and lead sounds glide between the notes pulled aumento. A great feature when you have the same in mono fornek mode is that you can use the glide feature, also called Port Aumento. This means that when you play notes in Lego toe, meaning the notes overlap as you play them, the sink will add a glide between the two notes. How long it takes to glide between the nose is decided by the glide or port aumento setting on your synthesizer. Using glides in a performance, you can play a performance that includes some glides but not on all notes. Just like a guitar player can sometimes slide between notes on the strings. Instead of lifting his finger, you simply make sure to have a gap between the notes in your performance when you want to avoid the glide modulating the gliding time. If you want to get really advanced, you can add some variation in the gliding time by, for example, using an LFO to control this parameter a mold envelope or even automated manually in your DW. So let me start by demonstrating the difference between Mona Fornek mode, meaning one voice at the time and poorly phone it mode, meaning you can play several notes simultaneously. So in Mona Fornek mode, it's only one voice, meaning If I play her throat and introduce another note, it will only play one of those trying to play a chord. It only plays one voice, but Mullah fornek mode can be great for if you play lower like baselines. Or perhaps leads uh, and other types of performances where one note at a time really shines in polyphonic mold on this specific synthesizer, I cannot choose a specific voice number. It's on Lee poorly four, meaning I can play full notes at once. So here is how it sounds in a simple C chord on. And if I introduce the fourth note that works But if I introduced 1/5 note, it will release one of the other notes so I can't play like super big courts with lots off notes at the same time. Then I want to demonstrate glide, which means port aumento, and this is when a note. If you press one key and present other key, the sound will transition with the glide to the next note, as you can do on strings, for example, or a guitar by sliding down the neck. So let me go back to Mullah Mode because Mona for Nick is basically better when you want to create glides between the notes. So if I have, let's say they see on this c an octave above Ah, there's no glide now because the glide value here, the porta mental time he's zero. Uh, if I increase this, let's say to middle if I start with the sea here ah impressed the next one. Ah, then it will sound like this and the most extreme setting turn in this case it will sound like this. Ah, on some synthesizers like only spirit, for example, you can first change the glide time like I did on the previous, Uh, but you can also check if you want. It's only to be triggered when you play the notes in the gold toe, meaning that you overlapped the nose when you play them, basically holding this note while you press the next note instead of having a gap. So if I have the goal to checked here, it means that I can play performance without any glide by simply leaving a gap between the notes like this. Uh, but if I play, play the same notes holding the previous notes so they overlap. But it will introduce the glide with this sitting here. By the way, I still have it on polyphonic mold I see here. So let's reduce that to one so it only plays Moana Phonic. One noted time. Let's increase the glide times. We can hear it more clearly. So if I leave a gap, uh, no glide because I set it to only trigger in the Gulf. The mode. Congratulations. You have now learned the basics off how police funny works in a synthesizer model for Nick , meaning one voice at a time. Poorly fornek, meaning to all more voices can be played at the same time glide mode, also called Port aumento means glides between the notes when played, which can also be set on some sense to only be active on the goto. So go ahead and practice with polygamy and porta mental on your synthesizer right now. 7. Unison Mode: unison mode. The unison mold is a feature on many synthesizers. Which purpose is to make the sound wider and fatter. It works by basically duplicating the way form into several cookies and then slightly d tuning each Hopi and spreading them in stereo space. Think of these as the difference between one solo violin and a violin section playing in unison, meaning the exact same performance. Here are the main settings off the unison feature Unison Voices in Psalm Ball size. Some synthesizers give you an option to choose how many voices the way form will become with the units and feature. You can compare this to, for example, a full report string section, an eight port string section and so one. The more voices in unison, the deeper, richer and wider. The final sound will be de tuning pitch separation, meaning how much variation in tuning the unison will apply to the way forms created by the units and feature spread stereo separation. By increasing the spread amount, the unison voices will be spread out more in the stereo stage. Full spread means the voices will be spread out from the four left to the far right in the stereo field. Now let me demonstrate the features and this sound off the unison mode. So this is the sound without unison apart? A. So you can see it only plays one boys. It's not the same as politically because I can play sports with politically war mode. Hear the voices here in unison simply means how many voices are stacked on top of each other, like duplicates basically like having extra string players instead of one string player. So now the first thing you can do is apply the unison depth, meaning the amount of voices. If I increase this from while now after four, the unison mode will be active instantly. The richer and more deep sound. It basically makes the sound fatter compared to only one voice. No unison. So that's used four forces. Uh, next we have the tuning, which means you introduce light D tooting between these four voices, which will make them even fatter. So listen to this. If I go to, it will sound very bad. Like out of June players. The next one is very important, which is the spread or panning separation in the stereo field. These are still in mourning, which doesn't really create that