How to conduct Competency Based Interviews | UCF | STAR technique | Interview questions | Cards | Nikola Lugonja | Skillshare

How to conduct Competency Based Interviews | UCF | STAR technique | Interview questions | Cards

Nikola Lugonja, HR and Marketing Instructor

How to conduct Competency Based Interviews | UCF | STAR technique | Interview questions | Cards

Nikola Lugonja, HR and Marketing Instructor

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14 Lessons (33m)
    • 1. Class Introduction

    • 2. 4 Types of Interviews

    • 3. What is CBI?

    • 4. What are competencies?

    • 5. UCF vs Customized Competencies

    • 6. Universal Competency Framework construction explained

    • 7. How to use the competency cards (interview preparation)

    • 8. How to prepare interview questions based on competencies

    • 9. STAR technique - answer interview questions (for candidates)

    • 10. SBO structure - analyze interview answers (for interviewers)

    • 11. Funneling (probing) Technique explained

    • 12. 7 Common Interviewer Biases

    • 13. Questions, Exercise & Sources - Bonus video

    • 14. Summary (class overview)

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About This Class

A competency–based interviewing is a behavioral type of interview used to assess a candidate's performance in a particular key area or skill that is attributable to the job description. This approach is built on a premise that the best predictor of future behavior is the past one. Therefore, candidates are asked questions where they need to provide specific examples from their prior experiences. In this class, we will look deeper into this concept and all the things that go together with it. The class is relevant to both interviewers (recruiters) and candidates. 

Competency-based Interviewing (lectures):

  1. Class Introduction
  2. 4 Types of Interviews
  3. What is CBI?
  4. What are competencies?
  5. UCF vs Customized Competencies
  6. Universal Competency Framework construction explained
  7. How to use the competency cards (interview preparation)
  8. How to prepare interview questions based on competencies
  9. STAR technique - answer interview questions (for candidates)
  10. SBO structure - analyze interview answers (for interviewers)
  11. Funneling (probing) Technique explained
  12. 7 Common Interviewer Biases
  13. Questions, Exercise & Sources - Bonus video
  14. Summary (class overview)

Meet Your Teacher

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Nikola Lugonja

HR and Marketing Instructor


-Multi-year experience in both HR and digital marketing. I started my career in Marketing, but over time I dived deeper into the world of Human Resources. I find these two areas commonly overlapping (e.g. when it comes to the employer branding), therefore I will also try to link them in some classes. 

-Here are 4 values that I always keep in mind when preparing and publishing classes:

Keep it short and sweet - eliminating everything that does not bring any value and ensuring the students get the most out of every single second Unscramble the content - making things simple to comprehend and outlining the most important takeaways Always explore - stepping into the unknown to extensively research new topics and broaden the knowledge spectrum Improve on fee... See full profile

