How to Read Music in 30 Days or less! | Matthew Ellul | Skillshare

How to Read Music in 30 Days or less!

Matthew Ellul

How to Read Music in 30 Days or less!

Matthew Ellul

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29 Lessons ()
    • 1. Day 1

    • 2. Day 2

    • 3. Day 3 Tempo

    • 4. Day 4

    • 5. Day 5

    • 6. Day 6

    • 7. Day 7

    • 8. Day 8

    • 9. Day 9

    • 10. Day 10

    • 11. Day 11

    • 12. Day 12

    • 13. Day 13

    • 14. Day 14

    • 15. Day 15

    • 16. Day 16

    • 17. Day 17

    • 18. Day 18

    • 19. Day 19

    • 20. Day 20

    • 21. Day 21

    • 22. Day 22

    • 23. Day 23

    • 24. Day 24

    • 25. Day 25

    • 26. Day 26

    • 27. Day 27

    • 28. Day 28

    • 29. Day 29

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About This Class

Do you want to read and write music? Do you want to compose your own music & write your own songs? Would you like to learn piano, guitar or any instrument much faster? Would you like to build a strong foundation to advance your musical studies?

If you say yes to any of these questions, this course is for you!

In this simple, step-by-step system you’ll discover:

  • the basics of music theory
  • how rhythm works
  • how the musical alphabet is put together
  • the ins and outs of music notation
  • how to convey your musical ideas with expression marks

What you get is 30 core lessons with PDF summaries, 100+ exercises, 150+ audio examples, expert tips, 10 fun listening challenges, 1 final test, access to all answers and a 20-page bonus of music reading training.  

And if you ever need to ask anything, you can simply ask your teacher. He’ll gladly help you out anytime!