fat of his own. So when I increased the panning here, these four voices will be spread out from left to right in the cereal field and on full setting. They spread from the four left to the far right. Now, if I increase this to eight, for example, started here even a richer sounds 16 from one. Ah, the specific synthesizer even has an extra feature on the units and node, which introduces some slight slight variations in the cattle frequency voices. It's more apparent in the lower register here, Brandi so well, Finally, I want to demonstrate the true power off the unison mode to make a thin and boring sound a super rich, deep and fat sound. So I already set up the unison features here with a depth here. At this setting, you can see quite a lot of voices spread at maximum, so I d tuning but didn't turn only units, and most listen how it sounds before everything and boring. But we have unison applied super rich and super powerful sound amazing. You have now learned how the unison mode works on a synthesizer to really make fat and Rich sounds. The three main features or units and depth, meaning the number of voices that plays in unison. Pitch separation, meaning D tuning the unison voices and stereo separation, meaning panning the unison voices in the stereo field. So go ahead and practice applying unison with different settings on your synthesizer right now. 8. Analog Mode: analog mood. On some synthesizers, you have a feature called Analog or sometimes drift, which adds slight variations in mainly the tuning and the face off the way form. This occurs naturally in analog synthesizers, and you can think of these are similar to the random, slight variations in tuning charmer and tonal character, often acoustic instrument Because every time you play the same note, it will be a bit different from the last. In fact, these tiny variations, or what makes a string in samba will sound richer, more complex and more powerful than a soul instrument. Even if played at the same volume, add some analog character. The way you use this feature is very simple. Often it is a single noble called either analog or drift that you can turn up. The more you increase this parameter, the more the drift and variations in tuning and face will occur. If you use a smaller value for the analog mod, it will Adam or human and organic character to the sound of the synthesizer. However, if you bring this value too high, it will start to sound bad, like it cannot hold the tuning. So let me demonstrate how analog mod sounds and words in action. Of course, it will be different on different synthesizers. On some synthesizers. The maximum setting will sound very extreme and out of tune. In the case of almost fear, it is drastic, but not so extreme. You will definitely hear it. So if I play, this sound is a simple triangle way form without an alarm or who holds the pitch perfectly in the exact Ewing. If I increase these two maximum, listen again before listen to After who it's told to see her. Those slide changes into tuning when I hold. No, But if I repeat the note, listen before, uh, perfect debutante with Max sitting. Uh uh, really here that the notes are slightly out of tune from the real pitch over the note and you hear it even more if you play chords or harmonies like, let's say, a C major chord with no l a mode that's put it in octave above on with an little known to the max. Uh, here that the notes are not in perfect see major tuning. They are slightly drifting back and forth, which creates this out of June sound. So I usually use and recommend a voter setting on the analog drifting mode. Because that is how real acoustic instruments work. They are not perfect in tune like an oscillator can be. So if you apply some and low drift and play it, Ah, somewhere in the middle here usually works. On this year, at least, you will not hear that drastic out of tune drifting off the individual notes. But you get to feel somehow that live feeling off, not being too perfect. Congratulations. You have now learned how the analog mod or drift, works only synthesizer. Basically, you add a drift in the tuning off the way forms, which can create a more natural sound. If your synthesizer has an analog motor drift feature, I recommend that you try it out with various amounts right now. 9. Sync Mode: sync mode. Would you like the ability to make the same sound mawr, harmonically rich, sharper and more aggressive? Well, also later sink is a great way to accomplish this. It is sometimes simply called sync mode, but most often it is labeled as hard sink. How Hard Sing works As one oscillator finishes his way form cycle, it resets the cycle off another oscillator, forcing the latter to have the same base frequency. Basically, one oscillator or way form acts as the master. On a second oscillator, which is the slave. The master oscillator forces the slave oscillator to restore its way form cycle in Horse Inc with a master way form the Master way form controls the main pitch, while the slave way form will only introduce changes in overall harmonic structure and overtones. How to use heart sink to activate and use this feature. It is most often simply a no ball or slider cooled horsing make it even meaner. Modulate sink. If you want to create a really aggressive sound, you can modulate the sink sitting over time, for example, with an LFO or envelope or even with manual automation. Now let me show you how to use horsing in action, but more importantly, how it sounds. So I have looted a way form here. And if I hold the note right now, it simply sounds like that. But if I drag the slider off the horse ink, you will start to hear changes in the character and Tom Burr off the sound. So we said no. Ah, uh, but it's still the same pitch so you can play melodies and chords and whatever, but I guess you can already hear how aggressive and mean this sound becomes when you dragged the Horse Inc value as you play, uh, especially on Dirty Huq Reef in Leeds sounds and bases. So now I'm going to show you how you can modulate it over time. Ah, and I'm using an Ellie. Fulfill this. So I have mapped LFO six here as the source to the target seemed hard stink. So you find out, activate this. It will be the same as if I would have dragged these back and forth like