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1. Class Introduction: Hello and welcome to CBI interviewing. My name is Nikola and I will be guiding you through this class. I'm super excited to share more about a competency-based interviewing. Even if you haven't heard about it before, don't worry, because already in the next lecture, you will get to understand what it is and how it differs from the other job interview types. The fact of the matter is that the behavioral interview based on competencies is becoming widespread and immensely popular with the recruiters. I want to emphasize that this class will be both useful for interviewers and candidates. There might be some lectures that are more relevant to the interviewers. But overall, it's recommended no matter if you're a candidate or a recruiter to go through this class, even if something applies to the interviewers, as a candidate, it's valuable to know how the examiners think and prepare for the interviews. Very briefly, in this class, we will be covering the following topics. What are the 4 most common interview types, What is competency-based interviewing, What are competencies. We will look into the Universal Competency Framework and its structure. In addition, we'll play with these competency cards and come up with relevant interview questions based on the chosen ones. Furthermore, we will introduce the STAR technique that the candidate should use to answer the behavioral questions on the interview. Approaching the end, we will discuss the funneling or probing questions, what are some common interviewer biases, and then sources to find the list of behavioral questions. And finally, I will share a cool exercise for candidates to practice answering behavioral questions. Not to forget, there will be a summary lecture that will give a class overview and its takeaways in a couple of minutes. Without spending any more words on the introduction, I am waiting for you in the next video. See you there! 2. 4 Types of Interviews: Hi. If we were to talk about interview types in depth, we could make a separate class on it. There are numerous divisions based on length, structure, place, purpose, participants, medium, channel, etc. Instead, I focused too, I choose to focus on one particular division. That is, what types of questions are being asked. From this perspective, we can consider four different interview types. Informational interview, usually the very first interview sometimes carried out via phone, as the name suggests, is focuses on gathering basic information and opinions of the candidate. Here are a few questions, examples. How did you get involved in this job or industry? What do you value the most about the workplace? What is your preferred relationship with coworkers? What do you know now that you wished, you know, when you started? Next? We have hypothetical interview. It puts candidates in an imaginary or hypothetical situation and asks how they would react or solve the presented problem. It is similar to a role-play. Hypothetical questions focused on future behaviors. Here are a few question examples. How would you manage a large workload? What would you do if the project you manage cut canceled? How would you react if you receive criticism? What if you had to work with a difficult co-worker on a task? As you can see, these questions usually start with how would or what. Next behavioral interview. It focuses on past performances versus hypothetical situations. They emphasize the premise that past behavior is the best indicator of future behavior in this class and following videos, we are looking into this type more precisely, competency-based behavioral interviewing. Here are some questions. Examples, tell me about a time you received an actionable feedback. Describe a situation when you had to delegate some tasks. Give me an example of a relationship you develop that you're most proud of document through a time you worked on a lot of stress. These questions usually start with tell me about a time, describe a situation when, and so on. Finally, case interview. It is built around the case study as a hypothetical problem or an existing one in the company that candidate is expected to solve during the interview. Therefore, it is task-oriented and it's commonly referred to as a technical interview. It can be in a return or digital form, but it can also be asking the oral form together with other questions. Here are some examples. Provide a strategy to retain existing employees in the event that the company is unable to provide the expected salary growth. So those would be the full basic interview types. Thank you for watching the video and hope to see you in the next one. 3. What is CBI?: Hey everyone, In this lecture we're talking about CPI. Cpi stands for competency-based interviewing. It is a behavioral interview based on competencies used to assess candidates suitability for a particular role. Cvi is structured interview mattered, in other words, in which a candidate is asked to share examples from past experiences describing their behavior in a particular situation. As you mentioned earlier, CVI is developed and the premise that past behavior is the best indicator of future performance. Therefore, we want to hear more about some recent or partial samples of candidates to see how they might react to similar situations in the future. However shins, you're familiar and now understand the behavior part. Let us discuss now what competencies are and how they differ from skills. And we'll do that in the next video. So I'm looking forward to seeing you there. 