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1. Day 1: day, one musical notation and note values. The word not eight is from the Latin. No tattoos, meaning to note down Musical notation is a set off symbols, markings and characters that represent rhythm, pitch and other instructions to musicians. Just like we use letters, words and sentences to communicate in everyday language. We can communicate music through notation, the basis off musical notation. Is there it in note. A note is this symbol, and it's made up of three parts the head, just them and the flag. By changing any off the three parts off the symbol, we cannot eight different durations, which are better known in music as note values. For example, this is the whole note, also known in British English terminology as the semi brief, it has neither system nor a flag and its head. This left empty rather than filled in relative to all other known values. This is the longest, but the exact amount of time it will be play for depends on various other factors, which we will learn about later on in this course. For now, we are only concerned with the relative value off every note that is the duration off a note in comparison to all others. In fact, all other note values derived their names in relation to the whole note. This is the half note or so known in British English as the minimum, and its duration is half the whole note. This means that the duration off to half notes is equal to one whole note. Next is the quarter note in British, known as the Cratchit. December is similar to the half note, except that the head is filled in and its value is of 1/4 off a whole note. So the duration of 4/4 notes are equal to the duration off one whole note. Next comes the egg note, also known as Dick Waiver. It's relative duration. Is that often eighth off? A whole note. The symbol is similar to the quarter note, but with the addition off the flag and of course, 88 notes are equal toe one whole note. Next comes the 16th Note, also known as the Cenique waiver. It's relative duration. Is that off 1/16 off a whole note. It looks similar to the quarter note, except for the addition off a second slag. And of course, 16 16 Notes are equal in duration toe one whole note. Now, in theory, this pattern can go on and on. If we were to discuss the next note, it would be half the duration off the previous one, and the symbol would have an added flag. Do not after that would be have yet again. And that symbol would have yet another flag. And so on end, on every time dividing by half, we'll get into the detail of how these note values work in actual music in later lessons. For now, just keep in mind that the value off these notes in relation to each other never changes. So no matter what goes on in the music, 2/2 notes will always equal one whole note. 2/4 notes will always equal 1/2 note and so one and on. 2. Day 2: day, two musical parts. So far, we've seen the relative durations off the note values. We know, for example, that 1/2 note is half the whole note but also double the quarter Note. Similarly, we know that the quarter note is half the house. No as well as double the eight note. But how do we know the duration off these notes in real time? How do we decide how short or long a note should actually be played for? For this, we need a more complete picture off rhythm, and an important part of it is the musical pulse. The pulse is one aspect off how we measure musical time. It's that constant underlying throb that is felt in music As it plays along. It's often referred to also as the beat. This is what people tap their feet toe when listening to a song. Here's a basic visual representation off a pulse. It's just a simple Rohloff squares, but observed that their equal in size and they're always the same distance apart. This is because the pulse is steady, consistent, and all the meats are the same duration. Now, to measure musical time accurately, we must decide what these beats are were. And to do this, we must assign an old value to the pulse. So instead of squares will put an old value. Let's say, for example, quarter notes. So here we have 1/4 note pulse, where every beat is 1/4 note. This is useful because now that we know that one beat is 1/4 note, we can measure how many beats every other note is worth. And we can do this because we already know the relative durations off our note values from our previous lesson. So if the quarter notice one beat, then the whole notice four beats, they have notice two beats. The eight note is, Have a beat, and the 16th note is 1/4 off a beat. Here's a quick summary of what we've learned today. The buzz is the constant underlying beat. The pulse is steady and consistent. The pass is a signed an old value quarter notes, half notes, eight notes so that it becomes 1/4 note palace or 1/2 note pulse or an eighth note. Pals and someone. The rhythm's off melodies compel a mints and whatever else happens in the music are built on top off the pulse 3. Day 3 Tempo: day, three Temple students often assume that one beads takes one second off club time. But this is a mistake. When we created 1/4 note pulse in the previous lesson, we did not conclude that one beat would be played for any specific number of seconds. The actual time it takes to play a beat is determined by Temple. There were tempo is the musical term for pace or speed? If the tempo is quick, the beats are shorter because they are closer together. And if the temple was slower, the beats are longer because they are further apart from each other. The plural of tempo is either Tempe or temples. Before we proceed, Please keep in mind that tempo doesn't affect the relative durations. Off notes, for example, they have notice still and always will be twice as long as the quarter note, no matter how fast or slow they are played to indicate what the tempo is. Composer strike specific musical terms at the beginning, off the music as from the romantic era. Composers use terms in their own language, but in earlier times it was traditional to use terms in Italian. This is because Italy was the place where classical music began to flourish back in the Renaissance. These terms are still in use today. For example, the Italian word Allegro is an indication that the music should be played quickly. On the other hand, determine lentil is Italian for slow now. A problem that