How to Sell Diamonds: Become Brilliant | Ksenija | Skillshare

How to Sell Diamonds: Become Brilliant

Ksenija, Luxury Sales Professional

How to Sell Diamonds: Become Brilliant

Ksenija, Luxury Sales Professional

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32 Lessons (1h 21m)
    • 1. Introduction To The Course

      1:48
    • 2. General Information You Should Know

      1:27
    • 3. Short History of Diamonds

      1:08
    • 4. A Diamond is Forever

      1:04
    • 5. Where are Diamonds Found

      1:25
    • 6. Why are They so Valuable

      1:36
    • 7. Basic Expressions

      2:47
    • 8. The Kimberley Process

      0:53
    • 9. Diamond Characteristic or 4Cs

      1:04
    • 10. Cut

      3:51
    • 11. Types of Cut

      5:19
    • 12. Clarity

      4:59
    • 13. Diamond Clarity Grades

      1:57
    • 14. How Shape and Size Affect Clarity

      0:53
    • 15. Treatments Use to Improve Clarity

      1:05
    • 16. How to Sell Clarity

      2:30
    • 17. Color(less)

      5:17
    • 18. How to Value Colored Diamonds

      1:54
    • 19. How to Sell Color

      1:20
    • 20. Affordable Diamonds

      4:48
    • 21. Treatments to Improve Color

      4:03
    • 22. Carat Weight

      2:10
    • 23. Magic Size Concept

      2:30
    • 24. How to Sell Carat

      1:12
    • 25. There is More to 4Cs

      3:30
    • 26. Diamond Certification The 5th C

      1:46
    • 27. Synthetic Diamonds

      1:20
    • 28. How to Sell Diamonds

      4:49
    • 29. Investing in Diamonds

      5:50
    • 30. Value-Based Selling

      4:42
    • 31. How to Take Care of Diamonds

      1:09
    • 32. Conclusion

      0:55
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About This Class

Dear Student,

in this course you will learn all you need to know about diamonds (colorless and colored ones), including a short history of diamonds, how and why diamonds became so popular, all about 5C's, and how to sell each 'C'.

We divided this course in three parts. The first part is about general information you need to know about this precious gem.

Second part is dedicated to Cut, Clarity, Color and Carat Weight and how to sell each 'C'. We will talk about treatments done on diamonds to improve the appearance and raise the value of the stone and we will learn about Magic sizes which, if used properly, can bring some amazing benefits to your customers.

We will talk about advantages and disadvantages of investing in diamonds and how to help to your customers choose the best value for the money.

You will learn also many tricks of the trade which will help you sell them like a professional - successfully and ethically!

There are many interesting facts through the course and additional PDF files in 'Resources' to give you an even bigger picture. This course is suitable for all levels.

In case of any questions, don't hesitate to contact me with a message, I will be happy to answer them.

Meet Your Teacher

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Ksenija

Luxury Sales Professional

Teacher

Hello, I'm Ksenija and I'm excited to share with you some of my professional and personal skills and experiences.

I've been working for more than 10 years now in the high-end retail business, selling fine jewelry and watches, half of the time in the boutique on land, and a half on cruise ships around the world. A highly stressful and competitive multicultural environment shaped me into an efficient sophisticated selling professional. In my courses, I would like to share with you my in-depth knowledge of jewelry and watches as well as different selling techniques and the psychology of selling and make it easier for you :)

I hope you will join our community and grow with us.     