4. What are competencies?: Hi there. Welcome back to another lecture of competency-based interviewing class, where we are looking at the competencies. So what are they essentially? Competencies are particular qualities that recruiters decide this desirables for employers to possess. During job interviews and assessments, competencies are used as benchmark against which interviewers can evaluate candidates. Another definition would be that the competencies, that repertoire of capabilities, activities, and the responses available that enable a range of work demands to be met more effectively by some people than by others. Going on further, it's important to know that there is a difference between a skill and a competency. To break it down more simply, competency is much broader than a skill. Skill is a specific to a task, while competency combined set of skills together with knowledge and abilities. To imagine it maybe a bit more clearer. Skill is just one of three facets that make up a competency. The other two are knowledge and abilities. In addition, if you're wondering what is the distinction between skills and knowledge. Commonly, skills refers to the capability of applying knowledge to specific situations. Going on further, there's also a difference between competence and competency. So competence with E in the end relates to outcomes and describes the tasks, functions, or objectives. Alternatively, competency with why in the end relates to the behaviors underpinning successful performance. That is, what people do to meet their objectives, how they go about achieving the require outcomes, or what enables their skill performance. To put it differently. Competence describes what people do, whereas competency describes how people do it. To be honest, these differences are sometimes a bit blurry to me as well. So don't break your head over them. The distinctions are extremely tiny and commonly they're used as synonyms in colloquial speech. That would be it for this short lecture. Thank you for watching and I hope to see you in the next one. 5. UCF vs Customized Competencies: Hi there. In this lecture we will be talking about the UCF, or universal competency framework. It is a single fundamental framework developed by SHL that provides a consistent and practical basis for understanding people's behavior at work and their likelihood to succeed in particular roles and environments. In other words, as h l develop this universal competencies that can be applied broadly and independently off the industry, or role. According to SHL, they constructed a UCF from the wide reaching program of research on workplace behaviors. So it can be used for all types of jobs. This is very helpful and beneficial, especially for smaller organizations that don't have enough resources, develop their customize competencies. Now, on the other hand, everything that has a universal application can also be narrow down and tailored, made to a specific need. Most frequently this happens in large organizations where companies design customized competency frameworks based on their research. This approach requires more resources, but can bring benefits such as more precise assessment and better hires. It is also crucial to point out that a company does not create or build competencies, but it identifies them. So developing a competency framework does not require a brainstorming session, but a careful in-depth research to discover the most relevant behaviors. Thank you for watching this video, and I hope to see you the next one. 6. Universal Competency Framework construction explained: Hello everyone. In this lecture we are talking about the UCF construction. The UCF or universal competency framework as defined in terms of a three tier or level structure. The first top tier consists of eight general competency factors, or so-called the grade eight. The second or middle tier contains 20 competency dimensions that we chose as relevant for candidates to have. And the further down the third or bottom theorem holds a set of 112 specific behaviors relevant for each particular competency above. And now this is the graphic visualization of the crate eight and 20 competencies dimensions bear in mind that these are the universal competencies, which means they're adopted for use across different industries, fields, job roles, and so on. Each of these 20 competency dimension cards that you see has four to six behaviors or indicators that in total in campus 112, particular behaviors. That is that bottom tier level that we already mentioned. Thank you very much for watching this video and see you in the next one. 7. How to use the competency cards (interview preparation): Hey, there. In this video, we're finally looking into the competency cards that I've prepared here. We will take an imaginary position as an example and determine a couple of key and desirable competencies together. So without further ado, let's go straight to it. So before we get to the cars, It's important to know for which role we are determining the competences. In this case, we'll use an example of a marketing manager. Very briefly, there is a description saying that he or she has to lead a team of eight people, manage high budget campaigns, established a marketing strategy. The new region reported under KPIs for the department and so on. Of course, in reality, this description will be far longer and include not only the things in the jar bad, but also relevant points from internal documents and the responsibilities of people who occupy that position before looking at the cards, now, we have the whole universal competency framework outlined here. Grade 81234567820 competencies, in this case, cards and indole 112 indicators or behaviors listed on the cars. And the great thing about this process is that you as a recruiter from another team, not knowing the requirements and expectations