arises with these terms is that although we know that Allegro means quick and lentil means slow, we don't really know exactly how quick or how slow you're on Menzel. So if this problem with the invention off the Metro no, the job of his device is to make the sound off clicks at any time. But we choose everyone off those clicks represents a beat. And so Dementor no makes and all the bill pulse the Metro no measure speed in beats per minute shortens toe bpm. Let's get a quick feel for the difference between two different temples. This is 120 beats per minutes, and this is a composition. Play that around the same temple. Now compare that to the temple off 70 beats per minutes on the metro. No, and now listen to the second movement from the same piece by Mozart played at around 70 beats per minute. As you can hear, tempo is a significant influence on the character of the music. There are many free matter norms online, so as soon as you get a chance, search for one and fiddle around to see how it works. Common temple markings Here is a table off six off the most common Italian terms for a temple, their meaning and their equivalent beats per minute. A lot of go, meaning very slow and broad play that 40 beats per minute. A Dodger meaning slope played at 60 beats permanent undaunted meaning at a walking pace. Play that 80 beats per minute. Moderato Munich moderately played at 100 beats per minute allegro, meaning lively and quick. Play that 120 beats per minute and vodka, meaning very fast. Play that 140 beats per minute. Note that in practice, these terms represent a range off tempos and not strictly one speed. Hadda Joe is listed at 60 beats per minute, but it could also be 54 or 68. Allegro is listed as 120 beats per minute, but it could also be 116 or 126 beats per minute. The exact temple always depends on context, and you can hear examples off this any time. You listen to the same piece played by different musicians. The temples very according to their interpretation off the composer's ideas, not 18. The matter no more for a temple marking Toby accurate, it's not enough to know the amount of beats per minute. We also need to know what those beats are worth. Are they 1/4? No beats? Have no meets eight no beats. Something goes as we've seen in the last lesson. The past consists off recurring beats, but those beats must be assigned an old value. So the complete marking for Temple consists off two parts, first to the value of each beat, such as quarter notes or half notes, followed by the number of beats per minute. For example, here we have 100 quarter note beats per minute. This means that the pulse consists off water notes, and there are exactly 100 off them in a minute. This one is 80 have note beats per minute, so it means that the pulse consists off half notes and there are exactly 80 off them in a minute. Here's a quick summary off. Today's lesson tempo is DePace for speed of a composition. Temple is indicated by specific musical terms. Traditionally in Italian tempo can be measured accurately with beats per minute. Oh! 4. Day 4: day, four meter meter Is the division off beats in two equal groups? Here's a pulse made up off 6/4 notes, Although it's quite simple, it can be played in various waste. Let's try one possibility where the 6/4 notes are divided into two groups, off 3/4 notes each. Now let's try a different one. This time the palace is divided into three groups, off to quarter notes each. I'm sure we agreed that these passes are very different in their musical effect. Let's listen to them again. Now the question is, how did we distinguish that these two are different at all? The answer is in the accents, just like in every day language where some words are more stressed than others. In music, some beats are stronger than others, or we can say some beats are accented. In the first example, the 6/4 notes were divided into two groups, off three beats each. The first beat off every group is stronger than the other two. It is extended, and so we perceive the meters being in tree, meaning that the pulse has a recurring 123123 Effect another term for entry is to say that the meter is triple. In the second example, the strong beat appeared every two beats and so we perceive the meter Toby in two. It's affected, are very caring one toe, 12 where the one is strong and the two is weaker. Another term for into is due kilometer. These cycles off strong and weak beats are better known in music as meters. They can be in any amount off beads, but the most common are the ones in to do kilometres in three triple meters and four quadruple meters. In musical notation, these groups off beats are organized into measures also known as bars, and they are separated by Barnes Time Signature to indicate the meter quickly and clearly in musical notation, we use time signatures. A time signature consists off two numbers, one sitting on top off the other in sheet music. You'll find the time signature at the beginning off the music. Here's an example from a song by Schubert. This is the temple marking and this is the time signature. So what do these numbers mean? Number on top tells us the amount off beats per measure. It does us whether limiter is in tow in three in four or more this time, signature here shows that the meter is into. There are two beats in every measure. The bottom number tells us what those beads are worth. It shows us whether the beats are eight notes. Quarter notes have notes on another note value. The bottom number is relative to the whole note. The easiest way to work out what the beats are worth is to divide the whole note by that bottom number. For example, if the bottom number is that too, we were held a whole no divided by two, which gives us toe half notes. So when the bottom number of the time signature is to the beats are half known beads. What about before the whole no divided into four gives us 4/4 notes, So a time signature with four as the bottom number represents 1/4 note palace. So in this example, the bottom number is a four, so each beat is 1/4 notes beat, so the time signature to four indicates that the meter is to quarter note beats per measure . This is a do kilometer, which means that it's made off to recurring beats. The first beat is the strongest this second beat the weaker. Here's a piece into a four meter. Listen carefully to the one toe, one toe effect. Let's look at another example. This is the time signature 38 since the top numbers a three, then we know that this meter consists off three beats per measure. It is a triple meter. No, we need to figure out what kind of beads they are since the bottom numbers and eight. Then they are signals. 