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Transcripts

1. Introduction To The Course: Hi, beautiful people, my name is Ksenija and I'm a GIA certified jewelry specialist. I've been selling fine jewelry for almost ten years in boutiques on land and on cruise ships all around the world. I'm very passionate about jewelry. And during my career I came to a conclusion that with the right combination of knowledge and passion, you can sell virtually anything. And in this course we will learn how to successfully and ethically sell diamonds and diamond jewelry. Gemstones in general are much more than just adornments. They are symbols of love, of success, reminders of precious memories for people, markers of milestones and on top of that, they look gorgeous. Not to mention that some of them came even from space. And when they are set to into noble metals like gold, silver or platinum, they are simply irresistible. But the king of all is definitely a Diamond. Dear Student, welcome to this in-depth course about diamonds. At the end of this course, you will be able to send diamonds as a professional. You will be able not just to explain the 4C's - cut, color clarity, and carat weight and their advantages and disadvantages, but also to sell each seat depending on what your customer wants. After all, the point is to be able to find the dream diamond for your customers by getting them with the best value for their money. Next, you will know a diamond history and understand their value on today's market. You will learn which treatments are used to improve diamonds appearance. And the most important, you will be able to justify their value and to sell them. Through the course, we prepared also so some fun facts in interesting information. Let's start with some general information that you should know about diamonds. 2. General Information You Should Know: So what is a gemstone anyway? A gemstone, also called jewel, gem, precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of mineral crystal which, when cut and polished, it's used to make jewelry and other adornments. There are around 200 varieties of natural gemstones that are known in the world today. And we divide them into categories of precious and semi-precious stones. Diamond and three other gems - sapphires, emeralds and rubies, traditionally belong to the category of precious stones. All together are called the Big Four. As you probably know, a diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance found on Earth. It shares some common characteristics with coal as they're both composed out of the most common substance on Earth, which would be carbon. And what makes the difference is the way the carbon atoms are arranged and how the carbon is formed. Diamonds are created when carbon is subjected to the extremely hard pressures and temperatures below the earth's surface. Some diamonds came from outer space. They are called Carbonado diamonds and look like tiny pieces of charcoal. They had been deposited in Africa and America by an asteroid that impacted the Earth approximately 3 billion years ago. They're quite porous, so they're not suitable for engagement rings but some of them may be used for black diamond jewelry. 3. Short History of Diamonds: The youngest diamonds were formed some 900 million years ago. The first diamonds were found in India in the fourth century BC. And majority of them were transported along the Silk Road, which was the network of trade routes that connected India and China. At the time of their discovery, diamonds were valued because of their strength and they were worn only by men who use them as adornments or as cutting tools. They served also as talismans to ward off evil spirits and were believed to provide protection in battle. In the Middle Ages, diamonds were also used as medical aid and we're taught to cure illness and heal wounds when ingested. Well, do not try this at home. Later on when more modern European cup was discovered, diamonds started to sparkle and women started to wear them. And this is the point when they turn from symbols of strength to as symbols of eternal love. In PDF files in 'Resources', you can find a short interesting article with the title 'Diamond engagement ring history'. 4. A Diamond is Forever: In 1947 famous De Beers company, which is the world largest diamond Corporation, made a clever marketing advertising with the slogan 'A diamond is forever'. I'm pretty sure you've heard it. The intention of the marketing campaign was the suggestion that diamonds should be the only choice for engagement rings and preferably in size of one carat or more. De Beers advertising campaign was extremely successful and was contributing factor to today's widespread tradition of diamond engagement rings. A fun fact is that recently the De Beers started to create manmade diamonds in laboratories, promoting them as diamonds for everyday wear. While real diamonds remain the perfect choice for engagement rings. As diamond popularity grew jewelers experimented ways to enhance the diamond's visual appeal with new cutting techniques which of course increased the stone's brilliance. Over time several shifts emerged including round, oval, marquise, square and rectangular shape. 5. Where are Diamonds Found: Diamonds were formed billions of years ago, in between 150 to 450 km below the Earth's surface. How do they get from deep underground into your customers' jewelry? With volcanic eruptions. Diamonds' host is an igneous rock called Kimberlite. So, when 100 million years ago volcanoes containing Kimberlite erupted, some brought with them diamonds closer to the surface. Kimberlite is commonly found in so-called Kimberlite pipes, which are vertical structures in the Earth's crust. Unfortunately, not all Kimberlite pipes are viable. But if they are, diamonds can be mined from there with three types of mining: alluvial mining, pipe mining, and marine mining. To learn more about mining, please, check PDF file in 'Resources' the article with the title 'Different types of diamond mining'. Diamond mines can be found in India, Brazil, North America, Russia, and Africa. They can exist as privately owned entities and also as government-sponsored enterprises. Here I have a note for you: Diamonds are the hardest mineral, but they're not the toughest. If they are positioned just right, they can be split with a single well-placed blow. However, it takes special knowledge and analysis of the stone's internal crystal structure to, of course, split the diamond. 6. Why are They so Valuable: The first factor that raises up the price is the mining cost. Diamonds were formed deep underground, but luckily for us, they came closer to the surface with volcanic eruptions. The whole mining operation to get them out is extremely expensive. There are grants and permits, heavy machinery, equipment, workforce, and on top of that, mining is happening in some of the most remote areas of the world. It takes approximately 15 years from the beginning of the mining operation until we can get out the first diamonds. Imagine, it's a long time. The second factor that influences the value is the rarity of high-quality diamonds. Today, around 80% of mined diamonds are low in quality and used for industrial purposes only - for grinding, sawing and more. Less than 20% of diamonds are of gem quality. And from those 20%, less than 2% are considered investment diamonds. What we find are mostly diamonds with tints of yellow or brown color. Diamonds with top quality in all four C's are extremely rare, and therefore, of course, they are very valuable. Typically more than 250 tons of ore must be mined in order to obtain a one-carat gem-quality stone. So if your customers heard somewhere that diamonds are not rare at all, you can confirm that, but delicately add that gem-quality diamonds, especially in bigger carat weights, are very, very rare. 7. Basic Expressions: Before we dig deep into diamond attributes, let's learn first some basic expressions used to explain the parts and proportions of a diamond. Facets are the smooth flat faces on the surface of a diamond. They allow the light to enter a diamond and to reflect on its surface at different angles, which will create a wonderful play of color and sparkles for which diamonds are famous. Facets have different names, depending on where they are, so on their position. We have upper or lower half facet, bezel facet, star facet and pavilion facet. Table is a flat facet on the top of the diamond. Crown is the upper part of the diamond above the girdle. Girdle is the outer edge and the widest part of the diamond forming a band around the stone. Pavilion is the bottom part of the diamond below the girdle. Culet is a tiny flat facet the diamond cutters sometimes set at the bottom of the diamond's pavilion. Its purpose is to protect the tip of the pavilion from being chipped or damaged. A Round brilliant diamond has in total 57 facets or 58, depending on if it has a culet. Depth is the height of the diamond from the culet to the table, and it's measured in millimeters. Crown angle is the angle at which the diamond bezel facets intersect the girdle plane and help to create the fire in a diamond. The crown angle also helps to enhance the brilliance of a diamond. Pavilion angle is the same idea as the crown angle. Table percentage is the value which represents how the diameter of the table facet compares to the diameter of the entire diamond. For those who forgot from the school what is a diameter - it's a straight line passing from side to side through the center of the body. So a diamond with a 60% table has a table that is 60% as wide as the diamond's outline. Scintillation is a term that refers to the flashes of the light that you can see when you hold the diamond and you move it. With simple words, fire diamond is the colored sparkle that you can see when the stone is exposed to light. Is the phenomenon when a beam of white light passes through a diamond and splits into its seven colors. And I have here for you one fun fact: Dispersion of the light was discovered by Isaac Newton in 1666. He passed the beam of sunlight through a glass prism. And the last is Brilliance: In contrast to fire, which is a colored sparkle, brilliance is colorless light that is emitted from the stone. 8. The Kimberley Process: In order to eliminate the sale of conflict diamonds, which were used to support civil wars, the international community established in 2000 the Kimberley process. It's a no tolerance policy against the use of conflict diamonds, we call them also 'blood diamonds', and it was adopted by 74 governments. Kimberley Process promotes safe and ethical diamond mining practices by requiring an issuance and authorization of a certificate for each mined, rough diamond. With all this, it's undeniable the diamonds are undergoing long journey from the warm belly of the earth to hardworking diamond miners, jewelers and retailers in order to find their way to you and your customers. 