How to Run Agile Retrospectives | Will Jeffrey | Skillshare

How to Run Agile Retrospectives

Will Jeffrey, Professional Agile Trainer

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19 Lessons (45m)
    • 1. Course Overview

      1:47
    • 2. Course Overview

      1:46
    • 3. Phase 1: Set the Stage

      1:21
    • 4. How to Proceed?

      5:19
    • 5. Phase 2: Gather Data

      1:33
    • 6. Collect Data & Feelings

      2:51
    • 7. FAQ About Gather Data

      2:33
    • 8. Summary

      0:38
    • 9. Phase 3: Generate Insights

      2:30
    • 10. Identify Insights

      3:09
    • 11. The Art of Asking Question

      2:54
    • 12. Build Shared Understanding

      2:04
    • 13. Summary

      1:09
    • 14. Phase 4: Decide What to Do

      1:36
    • 15. Make Actions SMART

      3:15
    • 16. Carry Out the Actions

      2:27
    • 17. Let's Practice!

      2:17
    • 18. Phase 5: Closing the Retrospective

      4:23
    • 19. Wrapping Up

      1:32

About This Class

This class is part of the "Agile Retrospective Deep Dive" path

  1. Agile Retrospectives 101Start Off On the Right Foot
  2. How to Overcome 13 Agile Retrospective Smells
  3. How to Prepare for Agile Retrospectives
  4. How to Facilitate Agile Retrospectives
  5. How to Run Agile Retrospectives

This class will help you to run productive retrospectives, and know how to adapt them to suit your team. When it comes to running a retrospective, you role as a facilitator, is in providing a safe space for the team to reflect on and discuss what works well (and what doesn't!) so you can improve.

Goal of this class

  • How to ensure the group moves at the same pace to share a common understanding, and identify problems

  • How to make concrete actions to address the root causes

You will learn

  • How to get everyone mentally present right from the beginning of the meeting?
  • Why reviewing actions created at the last retrospective?
  • How to create a common picture of the period considered for the retrospective?
  • Why deriving insights from patterns observed in the data?
  • How to develop an action plan to make change happen?
  • How to close the Retrospective decisively?

References

  • Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great, Esther Derby & Diana Larsen
  • The Retrospective Handbook, Patrick Kua
  • Improving Agile Retrospectives, Marc Loeffler
  • Facilitator's Guide to Participatory Decision-Making, Sam Kaner 