38 is a triple meter that consists off 38 notes per measure. Here's a composition in 38 meter. Try to notice the 1231 toe. Three effect. What about the time signature, too? Number on top tells us that there are two beats per measure. What kind of beans? The bottom number. Also, ATO indicates that they are half note beats. So this meter is a due bill meter, and it consists off to half no beats per measure. Here's a piece off music in total meter, just like before. Listen to the one toe, one toe effect. Now try it out for yourself. Pause this video and defined this time signature. Are you ready? The bottom number tells us that he beat is 1/4 note beat. How many quarter? No beats per measure from the top number. We know that it's four, so this is a quadruple meter that consists off 4/4 note beats per measure. Now you might have noticed that sometimes signatures are very similar. For example, 2 to 1 for four can hold the same amount off notes in a measure, and 24 and two are both do kilometers. This issue will be dealt with later in the course. Strong and weak needs, as we've mentioned meters, are made up of a fixed layout off strong and weak beats. But don't let the words strong and weak mislead you. These are terms that allow us to explain this particular aspect off rhythm. There is nothing better with strong beats or worse, with weak beats. These are both equally important. It is with these two together. That meter works in all meters. The first beat is theoretically the strongest, so in do kilometres, the first beat a strong while the second is weak. The example here is into four, but the same applies to any do kilometer in triple meters. The first week is this strong and it is followed by two week beats in quadruple meters. The first and third beats are strong and the second and fourth are weak. The first, however, is stronger than the third, so before beats our strongest week stronger week, it's important to note that the strong and weak beats are not forced by musicians. They are caring literally within melody scored progressions, accompaniments and so one because music is naturally made up off rhythmic patterns. Also, the impression off strong and weak beats off the meter is often ordered according to the flow off the music. We'll see later that a strong beat can we felt earlier or later than expected. In fact, this is a common way off, giving the music a sense of variety. However, it is important to understand the theoretical outline off meters before we tackle any diversions. Here's a quick summary off what we've learned today. Meter is the division off beats into equal measures and they are separated by Barnes. Meter is indicated by the time signature at the beginning off the music. In theory, the first bit of every measure is the strongest one 5. Day 5: day five measuring silence For every note value, we have an equivalent. Rest rests are symbols that represent a silent duration. These are important because musicians must know precisely not only when and what to play, but also went to stop and for how long. Here is a table off the note values and their equivalent rests. Whole note. Whole rest have note. Have rest. Quarter note. Court arrest. Eight. Note eight rest 16 note 60 interests and just like note values. The pattern for rests can go on and on. If we were to discuss the next dressed, it would be half the 16th note, and its symbol would have an additional flag. The rest after that would be have yet again, and its symbol would have yet another flag. Here is a simple example. Off rests in use during them consists off two measures off for four meter notice the various stress that are part of it, and notice also that the silences are just as important as the actual notes. Here's a quick summary off. Today's lesson in music silence is measured with rests. For every note value, there is an equivalent rest 6. Day 6: day six at in duration with the DOT with a dot place directly to the right off the north head the duration off that note increases by half its original value. Here's an example. This is at dotted half note. The half note alone is equal to 2/4 notes. The DOT is worth half off that 1/4 note. So in total, the dotted half note is equal to 3/4 notes, two from the original have note and one from the DOT. What about a dotted whole note? We know that the whole note is equal to two. Have notes the dot that's half this original value. So it adds, one have note they got it home. Not therefore is equal to three have notes, two from the whole note itself and one from its duct at the same time. Of course, every half note is equal to 1/4 notes each. So in total, the dotted whole note is also equal to 6/4 notes. Think about the rhythm dot just like the English word half. In the phrase a year and 1/2 the word half means six months, but in the phrase a month and 1/2. The word have no means. Only two weeks. The rhythm dot works exactly in the same way. Its exact value depends on what comes before it. Let's work out two more examples. This note is that dotted quarter note. The quarter note is equal toe to eight notes. The DOT adds another eight note, half the original. So in total, the dotted quarter note is equal to three signals. Finally, we work out the dotted eighth note. The note is equal to 2 16 notes the DOT that's another 16 notes because that's half the original. And so in total, the dot it eight note is worth 3 16 notes. The rhythm don't applies exactly the same way to rest. Adopted whole rest, for example, is where 3/2 wrists and the dotted harvest is equal to 3/4 arrests. Here is a table of dotted note values with their equivalent rests. Here's an example off every day with dotted notes. This is the rhythm only, and here is the origin and music. Here's another example. Apart from dotted notes, this rhythm includes various rests, and here is the original music. The double dot, although it's use, is not as common as the single dot. The duration of a dotted note can be extended further by the addition off a second dot. The second not will be worth half the duration off the first dot. A