9. Diamond Characteristic or 4Cs: When customers dream of their diamond, they usually think of a big, white, sparkly and clear stone. Let's see how to translate those general objectives into diamond grades or so-called 4C's and get your customers the best deal for it. 4C's are: cut, clarity, color and carat weight. We value diamonds based on their own unique combination of 4C's. It is important to remember that different customers will find different aspects of a diamond important. Some customers are more interested in the carat weight of a diamond and others in its optical performance. All 4C's are important and will add or take from the value of the diamond. If your customers are on a budget, they have to decide on which 'C' they want to compromise. Your job is to help your customers go home happy with the diamond that is the most beautiful to them. We will start with the most important 'C' for the white diamonds - the cut. 10. Cut: Cut refers to the proportions of the diamond and affects the way light is reflected. In simple words, it means how sparkly a diamond is. This is why the cut is the most important of 4C's. Sparkle and scintillation are precisely what we love in diamonds. By the way, uncut diamonds don't sparkle and beam at all. A diamond should be cut in a way to permit the maximum light to be reflected through the diamond. If the cut is not proper and proportions are not correct, which means the cut is too deep or too shallow, a diamond will lose its main purpose - to sparkle. To learn about different grades of cut, we will use terms defined by Gemological Institute of America or shorter GIA, which are widely accepted. GIA is an independent non-profit organization and it's considered the gold standard of diamond grading. An Ideal cut is the highest grade possible for the cut. It's well proportioned and allows the highest level of brilliance and fire to pass through the table and radiate with the magnificent sparkle. For these reasons, excellent cuts are the most valuable and the most luminous. When your customers have a budget, it's better for you to advise them to choose a smaller but a well-cut diamond then a larger carat that is poorly cut. A Very good cut offers exceptional brilliance and fire. Of course, a large majority of the entering light reflects through the diamond's top or so-called table. To the naked eye, these diamond provide similar sparkle to those of the excellent grade. A Good cut shows the brilliance and sparkle, with much of the light reflecting through the table, to the viewer's eye. These diamonds provide beauty at a lower price points. A Fair cut diamonds offer little brilliance as the light easily exits through the bottom and sides of the diamond. Diamonds of fair cut may be a satisfactory choice for, let's say, smaller carats and for diamonds acting as side stones in jewelry. When a diamond is poorly cut, even if it has a high color or clarity grade, light will not reflect as well back to the eyes, making it duller and more lifeless diamond. There is nearly no sparkle, brilliance, or fire. So entering light escapes from the sides and from the bottom of the diamond. Cut and Shape are two separate things. But cut also refers to the shape of the diamond. The shape is the geometric appearance of the stone and the most popular by far is, of course, round shape, followed by square, rectangular, pear, oval, and heart shapes. However, trends of popular shapes changed before and will change again. You'll have to be able to explain the benefits of all diamonds in your inventory no matter how they are cut. By learning the benefits of specific cuts and shapes, you will be able to help your customers to find the right piece of diamond jewelry. What is the difference between Diamond and Brilliant? 'Diamond' is the name of the precious stone itself while 'Brilliant' denotes the cut of the diamond. Now let's learn more about different diamond shapes. We divided them by cutting techniques that were used on them. A cutting technique means the way the diamond is cut to for a surface or facet patterns. So we have five main cutting techniques: Brilliant cut, Modifying-brilliant cut, Triangle cut, Step cut, and Mixed cut. We will go briefly through the types of cuts and shapes that belong to a specific cut. If you would like to know the benefits and disadvantages of each shape and how to sell them, please check in 'Resources' the PDF file with the title There is a perfect shape for every diamond. Let's start with the most famous cut. 11. Types of Cut: This cutting technique cuts the pattern in a way the maximum light will return to the top of the diamond. The shape that belongs to this cut is the Round Brilliant. Round Brilliant is the shape everyone thinks of when they imagine a diamond. It's the shiniest among diamond cuts. The Round Brilliant diamond that has been cut to exact and mathematically proven ideal proportions, with already mentioned 57 or 58 precisely placed facets, produces the ultimate in luster and beauty, and is considered an ideal cut. These are shapes cut in the same pattern as the Round Brilliant cut. And because of that, they are very close in terms of brilliance. They look elegant, graceful, and stylish without being trendy. Drop pendants and earrings in that shape look beautiful and classy. They're often the shape of choice for large diamonds, which tend to look heavy. Oval shapes are very elegant. They are a good alternative to the round shapes without being too flashy or extravagant. Heart shapes have a very bright look and they reflect the romantic sentiments of the people who wear them. This modern-looking cut has quite a historical background. The creation of Marquise cut dates back to the 1700s when King Louis 15th requested a diamond in the shape of his mistress's lips. The eye-catching shape is one of the rarest cuts. Triangle cuts have been considered the side-stones once. But nowadays, triangle cut diamonds have taken center stage in jewelry design. Triangular Brilliants or so-called Trillions are very bright and lively stones. This shape offers good light performance. It's a nice alternative to a traditional Round Brilliant for people who want something different. In smaller sizes Triangular brilliants make nice sides stones. This type of cut has steps running down the sides and on the top. There's a large open window on top that's like peering into a hall of mirrors. So it's suitable for diamonds with less visible inclusions. This type of cut is not very sparkly but shows off the beautiful quality of the diamond instead. The most famous step cut is definitely an Emerald cut. The Emerald cut has long lines that give an elegant and sophisticated look to the stone. The sparkle of the emerald cut diamond is more subtle. This type of cut is usually reserved for very, very clean diamonds. Emerald cut stones will give a sense of 'old money' and Art Deco flair. Asscher cut is another Step cut. The name comes from the famous diamond cutters, the Asscher brothers. This cut is a stunning blend of time because it's a 21st century update to the Emerald cut - it's square-shaped and more sparkly. In this cut, the crown is cut in a pattern of a Brilliant cut, and the bottom, or Pavilion, is cut in the pattern of a Step cut. And this gives the sparkle while keeping more weight. Princess cut is definitely the most popular Fancy diamond shape. It has a modern, edgy look and it's excellent for customers who like square or rectangular shapes but want the look of a Brilliant cut. It has great optical effects and it's especially good for men's jewelry. Radian cut is a proprietary cut and is associated with elegance. The simplicity of design and bold, geometric symmetry emphasize diamond's transparency. This cut is a hybrid of the Round Brilliant, Princess, and Asscher cut. And because it takes the best of each, the Radiant cut diamond displays incredible brilliance, fire, and scintillation. Sounds perfect? Well, if you want to see the downfalls of this cut, please, check PDF files in 'Resources'. The Cushion cut has a square shape and softly rounded corners resulting in a cushion or pillow appearance and lend to a romantic feel. Cushion cut blends the energy of a Round Brilliant cut with the symmetry of a Radiant cut. It's also the cut with the most fire of all. It has elements of class and charm in a quietly sophisticated cut. Crushed ice diamond or Crushed glass diamond is another type of Cushion cut and it's a stone with the center that looks like shuttered ice or glass. The look comes from smaller facets on the bottom of the stone which bounce and reflect the light off each other in a way that they look like crashed. So which diamond cut looks the biggest? Marquise cut has the largest surface area, followed by Pear (Teardrop), Oval, Triangular, and Emerald shape. On the opposite side we have Asscher and Round diamonds, which look the smallest. Working in the jewelry retail industry, you may come across some proprietary cuts or some older cuts. To know more about it, I prepared 2 articles in PDF which can be found in 'Resources' under the name PROPRIETARY CUTS and ANTIQUE DIAMOND CUTS. 12. Clarity: Clarity refers to the amount of internal and external flows on/in the diamond. They are known as inclusions and blemishes and they're present in stones since their formation. And since no one is perfect, same stands for diamonds. They may look flawless to the naked eye but imperfections can be seen under a jeweler's loupe. Less than 1% of all diamonds are formed without an inclusion or blemish. Most of the diamonds have some sort of imperfections and their presence affects the value of the diamond. The fewer flaws a diamond has, the greater is its worth. This can also depend on the type of inclusion. For example, perimeter inclusions are better than centralized ones. However, inclusions are not just flaws. They can be seen also as a diamond's fingerprint because they're unique. And they can be also a great identifier because no two diamonds are exactly identical. A tip for you: Avoid using term 'imperfections' when explaining to your customers about clarity. Instead, get the habit of using the term 'clarity characteristics' or maybe 'inclusions'. Five clarity factors determine the overall impact that an individual inclusion has on a stone's appearance and grade. We have size, number, position, type, and color and relief. Sometimes one factor has more of an impact on the clarity grade than the others. For example, inclusions on the side of the stone have less impact on clarity than the same inclusions located directly under the table. In this case, the position of the inclusions is the determining factor. Size has a lot to do with how easy it is to see inclusions. Generally, the larger and more visible inclusions are, lower the diamond's clarity grade will be. In