Transcripts

1. Course Overview: Hi, everyone. My name is Will Jeffrey and welcome to my course how to run actual retrospectives. I am an agile coach, helping teams to get better and doing what they love. As a retrospective facilitator. You may follow the content, but your primary responsibility is the process. Retrospective leaders focus on the process and structure of the retrospective. They attend to the needs and dynamics of the group and help the group reach a goal. Retrospectives air structured by a five phase framework and each phase is important. What can happen if we skipped faces? Teams that skip a phase tend to suffer with poor quality discussions and less effective changes. This framework works because it caters to peoples tendency to have conversations at a different pace, using the framework insurers that everyone progresses. At the same time, changes are more likely to succeed because everyone is part of the process. Some of the major topics we will cover include how to ensure the group moves at the same pace to share a common understanding and identify problems. How to make concrete actions to address the root causes in the next sections. We're going to cover the following items know how getting everyone mentally present right from the beginning of the meeting understand the importance of reviewing actions created at the last retrospective. Be able to create with the group of common picture of the period considered for the retrospective No wine. How deriving insights from patterns observed in the data know how to develop an action plan to make change happen. Understand how to close the retrospective decisively. 2. Course Overview: Hi, everyone. My name is Will Jeffrey and welcome to my course how to run actual retrospectives. I am an agile coach, helping teams to get better and doing what they love. As a retrospective facilitator. You may follow the content, but your primary responsibility is the process. Retrospective leaders focus on the process and structure of the retrospective. They attend to the needs and dynamics of the group and help the group reach a goal. Retrospectives air structured by a five phase framework and each phase is important. What can happen if we skipped faces? Teams that skip a phase tend to suffer with poor quality discussions and less effective changes. This framework works because it caters to peoples tendency to have conversations at a different pace, using the framework insurers that everyone progresses. At the same time, changes are more likely to succeed because everyone is part of the process. Some of the major topics we will cover include how to ensure the group moves at the same pace to share a common understanding and identify problems. How to make concrete actions to address the root causes in the next sections. We're going to cover the following items no. What are the goals when setting the stage? Understand the importance of reviewing actions created at the last retrospective. Be able to create with the group of common picture of the period considered for the retrospective No wine. How deriving insights from patterns observed in the data know how to develop an action plan to make change happen. Understand how to close the retrospective decisively. 3. Phase 1: Set the Stage: this phase is very important because every participant has to be mentally picked up from somewhere else. Unfortunately, this set the stage phases most frequently skipped because people want to save time and get started right away. What are our goals during this phase? Get everyone mentally present. Let them clear their heads for this important meeting. Start with welcome and appreciation for setting aside time review goal optional if repetitive, review agenda. Create an atmosphere where people can bring up difficult topics and have challenging conversations without assigning blame. Only an atmosphere where even unpleasant things can be discussed. Is it possible to get to the bottom of things and to address the real causes of problems? Review the prime directive not just once for all time review working agreements. Make sure that everyone in the room says something brief. When someone is allowed to remain silent at this stage, it is like being given permission to remain silent for the rest of the retrospective, and they're likely to do so. This should be accomplished by the main activity of this phase. For example, Energizer check in nice breaker retro actions follow up. Taking a team through this phase has never been a waste of time. If the team has been working together for a long time, it often takes no more than 10 minutes. 4. How to Proceed?: how to start. Welcome, everyone, help them feel safe and comfortable to speak openly and contribute. Your tone of voice can make a big difference here. Be sure to include appreciation for setting aside time they have many task to accomplish, and their time is precious. Encourage mental presence. If you have a specific goal for the retrospective, now is the time to bring it up. If you don't have a specific goal from time to time, you may need to remind everyone of the usual goals for retrospectives. Now is also the time to review the agenda. It is even better if you have a visual agenda in some form. This is also accomplished by having everyone turn off their phone or avoid using their computer during the retro. Of course, he might cover this later when reviewing ground rules for the team. Doing these things encourage is 100% participation. How to set the tone. Use the prime directive regardless of what we discover, we must understand and truly believe that everyone did the best job he or she could, given what was known at the time, his or her skills and abilities. The resource is available and the situation at hand. Kurth 2001. Many times this is read aloud of the beginning of each retro to set the tone. This could be done by different participants at the beginning of session. Participants clarify and agree on this common attitude. Note that this prime directive could change depending on the context or goal of the retrospective that is, team building activities futile, respective. The idea is to make it clear to everyone that we're all human and make mistakes. The