double dotted half note, for example, is equal tohave. Note. Plus 1/4 note plus an egg note. Here's a quick summary off day six the dot that's half the value to the original note. The dot can be applied to all notes and all rests. The double dot extends did duration off a dotted note. The second dot is worth half the first dot. 7. Day 7: Day seven Detroit. Although the dot can be useful to increase the duration off note values, it is also limited because, as we've seen, it increases the duration off the note specifically by half its original value. A more flexible means off. Adding to the duration of the note is by tying it to another note as I use a curved line strung between two notes. The tight note is not struck or played again. Instead, its duration is that it onto the original so that it is prolonged. Here's an example of a simple rhythm without ties. Now here it is with a tie. As you can hear, this note is not played again, but its duration is that it onto this note. Instead, Detroit is useful in three particular situations, adding notes together over a bar nine. Since it's not possible to have no durations longer than one full measure off any meter, we can use the time to create longer notes in this example the meters entry. But thanks to the Thai, denote a 6/4 notes long the equivalent off to full measures in this meter, adding knows together to produce a specific duration. Often we might need to have inauguration. That is not possible. Using standard note values only in this example, the resulting duration is off 1/4 note, and the 16. There's no way of not aiding such a note value other than with the time adding three or more notes. Together, the tie is not limited to two notes. It can be used over as many notes or measures as we need. In this example, we have a long note made up off three notes. Tight together. It's interesting to note that dotted notes can be written also as tied notes. These two rhythms sound exactly the same, but we still use that it knows, because their standard practice musicians are used to them and they're able to read them very quickly. Notation also tends to be less cluttered using dots instead of Thais were possible. Here's a quick summary off what we've learned today. The Thai as together did duration off two or more notes that I noticed not struck or played again, but its duration is added on to the first note 8. Day 8: Day eight, reassigning the value off the beat. So far, we've mostly seen meters where the pulse is measured in quarter note. Beats in this lesson will take a look at meters where either the eight note or the half note is the meat. We've learned already that when the palace consists, off quarter note beats the bottom number off the time signature is for so when the palace consists off eight note beats, the bottom number off the time signature is eight. As always, the top number off the time signature shows us the amount of beats per measure. The bottom number shows us what each of those beads are worth. So in this time, signature here to eight, we get to eight note beats per measure. Just like before, it's made up off two beats per measure. This is 38 note beats per measure, and this is four ignored beats per measure. Here is a table that shows how the note values relate to different kinds off beats the quickest way off. Calculating these relationships is to keep in mind, which no value is assigned the value off. One. The 16th notes, for example, is 1/4 of a beat if the beat is 1/4 note. In other words, when the quarter note equals one, the 16th note equals 1/4. But when did Beat is an eighth note. Then that same 16 note becomes have a beat. That is, if the eight note equals one. The 60 not equals 1/2. They have no to beat. Now let's look at meters where Departs consists off half note beads in the time signature have no beats are indicated with a number two at the bottom. So this, for example, is 32 meter it is. Three have no beads for measure. This is to have no beats per measure, and this is for half note beats per measure and justice before the inaugurations acquire a different value, depending on this beat. So if the quarter notes equals one beat, then it takes to eight notes to fill one beak. But if they have not equals one beat, then it takes 48 notes to fill one beat. Now, don't worry. If you're still having some trouble with these numbers, it usually takes some time to get used to them. Here's a quick summary for day eight pulse or to beat can be assigned any note value. Have no quarter note, a note and so on. And you know value can be designated as one beat when the meter consists off. Half known beats the bottom number off the time signature is, too. When the meter consists off. Eight note beats The bottom number off the time signature is eight. 9. Day 9: Day nine Simple versus compound meters. So far in this course, we've seen that the most common meters are do people two beats per measure, triple three beats per measure or quadruple four beats per measure. But apart from do people, triple or quadruple time signatures are also categorized as either simple or compound. Simple time signatures are those that we've learned about so far. What makes them simple is that each beat off the meter is naturally divisible by two, whereas we'll see that compound meters are naturally divisible by three. For example, to four is a simple meter because every quarter note beats, it's naturally the visible by to every quarter. Note can be divided into 28 notes, so the time signature to four is a simple do people meter. Another simple do kilometer is to to it is Dupin because it is made up off two beats per measure, and it is simple because each off those beats is naturally divisible by two compounds meter . For every simple meter, there is a compound meter counterpart. As we've mentioned, every beat off a compound meter is naturally divisible by three. Here's how this works. The simple do kilometer 24 is made up off to quarter north pulses per measure and each off . Those quarter notes are naturally divisible into 2/8 notes. But if the meter was made up off to dotted quarter notes instead, each of these two beats are now naturally divisible into three equal parts. In fact, the time signature for a meter maid up off to dotted quarter notes is 68 68 note beats per measure. This means that the meter 68 is do people because it is made up off