addition, large inclusions might also threaten a diamond's durability. If a diamond has inclusions of different sizes, the larger inclusions usually establish the grade. If there are smaller inclusions in addition, they rarely affect the clarity grade. More clarity characteristics can mean a lower grade, but grades are normally set by how readily these characteristics can be seen and not by their number. For example, a diamond with a number of pinpoints can still qualify as a VVS diamond (which means Very, Very Small Inclusions) but a single large, dark or centrally located included crystal could drop the grade into VS or SI or even I clarity. As already mentioned, inclusions located directly under the table affect the clarity grade of a diamond more than those located on the side of the stone or under the facets. The worst location for an inclusion is where it becomes a reflector - - if it lies near the pavilion, the pavilion facets can act as a mirror and reflect multiple images of the inclusion. And if the reflections are visible in a face-up position, this will have a major effect on the grade. A central location also increases an inclusion's impact on a diamond's clarity grade. The position of potentially damaging inclusions such as feathers, large knots, and included crystals, can also be significant because it can affect the durability of the diamond. A feather might extend if a diamond strikes something hard enough. The type or the nature of inclusion tells you whether it is an internal inclusion or the surface blemish and if it possesses any risk to the durability of the stone. Generally, if a stone has durability problems, it doesn't survive the friction and pressure of the cutting process. The effect of an inclusion on its durability is determined by its size and location. For example, a large feather that reaches the crown possesses a durability risk but a small one probably doesn't. Generally, the more an inclusion differs in color from the diamond, the more obvious it is. Although most diamond inclusions are white or colorless, some are black, brown, or dark red. Since colored inclusions are easier to see, they might lower the grade more than colourless inclusions. A black pinpoint may be an exception because it's often more difficult to see then a white one. Relief is the contrast between the inclusion and the stone. The greater the relief, the more it will affect the clarity grade. To find more about inclusions and blemishes, please check the article in PDF form called TYPES OF CLARITY CHARACTERISTICS in 'Resources'. Clarity characteristics are most often very small and we observe them with the jeweler's loupe. It's a small, accurate and the most affordable magnifier used for diamond grading. The standard is 10X magnification, meaning the inclusion is magnified ten times. Good jewelry designers will design the setting in the way to hide inclusions as much as possible. Like this, price will remain affordable but with an excellent stone appearance. And a tip for you: Offer your guests a Jewelers loupe so they can see clarity characteristics by themselves. 13. Diamond Clarity Grades: Any flaw that can't be seen under ten-times magnification is considered non-existent. Flawless diamonds have no inclusions or blemishes when viewed under ten-time magnification. They are extremely rare and very valuable. No inclusions only blemishes in these diamonds when we view them under ten-times magnification. Also very rare and very expensive diamonds. Minute inclusions that are difficult for a skilled grader to see under ten-time magnification are in these diamonds. They are rare and valuable diamonds. Here we have minor inclusions that you might be able to see under ten-time magnification. Typical inclusion in VS diamonds include small crystals, feathers, and a distinct group of pinpoints. They are still high-quality diamonds. These inclusions are noticeable under ten-times magnification. Typical inclusions such as crystals, clusters of pinpoints and carbons and feathers are centrally located. Still, these are good quality diamonds. Here inclusions or blemishes are larger than a grain of salt when viewed under ten-times magnification. And some of these flaws may be visible to the naked eye. These are borderline diamonds. Here, inclusions are obvious under ten-times magnification and visible even with the naked eye. Imperfections can make as much as 1/4 of the diamond appear cloudy and lifeless with very little luster. These are commercial grades. Diamonds with identical 4C's can differ a lot in pricing depending on the type of flaws and whether they can be visible or not. Some SI2 diamonds are completely eye-clean, while others have an undesirable black spot right in the center. A Clarity standard for smaller diamonds in fine jewelry is usually SI1 and SI2 - - these imperfections will keep the price down but they won't be visible with the naked eye. 14. How Shape and Size Affect Clarity: Some diamond shapes require a higher clarity grade than others. Emerald and Asscher shaped diamonds, referred to as a Step cut, are designed to emphasize transparency and let you see further down into the diamond. For these diamond shapes is better if a diamond has a clarity grade of VS1 or you better ensure that inclusions are not visible. Round, Princess, Oval, Marquise, Pear, Trillion, and Heart shaped diamonds may not require as high of a clarity grade because Brilliant cuts hide many inclusions. As diamond size increases, the size of the facets also increases, which can make inclusions more visible. Be sure to prioritize a higher clarity grade as the size of chosen diamond increases. 15. Treatments Use to Improve Clarity: Treatments used to improve clarity characteristics are following: Diamonds with inclusions are sometimes filled with glass to make them appear clearer. Filler can be damaged by heat, ultrasonic cleaning and re-tipping. Now something important: The filling does not repair the inclusion! It just makes it less visible, so the value doesn't rise up, but it stays the same. If you look at the filled diamond closely and rotate it under the light, you should be able to notice a bluish flash. Note that the treatment should be disclosed to a customer, always! The process drills very tiny holes into a diamond to provide access to inclusion which detracts from the beauty of the stone. The inclusion can then be vaporized or bleached to make it less obvious. Laser holes are visible under magnification when viewed at the correct angle. A lasered diamond should be classified into 'slightly imperfect' or 'imperfect' category regardless of improvement, and it should be priced accordingly. 16. How to Sell Clarity: Clarity characteristics are mostly not visible to the unaided eye but their presence will affect the price. To make our customers understand that, let them compare two diamonds under magnification - - one with many and one with few inclusions. Emphasize the value of clarity by mentioning that less than 1% of diamonds mined are free of inclusions and blemishes. But on the other side, the same internal characteristics or inclusions are like fingerprints. And will give to a diamond the uniqueness and by which your customer can recognize their diamond. A nice example that I would like to share with you is a true story from my own experience and it happened on a cruise ship. Once, when our store was quiet, my colleagues and I, we started to examine inclusions in diamonds with a loupe. So we came across the 0.97carat diamond with an amazing price - for that diamond size. But in the diamond was a quite visible inclusion, almost in the middle of the stone. But what an inclusion! Someone noticed that an unwelcome black spot had actually a form of a small heart. You can imagine how thrilled we were by this particularity because in fact, we started to compete who will sell this diamond first! Because what seemed the flaw at first it actually turned to a cutest advantage. And indeed it was one of the easiest sales we've ever made because a nice gentleman bought it as a gift after we revealed a hidden heart to him. So getting to know even inclusions in your diamonds can help you close the sale and can help your customers to recognize their diamond and connect emotionally to the certain stone. However, customers should avoid inclusions that affect the durability of the diamond. For THE BEST VALUE select for your customers a diamond with inclusions that can't be seen through the crown without magnification. They are so-called eye-clean diamonds such as VS or SI clarity grade. These diamonds are much more affordable than extremely rare flawless or eternally flawless diamonds. The alternative to hiding flaws is also a diamond with a Brilliant or Mixed-Brilliant cut which will hide the inclusion. And a fun fact for you: A candle flame contains millions of small diamonds - - according to Mr. Zhou, a professor of chemistry, around 1.5 million diamond nanoparticles can be found in a candle's flame. So proposing during candlelight dinner has even greater meaning. 17. Color(less): The third 'C' indicates how much color is present in the diamond. Most diamonds come out of the ground with slight yellow or brown tint. Colorless or white diamonds are actually quite rare. For white diamonds less color it has, more valuable it is. On the other hand, so-called Fancy color diamonds are worth more when they display greater color. Let's start with white diamonds. The industry standard for white diamonds is a color scale that ranges from a letter D meaning colorless, to letter Z meaning light yellow or brown color. Each letter represents a range of color based on diamond's tone and saturation. Let's see these ranges of color: The first one is D, E, and F meaning COLORLESS. This means that this diamonds are very desirable and this color increases the value of the diamond or actually, the absence of color increases the value of the diamond. Then we have G, H, I, and J. These are NEAR-COLORLESS and this is what the majority of the retail customers wear. The next range is K, L, and M meaning FAINT color. These diamonds will have a warm tone. Then we have N, O, P, Q and R, meaning VERY LIGHT. And they will have light yellow, which some customers might be drawn to but it's not as common in the market. And the last one is S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z meaning LIGHT, where light yellow is noticeable. Now if you're thinking, why the scale doesn't start with the letter A? Well, that's because D - Z scale was introduced by the Gemological Institute of America, or, like I mentioned already before, the GIA. The reason behind it is that before some diamond professionals before used letters A, B, and C, while others used AA or AAA and so on. Both of them without not very clear definition. And that's why the creators of GIA system didn't want to have any association with the previous inadequate