principle also points out that we shouldn't assume that things have been done badly deliberately. Don't need to read out the prime directive at every retrospective, but as facilitators, we want to keep it in mind and simply reminding people of it whenever necessary. However, why does it work when done repeatedly? Isn't this childish? It has to do with a big 1,000,000 effect, a kind of self fulfilling prophecy where other people's expectations lead a person to behave in achieving ways that confirm those expectations. It states that people tend to achieve success when treated as if they are capable of success. So although you might not use it all the time, don't be afraid to do it from time to time. Why are these rules so important? Let's illustrate with a brief example. Let's say your teammate James has the habit of taking his laptop with him into every meeting. He uses the time in these meetings to answer his emails or surf the web. If you start the retrospective without clearly pre established rules, he will probably do that same thing. It will annoy everyone, but no one will have the rules 2.2 and ask him to close the laptop advantages of ground rules. If the rules have been defined in advance, the team can point them out at any time. All the participants are responsible for observing them. Ask your team to monitor their ground rules during the retrospective. This makes it easier for the facilitator to concentrate on the actual work of the retrospective. If there are no rules for cooperation yet, now is the time to define them in a working agreement. This is where the main activity slash activities of this face comes in. What could be achieved by breaking the ice positive atmosphere helps lighten the mood and create a general feeling of well being among the group, which leads to MAWR. Engagement helps people relax. Meeting could be tense. They can deal with stressful topics, but an ice breaker can cut through. That tension breaks down social barriers by getting the group to work together and see each other is familiar but unique individuals. There's less separation motivates their fun, and Inspector needed energy into the group. With that comes the inherent motivation to tackle the work. Think outside the box. They work like brainstorming by getting the group to bond by bouncing ideas off one another and think more creatively get to know one another. They're really ways to get to know more about the people you work with. On a personal level which builds relationships and helps to boost productivity, some teams have raised nothing ever changes as a reason why they want to stop having retrospectives. Every sprint, the same issues come out. But nothing ever changes those issues. Air not solved. Why is it that things are not changing? One of the reasons previous Sprint actions are not reviewed? The purpose of this step is to review the actions experiments created at the last retrospective. Why does it help to review previous Sprint actions. Some seems merely check whether or not the measures chosen in the previous retrospective were actually implemented. Only if you bother to check whether those measures also have the desire to fact, however, Onley by checking the desired effect, can you actually create improvement? This is certainly not a panacea, but it is effective. In most cases, some teams have signed retrospective actions is task on the task board. But even if doing so, you may still need to do this for closure, learning, etcetera. Focusing on actions in this way also helps to make retrospectives meaningful and help you to stay focused on a topic instead of letting the discussion wander. Pro tip. If any of your retrospectives actions air not confirmed as you expected, use the next phases of the retrospective to find out why. 5. Phase 2: Gather Data: we'll discuss the second phase of retrospectives. How together data? Why is this important? The aim of the gather data phases to collect data on the last sprint. It may seem silly to gather data for a generation that lasted two weeks, but we don't want to forget that when someone misses one day in an iteration, they've missed 10% of the events and interactions. Even when people are present, they don't see everything, and different people have different perspectives on the same event. Without data, the team is speculating on what changes and improvements to make gather data activities help the team uncover and integrate different types of data. Therefore, we need to form a common understanding of the period we are considering. Without a common picture, individuals tend to verify their own opinions and beliefs. The participants might not understand one another's perspectives and opinions and will tend to project their feelings on to others. Gathering data creates a shared picture of what happened. Gathering data expands everyone's perspective to create this common picture. Everyone gets the opportunity to present his or her view of things. There are two types of data we're collecting fax that is hard data. They recall what actually took place. Feelings. They tell what's important to people. Remember that fax and feelings complement each other, so you should look for both. It's no good to have great metrics while everyone is having bad feelings about the work in general. So how do we gather these? 