this. So check out before, uh, after ah, pull this in the middle. Decrease the dipped If it becomes too drastic, uh, perhaps increase the rate rate choose a different way form whatever you like way often, I find it sounds best at a lower rate, meaning the speed off the sliding horsing. Uh, so that's automating with a telephone. But you can also automate a knob or a slider on your media keyboard or in your DW to manually automate these Hordes Inc value. So I have just right, clicked and chosen me DCC Learn, which works in illness fair and many other synthesizers. But basically, you map these value to any noble slider on your media keyboard. I have mapped it to my modulation well over here. So now if I hold down a note, I can slide on my motive. It modulation well and thus can change the character with the horsing feature. Now, one thing I love about ominous fear in particular resistant incisor is that it has mode envelope several. In fact, on That's not too common in synthesizers, but if you have, you can actually use an envelope to control the heart sink. So I have gone into the modulation matrix, and shows and mod involve one as a source and since horsing as the target and I've muted all these others in the meantime, So now this mode one, this shape of the envelope will control the hordes ink. So check out how this sounds. Let me go into the modulation. Muted first. Ah, now when I let the mod envelope controlled the horse Inc Ah, the Now you get the movement from the mold envelope to shape the horde sink over time like this on. Of course, you can change the envelope. Do you have a different kind of curve until you're happy with A and result. Congratulations. You have now learned how hold sink or a sink works in his synthesizer. Take action now and experiment with modulating and automating the Horse Inc by one. Using an LFO with various settings to routing it to a mode envelope. If your synth has one and try out different envelope shapes and three mapping it to a noble or slider on your MIDI keyboard and recording the automation manually 10. Saturation: saturation for weight. Harmonic saturation in various forms is a very important aspect in modern music production from distortion units, two amps, pedals, tape, etcetera and many synthesizers have some kind of feature to add that analog drive to boost the power of your sounds. It is often a simple as a fader or no job that you dial up to ADM or harmonic saturation to the output. Some synthesizers even lets you choose what type of saturation you want to apply. Keep the lows crisp if you use several synth way forms or layers off, since I recommend being more careful with saturation on the lowest sub base layer and deeper frequencies to keep the low end crisp and clear. But other than that, go as crazy as you wish for your sound design. Automate the drive. If you want to dive deeper into the adventures off sound design, I recommend experimenting with adding movement in the drive amount. You can, for example, use on LFO or perhaps on envelope, but you can also recalled manual automation off the drive using your D A W's sequencer for you might want to push up the driver bit Onley in the power section commonly known as the cores. The power is literally in your hands. Now let me demonstrate this sound off harmonic saturation or drive in different synthesizers because they can sound drastically different. For example, here is a seem to model off of the classic Mini Moelgg, and that's drive unit will simply add that warm analog drive without sounding too distorted . So basically it will boost the volume and make the sound fatter. So listen to this as I increased the drive here on, as with all harmonic saturation and Dr plug ins or features, you will hear it more clearly when you play two or more notes at the same time, just like you here on a electric it or, for example, when you play power record with lots off distortion. So if I play a perfect fifth and I have to drive, the's specific synthesizer has a more warm, anillo character in the drive. Let's compare that with, for example, only sphere, which has a lot of different kinds off effects for distortion, and I have chosen these metal zone just to show you how a different it can make the sounds . We start with this Ah, re kind sound well with this distortion applied. Ah, compared Teoh. And if I play now harmony on with this kind of super heavy distortion and you actually started here almost like a power chord on an electric. It tore because that's basically the essence of power Course having super high distortion. Well, let's choose another synthesizer Alchemy in logic here and I will make it even more clear by simply using a soft triangle way form so smooth and soft in its most basic form. Then I have added a distortion model here on I've added some tube saturation. As you can see here, it says tube there, if I turn it on, compared Teoh again. If I play home and is on this Ah, you will clearly here, compared to the smooth away form we had to begin with, I also have these other distortion unit here, which is a wave shaper, and I added it to the max here, and this will make the sound from super super hard distortion. As you can hear. So again, different synthesizers have different kinds of drive and saturation units on them, and sometimes you can even choose different ones such as enormous fear, alchemy and lush wanna one which has this insert effect here as a distortion or decimate er which is another form of distortion. So you have to experiment with. But distortion features yours indecisive has and with how much drive you add to it. Now, if your synthesizer has an advanced modulation matrix like calmness, fear you can route, for example, mode envelope to control the drive number on your distortion unit like I have done here. Which means that you can shape the timing off this noble increasing and then going back again with the eight years or envelope here. So now if I'm u this first, it is that the low setting. But if I activated this 80 is or shape which, if I go into the envelope, will be applied to the driving old. So have a listen to this. Why don't don't here going back again and you can adjust the settings as you wish with the eighties or envelope on. If I play this in harmony, you