of their role in depth can sit down with the hiring or line manager to discuss which of these competencies are relevant for this row, hiring manager in the case of this example, for a marketing manager role could be a chief marketing officer or a VP of marketing, or any manager that is hiring for this role together with the recruiter, Now, I would propose picking three to five key competencies and to treat desirable ones out of these 20 that you see that we want to assess throughout the selection process, and ideally that we want our new employee to have. Notice that I said here throughout the selection process and not through the, throughout the interview. Why did I do so? Well, if you pick at least three key and to desirable competencies, it's really possible to assess all five of them in one interview. I would say that in a 45 or 60 minute interview, it's realistically possible to assess two or three competency cards that you see here. And that depends on what else the interviewer focuses on. For that reason, there are usually assessed in several interview rounds. Now, looking at the role description we have, I would propose the following three key competencies. That would be 1.2, which is leading and supervising. Then I would say 5.3, formulating strategies and concepts. And in this case I would go for 6.1, which is planning and organizing. And if you go back to our job description, you can see why this is so relevant. So having someone who can lead people manage the team, established a marketing strategy report on KPIs and so on. And now, looking at the two desirable competencies, I would go with 3.3, presenting and communicating information exactly because we mentioned the reporting on KPIs for the department, let's say. And also 7.2, which would be coping with pressure and setbacks and which might tend to exist due to high responsibilities and a role that the person is occupying. So keep in mind that there is no right or wrong here. This is usually a personal mutual decision based on different factors involved. Just for the sake of simplicity, I choose these five, although I would probably take one or two more in real life. Don't worry if you cannot clearly see the cards, I will have them fully displayed in the next video. This was just the overview of the process. The next step would be to look at these chosen competencies and come up with the questions that we'll address them and allow us to see which candidates shows signs of possessing these competencies and which don't. So to summarize quickly, we saw what is the open position marketing manager? What are the responsibilities of the role? And we chose three key and to desirable competencies that we want to assess in our candidates. Now, let us discuss how to prepare that relevant interview questions for these competencies in the next video. Thank you for watching and I hope to see you there. 8. How to prepare interview questions based on competencies: Hi there and welcome back to yet another lecture of our CBA class. Continuing on where we left in the last lecture, we now decided on particular three key plus 2 desirable competencies to examine during the interviews. Let's prepare some questions that will indicate whether the candidate possesses these competencies or not. Again, for the sake of simplicity, I will just give two example questions for each competency that you will see on the screen. The first competency is leading and supervising. And on the right photo from a to F, you can see the behaviors that indicate the existence of that competency with the candidate. Here are some question ideas. Tell me about a time when you had to set a good example for others in your team. Give me an example of a time when you manage a group of six people in an important project or a meeting. The next competency is formulating strategies and concepts Dogme through a situation when you had to align a project with strategic plans of the company. Or describe a situation when you have to formulate a plan or a strategy for your department or team. Going on further planning and organizing. Tell me about a time you had to plan a project event or any long-term assignment. Tell me about a time when you had to work with limited resources in terms of time and money. Coming now to our desirable competencies, the first one is presenting and communicating information. Here are some example questions describe a situation when you had to report the results to your managers or board of directors. Give me an example of a situation when you had to give a speech in front of a big audience. And lastly, we have coping with pressure and setbacks. And here are two example questions. Tell me about a time when you worked under a lot of pressure or under a tight deadline, talk me through a situation when you struggled to maintain a work-life balance. Now that you have this question set up as an interviewer, you are ready for your conversation with the candidate. You can put focus on one or the other or use them only as a starting point. As you get to hear candidates answers, you can probe and further ask which we're interested to know. I really hope you find this helpful. Thank you for watching this video and I hope to see you in the next one. 9. STAR technique - answer interview questions (for candidates): Hi all. In this video we're talking about the STAR technique or model. The STAR technique allows candidates to give a clear and complete answer to behavioral questions by describing the specific situation, activities, and outcome they achieved. STAR is an acronym for four key concepts of storytelling, situation, task, action, and result. Each concept is established the candidate can utilize to answer a behavioral interview question by