6. Collect Data & Feelings: start with the hard data events, metrics, features or stories completed and so forth. Events can include meetings, decision points, changes in team membership, milestones, celebrations adopting new technologies, any event that had meaning to someone on the team. Metrics include burn up charts, velocity defect counts, number of stories completed, amount of code, re factored effort, data and so forth. Encourage people to refer to team calendars and other artifacts. Documents, emails, charts back into the picture. How to collect them. Asked to write sticky notes the common way. But there are other options, too. Report verbally on data and events. Use the team's task board and big visible charts. A visual depiction of data and events makes it easier for people to see patterns and make connections. As a general principle, we want to keep the focus on the current phase. Remember the latter of inference. If team members want to talk about actions or the impact of something, acknowledged this and explain that you will get there shortly. Try something like I hear you're keen to decide on what to do. But in this exercise we're exploring what happened. We will get around to discussing what to do afterwards, but it's important we first share a common understanding of the situation at hand. Hard facts are only part of the data. Feelings are at least half the story. Feelings tell what's important to people about the fax and about the team, creating a structured way for people to talk about feelings. Make it more comfortable to raise topics that have an emotional charge. Keep the discussion balanced on one hand, encouraging to share when people avoid emotional content. It doesn't go away. It goes underground and saps energy and motivation, on the other hand, moderating the expression when the emotion may come out in a flare of anger and a flame war , it won't help your retrospective. Rather than asking directly how people feel. Try asking the questions in different ways. When were you excited to come to work? One was coming to work. Just a job. When did you dread coming to work? What were the high points? What were the low points? How is it to be on this iteration? When were you questions like these? Let people talk about how they experience the adoration without using the F word feelings. Note also how these questions get the individual to focus on themselves. So by using our language, they avoid blaming others before proceeding to the next phase. Do a quick review of the data with the entire team asked the team to scan the data you've gathered to get an overall picture. Comment on patterns, shifts and surprises. What about the pro tips? 7. FAQ About Gather Data: how about collecting input before the meeting? Some teams collect input before the meeting and use the retrospective to drive discussion around the impact and the actions that need to happen. For the gathering data phase, facilitators should end to get participants to brainstorm only fax or events rather than providing input that reflects analysis IE participants describing the impact of events and suggesting actions Gathering data prior to the meeting can lead to misunderstandings. When data is gathered a synchronously ie in private conversations, there is less transparency and potentially an impact on the level of trust between team members. When too much data is gathered, the time gained by getting everyone to give their input is lost in ensuring that everyone understands what all the input was and how it's related. Making sure that everyone has the same view of the data is important for progressing the retrospective to the next phases. How to avoid doing all the work yourself. You may fall into the trap of some facilitators who like to control the writing, asking participants to call out items which you then right up on a flip chart. This may be appropriate in other meetings, but during retrospectives you should seek as much participation from people is possible when gathering data. NB works for generating insights as well handouts, sticky notes and marker pens or other writing material for people to write up their thoughts themselves. Added Advantage of not having a central scribe when people write in silence at the same time prevents groupthink. We then get a wider variety of perspectives and a higher probability of different insights . Asked participants to place the sticky notes onto a wall or a flip chart sheet. We may need an explanation for some of the notes. Pro tip, we can ask is they place the notes Goodwin. Participation is low, few notes. Or we could ask participants to call out which sticky notes They would like more detail or help in understanding reducing facilitator talking Goodwin. Participation is high. Many notes group Sticky notes, all related to a similar theme into a cluster. Asked the team to suggest where they feel that data should be clustered. Invite members to walk through clusters instead of you walking through items allowing you to focus on highlighting clusters that are accidentally skipped by inviting more participation. You were really trying to facilitate ownership of the meeting by the team and hopefully encourage more ownership of the actions by the end of the retrospective. 8. Summary: in review, thorough data gathering and including both fax and feelings leads to better thinking in action in the rest of the retrospective. This is because without a shared picture, people are working from a narrow set of data their own. When people look only at their own data, the team is less likely to commit to changes in experiments without feelings data, the team may not address the topics that are most important to them. 9. Phase 3: Generate Insights: we'll discuss the third and probably most challenging phase of retrospectives generating insights. What is the purpose of this face generating insights makes time for the team to evaluate the data gathered previously to think together and to make meaningful information from it. So the purpose of this phase is to derive insights from patterns observed in the data. Generally, this involves the following elements. Delving into why certain events happened causes exploring the impact those events had on the team and project effects, discerning in analyzing patterns to gain insights that is interpreting what the data means . Why is this valuable? The insights we gain will help us to decide where to focus our experiments and what to do differently so that we can work more effectively. This continuous improvement is the ultimate goal of any retrospective nb As facilitators, we work to ensure that the team discovers and considers the possible causes and effects before identifying possible solutions or improvements. Why is this important? Your teen may want to immediately jump to solutions once problems emerge. First solutions may be correct, but often they're not. When you skip generating insights, your team may not understand how events behaviors and circumstances affect their ability to develop software. This means that they only ever scratch the surface and that their