will hear it even more clearly. All perhaps try using you Naylor full as the source and mapping it to the drive off the distortion unit, as I have done here, and I have used it at full setting. So you really hear the LFO applying the cycling movement to the drive knob, but you could use it as a way to add subtle movement If you simply decrease the depth off the LFO. You can see that from this is a vital that Max. It will drive the drive home to the full setting. But let's just use something like this and a slow movement, and you will hear it working like a subtle movement in the distortion on that is a great way to add more variation into your sounds and also some extra drive. Congratulations. You have now learned how harmonic saturation or drive works in a synthesizer. Take action now and try adding some drive to your since sounds and also try modulating the drive by mapping it to, for example, your mode real on your medic able or any noble or slider if you have several software. Since I recommend that you also listen to the difference in the respective drive or saturation feature because they will all have a different tone and character on different drives, settings 11. How to make a Bass Synth Sound: base since sound. What is it? Basically it is the synth equivalent oven electric or acoustic bass guitar or any bass instrument that plays the main baseline base is the fundamental anchor off harmony in music bases. Also, what will add depth and power to your music? I will now show you behind the scenes as I create a powerful base since sound live in order to create a super powerful based synth sound that has that deep bottom low end and also cuts through in the mix. I usually use three main layers for the basis sound the depth layer, which is the sub bays way form that takes care of the deepest frequencies the body layer, which is basically the main tone of the base, as well as what adds that rich fat sound on the attack layer, which is basically the equivalent off the initial pluck of a electric bass guitar. So that, as also some short initial attack that makes the bass sound more clear and cuts through in the mix for every note you play. So let's go into each Now. Let's start with the depth layer here on the first oscillator. I'm going to go into the animal numbers to see you know the classic way from sub oscillators. Let's use base station here. Um, let's see right warm and mellow. But let's make a deeper ah, down 12 Seminoles and full octave, right? So we have is some base, but since this is the depth layer, you really want to remove all upper frequencies. You really want only the deepest frequencies here, so I will apply the Filter Jews a low post filter. Here, let's go with Let's see what we have rich and movie knows just deep and smooth. I will choose that one. No envelope opening up from the filter and let's use with the 200 years or so that system to without with All right, so it's almost two. Ah, warm. Now let's open up a bit, right? That's use me. Let's just the amp envelope. I want to add some release to have it ring out a bit off. Released. Don't let's use full decay full sustain, and also add some smoothness in the start of the sound like so on. This is so deep that if you don't listen to headphones or big speakers, you will not even hear it. This is what will be felt in your final based sound, by the way. But since most people don't have super big speakers or P A systems to listen to music, um, that's why you add the other layers to make your base cut through in the mix. Unless you're going to use this late only as, ah, an added layer for so important in an orchestral track or something, he has to beef up the bottom end. So that's how you created by sub base. Basically, all right, so let's see the boat layer. Let's mute that for now. I will go here and choose something that's also warm. Let's see, What do we have? Let's go with sore tooth sub 37. So which is also based on the minimal? Ah, I was Turn it down and okay, let's use the filter here as well. Let's used a move. Filter opened up a bit. I don't want to much of the fielder envelope to kick in. Let's use about the same settings here. Just some extra. Ah, no, the attack. I will leave at the quickest setting, but I want at some release similar to what I did with the first layer because since you don't want to add reverb to base, in most cases, you can add some release in the AMP. Envelope, too. Make it a bit more right then, since this is the body layer, layer A is the depth player, the sub base layer. You don't want to add any effects there because he wanted focused on in the middle. This is the case also for the attack. Let your the pluck sound because you want your bass sound to cut through in the mix, which leaves the middle layer. The body layer is where you can add more richness, fatness and so on. Even effects to sound if you want. At least that's how I do it, so I will go into the also later hair and twos unison mode. Apply a bit of a spread out of the left. Let's see without and with. Right now it sounds super cool. Ball Melo deep and very rich and together with the depth layer well, you need to listen to stop for big speakers or good headphones about that adds that super low bottom end. Let's see where she'll be go next to filter. I want to be Onley, adding some opening up slightly but then going down again. No release can increase these a bit, I think. Right. Sounds good. Ah, then we go to the attack layer. Let's thesis ones for now. And here I want to choose something that is a bit more aggressive in the sound. I will explain why Short way, Let's go to attitude way forms. Let's see here. Uh, right. And then he can also use symmetry, horsing to make it really dirty. Because the main thing here is I want to add that plaque, the initial attack in this armful of this layer. So I want going to turn down everything and just have short decay sitting on. Listen, now it's likely more knows we're going to use a filter here as well. Let's use in this case, I'm think I'm going to use a band pass filter because I only want that middle frequency for the plaque similar to a bass guitar pluck. Let's see, we have been passed. Do you see wide? No, not the Why? Let's use this one right around there. Um, see, not open up