systems and so their scale starts with the letter D. And this is the most universally accepted color grading system. The letters in the D-Z scale don't describe actual colors or hues. Each letter actually represents a range of color that's based on a combination of tone meaning darkness or lightness, and saturation meaning the intensity of the color. The combination it's called Depth of Color and it's measured of how noticeable a color is. Meaning, diamonds can differ slightly in their depth of color but still be assigned in the same color grade. Size here will also make a difference in diamond's color. The bigger the diamond, the more obvious is the color. In this case, a difference in color can be subtle but it can cause a dramatic variation in the price. Only one in every 10,000 diamonds possesses natural color and it's referred to as a color diamond. Colored diamonds are called Fancy color diamonds and have a Depth of Color more than Z on the D-Z color scale, or they exhibit any other color than yellow or brown. Fancy color diamonds come in almost any color you can imagine. Red, green, purple, and orange are the rarest, followed by blue and pink, which are followed by black, gray, brown, and yellow. However, these color rarity scale can change. For example, if we discover in the future big foundings of let's say blue diamonds, this would reduce the value of blue diamonds on the market. Or if a mine closes after depletion, like for example, in the case of the Australian Argyle mine, which was the major world supplier of pink diamonds, the value of pink diamonds will suddenly go up. Natural color in a diamond is a result of trace elements or impurities that are present in the stone since the formation of the diamond. In the case of yellow, brown, and orange color, there is a nitrogen included. If we are talking about green diamonds, they have also traces of nitrogen but to develop the green color they need to be affected by high-energy gamma and neutron radiation which actually occurs very rarely in nature and makes them extremely rare. Blue diamonds have the presence of chemical element boron. Pink and red ones have an irregular growth pattern at the sub-molecular level meaning their crystal lattice is deformed. Now in the case of black diamonds they are heavily included and they are never completely black because then they wouldn't be diamonds anymore. Color consists of three main integral parts: First is HUE, which is the dominant color and any other additional color modifiers that might be present in a diamond. For example, the presence of green or orange color in a yellow diamond will have a higher value than the presence of brown color in the same diamond. Then we have TONE. The Tone is the lightness or darkness of the hue. In the end, we have SATURATION which is the intensity of the color - of hue and tone. Besides trace elements, that give colors, colored diamonds can also have other inclusions. We talked already about them in the lessons about clarity. As long as they allow the light to pass through and they show color in a face-up position inclusions don't affect the value significantly. 18. How to Value Colored Diamonds: The scale of important factors is a bit different with color diamonds. White diamond's sparkle and scintillation are putting cut on the top of the scale while has the scale for colored diamonds on its top definitely, of course, the color. The color intensity or richness of the color is the most important consideration when purchasing a colored diamond. The more intense the color, the rarer and more valuable the diamond is. After color, carat weight has the most impact on price for color diamonds. When diamonds are mined, large gems are discovered much less frequently than small ones, which makes large diamonds much more valuable. For this reason, prices for colored diamonds rise exponentially with the carat weight. Due to the nature of color diamonds, clarity is less important than with white diamonds because inclusions tend to be masked by a diamond's color. Cut and shape are the last on the scale of importance because while colored diamonds still exhibit brilliance, color is the most important characteristic considered when they are being cut. And many colored diamonds are cut into fancy shapes to enhance their natural color because a large diamond table displays color better, like emeralds, trillion, pear shapes and other shapes or cuts. I have for you a selling tip: The Argyle mine in Australia was the biggest supplier of pink and purple diamonds in the world. It closed at the beginning of November 2020. And in the following 5 - 10 years from the closure a rise in price can be expected for pink and purple diamonds. Now, you can use this information to increase the desirability of pink diamonds in your jewelry shop. 19. How to Sell Color: As mentioned, mostly all diamonds have some yellowish or brownish tints. Sometimes these tints are barely noticeable unless the diamond is compared side-by-side with another diamond that has a different amount of color. They're even more difficult to see when the diamond is set in a piece of jewelry. Small differences in color add up to big differences in price. A customer might select the color grade or two below what they planed when they realized that they can't really see the difference. The most popular colored diamonds at the moment are brown, or so-called Champagne diamonds and yellow, or so-called Canary diamonds, followed by enhanced blue ones. The big reason for that is also their affordability. The value of other natural color diamonds is much higher. Most jewelry boutiques will have in offer natural yellow and brown diamonds. Other natural colors are very rare and valuable, so their prices are usually too high for an average shopper. If you're selling in your store enhanced blue diamonds or any other color that was enhanced for that matter, make sure that you know which treatments were used on them. And make sure that you check what your competition is selling because maybe your advantage is a treatment their diamonds and gemstones went through. Let's see how to sell yellow, brown and enhanced blue diamonds. 20. Affordable Diamonds: Let's start with yellow diamonds. The popularity of yellow diamonds increased because they became known and reachable to worldwide demographics. They currently possess the highest demand of all other corner diamonds in the market. One of the most significant factors are celebrities showing off their yellow diamond jewelry at public events. If you were following, you could see Lady Gaga, Heidi Klum, Natalie Portman, Kate Winslet, and other stars with yellow diamonds. So that's why they are rapidly increasing in popularity. Most of the customers in jewelry shops know about yellow diamonds, so they are relatively easy to sell. Let's see some tricks of the trade. Yellow diamonds are usually set in white gold with the surroundings of a white diamonds. The contrast of the yellow against the white will bring out the color of the stone. Yellow diamonds can be mounted on a yellow gold setting and surrounded by smaller yellow diamonds. These can also enhance the color and make the central stone appear larger than it is. Yellow diamonds can be sent in white gold but may have a yellow gold basket right underneath which will act as a background for the diamond and intensify its color. The basket trick can take the diamond a few grades higher on the color intensity scale. Now let's talk about brown diamonds. They're also referred to as Cognac, Champagne, or Chocolate diamonds, and are among the most common and affordable fancy color diamonds because there are many available. But it doesn't mean that they are not valuable. Remember, all fancy color diamonds are rare, but some colors are rarer than others. We're still comparing between diamonds, remember. Now, this means that if your customer wants a fancy color diamond and they have a limited budget, they may go for brown diamond. Because brown diamonds are found all around the world, including South Africa and Australia. And for a long time they were used only for industrial purposes. It was already mentioned Australian Argyle mine that turned this rather uninteresting colored diamond into a must-have item through a creative marketing tactic because they named the brown diamond a Champagne diamond and this instantly grew the classy and desirable image of it. Now another name was added later - Chocolate diamond. But chocolate diamond is a registered trademark since 2000 by brand LeVian and it can be used only let's say when you're talking with your customers but you cannot use it for marketing purposes, unless you work, of course, for LeVian. So better use the term Champagne or Cognac diamond. Brown diamonds are not the best choice for investment purposes but most customers will buy brown diamonds because they fall in love with their warm look of the stone. And especially if it's set in rose gold it will give warmth. Now, that's the one thing. The other thing is that they're Best Buy because they have quite low prices for a fairly large stones and they offer the BEST VALUE for the money, for a diamond. Now, be careful not to make your customer feel embarrassed about buying the 'cheap' diamond. Present them and sell them with the same enthusiasm that you would do it with the most valuable diamond in your shop. After all, Michelle Obama, Jennifer Lopez and Rihanna wore them at public events. Natural blue diamonds are considered to be one of the rarest diamonds so they are far too valuable, meaning too expensive, for an average customer. But lately enhanced blue diamonds are becoming very popular. There are typically treated in two ways: natural white diamonds, which contain traces of the chemical element boron, which causes a blue color, are enhanced with the permanent process called High Pressure High Temperature or HPHT. And the second option is if a natural white diamonds don't contain a trace element of boron, they are treated with heat and chemicals to induce inside the diamond the blue color. Now given the rarity of natural blue diamonds, HPHT enhanced blue diamonds are the best possible alternative. If your jewelry shop has blue diamonds in the offer, make sure you explain the treatment properly to your customers and always point out the positive side of it. And make sure you include emotions in your sales pitch. Blue diamonds can remind your customers of the Caribbean Sea, of a clear sky, of Alaskan glaciers, or someone's eyes. You choose which emotion can help you close the sale. 21. Treatments to Improve Color: Treated diamonds are enhanced to change color. Clearly, they are way cheaper because they're made up of affordable brownish diamonds. Now let's see which treatments are used to improve the color: In the case of enhanced blue diamonds HPHT is used for diamonds that contain traces of the chemical element boron