employing or four elements that candidate can provide a comprehensive answer. Let's look into the each concept individually situation when it comes to the first element, describe the scene and provide interior with enough card decks unnecessarily. Thus, for the example, you plan to tell task, describe what your task and responsibilities were in that given situation. This can still be considered as a part of a situation element and providing contexts. But here, focus on emphasizing can watch your precise tasks and duties were, in that case, action explained the specific actions or steps you took to handle the situation or overcome the challenge. This element requires the most in-depth description, as it is thought was largely indicates your fit for the position. Finally, result. Tell what was the outcome in the end, how did it Finish? Be honest and highlight how your actions contributed to the final result. Case the outcome was negative or unsuccessful. Briefly explain in a few sentences what you learn from it or what you would do differently next time from my experience, candidates tend to spend the most time providing contexts and describing the situation to the interviewer. They don't focus enough on the action part, that is on describing activities they took on contributing. Also, STAR technique is beneficial for both sides. It helps candidates to structure the responses, not go into long monologues and stay on topic and show confidence. On the other hand, it helps interviewers get structured answers, better understand and examined the competencies in question, objectively assess the candidate. Moreover, interviewers appreciate when especially young candidates use the STAR technique because they see the candidates prepared and did the research prior to the interview. Here is a behavioral question example and a great answer using the STAR technique. Tell me about a time when you managed a team of people in a project with some challenges. Here comes the answer. In my previous company, I was assigned a six month project to develop a new employer branding strategy in our market, I lead a team of nine people, four of which were directly for my marketing department, and five of which were from the HR department. My responsibilities included planning and coordinating the meetings, setting objectives, and measurable targets, supervising the progress of board advisement that work together in this case, et cetera. We had a slow start because no one seemed to have enough time for the project. But very soon I asked everyone to start avoiding 10 to 20 percent of their time to this project. We establish the weekly meetings and workshops every Tuesday from two to 05:00 PM, I think, and use the time to solely focus on the project. Moreover, we used the OKR methodology to set up individual objectives and key results that were aligned with the project and accompanies once we ran a group feedback session on a bi-weekly basis to make sure there were no obstacles or challenges in the projects. The communication, the outcome was positive, although we were a week late as initially planned, due to our slow start, we established a new employer branding strategy and prepare three large campaigns that ran successfully in the following course of two months. So there you have it. That's a great example of a behavioral question and how to provide an answer to one. Thank you very much for watching this video and I hope to see you in the next one. 10. SBO structure - analyze interview answers (for interviewers): Welcome back. In this video, I would like to discuss something that is oftentimes used interchangeably with STAR technique. It is called SBO structure and indeed it is the same as the STAR technique. However, as below stands for Situation, Behavior, and Outcome. While searching online, you may find, you may not find any distinction between the two. Nevertheless, I like to use the STAR technique from the candidate's perspective and SBO from the interviewer's one. If you take a closer look, you will see that SBO lacks one letter compared to STAR and that roughly would be the letter T or Task. That is not to say that tasks are not included in SBO structure, but they're usually analyzed in the context of situation. So how does this structure work? SBO helps examiners structure and break down candidates responses to understand all parts of it better. Referring to the answer example in our previous video, situation and task would be united under this situation aspect action would refer to behaviors and the result would represent the outcome. Here is another example, but this time using the SBO structure. So here's the question. Tell me about a time when you work under a tight deadline to deliver on a project. And here comes the answer. I was part of the team which worked on a large project that was supposed to be finished in two months for one important client, my manager came to me and said that the client wanted it back in 45 days and that we would need to speed up our work without sacrificing other projects we had. So what I did, I met with the team and we reviewed the calendar. We eliminated less important meetings and shifted lower priority tasks until the end of the 45 day period to add extra hours to our work weeks. And I also proposed that we spent three are the following five salaries working for at least a few hours. And as a reward, they four days of if we successfully deliver on the project. So coming to the outcome after 43 days, we successfully submitted our project for the first review, and then we had to make some minor edits on a day 40 for it. But by the day 45, it was fully delivered. The client was extremely satisfied and we earned our company and extra bonus for delivering on