with it. Yeah, we can do that also, to add the same kind of plaque. Be the filter envelope again. Everything at zero. But some decay here. Okay, let's see. I think I overdid it with the Bengals fielder. Let's use a low pass filter instead. Ah, gentle one. This one. Write something like that. You might want to have it in octave higher, in fact, if you want. But I'm going to use the same motive for this one together without the attack layer with it . You hear that initial short attack that has some bite which will make your base notes cup through in the mix without with So it's not supposed to be really heard. And neither is this one these or does. He s going to add the frequencies that this one will cap through in the mix, and this one will make you raise more powerful and felt. This is the main layer that people will hear the sound off. All right, then, if you want, we have this sound now, right? If you want, you can also add 1/4 layer which you can make more aggressive to. I call it the focus layer because many music styles today have a bass sound that is no really Onley bays, but or older have some lead frequencies inside it. So you can, for example, use. Let's just go for this soul square fat here and let's solo this and I want to use that layer and octave above, and then I'm going to dial it down slightly. Let's see. I'm going to use the layers for these. Dial down, let's say eight. Disability or so, um, let's go back. Let's see. Uh, right. And this is what she's going to add. That super crisp top and in the sound. Let's go and apply filter Lopez. Um, big fat power. But I'm going to increase its quite a lot and not use so much in below or feel the rental upon it just slightly. I'm going to use ah, short attack, some decay and a bit of a release on this one of us. Well, now we have, right? I can't make this even more aggressive. Well, crisp by turning up the cut off. Let's see. I think I'm gonna go with another field through In fact, um, power. Right. So we have that layer now. Let's go back without, we have the depth, layer the body layer and attack their these or what I consider the three main base layers if you really want a true basis sound. But if you want to add an extra lane from focus, which will you will be able to play more riffs and other types off base sounds that can work in many music styles. This can be a good layer to add basically the focus layer or attitude layer. And by the way, on this layer, I recommend that you add Holder a saturation and aggressive synthesis, things like hard sinkings of one. So without it, it sounds like this true based on but with it. So if you, for example, apply some ah, distortion or saturation on Lee on this layer, let's say stone books here. Ah, something like that, as you can hear and before so this layer is optional. But some people will find that really, really good, especially for modern music like beats e G. M. And so one Next. You wanted to make sure that your complete bass sound is in model. Ah, so let's use one voice here, and ah, then I think the day sound in the synthesizer is complete now what is optional, but I use it often is in the D W to add a bass amplifier, so let's go ahead and apply it. And this will really make your based on MAWR like a base so it will remove that super close up crisp sounds or before this is just a stock basis in logic, with a heavy bottom preset. Listen before and with this is still with the focus or attitude layer with it so I can remove that optional layer. And now, with the bass AMP. It sounds really, really Basie and low. Um, let's add it again. And finally, I always recommend also adding a very hard compressor on it. I mean compressing the sound a lot, because bass sounds should really cut through in the mix and have maximum volume, at least usually. So I have applied standard compressor here in logic, with heavy compression, as you can see. So now the final scene based sound with added base happening compressor but without the focus later sounds like this very warm, mellow and reach bottom and and with the focus layer, you get some extra aggression in the South. And there are so many more ways to shape your final based seen sound on top of making the sounds in the layers in your synthesizers and using all this synthesizer features. For example, you can try out different base M presets compressor settings. Different compressors apply harmonic saturation or distortion to the final bass sound and so on. So go ahead and experiment with this. But start by trying to create a base sync sound from scratch on your favorite synthesizer. 12. How to make a Pluck Synth Sound: plaques in sound. What is it? Basically, it is the same equivalent off plucking a guitar string where you can choose how long the plaque sound becomes by various mute degrees. A pox in sound has the same kind of instant and short peak in the sound that he plaque ticket horse Ring has. Now I will show you behind the scenes as I create a plaque seen sound live All right, So let's start with Step one, which is, of course, always to choose the way, form or way forms for the main color off the sound. So they default. Way form is this. You can always change this later, but I want to have something. Let's see in the analog digital. Let's choose some attitude on here. Let's go with that one. For now, then the second step is the most important for creating a plaque sound, which is to design the envelopes to shape a sound into a plucky tone. So you want to have the attack down to a have the sound go instantly to its highest volume , but then you want to have a shorter decay. This is the most important value for the plaque sell here. It doesn't do anything because you need to lower the sustainable level for that because the decay time is actually the time it takes for the sound to go from the highest peak. We just get after the attack time Ah, to the sustained level so that it will take 0.25 seconds to go from the highest peak down to 40% in this case and now way have somewhat back. If I have this on zero, it will be like a super heavy, poor mute, instantly dropping. Let's reduce the release. No, you can hear even if their hold on the note here on my keyboard. It doesn't drink out because the decay is so short. It will go from fullest