to Maine beats. But since each of those two beats is the visible by tree, it is also a compound meter. This time signature is a compound do pills meter. Let's look at another example. This is a simple triple meter maid up off 38 notes per measure. It's compound triple counterpart must consist off three dotted eighth notes, spare measure and, of course, each off. The three dotted eighth notes are divisible by three. Every dotted eight note is equal toe 3 16 notes and adding these divisions up the 16th notes. We see that the time signature off this meter is 9 16 a measure can hold 9/16 notes, so this time signature is a compound triple. Now let's finish up with an example of a compound quadruple meter. This measure is filled with four dotted half notes. What is the time signature? Let's get to the answer. Step by step, every dotted half note can be broken down into 3/4 notes, and the measure is now filled with 12 quarter notes. The top number therefore this 12. The bottom number must represent the quarter note subdivision. And from our experience with simple meters, we know that this is for so the time signature off this compound quadruple meter, it's 12 4 10. Day 10: date and grouping to help make notation easier to read the flags off. Eight notes and notes off smaller value are joins together. For example. This rhythm is much easier to read than this, even though they would some. The same grouping means that the flags off the notes become beam's horizontal lines that join sets off notes. The rule for grouping knows it's very simple. Grouped together notes that make one beads The example here is in 44 meter, and it shows clearly where the 4/4 known beats are. Here are some examples off CORRECTs grouping This is into four where the beams show where the beats are. This is 68 which is to dotted quarter beats per measure. And here's an example. In 34 3/4 beats per measure, the way that the notes are joined shows clearly that there are 3/4 beats per measure. Now. There are some exceptions to this rule, and they help make notation even easier. Number one if the first or last to beats in 44 meter consists off eight notes on Lee, they're groups together. Number two if eight notes feel a measure off 2434 or 38 meter there. Also, groups together notice that when notes are grouped over several beats, the group always begins on a strong beat. Now, while these are standard groupings, composers do sometimes deviate and group notes in unorthodox ways. When they do this, they are trying to show the character off the music better. So if you meet some notes that are grouped in different ways, it doesn't necessarily mean that it's wrong. It just means that that rhythm requires it because off its particular character or its particular context. 11. Day 11: day, 11 complex meter, the final kind of meter that will discuss is complex meter. These meters do not fit in the simple or compound categories because, as we shall see, they are a mixture of both. One measure of complex time signature consists off two or more passes off different lengths . One very common complex meter is the Quinta Bill Meter 54 that is 5/4 note beats very measured, and this meter normally has two strong pulses. But unlike simple and compound time signatures, these two passes are not equal. They're not the same duration. The five beads are divided into two groups, one off 3/4 notes and the other off to or vice versa. A group of 2/4 notes, followed by a group off 3/4 notes. One off. The first major composers to use this meter was Tchaikovsky in the second movement off his Sixth Symphony. Listen first to the rhythm by itself, and here's the origin in music. Let's look at another complex meter. This is 7878 note beats per measure. As we've said, complex meters are a mixture off do people and triple policies. This meter is no difference on the 78 notes can be organized in tow to do bill passes and one triple parts. This gives us three possibilities off. Organizing seven beats. It can be 3 to 2 to 23 or two three to. 12. Day 12: Day 12 to plants. In our discussion on simple and compound meters, we learned that the difference between them is whether the individual beats are naturally divisible by two simple or naturally the visible by three compound. But it is also possible to divide a bit by tree in a simple meter and toe divider beat by two and a compound meter. This will be known as artificial division, and it's not aided by what is known as to Prinz A to play. It is a subdivision of annulled into a number that is not normally permitted by the meter. The triple it is by far the most common to pull it in use. It is used in simple meters, and it allows the division of an old into three equal parts instead off the normal too. And in order to make the notation clear, the notes that make up the triplet are being together with a small number three on top in the middle. If the notes are quarter notes and bigger and so they cannot be beamed, then Esler or a bracket with a small number three makes it clear. Always keep in mind that a triplet is three notes played in the time off to off the same type of note. For example, 3/4 notes in the time off to quarter notes or 38 notes in the time off to eight norms. Another common type off pupil. It is the Duplin. It is the division of a note into two equal parts. Instead, off the normal tree. This is the compound you pill meter 68 where the natural subdivisions off each dotted quarter beat is into 38 knows three equal parts. The duplicate allows us toe artificially divided the dotted quarter. No into two notice. Did notation with this small number toe indicating the duplicate do not confuse the terms to Plett and duplicates to pull. It refers to the whole category off artificial subdivisions. Often Aunt at Duplicate is a specific type of to pull it that is two notes played in the time off. Three. While the duplicate and the triplet are the most common off artificial divisions, there are countless other possibilities. This is a quintuplet the division into five parts. This is a sextuple it the division into six parts, and this is a septuplet. The division into seven parts. Here's a quick summary for a date with two plates. Allow this subdivisions off beads into an amount that is not normally permitted by the meter. A triple it is the division of a note into three equal parts. Instead, off the normal, too. A