measures will only address the symptoms instead of dealing with the root causes. It's like using pain killers. When you broke your leg because the root cause wasn't addressed, the pain will come back. This is not a good idea because what might seem a path out of your problem often leads you straight back into it. Time spent generating insights helps ensure that when your team plans an improvement, it's one that is reasonable, ineffective in, In other words, it will make a positive difference. Yes, you can learn reusable skills, the activities and skills teams used to generate insights and analyze the problems in a retrospective. Apply outside the retrospective to teams can use thes analytical tools to understand technical problems. Prioritize stories were requirements, plan a strategy or drive innovation. For example, a Web development team learned a mind mapping technique during a retrospective to later, when the experienced friction with their customer mind mapping help the team explore options to approach the problem. Let's now take a look at the process in greater detail 10. Identify Insights: facilitators need to lead the team to examine the context of success. This includes both causes and effects that is, the conditions, connections and interactions that contributed to success. Conditions involves background to events, behaviors, feelings, connections is the static view. Interactions is the dynamic you. In this way, it should be possible to identify the strengths of the team. Why is this important? Focusing on success helps team members to explore other ways to amplify already successful changes. Facilitators also need to lead the team to investigate breakdowns and deficiencies. Again, the process involves looking at the causes and effects of these unexpected events and outcomes. In this way, it should be possible to identify risks and issues. What is the difference between a risk and an issue? In simple terms? A risk is something that might become a problem in future. An issue is already a problem. These things can negatively impact a project or endanger it completely. At this point, it is important for facilitators to ensure that blame is not apportioned to individuals. How can this be done? You should be prepared to jump in quickly to protect the retrospective atmosphere, yet still enable people to talk openly about issues We've already spoken about encouraging the use of my language, but what else can be done? It helps to look for distinct elements and what people have to say. Separate facts from feelings and feelings from judgments. Look for strategies to deal with them separately, Allow people to First State fax and confirm whether others recognize what has been said. Allow people to talk about their feelings and work to acknowledge them. Prevent people placing judgments on others. Is this works to destroy the safety that is important in open discussions during a retrospective? Now is the time to step back and see the big picture from the patterns we observe in events , behaviors and feelings. It should be possible to identify additional possibilities for change and the implications of such change. Do not try to tackle all of your problems at once. You won't be able to solve all of your problems in a single retrospective. Instead, choose the issues that the group feels are the most important. How can we go about this? If we examine what still puzzles us individually, we gain the opportunity to learn surprising insights other people may have by exploring the background of problems that have arisen rather than just the symptoms each individual may have seen. Teams can develop a shared understanding of the issues at hand. Onley with a shared understanding. Can teams move forward productively to choose solutions that the team will trial? Example. Activity patterns and shifts from annual retrospectives making good teams Great Derby and Larson look for links and connections between facts and feelings. Guide the group in recognising and naming patterns that contribute to current issues. Activities like this are very close to an open discussion, which we know can be a struggle to facility what can help. 11. The Art of Asking Question: The answer lies in the art of asking questions, using appropriate question styles to move through this phase can be very helpful. The right questions at the right time. Congar. I'd teams into deeper insights of topics they help to clarify important information, and NB used to seek consensus from the greater group. Let's review the different styles open ended exploratory, probing, filling down, redirecting, getting consensus, clarifying, confirming close ended wrapping up, tying a ribbon on it. When it comes to facilitating retrospectives, there are a few more tips which contribute to the art of asking questions. Keep the attitude of not knowing why is an ignorant stance helpful to facilitation. Whenever we see or hear something, we build hypotheses on the basis of our experience. However, these hypotheses often prevent us from asking needed questions because we believe we already know the answer. However, we can't prevent ourselves from making hypotheses. The more we try, the less we are able to listen to other people because our focus is on ourselves and our hypotheses. Ah, helpful approaches to accept your own thoughts and hypotheses, to put them aside and to be open to incurious about answers that you might not expect. This helps us to be neutral about the content of discussions and to ask the right questions in a helpful way. Our questions help people to find their own approach instead of manipulating them to think in a direction that corresponds with their experience. Assuming the attitude of not knowing requires trust and others expertise in their own situation and restraining giving advice and patients be patient and confident. Getting people to find their own effective and sustainable solutions any faster than what is natural is simply impossible. Questions stimulated thought process and getting an answer can take a really long time. Maintaining this silence is sometimes difficult and uncomfortable. To interrupt it with another question, for example, means to break off the thought process that you had previously so masterfully triggered. An important rule for a situation like this is when you have asked a question. Wait until you get an answer. However long it takes, just try it. You'll see that you'll get sooner or later a considered, sometimes surprising answer. Watch your signals. Are you unwittingly sending messages about which ideas are valid and which aren't? What sort of signals might be sending these messages, we may be completely unaware of our mannerisms. So how can we address this issue? Ask another facilitator to watch your retro and give you feedback. These people can tell you if certain team members monopolized the air time or certain topics never quite get there. Do removing your own blind spots sends your team the signal that all perspectives matter. 