Volume two down to a sustained level of Ciro in 0.25 seconds. Decrease it even more when you get a super short and snappy. So let's go with something like elites have some police on sustained so I can vary it black so on. And the next thing I like to do is actually to add a sick and, uh, also later and homeless. Fear is really grateful this because you will get different envelopes and filters on different parts. Ah, some other synthesizers, like lush Ah, wanna one also has this feature. If your synthesizer is not able to do this, I recommend setting up your sin sound as a group and layer it with different parts like I've done here. But I will show you this enormous fear because that is my main seen off choice. So now Ah, let's see, where was I? Well, this song eyes the main rock sound. Now for the second sound four plucky sounds. You may not actually realize this, but a lot of the sound is actually percussive noise. Almost like hitting a drum note. Do you get some noise that is in the attack of the sound? So I'm going to use a noise oscillator. And if you listen to this sounds like crap, right? But if you use the same kind off settings on the AMP. Envelope ear, no release like so yes, the super super short brackets snappy kind of noise. And this will actually create a richer, percussive sense in the plaque sound. So if we compare now here the difference without with So this is something I very often do . When I create plaques in the stands, I add a layer or port that is a noise generator with a suit. Super short setting on the AMP. Envelope on You can, of course, decrease it. If you think it's too much on dial it in to taste like That's Me. The next one is modulation for variation, because if you think about it, if you play a plucky sound on a guitar string, well, if you repeat it, there will always be a difference in every note. How long the mute off the plaque case and so one. Because that's like acoustics and human nature, you cannot get a perfect duplicate of every note. So how do you add that into a synth? Um, well, that's why you use modulation in the form of either l a focus or a mod envelope that you can map So I will now map the modulation off. LF a 12 at a cycling movement to the AMP. Decay here to go to empty Let's see envelope amp decay. And now you see the depth is here and the rate how fast this now it will actually trim the decay to even shorter when it gets here, and this will be various degrees off, basically poor muting on the guitar. So listen to this without, and we'd listen. As it gets closer to this edge, it will be shorter because the decay actually gets shorter. So now I get some variation in the amount of poor muting you can say. But I also want to create some variation in the Let's see these tone and color of the sounds I will use. Let's see. No, let's use this symmetry to change the way former slightly I will add a new modulation and used the second LFO because almost were actually has several l A Fels on. Then I will map that to symmetry on the oscillator. Let's see also later students tumor three. Yeah, that we can increase the rate and now you're difference slightly facing. But let's reduce the let's put it here to begin with, just to have some different in the tone color on every note. Uh, right, by the way, I want to go back to the envelopes for shape because I only showed you the amp envelope. Actually, a good practice is to use a filter. Finally, filter that you like. Let's choose a low post fielder. I recommend using a low post filter and not going all the way to the brightest sitting somewhere here, and then used the field through envelope to open up and actually boost the plucky character of the sound by having the filter open up very shortly in the beginning of the sound. Let's remove the noise for now. Compared to you now, it's always that the brightest setting without a filter but with the filter and with opening up very shortly like so let's see. And then I want to bring in the percussive noise later again. Right now, it still sounds pretty thin, so one way you can do is actually add more layers and panned than left the right by. But I'm going to use a feature that many people use to fatten up. It's on which is the units and mold on Lee on the main layer, of course, the without, and with there's some dip, it sounds almost to spread off like so, and I also almost always used delay and reverb for plaques in sounds to add some space to them. So Let's go into the FX section here. I'm only going to add it to the year. Now let's use it on the common, which is both these layers, and then we'll go to, Let's see, we have delay here. Let's use this chorus echo. Know too much way out with right and then some reverb to that. Just the proverb. No, too high setting, Let's see. And of course, you then experiment with these settings as well as all these other settings to get a sound that you want for your current music production. 13. How to make a Pad Synth Sound: pad Seen sound. What is it? Basically, pads is the synth equivalent off long sustains on orchestral strings or brass ensembles. For example, a pat synth has that same soft and slow attack and long reach sustain pads or sometimes called soft blankets off sound. Now I will show you behind the scenes as I create a pad since sound live. All right, so the first step is to choose the main cooler and tone off the sound, meaning the way forms, of course. So let's see what we have here thing is the default way forming on this fear. Well, let's change it to something more warm since we are going to create a pad sound. How about this one? Right? So that's a good stocked and pads usually benefit from having layers. So I will create another oscillator here and lets you that for now, let's see what we have. We have warm. Let's use a deep 10 no, not that one. Let's see what we have. Um, let's using other warm. In fact, this velvet on these JP eight kind of similar Now we will layer them together, and we're going to start with the most essential thing when creating pads, which is the envelopes, especially the AMP. Envelope. So for repaired, you want that soft long attack in the sound. Let's use only layer A for now, so I will increase this by quite a lot. So we have this will know that's used about all three