a narrow timeline, as you can see, almost similar but a bit easier for the interviewer to know down the answers and later analyze them. From my understanding and experience STAR technique is that it is easier for candidates and beginners. Because it helps him, because it adds an extra element that helps structure the answers and tell the story better. To sum up, there is no big difference between STAR and SBO structure. STAR is more accurate and suitable for candidates, let's say to better express themselves, whereas SBO saves interviewer's time while taking notes and later examining the interiors. So that would be it. Hope that also provide you with some additional context. Thank you very much for watching this video and see you in the next one. 11. Funneling (probing) Technique explained: Hi. So far you had the opportunity to see what type of answer is interviewer looking for. In the best case scenario, the examiner will get all necessary information from the candidate's response. However, it can happen that the interviewer ask some follow-up questions to understand the full context or gather the missing information. This is called funneling or probing. So this technique involves starting with general questions and then drilling down to a more specific point. It ensures that candidates provided detailed responses and interviewers capture accurate notes. A series of open questions with little probing is likely to lead to week interview with little specific information on which to base that decision later. Also, probing can be done at any stage of the candidates answered. Sometimes it is a closed follow-up question to understand the context fully. But most commonly, it is a follow-up with bunch of wise or PYY to understand the triggers, decisions, or emotions behind an answer. Now imagine that you're an interviewer and you ask a behavioral question to an applicant, they describe you the situation and context, what were their contributions and behaviors. And candidate finished answering. However, you still don't understand the outcome of the discussed example. You're not sure if it succeeded or failed in the end, this is when the interviewer should probe, ask questions such as, what was the outcome, what happened in the end? Software all, did you achieve the satisfying result? What feedback they received? Finally, that can be at another question example. Similarly, if a candidate gives enough background for a situation and outcome, but does not spend much time talking about their precise behavior or actions. The interviewer can probe further to discover more, for instance, but tell me what for your contributions in this particular layer, how did you assist in the process or what actions did you take? As you can see, the funneling approaches broadly applicable and it can also be used to discover more about the triggers or inner feelings of the person. For example, the interviewer can ask, why did you decide to do so? Why did you feel this way and so on. Thank you very much for watching this video. I hope all this information gives you more context and understanding. Thank you once again for watching and hope to see you in the next video. 12. 7 Common Interviewer Biases: Hi, thanks for joining this lecture where we will be talking about the interviewer biases. And before we start, let's give a definition. According to tell Vue, interviewer bias refers to the human error of consciously or unconsciously holding predetermined judgment about the candidates that affect their evaluation, either negatively or positively. When human beings interact with one another in a social setting, they are bound to have set of preconceived notions about the person they're interacting with even before the talk. Here are some examples. As an examiner, you might like the candidate even before meeting them because of their city photo or because they went to the same university. Assume. Alternatively, you can already be skeptical about them as you learned that they come from a certain region or country. Now while these biases are a part of everyday life and interaction as an interviewer examiner, you should be conscious of them and their effect, and they should be placed aside. Here we look at seven common biases. The first one is called the first impression bias. This is very common for all social interactions. It means charging and forming unsupported opinions of the person in the first few seconds or minutes of contact. Next, we have halo or horn effect. Halo effect means flooding one brilliant aspect of candidates resume, overshadow the areas in which they appear weak or unqualified. Opposite of it as the horn effect. If the candidate scores poorly in one area, interviewer assumes they perform unwell in all areas. Essentially, interviewers under halo effect or horn effect allows one strong or weak point about the candidate to overtake everything else that the candidates us. Next is the recency bias. It occurs when the interviewer recalls the most recently interviewed candidates were clearly than the candidates interviewed earlier in the process. This is especially tricky when the interviewer doesn't take any notes and can only remember candidates from the last few days or weeks. Conscious effect. This effect shakes interviewer perception when comparing one candidate directly to the next one and consequently enhancing the differences between them. It arises when, for example, a stronger candidate is interviewed after a week one, so he or she appears as more qualified and suitable. Although his or her appearances average, objectively speaking. Also, if a good candidate appears after a marvelous one, there are potential might be dismissed due to the direct conscious, the fact of the previous