12. Build Shared Understanding: What is the difference between dialogue and debate In a dialogue? People express their opinions and differences in an effort to arrive at what's better for the group in a spirit of mutual understanding, a quest for commonalties and a sense of community in a debate, people are driven by their individual interest to advocate for their opinions and positions and to win over other opinions and positions. So what sort of activities build shared understanding activities to build shared understanding? Some get all point of views. Learning more about each other's perspectives helps people to question each other without being perceived as criticism From the facilitators Guide to participatory Decision Making Caner If I Were you have people look at the world through each other's eyes From the Facilitators Guide to Participatory decision making Caner. Some take into account outside point of views. Unrepresented perspectives uncover blind spots by considering stakeholders remote team members etcetera from the Facilitators Guide to participatory decision making Caner. Some get all to think from different point of views. Learning matrix looking at four perspectives on team data from Angela retrospectives making good teams, great Derby and Larson who, what, when, where and how consider each question in turn from the Facilitators Guide to Participatory Decision Making. Caner six. Thinking Hats use different thinking styles on a problem from six thinking Hats. The Bonneau via the manager's Guide to effective meetings. Streible. Some get the team. You use both objective and subjective data. Facts and opinions. Get a big picture before judgment from the facilitators gone to participatory decision, making Kenner some surface misunderstandings and resolve them. Keywords Explore the meaning of statements to identify assumptions from the facilitators Guide to participatory decision making Caner. 13. Summary: in summary generate insights is phase where some of the hardest work is done. Retrospectives have been described this way. The retrospective ritual is the collective telling of the story and mining the experience for wisdom, with a particular focus on taking positive action and acting as a catalyst for change. If collective telling of the story means gather data, then mining the experience for wisdom means generate insights. As we've seen, this is where some of the hardest work is done. Just ask a minor. However, we've discussed some ways to assist developed the art of asking questions, reuse activities with different focus. Invent theme based metaphors, handle digressions Visually, you structured thinking tools, clarify your desire. Decision methods. Choose consensus friendly discussion formats. But we don't want that to be to no avail. So in the next section will look at focus on taking positive action is they decide what to do. Phase 14. Phase 4: Decide What to Do: some teams have raised nothing ever changes as a reason why they want to stop having retrospectives. Every sprint, the same issues come out. But those issues air never solved. We need to develop an action plan or an experiment to make change happen. This is what they decide what to do. Phases for Let's discuss it. At this point, the team has a list of potential experiments and improvements from the generate insights. Phase these air not yet fully formed actions. We need to identify the top 2 to 3 root causes to work on starting in the next generation. We can't absorb a long list of changes We need to work on the things that will make the biggest difference. Here are some suggestions to achieve this goal group into clusters, sort notes into clusters of similar ideas and name the clusters dot voting asked participants to vote on the items that they want to have a conversation about. Each participant has three votes, for example. Each vote can be represented by a dot on a posted or a thumbs up. Participants can place more than one vote against an item. The items with most votes will be picked up first. Wait a minute, you might say, Didn't we already do clustering and dot voting in an earlier phase of the retro? That's true, However, depending on the quantity and type of feedback from the team. This may need to happen multiple times throughout a retro IE when gathering data when generating insights. And now, when deciding what to dio. So let's look at the goal of the conversation that ensues. 15. Make Actions SMART: actions and experiments have to be smart. Smart is the acronym for specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time boxed. Display these words somewhere prominent and use them to steer participants into suggesting actions that match the criteria. Step one. Make it specific. The more specific you're with the action, the easier it will be to achieve, rather than trying to focus on a general action. Make this action focused on defined to ensure a greater chance of accomplishment to help you be specific with these actions. Answer the questions off who, what, when, where, which and why, asked specific questions such as, What is it that we want to accomplish? Who is involved? Why are we setting this action for ourselves? And are there any other requirements or restraints that are going to keep us from reaching our action? Step two. Make it measurable to ensure that this action is measurable. You will need to identify criteria that will help you measure the