duplicate is the division of a note in tow to equal parts instead off the normal tree. 13. Day 13: day 13 rewriting meters in this lesson will discover a variety of ways off manipulating meter, so that will strengthen our understanding. Off it to begin will rewrite meters and their rhythms as double or half off the original without changing the way they sound. The central principle behind rewriting any meter is that notes must keep their relative value in their respective meters. So I know that is worth one beat in one meter will still be worth one week in the new meter and the note that his work have a beat will still be worth. Have a beat in the new meter and so one. So let's say we have this rhythm into four. Which meter would do it and be in if we double to the value off every note? Our first things things might be toting that the double off to four is 44 although it's mathematically correct that a measure off for four can hold double the amount off beats as 24 rhythmically and musically, it's not quite correct. The quality off the meter depends on its pattern off strong and weak beats in the case. Off 24 a strong beat occurs every 2/4 beats. And so we say that to four is Dougal, or it is into with the time signature off for four, However, the pattern is different. The strongest beat brokers every 4/4 beats. So in order to double the meter without altering the character off the rhythm, the new time signature must also be in two. And at the same time, a measure must also be doubled. The volume, the time signature that fulfils these criteria is to so doubling off. The original rhythm will look like this. What about dividing the original by house justice before we need the time signature? That fulfills two criteria it must be into, and the measure must hold half the amount off beats. The time signature that's fulfils these criteria is to eight. So having the original rhythm will look like this. At this point, you might be wondering, How can it be that these rhythms sound the same? Clearly, the one into eight is faster than the one in 24 and the one in to two is even slower than the one in 24 This is now a question off temple. Let's say the temple of the original rhythm in 24 is at 120 quarter note beats per minute. What should the temple off the other two rhythms be so that they sound the same as the original? The answer is quite simple, since the rhythm off to four is measured in quarter note beats and there are 120 off them in a minute, Then the temple off the rhythm into two will be 120 half note beats per minute. Because that meter is measured in half notes, this would mean that the rhythm sound the same. They both consists off the same number of beats per minute, and relative subdivisions off those beats are the same in respect to their meters. For example, look at the last measure. The rhythm into four has 1/2 note, which is two beats in that meter, whereas the last measure off the two to rhythm is a whole note. But that is also two beats in its meter. Similarly, the temple off the rhythm in tow eight will be 128 note beats per minute. This is an important lesson. Meters rhythms and temples are relative to each other and also a lesson in that we can manipulate the notation off rhythm to suit the needs of our music. Rewriting simple and compound meters. Apart from doubling and halving, it's also possible to rewrite every them from a simple meter, toe, a compound meter or from a compound meter toe a simple meter without changing the way it sounds. Let's try an example. This rhythm is in simple 34 meter. How do we re write this into a compound meter in order to maintain its melodic and rhythmic character? The new meter must also be a triple one, and in previous lessons we saw that a measure in 34 time could quite easily become a measure in 98 If we just add a dot to each beat, let's begin with the triplet unit. These are normal occurrences in compound meter, and so we can just rewrite them as they are Now. Let's consider the quarter notes off the original in 34 meter anyone quarter note takes up exactly one beat in order to maintain the rhythms character, Therefore, these knows should be rewritten so that they still take up exactly one beat and says one beat in 98 meter is a dotted quarter than the quarter notes in 34 meter become dotted. Quarter notes In 98 meter, the same principle can apply to the dotted half. Note off the last measure. This no takes up three beats. That is the whole measure in 34 meter. The only way to have one note Philip, a whole measure in 98 is by tying a dotted quarter note who had dotted half note. What is left is the first measure. The first beat off the original is to eight notes. As we know from previous lessons, the only way to subdivide the beat off a compound time signature into two equal halves is by using the Do Bleidt note How the third beat off. The same first measure is also divided into house, but the first have this part off the dotted quarter. Note off the second beat, and this means that here we need another duplicate, and here we have the whole rhythm. We've rewritten it from 34 into 98 without changing the way it sounds. Now let's go through a similar exercise in the opposite direction from compounds. Too simple. Here we have a rhythm in 68 As we know 68 is a compound you pill meter, so the extract will be rewritten in a simple do kilometer. Remember that To maintain its character, we must maintain the original do pill effect. In other words, the new meter must also be into which simply Dupin meter. Shall we use here? We have a measure in 68 filled with two dotted quarters. By removing the dots, we get a measure off to four meter. Let's begin by rewriting the simplest notes, as we've learned, and you know that takes off one beat and compel Meter will be rewritten as a note that takes up one beat in simple meter to This will maintain the character off the rhythm notice that defined the note off the original. A dotted half note that fills up the last measure is rewritten as a have no, and it fills up the last measure off the new meter to finish. We need to rewrite the group's off three egg notes from the original as we know the only way to subdivide a beat off a simple meter into three equal parts is by employing the triplet. Notice how the first beat is still a subdivision into three equal parts, but the first note takes two off those three parts. Here's a quick summary of what we've learned today. Rhythms can be rewritten in different meters without changing how they some meters can be halved and doubled, as well as transformed from simple to compound or compounds too simple. 