candidate. Further on we have cultural noise. This bias occurs when the candidate is tailoring their responses to what they think the interviewer would want to hear rather than being honest about their responses. In other words, candidate anticipates and give socially desirable responses instead of there through opinion. Similar to me or likely effect is also known commonly as affinity bias. It makes the interviewer feel more attached to candidates that he or she has a lot in common width. For instance, finishing the same degree, reading the same book, having a matching fashion style, sharing the identical career paths growing up in the same neighborhood, a region, and so on. Finally, we discussed the central tendency. This bias happens when an interviewer categorizes everyone in the middle or around the middle of values. Usually this means the interviewer keeps looking for an exclusive candidate that will surpass everyone. This often means that interviewers, neglecting the real potential and value of the candidates they have. Looking back on everything that was said, it's important to understand that no one is bias-free. We biologically evolved to align with people like us and oftentimes reject those who we consider different. Therefore, be cautious enough to accept that you have biases, but also a trust them and be aware of them while interviewing and bringing decisions. Thank you very much for watching this lecture and see you in the next one. 13. Questions, Exercise & Sources - Bonus video: Hi, Since we are approaching the end of the class, I prepared a short bonus video where I want to cover some good sources for behavioral interview questions and also answers. Therefore, this will be useful for both candidates and interviewers. So in the class description, I will provide useful links where you can find a bank or rest of relevant behavioral questions. Even based on particular competencies, feel free to use them directly in your interview or as an inspiration to come up with your own questions. Moreover, you can ask me the public post or discussion to send your list of even more questions directly to your mail. As I mentioned, this will be valuable for candidates as well. Why? Well, I have been on both sides of the spectrum on numerous occasions. Some candidate as an interviewer. Here's an exercise that I use to prepare for my interviews as a candidate. So what I would do, I would go through the list of behavioral questions and give myself 30 to 60 seconds to draft. We're awfully think of an answer for each question. And it was not in the written form because it will take me too much time. But I was trying to recall the relevant examples and think about how I would answer the question with the star technique. It was helpful because I could recall situations and experiences quicker when I got to the real interview since my brain already refresh the memory of past experiences, I definitely suggest you did a simple operation when you get invited for an interview. Thank you very much for watching and see you in the next video. 14. Summary (class overview): Hey there. Thank you immensely for watching and following this class. I want to use this shorter opportunity to give a quick summary of what we learned throughout the class. Starting from the first lecture, we introduce ourselves to for interview types based on their question structure. Those are informational hypothetical behavior or the case interviews. In the second lecture will shortly discuss that CBI stands for competency-based interviewing and that candidates are asked to share examples from past experiences describing their behavior in a particular situation. Further on, we talked about differences between a skill and a competency, and also between competency and the competence. We said that the skill specific to a task and just one of three facets that make up a competency. Competency combined set of skills together with knowledge and abilities. While competence with E in the nth relates to outcomes and describes what people do. Next, we mentioned customized competencies, but also what universal competency framework is and how it is structured. Those three levels, grade eight factors, 20 competency dimensions, and 112 indicators or behaviors. Moreover, we had a tutorial on how to use the competency cards. After that, we took a look at how interviewers can prepare their questions based on the three to five selected key and desirable competencies. And following that, we covered how candidates can respond to such questions using the star technique or method. That is, describe a situation, outlined the tasks, and taken actions or behaviors. And finally, what turned out to be a result of dose. Then, while still on the topic of interview questions, we studied how candidates responses can be analyzed through the SVO structure, that is situation, behavior, and outcome, which is also seen as an alternative to start technique. Another examiner technique we covered was funneling or probing, which involves starting with general questions and then drilling down to a more specific point. Approaching the end of the class, we discuss some common interviewer biases such as halo horn conscious are similar to me, Effect, recency and first impression buys, central tendency, et cetera. The main takeaway of that lecture was to become aware of these biases and push yourself against temptation to fall into their trap. The finished off with the bonus video where I shared useful sources for behavioral questions and gave a cool tip on how to practice responding to them. There you have it in a nutshell. Everything we discussed in this class. Thank you so, so much for your attention and I hope to see you in one of the following ones.