seconds or so. It's stops instantly. It's facing good. Now I will increase the decay and sustained to the max and also add some release to let the sound ring out. So that's the general guidelines for Pad sounds is a longer tack and a long release, and I usually keep these at the maximum setting. Let's go ahead and apply similar settings, but not exactly the same. Let's see what we have. We have three seconds exactly there. Let's use some various and just but you some different settings here. Just awful variation like So now we're getting to the fielder envelope because you also want to have a former sound that perhaps can open up or close it if you want to. But I will apply a low post filter that's let's use the rich and movie here. Let's meet that for now. The super Super soft now. But if I increased this now and used the same kind of setting, let it open up slowly perhaps not as slowly as the AMP. Anvil. Higher initial sitting right like that. Ah, let's use this similar but not exact thing filter on this one. Um, she was this one similar sitting. The thing with layering, especially for these kinds of rich pad sounds, is having different settings per layer at least slightly to have some variation and movement in the sound. So slight, similar settings here, right? That's a really good start. Next you can hear the sound our still completely in mono. So this is a great part off creating pads that were going into mainly be in the background of your tracks is dependent out. So this one, I will pan to the left maxim to the right on this one, and now we have Ah, nice. It's starting to sound like you're really pad since sound here, but I want to make it even deeper, So I'm going to go into some modulation to add some motion into the sound. So I'm going to try to add an LFO here to let's see what we can added modulation to let's use, uh, symmetry here. Wear also later. Be now. So also later seeing symmetry right, slower movement on I won't you have some regulation here. This should really mainly be subtle, really subtle movement into sound. So let's create of the in honesty, or you can actually invite click and then shoes modulate here as well. No torching the shape now and then used moderate on modulate with LFO, and it could create one here and it can actually set. We're starting to get some movement in the sound, but I want to add an even richer type of sand. You know, the unison mode works great for lead sounds a zone, but I find that the insert effect if you have one on your synthesizer called Coors or Insoluble, works really great for this because you're essentially going to create that insolvable effect to make it really reach, and it will push it mawr into the background. So, like a string section compared to a solo violin, for example, So let's choose this one Anil chorus to start with jealousy without, I think this sound starts to be more cloudy, and that is basically what you want to make it lose its definition because the general guideline forest synth pad is to make it that kind of soft Corp it in the background. Next, I'm going to add some more insert effects for added movement, and one way you can do this is to use, for example, a let's see tremolo on on the highest depth. It will be really rhythmical. Let's decrease it just to have some slight movement and slower speed. In fact, nice. And if you want to, you could also create an extra layer and add an even more rhythmic movement, like its stock to Roar Gate or Peggy a type of effect. I'm not going to do that now, but that is what you can do if you want to add like read, make shimmer, perhaps an octave above on your pad sound. The last thing which is also really important for Pat sounds is, of course, a big or their eyes a a huge reverb, so I usually put it on quite a lot of, ah, hi room size, and then I just Well, I will just push it to the max. So now we have this on. If you want to create slightly more modulation and motion in the sounds, you can actually add some fine shooting here. What's a 56 cents or so left on that on Right on this will she will create an even more in psalm ble sends sound on. Of course you can Then modulate this so you will make the pitch slightly changed over time within Aleppo again. And make it Ah very, very minimal in its setting, just around the center position there, let's see. And then we do that for these one as well. Find unity, modulate with LFO. Very, very minimal, Very slow but slight. Different settings again Too much still, especially since I already paid them out. It's baked them closer to perfect and then slide slide modulation. Congratulations. You have learned the basics of how to create a pad sinks on from scratch. So go ahead and experiment on creating pad sons on your synthesizers. 14. How to make a Lead Synth Sound: Theo since sound. What is it? Basically it is the sink equivalent off lead vocalist or any instrument playing the lead. Melody, a lead synth, is most often model for Nick like the human voice and used a lot of expressive performance . Modulation like Dynamics glides the broader etcetera. Now I will show you behind the scenes as I create a lead seen Sound Live. All right, So let's first choose the main color off this lead synth, which is, of course, the way forms here. So I'm gonna go with a sore wave because lead sounds re should have a rich sound with lots off harmonic overtones. So let's go into analog timbers. I want a warm sound, and that's shoes is sore here. Let's choose this one JP eight horn soul. Let's listen to these sound. Uh ah, that's a good start. Now. Next, we want to design the EMP and filter envelope first. We, of course, need to sit the filter to something I want again. A rich and warm filter. Let's choose this one, and I would sit is somewhere in the middle. Let's say four or five kilohertz. So without the filter envelope, I just made it to beat warmer Aziz. It's like difference. Ah, then for lead sounds. I really wanted to have this short attack and a very short release. But some ah decay in the sustain of the sound, just like a human voice or any acoustic instruments cannot hold the note forever. I wanted to slightly fade like So let's say, should I? In fact, I wanted to have something like so and then for the filter. I just want to add that rich