which can develop blue color. These diamonds didn't turn the color naturally because of inadequate conditions in Earth's crust. So either the lack of temperature or lack of pressure. With HPHT the right conditions are created by putting immense pressure and heat on a diamond and the process of developing color is sped up. Otherwise, we'd have to wait for it maybe millions of years. Color intensity cannot be controlled by the HPHT process so there will be variances in hues like in nature. These type of enhancement is acceptable in the jewelry and makes blue diamonds affordable to wider demographics. How do sell HPHT enhanced diamond? By explaining to the customer how rare natural blue diamonds are in nature and how valuable they are. But with HPHT enhanced blue diamonds they are getting the real thing and for a very affordable price compared to natural blue diamonds. Now HPHT enhanced diamond, if cut in half, it has color also inside the stone. And different shades of blue are proof that they are not coated, irradiated, or painted. That's because a developed formula cannot control entirely the final result that is going to come out with the treated stone. The coating is a kind of less accepted enhancement. When a diamond collection is coated with certain color, they usually look all the same. If a diamond like this would cheap or break, it would be colorless or actually brownish inside. In terms of value, it's still a diamond but it's much less valuable comparing to HPHT treated diamond which inside is also blue. There is a possibility of color fainting or changing with time, especially if a diamond is longer exposed to sun or heat. We can see under magnification areas where the foil has lifted away are often seen and moisture that has entered between the stone and foil will cause an uneven color. However, the coating was one of the first treatments done on diamonds, besides cutting and polishing, and because of its antique status the presence of coated diamonds in older jewelry would not detract from its value. Irradiation is a less accepted type of enhancement. It's a treatment that changes the color of a gem by exposing it to radioactive materials. No worries, they are completely safe. There are many types of radiation but the most common methods are neutron and electron bombardment. Color may not be permanent because it penetrates only about one millimeter deep under the surface of the stone. Now another disadvantage is that color may also change or faint over the time. So how to sell coated or irradiated stones? Make sure that you are always honest with your customers. If you lose their trust, they will never come back to you or to your company. If you're selling collections which have heavy treatments, make sure that you turn that into an advantage and point out the amazing price points of the perfect look of the stone for a more affordable price. All treatments have to be stated on certificate and warranty that comes with the purchase. In general, it's quite simple to tell which diamond is treated. Enhanced ones may have overly saturated colors, especially enhanced yellow diamonds may look quite fluorescent yellow. Although there are natural diamonds with much higher saturation, they are very rare and usually priced at a premium price. So the price is another indicator for you. And for the final thought, the best way to sell diamonds with color or without is to sell them with emotions. Another selling tip: Keep in mind that when color diamonds are taken to the sunlight, colors become paler and washed-out. Colored diamonds with a weak color won't look that good in the sun as they do under your shop lights. 22. Carat Weight: Carat weight is also known as the weight of the diamond. Not the size! It plays a large part in determining the value of the diamond. Denotes how heavy the diamond is in the unit of measurement called CARAT. 1 carat equals 0.20 grams which is the weight of a paperclip. Carat is usually abbreviated as CT and usually expressed as decimals or points. 1.00ct (100 points), or 0.23ct (23 points). The point system is typically only used when the diamond is under one carat. If you have a piece of jewelry set with more than one diamond, you need to state the Total weight of all diamonds, saying that the total of diamonds in these pendant/earrings/ring/ weights let's say 1.43 carats. If an item contains both diamonds and colored stones or all colored stones, the weight of all the gems is called TOTAL GEM WEIGHT. Where does the word carat come from? The modern carat system started with the Carob seed from the Locust tree. These smallest seeds are fairly uniform in size and weight and they provide a consistent basis for gem weight. So early gem merchants, traders and jewelers used them as counterweights in hand-held balance scales. It's very easy to get price per carat. All you need to do is to divide the Total price with the Carat Weight. Consider the two decimals. For example, we have 4,123 USD which is a Total price and then we divide it with the 0.96ct and we are getting 4,295 USD per carat. In next example, we have the total price of 5,253 USD and we divide it with the diamond that has a size of 1.02cts. We're getting out the price per carat 5,150 USD. Note that these diamonds aren't much different in size but their Total and Per carat prices are very different. And check in the next lesson why. 23. Magic Size Concept: Some weights are considered “magic sizes”: a half-carat, three-quarter carat, one carat and so on. If you understand the influence of the magic size effect, you can make it work for your customers. They can save up to 50% by purchasing a diamond that is 0.01 carat below the bracket. Knowing about the diamond's magic numbers can be useful because you can help customers to save their money and of course, gain their trust. This is particularly helpful for customers who do not have a specific carat weight in mind. The most important character weights to bear in mind when purchasing a diamond are 0.90 carats, 1 carat, 1.5 carats, 2 carats, 3 carats, 4 carat and 5 carats. If your customer is looking for stones in those carat weights, it's well worth considering the stone that is 0.01ct less in weight to save a lot on the cost. Or 0.01ct more to maximize their budget and spend very slightly more on a larger stone. For example, the difference in Princess cut loose diamond with an H color and VS1 clarity grade which weights 2cts, and the same diamond with a 1.99cts can be almost 30% of saving for just these 0.01ct less. In contrast, the difference in price between a diamond we those specifications, weighing 2cts and the one that is 2.01cts it's only 5% more. So with larger stones and those with higher clarity and color grades that difference can be up to 40% and in some cases, even more. Customers usually think that a larger diamond is more expensive but that isn't always true. Differences in color, cut and clarity can make a small diamond much more valuable than a large one. Remember, a diamond's value is based on a combination of the 4C's. Focusing only on one 'C' will rarely satisfy anyone. So the idea is for you to find the balance. That's the key tool that you can use with your customers, assuring them that they are getting a GOOD VALUE. That's often what people really want to know - - if they're getting what they're paying for. And before we move to the next lesson, here is an important tip for you: If a diamond weighs 0.48 carats, you can say that it weighs just under a half-carat. But you CAN'T say that it's a half-carat diamond. If must weigh no less than 0.495ct to be described as a half-carat diamond. 24. How to Sell Carat: The majority of diamonds used in jewelry weights under 1ct. The larger a diamond, the rarer it is. That's why diamond's price per carat tends to increase exponentially as the size of the diamond increases. For example, a 1ct diamond weights the same as four 0.25ct diamonds. But if other factors are equal, the larger diamond costs much more than the sum of the four 0.25ct diamonds because larger diamonds are rare. If your customers are on a budget, don't give them the idea that small diamonds lack beauty and rarity. People shopping for small diamonds today might be shopping for larger diamonds in the near future. And another thing to keep in mind is that the smaller the finger, the larger a diamond will appear. And before we finish, let's mention also Melee diamonds. These are very small diamonds that might be used alone or grouped together, or they might provide a glittering backdrop for a large center diamond or colored stone. The exact size of Melee diamonds varies from country to country but it is in between 0.08ct and 0.18ct in size. 25. There is More to 4Cs: The 4 C’s form the basis to determine the quality of a diamond. But diamond grading and pricing are complex and extend beyond the 4 C’s. Additional factors that affect the diamond's worth include also: SYMMETRY denotes how well aligned the facets of a diamond are, including diamond's crown, culet, girdle, and table. This indicates how smooth the diamond's facets are. When diamonds get cut, the microscopic defects might be created. A TREATMENT is referring to any human-controlled process that improves gem's appearance, from cutting the stone to make it beam and to improve apparent clarity to enhance or remove the color from the stone. We already mentioned some treatments and enhancements throughout the course. Treated diamonds are always less desirable and less valuable than natural diamonds. Words like 'treatment' and 'enhancement' sound negative for customers. They think that they're getting something non-authentic or maybe fake. So what do you need to do is to explain to them that cutting a diamond to make it sparkle is already a type of enhancement. So not all enhancements are bad. Besides, some colored diamonds with intense color, like blue and green ones, are very rare and valuable. But by treating and enhancing diamonds that have a potential but didn't develop the appealing color, we can bring them to the jewelry shops by making them more attractive and affordable. You can go even a step further and mention treatments in everyday cases, like food or clothes - - to have a beautiful red dress we need to process and dye the fabric. However, some treatments are more accepted and some less. Make sure you're ALWAYS honest with your customers and explain them properly which treatment has been done on a diamond or other gemstone and point out the positive side of it. If you betray their trust by not revealing them relevant information or misleading them, you will lose not just one customer, but probably all their family, friends, and of course more. There's one last characteristic that you need to know about because it can affect the price of the stone. FLUORESCENCE refers to how blue a diamond glows under ultraviolet light. This is caused by certain minerals in the diamond. This effect is totally natural appearing in 1/3 of all diamonds. Most diamonds with fluorescence will glow blue. Less than 5% of fluorescent diamonds will glow yellow, green, orange, or white. In some cases diamonds with very strong fluorescence will have an icy blue color in sunlight. Usually fluorescence doesn't actually cause any negative effects on the appearance of a diamond. But since it's generally seen as a bad thing the good news for you is that customers can have it for a 2% to 15% lower price. Fluorescence is important as improves the color in diamonds with lower color grades. We're talking about color H or lower. because the blue can counteract the slight yellow tint and improve the face-up color usually by one whole color grade. So your customers can buy a diamond with fluorescence in a lower color grade, which is a significant discount, and have it appear whiter. Just make sure that it doesn't cause haziness. In diamonds with a very high color grade, like D to G and a Strong or Very Strong fluorescence, it would cause a hazy appearance. To be on the safe side, customers shouldn't go for diamonds with Medium to Very Strong fluorescence if the diamond is color grade G or above. 