success of this action and even the progress of the action. Set a timeline, including made action criteria that will help you measure this progress and prevent you from falling behind on this action. Step three. Make it achievable. Make sure that this smart action plan incorporates achievable actions. Everyone has a certain schedule, a workload and information that they can use to help accomplish their actions. Considering the circumstances, can you achieve the expected goal with this action? If you are coming across too many roadblocks that make this action unattainable, try setting a different action or reconstructing this action to make it more achievable to gauge if this action is attainable, ask questions such as. Can we take on the commitments to reach this action? Is there a more achievable action that we would rather work towards Step four? Make your action relevant. Make your action relevant to the goal that you wish to currently achieve as a team. Make sure that your action is realistic. For instance, if you're not a swimmer and you hate water, then your action should not be to swim 500 meters in the next two weeks, said an action that you have an actual chance of achieving Step five. Make it time boxed. A smart action should have a deadline. Inaction is not an action if it is not time boxed. This will help the action. Seymour serious and it will motivate the team to work harder, faster and stronger to accomplish it. If this action seems casual and there is no timeline attached to it, then you run the risk of getting sidetracked and putting this action on the back burner for later. The latest deadline for an action should be the end of the next Sprint. If the goal of the action is more long term than each sprint, it would be good to reevaluate and modify or recommit to the action towards reaching the goal. When it comes to your time based action, you should develop a sense of urgency to help your team achieve it better. Of course, you do not want to allow this action to stress your team out or overwhelm them. However, you should impart a sense of motivation and motion to achieve this action by giving your smart plan of action a timeframe and schedule. To do this, you can ask these questions. What can we do right now to help us reach our action? Where should we be with our action in two weeks? 16. Carry Out the Actions: Once you have some smart actions, you'll still need to get commitment from the team to carry out the actions. This is where your decision method can make a difference. Let's see how decision methods can affect the nature of decisions made and the level of commitment decision methods. Managerial. The chairman makes the call after group discussion. Effect enough authority for high stakes decisions to be acted upon good but may not be based on root causes. Bad low stakes decisions. Air just a training exercise. Some good vote by majority. Just count the votes effect. High stakes decisions reflect influence, not necessarily logic. Bad low stakes decisions are expedient. Good delegation selected members of the group make the decision effect decisions air expedient and may reflect specialized knowledge. Good, but maybe apart to some bad consensus and agreement that all participants can support and sustain effect takes time bad but well spent for high stakes decisions that are innovative . Good, low stakes decisions are not a part to anyone. Good. Is there a voting method that minimizes the bat and maximizes the good in order to get true commitment behind action items? Yes, there is Roman voting thumbs up thumbs down when used along with the decider protocol, it is possible to address all these concerns in the shortest possible time. So you have consensus on your smart actions. What's next? In addition to being smart, actions should be assigned. Why having a single person take responsibility for each action is best. If nobody is assigned the action, you're likely to find that no one feels responsible for carrying out the action without individual commitment. People assume that the team will do the task, and no one does it encourage people to sign up for actions voluntarily rather than being assigned by an authority figure. What about action slash experiments that need to be performed by the whole team? An action owner can still be assigned not to carry out the action alone, but to ensure that action is taken. Every action should be matched with one owner before leaving the retrospective. Be sure that people sign up and come into actions. Taking action during the retrospective builds momentum. What's practice 17. Let's Practice!: If someone says we need to do more automated testing, why isn't this action smart? Specific? What sort of test? Measurable. How much more achievable? How would we fit this into our workflow? Relevant? What is the real goal? Time boxed. When? For next friend Next quarter. Here are some questions we could ask. What sort of automated testing? Specific performance. Testing unit testing, acceptance, testing All of these. Can you quantify what you mean by more measurable? What has prevented us from doing this before? Achievable. Why do we want more tests relevant? What should we accomplish by next friend? Time boxed. Why is the following action not suitable? Dev Ops needs to set up some monitoring. We can't allocate actions to people who are not actually president. The retrospective. What could you say to help your team rephrase this action? That's not something you could make happen. What is it that you can dio? Um or acceptable action might be. Arrange a meeting with Dev Ops to explain why we need monitoring and what the options are. Now we know that sometimes we can't discuss all our improvement goals in a retrospective. Then what? When to schedule follow obsessions. When a team has a lot of issues to deal with, Ah, Heartbeat retrospective may not be able to cover them all in sufficient death. Asked participants. If they would like the next retrospective toe, have a theme focus so that they can explore issues in greater depth. For example, why are we not able to reach our commitment? Some issues are better addressed by the people closest to them in a 1 to 1 before they are addressed by a larger group. After the retrospective approached the team lead, point out your observations and perhaps work with him to book a follow obsession. For example, review the requirement process. Consider a technical retrospective where developers can focus more on their own topics. For example, how can we make a good use of our dashboard to improve our failing tests? 