short pluck in the filter in the beginning, so I will choose a very short decay. If I said this report to me, we'll hear it more clearly. So without the envelope with the envelope president here, but I wanted to just add a hint of a attack that's enough for the filter envelope. Of course, I want to make sure that the velocity is sensitive both on the AMP and field and lochs. I can make your difference between ah, the accidents. You might want to increase this if you want to, but I really want to reduce the dynamics on the velocity for lead. Since sounds next, I want to make this sound Mona Fornek just like a human voice can only play or sing one note at a time like this. I put Chris toodles, but it's only plays one, so ah, that's enough for the main color off the sound. Now I want to make it more lyrical, so I'm going to add a glide to this sound here. Um, just a short team to glide. Let's compared first how it sounds with long life. That's the kind of sound we want to create, but very short, just in regard on the notes. Uh, slightly longer right. Sounds good. It's turned on the solo so you can hear it doesn't re trigger the envelope than if I called . The notes were overlap them. So next let's see, um, I want to add some more expression, so I'm going to edit the broader to this, and that's what L. A. Phones can be great for a cycling movement. So let's snap a liver one to the fine tuning of this. Also later pitch fine, and I thought, this is way too much, so I will reduce the depth. Onley centers around still too much, and then increase the rate, of course. So around 5 to 6. Um, something like that. But I don't want that. They brought it to beyond Aled the time so you could add, for example, a delay she brought a comes in after a while. But then, of course, it falls away the time off at that time. So I usually want to have some kind of modulation to add to kit in the brought of when I want it. That's how you add expression into musical phrases like melodies. So I'm going to go into the modulation editor and map the awful touch, which is some immediate keyboards, etc. Ah, having extra pressure sensors that if I press down the then press a bit harder afterwards, I will kick in the after touch. If your keyboard does not have this, you could, for example, map it to your modulation well, or a slider or faded or whatever you want. What I'm going to use A since I have it available. Ah, let's see. I'm going to map it to l Afful one depth. So basically, when I press the note on my keyboard, it will increase this. Now the depth Ah, let's see. I want it go from the bottom so it doesn't and start with the broader. So now if I just play one note Oh, no, broader. But if you here now, if I press the note and then I will press holder to activate off the touch. Listen, I'll offer touch really soft touch, and you can also see here. But I hold on press harder to excavate, offer touch. That's how I can add expression with the broader. Whenever I wanted just a like a ghetto restore violinist or whatever eso. That's a great feature you conduce, especially on lead since activated, he brought with modulation. Another thing that you often do with melodies is very the intensity, meaning the loudness. For that, I first have the velocity sensitivity, which is not Max, not minimum somewhere in the middle, so it's not too much variation there, but I want to add a bit more variation. Ah, with movement in intensity, which you can do with, for example, your modulation wheel to map that to the M for output level. So I'm going to do that now. In on this year, I can seem to right click here, modulate, modulate with Let's see, we're going to wheel, which is modulation wheel. Then I want to see right, So I want to reduce the target so it starts around in the middle, right? So this is how it played. Now, if I increase the population way, you can hear the difference in the intensity of the loudness off the note. All right. Ah, Now, for most lead scene sounds, I recommend adding space effects like delay and reverb to really make them shine because they sound pretty boring by themselves. So I'm going to add to the effects section here in an insert effect. A delay. I usually use stereo delays meaning twos, different delay, delays panned left and right, as you can see here. And actually this is a good default setting 1/4 note here and eighth dotted note here. Let's see how it sounds. Because I read sounds really benefit from adding that with to them. By the way, another thing you can do to add more with is, of course, to add the unison mode. Oh, yeah, much better. So now we have unison for with and also even more within space with the delay. Finally, I use reverb. I'm going to use medium amount of decay time nor too big of a room like so. And that's the final sound. If you want to beef this up even more, you could, of course, at another oscillator or part to it perhaps an octave lower, and then make adjustments to that. Whatever you want. Just Teoh needs. You sound really kept through in the mix. So compared to this, then you, of course, need to make sure that all your modulation and expression automation is the same on both these parts. So I have mapping modulation wheel to the AMP. Output here, the liver one to the pitch fine to access Vidro toe with off the touch and eso won. So now both ports play perfectly in sync with each other so I can play pores like this. 15. Congratulations: congratulations. You have now learned how synthesizers work and how to create design and shape your own sounds from scratch on his synthesizer. Now it is time for your final project, which I strongly recommend you to do, because learning by doing is the most powerful way to become a master in any field. Here is your project. Create your own versions off the following types of sounds on any synthesizer you have in your DW base. Since own pluck seen sound pad seemed sound, the scene sound, plus any other sound you feel like creating only synthesize a Boris prodigy can do. To learn even better, is to use your new knowledge and experience by shaping remade presets on your synthesizers , into use good luck and have fun creating and shaping your old sounds. Own synthesizers. My name is Mike on. I wish you great Sex says on your journey in music