26. Diamond Certification The 5th C: Diamond certification is very important as it assures your customers that information about their preferred diamond is backed up by a reputable Gemological Institute. Especially if they're buying a bigger diamond, colored or not. A diamond with certification it's also easier to resell later on, in case they would want to do that. For jewelry with smaller diamonds jewelry boutiques usually use in-house certificates of authenticity. There are many gemological Institutes in the world like GIA, EGS, EGL, and IGI to name a few. But the most accepted and accredited is an independent non-profit organization Gemological Institute of America - GIA, which we already mentioned a few times, which is recognized as the world's authority in gemology. They created an international diamond grading system, which we mentioned in chapters about diamond's color and clarity, which today is recognized by virtually every professional jeweler in the world. Certifications on GIA diamonds are the most costly. Those diamonds come with a premium price and they can go from a couple of hundreds of dollars, for a very simple one-page certification, up to thousands, for full-size booklet style reports for exceptional diamonds, of course, depending on the detail of the report requested. More affordable option are un-certified or self-certified diamonds which means diamonds have been bought by the retailer without certification and then graded in-house by professional graders. Un-certified diamonds keep the cost lower and diamond jewelry tends to be much more affordable. Is the most common form used especially with enhanced colored diamonds. All treatments that have been done on the stone have to be stated in the certificate. 27. Synthetic Diamonds: Let's not forget to mention men-created or synthetic diamonds. To the naked eye a synthetic diamond and a real diamond might look the same but the two have a few different characteristics. Natural diamonds were formed around 150 kilometers below the Earth's crust over three billion years ago. While synthetic or lab-grown diamonds are created by men. While their crystal lattice structure is the same, just think about the incredible journey a natural diamond had to go through before reaching someone's finger. Depending on the size, color, and clarity, a lab-grown diamond can be up to 20 to 40% less expensive than a natural diamond unless a lab-grown diamond is D-F in color. In this case, even if it's manmade, it is still rare and could be just as expensive and earth mined diamond. In order to identify a natural diamond from a synthetic diamond you need to use special equipment. The nature of inclusions in a natural diamond differs from inclusions found in synthetic one. The best way to find out if the diamond is synthetic is to ask the jeweler for a grading report. 28. How to Sell Diamonds: Diamonds are quite easy to sell because they don't need much introduction comparing to some rarer or newer gemstones on the market. Especially De Beers did a favor to all of us by promoting diamonds as a must-have for engagement rings. Diamond is the most versatile gemstone suitable for many occasions - as a gift, to mark milestones, to show-off, and more. But whatever the reason is, in the end, it is mainly an emotional decision. And as a jewelry professional you need to learn how to identify customers' buying motives and make those motifs emotional. You need to discover why do they buy, why someone wants a big diamond solitaire ring regardless of the diamond's lower clarity and color characteristics. Is it to show-off in front of her or his friends? And why someone else buys the same ring for the same price but with a half smaller diamond and with excellent color and clarity grades. Does he or she prefers to have a good quality diamond for investment purposes rather than a show-off ring? These two customers have a completely different emotional goal and you cannot use the same sales presentation for both. To discover their - many times hidden - buying motifs, you need to listen to your customers' stories carefully and ask many questions. Even a casual chat can reveal a lot about them and their buying power. And when you discover which emotion they strive for, you can customize the benefits they will get by buying selected diamond jewelry or an investment diamond from you. Usually, people buy on emotion and then they justify the purchase with logic. So if you make the sale highly emotional the price won't be as important as fulfilling your customers' desires. But be always honest and ethical! If you will go into the sales presentation with only money in your mind, you won't make it. You need to be genuine and passionate about it. It is better to sell a smaller diamond and gain your customers' trust and loyalty than to push for a more expensive piece of jewelry, regardless of customer's wishes, sell it but lose the customer. To make it easier imagine that you're selling to your mother or sister or to a good friend. How would your attitude be then? Wouldn't you make an extra effort to get them the best deal for their money? Wouldn't you be honest? Wouldn't you go above and beyond? Anyway, customers will sense it if you're not honest. So empathy and integrity are very important for a long and successful career full of loyal customers who keep coming back. Let’s see an example of how to make a sale highly emotional: Your customer wants to pamper herself with some diamond earrings. She revealed through the casual chat with you that she has two granddaughters. To make a sale highly emotional, you can offer her a pair of studs or diamond drop earrings with a suggestion that later on she can process these precious earrings into two pendants and leave them as an heirloom to her two granddaughters. If she likes those earrings and the price is right this should close your sale 100%. Another important thing to keep in mind is not to get too technical when you're presenting diamond jewelry. You may know a lot about diamond's 4 C's and other technical data, but not many customers want to hear just dry data about a rock. Maybe if your customer is an accountant, a lawyer, an analyst, or something similar, he or she may need a logical reason to justify the purchase. But that doesn't mean you shouldn't make the sale presentation, again - emotional. It just means that you need to present them also features and then conclude with the benefits these features are bringing to them by buying your jewelry. For example, after explaining the cut and the shape of the stone, mention that some shapes like pear, marquise or oval-shape have the advantage of making the stone appear bigger for a lower price. Or you can explain technical details about inclusions in the diamond but then you can add also how these inclusions are like fingerprints of the stone and give the uniqueness by which your customer can recognize their stone. Next thing is to paint them a word picture of how they will feel when they take it home, when they will wear it for a special occasion, or when they will show it to the others... Whatever is the most important to them. It is good to share at least one true story of a past customers experience who gain the benefit or admiration by purchasing a similar or same jewelry item (but be careful - if they want something unique don't say the same item but rather a similar item). So let's see an example: You can say 'Just recently a nice lady bought for herself a similar pink diamond pendant and wore it at a company's annual party. And she got sooo many compliments. She came back to thank us and bought also a pair of matching earrings.' To close as many sales as possible, you need to master the seven steps of the sale process, called sales pitch. If you would like to know more about the entire sale process, please, check my course 'How to Sell Luxury: Become a Sophisticated Selling Machine'. 29. Investing in Diamonds: Many of your customers, especially the ones who received diamond jewelry as a gift, or the ones who inherited some, have in their minds that all diamonds are valuable - it is enough to have one regardless of 4C's, and you have something that you can sell anytime for a lot of money. Their diamond might have a tremendous emotional value for them but if they would try to sell it, they might be bitterly surprised. Of course, as a Jewelry specialist you need to explain them delicately that the value of a diamond depends on many factors. And if they want to buy a stone that will raise up in value with time they should know that there are some benefits and some downfalls of investing in diamonds. First, make sure you point out that you are not the financial expert but you are a diamond expert and you will do your best to find them the best value diamond they can get for their money. So let's start with the benefits of investing in diamonds. The first thing is that diamonds don't take up room, meaning your customers can easily keep a million-dollar diamond in the smallest safe. Next, they are very easy to transfer. Other investments like gold bars, real estate, or oil are not that practical to move around. Then, they consistently go higher in value. There can be short-term volatility in the diamond market but if your customers look at the medium and long-term trend of diamonds, their value continues to go up. And Ultra-high end diamonds, especially the natural colored ones, continue to break the price per carat records and total sales records year over year. Next, diamond is durable, it doesn't break or wear off. All your customers have to do is to make sure they do not lose it. And even that can be ensured. As most physical commodities like real