18. Phase 5: Closing the Retrospective: all good things come to an end. Even retrospectives and the retrospective decisively don't let people in their energy dribble away. So let's discuss the fifth and last phase of retrospectives closing the retrospective. At this stage, you should have a plan of action from the previous phase decide what to do. The possibility of change feels exciting. The close the retrospective face helps teams visualize a successful outcome, leaving them or keen to make change happen. What do you need to do? So we follow the process through the retrospective. And just like a good talk, we need an effective conclusion. Spend a few minutes on a short review, which celebrates the results of your retrospective. Your team should feel encouraged to implement change. Some participants get a sense of satisfaction from just understanding why an issue came up during the adoration and knowing how to prevent it happening again. Others are rewarded because they feel better informed about whom to approach with questions that were raised but perhaps remain unanswered. The facilitator summarizes on how to proceed. This is to check that everyone understands the plan. You might refer back to the flip chart slash white board when reviewing and summarizing. Having a brief retrospective on the retrospective itself is always a good idea. After all, you want continuous improvement to extend to your retrospectives too close the retrospective with an appreciation for the hard work everyone did both during the Sprint and during the retrospective. This honors the time and energy that the team has put into both a retrospective in the preceding generation Before leaving, you should also document your results appropriately. There are many ways to do this, including taking photographs of the white board and keeping the flip chart paper the team used to develop their ideas. Making the results of the retrospective visible to everyone is good practice, as the saying goes out of sight, Out of mind always include the defined actions in the next planning session. These actions are considered part of a normal workload and are not extra tasks. Let's now take a closer look at looking back at the retrospective. How have a brief retrospective on the retrospective? One tool for this is a return on time invested roadie graph. A roadie graph is often used after a meeting to get some quick feedback from a team. It is a good way to determine whether you're retrospectives, air working well or whether they need to be improved. One means this meeting was not really useful. To me, free means this meeting was just about worth. The time I invested in attending five means This meeting was absolutely fantastic. The time I invested in attending paid off incredibly well. Each participant ads across to the graph to show his or her opinion, and the result is the completed graph. As you can see in our example, this team was quite happy with their retrospective. Don't be disappointed if yours isn't like this. Use a learning opportunity. Some final words of advice We've worked very hard to craft our actions and experiments. It would be tragic not to follow through how to avoid the do nothing. Retrospective teams who identify external groups as the source of their ills and want those people to change end up frustrated. Waiting for other people to change is an exercise in futility, the most powerful place to start changes within the team. Even when your team doesn't have direct control, your team can take action to influence or change their own response. As we demonstrated in our practice session. Change happens in the course of normal work. Teams who believe their retrospectives are a waste of time often keep their improvement plans completely separate from their daily work plans. When the plans air separate, no one finds time to do the extra work. How do you radiate your retrospective action items during the Sprint? Create a work item for the next brand, if not particular to a P B I slash bug. It could be created as a child task of a support item. Read mine or an impediment TFS. Maintain a wiki or use a dashboard, especially for actions that become part of your teams. Were close slash process post in your team's communication tool. How do daily things help? Provide a useful opportunity to check with all action owners for progress or for those action owners to share progress with the rest of the team? Remember, the effects of the retrospective should be felt throughout the next sprint and on into the future 19. Wrapping Up: retrospectives offer you and your team a safe haven for introspection and often prove to be a for change. When done right, retrospectives give endless insight and help teams rally around improvement, ensure the group moves through the retrospective framework at the same pace. Focus Conversations on fact finding before uncovering root causes. Focus on concrete actions on Lee after the group has identified. The root causes make action items more likely to happen by assigning action owners and shaping them to fit the smart criteria. People look at different issues and learn different lessons when they take a longer, broader view. Even when the team doesn't stay together, people take that, learning with them to benefit other teams and other projects. Without the broader view. Problems remain hidden or are attributed to the wrong source. Doing retrospectives is still worth the time and energy. So hold a retrospective at every ending point. Your teams and your organization will learn and improve as they step back and reflect. Help your team manage their actions and support them through change. A major transformation can start from a single retrospective. Incremental improvement is important, too celebrated. It's more than many teams ever achieve. Retrospectives could be a powerful catalyst for change