estate, gold and silver, diamonds usually appreciate in compliance with inflation and on top of that, again, they are more durable and movable. And for peace of mind, customers can have direct control over their assets which is independent of outside market conditions. We're not done. Your customers can enjoy their diamond and show-off while they have it. Diamonds don't wear off and technically, there is no meaning to selling a secondhand diamond. They can wear it while is increasing in value. Another benefit is the psychological factor because your customers can hold it, look at it, and wear it. It makes them feel safer, unlike stocks or other financial items which are usually just rows on a computer screen. And if they decide to go for natural color diamonds, the big advantage is a limited supply and the constantly rising demand. Only 1 out of 10,000 diamonds is a natural color diamond which makes them unique and sought after. And color diamonds are easier to sell than white diamonds. Now let's see some downfalls of investing in diamonds that are meant for you, dear Jewelry professional, because they can help you to be prepared in case if customers arise questions or objections. Keep in mind that diamonds are a long-term investment for at least five to ten years, if not more, to rise significantly in value. Now the good part is that your customers can wear them and show-off in the meantime and later on they can of course, leave it to the next generations in case if they don't sell it before. The next thing is the diamonds don't have a price index that can be followed in stock exchange like gold and silver. So price transparency is not the best. The Rappaport price list, which most diamond dealers rely on, takes into account only the basic factors of clarity and color, which is not enough. The cut is not taken into consideration and we know that cut is the most important factor for white diamonds. Also, clarity cannot determine the flaws of diamonds and where they are because each diamond has a unique clarity characteristics. In the end, the price is determined by the supply and the demand on the market. Even merchants and jewelers buy certain diamonds above the prices list and also below it. And also, there is no current list for color diamonds. So the solution for you is to do a lot of research to get a feeling of value for diamonds with different characteristics. Get to know your inventory and compare prices of similar diamonds so you can justify different values to your customers. The next thing is that buying a diamond is relatively easy. However, to sell one is a completely different story. There are some companies that buy diamonds, but these will pay on the lower side of prices. Your customers can always try and sell it on Craigslist or to other retailers but they will probably be tough negotiators and your customers will have to beat their supplier either in pricing or in the rarity of the gem. Well, another option, which is unfortunately reserved for high-end pieces, is trying to sell your diamonds through the auction houses like Christie's, which is the most famous one, but they mostly accept very unique gems and their fee is going to be quite high. So let's see what is the solution for you: Diamonds are a long-term investment and to make it work your customers should have in their mind that they have to wait at least five to ten years if they want to have some difference in price and not to be harmed by having to sell it under the current price in the future. A suggestion for investment is to go for at least one carat and taking into consideration magic sizes for bigger savings. A one-carat diamond can cost from 2,000 to over 20,000 USD. A good value and good quality one-carat diamond should cost around 4,500 to 6,000 USD. A two carats diamond can cost from 10,000 USD with the color J, clarity SI2, to over 70,000 USD for color D and clarity IF. The best value for two carats should cost in between 17,000 USD for color H, clarity VS2 and 28,000 USD for color G and clarity VS1. A three carats diamond can cost from 20,000 USD to 200,000 USD and up. For the best value a diamond with the color H and clarity VS2 should cost around 35,000 USD to 50,000 USD depending on the shape. If diamond prices in your store are higher make sure you know why. 30. Value-Based Selling: Picking the right diamond is part emotion and part science. It's about hitting that right balance of 4C's that satisfies your guests' preferences while staying within their budget. Here are some guidelines to give the best value to your customers and gain you their trust. These examples are informative and will of course vary from brand to brand them from jeweler to jeweler, as there is no 'one size fits all' diamond calculator. You should explain to your customers how different diamonds of the same grade might look very different. One SI2 diamond can be completely eye-clean while another one has visible flaws. One D color diamond can be beautiful and clear while another looks hazy because of strong Fluorescence. Of course, the one that looks more beautiful will be sold at a higher price. Carat has the largest impact on diamond prices. But sacrificing on other C's to stay within budget may result in a big dull and poor quality diamond. However, if the customer wants a show-off diamond you should take this into consideration and give a priority to a carat weight, or maybe consider a fancy shape that will make a diamond appear bigger. Next, remember magic sizes and go just below the half-carat or one-carat mark for a big drop in price. The variation can be as high as 1,000 USD but it's highly unlikely that anyone will be able to tell the difference in size. Color and clarity do not affect the brilliance of the stone. High clarity and color won't make it shiny or as customers often think, but the cut does, so your customers shouldn't compromise on cut. The diamond price goes up quite a bit for the excellent cut but it's well worth it as the difference in quality is very visible. And it can hide clarity and color flaws with the brilliance of the stone. That's why the cut is the most important 'C'. Most diamonds will contain flaws in form of inclusions. Your customers should get an eye-clean diamond with flaws that cannot be seen. A clarity of VS2 offers the most value for the money. If VS2 is still out of their range, SI1 and SI2 diamonds provide even better value. If their budget is truly limited, it is not impossible to find an eye-clean I1 diamond. Clarity is the best area to go down first, just make sure the diamond is eye-clean. The H color is the best value for diamonds set in white gold or platinum. H is a tipping point between colorless diamonds and diamonds with a slightly noticeable tint. The difference is not visible for most people, but if H is still out of their budget, it's suggested going down in color even more. and go for a J with an excellent cut rather than to go for an H with just a fair cut and lose the brilliance. Getting jewelry in yellow or rose gold will save them more because they can go safely down to a J or K color diamond. Again, if they're on a budget, you can offer them a diamond lower in color grade and with medium-strong fluorescence. This will have a significant price drop because of fluorescence and a whiter appearance at the same time. A halo setting with multiple smaller diamonds around the center diamond cost a lot less than one single large diamond but they can make a smaller center diamond appear huge. Round diamonds are the shiniest but also the priciest. Your customers can consider a fancy shape for a more unique and budget-friendly diamond. Saving can be as much as 20 to 40% by going with a shape other than round. And they can put that difference in money towards a larger stone, a fancier setting, or higher color, or clarity grade. Diamonds with certification from reputable geological labs will be higher in price. Usually, certification comes for one-carat diamonds or more. Smaller diamonds have to be very good or exceptional to justify the certification cost that is included in the price. A certified diamond is easier to sell later on. Without it someone unethical may take advantage of your customers and buy from them under the price. If your customers like a diamond without the certification, they can get the appraisal later on. A warm suggestion is to get it from a reputable independent gemological labs and not from private jewelers. This would cost them from 100 USD and up, depending on how detailed would the certification for their jewelry be. Your store policy may also affect the price. If you give a lifetime warranty, free resizing, a 100% buy-back, and other benefits, well, this is factored into the selling price of your merchandise. If that's the case, make sure to explain to your customers all the benefits they're getting by buying from your brand or shop. 31. How to Take Care of Diamonds: Your customers decided to buy a diamond. You should congratulate them on the perfect choice and give them some tips on how to keep their diamond jewelry looking beautiful. The simplest way is to soak it in water with a few drops of mild dish soap once or twice a week. After a diamond is removed from the cleaning solution, they should use a soft, clean toothbrush to remove any remaining dirt. And let's see a few more tips: Diamonds should be stored separately from other gemstones as they can damage or scratch softer stones. But carefully, a diamond can scratch also another diamond. Your customers shouldn't wear diamonds while doing the rough work or while they're in the gym. Diamond jewelry should be regularly inspected to make sure the setting is secure. If there are any signs of damage or loosening of the prongs, jewelry should be inspected by a professional jeweler. Diamond jewelry should be examined at least once a year by a professional jeweler. A professional jeweler can also expertly clean it. Diamond jewelry shouldn't come in contact with the chlorine bleach while doing housework because it can damage and discolor the mounting. 32. Conclusion: Dear student, now you have all the tools to become brilliant! I hope you enjoyed the course and fell in love with diamonds just like I did more than ten years ago. And before I say until the next course, let me remind you not to forget about the PDF files in Resources because they contain some great information. And if you would like to know more about how to sell fine jewelry, how to reset your mindset and to be able to sell items worth 15,000 USD, 50,000 USD or even more and which are necessary skills to master to become a top seller, you are more than welcome to check my course HOW TO SELL LUXURY: BECOME A SOPHISTICATED SELLING MACHINE. If you enjoyed this course, please don't forget to rate it, this is always helpful and we will keep doing the good work. Thank you for following this course and until the next course.