14. Day 14: Day 14. The upbeat Sometimes everything begins on a week beat for a week, part off the meat. This is known as an upbeat a note or a group of notes that come before the first strong beat the upbeat acts as a kind of a springboard that leads into the strong beat, also known as downbeat. For example, in the Happy Birthday tune, the first strong Biggs is on the syllable birth, first part off the word birdie. The rhythm off the world happy is the upbeat it leads to the strong beads. Notice that the A beat makes up an incomplete measure. When we number our measures, the incomplete measure is not counted as measured. One measure, Number one is the first full measure. A very famous melody that begins on another beat is sharp in tears today, and here's another popular example. This one is from Bo Corini's popular menu, it from History Quintet number five. In this case, the upbeat consists off a group of 4 16 notes. Right? Keep in mind that are beats cannot care anywhere in the music, and not just in the beginning. In August 28 number seven Chopin constructs a short and sweet prelude, using only this rhythm since the same to measure rhythm is repeated another seven times each occurrence off the rhythm and on the second beat off the measure deterred, beat off every measure, then becomes the a bit off the next occurance off the rhythm. 15. Day 15: day, 15 Syncopation. In previous lessons, we learned that every meter has a set pattern off strong and weak means. However, the rhythm off music doesn't always follow. This expected better. It often happens that the strong beat is felt earlier or later than expected. This creates a kind of arrhythmic jolt, as the rhythm disrupts our expectation for a strong beat. This is known as Syncopation. Syncopation occurs when a note that is on a week part of its measure is made stronger than its surrounding notes, either by lengthening, it's more than the other notes, giving it what we refer to us Britain equate, or by accenting it that is making it louder. The rhythm here is from Scott Joplin's tune The Entertainer. The marks notes are Syncopations. They are care on a week beat, but there longer than any other notes around them. The effect is as if the strong beats okay earlier or later than expected. In this example, they held in syncopated rhythm simply by instructing the pianist to make the second beat louder than the first. The indication, as SEF is short for sport sandals, which is Italian for with force. This is an example of Syncopation because the accented notes are on the second beat off their measures in 24 meter, these beats are usually the weaker ones. Day 15 summary Syncopation occurs when the music fails to meet our expectation off a strong beat. Syncopation typically occurs when a note on a week part off the measure is made stronger than its surrounding notes by lengthening it, giving it written equate for by accenting its making it louder. 16. Day 16: Day 16 the musical alphabet and the keyboard. Looking at the piano keyboard, we should notice that there is a particular pattern toe how the keys are organized. The pattern. Constant stuff. 12 keys, seven white and five black, and it repeats itself several times throughout the entire keyboard. In this diagram, the pattern occurs three times, and here is one instance off it, consisting off 12 keys, seven white and five black. These 12 keys that make up one pattern on the keyboard are the 12 different tones or pitch is that make up our alphabet off music? The key is going to the left. Produce lower and lower pictures, while those to the right produce higher and higher pitches. Naming knows these seven white chinos are named using the 1st 7 letters off the English alphabet A, B, C, D, E, F and G. The black keys are dealt with later, and as we've seen, the pattern repeats up and down the keyboard. So after the note G, we get another A, and the pattern starts over again from a to G. Here is a keyboard starting from the Nazi and going through all the white case twice over the octave. Notice that the distance between two notes that share the same letter name is off eight keys or eight notes. For example. There are eight notes from this. First see to the next seat. This distance is called the active. The reductive comes from the Latin word meaning eight and the music. We use it to refer to the distance off eight notes. So from one Gino to the next GE note is the distance off inactive as well as from E to the next, and so one. The word octave is used in different ways, but keep in mind that it always refers to the same thing. The distance off Eighth notes, for example, the notes see numbered AIDS is an octave higher than the other C or we could say that the first C is an octave lower than the other seat. We can also say that these two efs are an octave apart and these two seas are two octaves apart. Here's a quick summary of what we've learned in this lesson. There are 12 notes in the musical alphabet, laid out a seven white keys and five black keys on the piano. The White Keys are named after the 1st 7 letters off the English alphabet. A true gene. The distance off eight keys is known as the octave. 17. Day 17: Day 17 musical steps the house that in the previous lesson you might have noticed that within one active on the piano, there are two pairs of skis that do not have a blackie between them. This means that these two notes are the smallest distance possible between any two notes. This distance is known as 1/2 step. 1/2 step on the keyboard is the distance from anyone key to Dickie immediately next to it. Whether this distance is to the right or the left off the keyboard and whether the keys are black or white doesn't matter. If they are immediately next to each other, they are 1/2 step. So if we play an EQ and want to ascend 1/2 step, which means going up to the nearest note, we get enough. And if we play the note, see and want to descend 1/2 step, that means going down to the nearest note we got denote be. If we start from enough and ascend 1/2 step, we get to the Blackie above it. And if we start from a D on descend 1/2 step, we get to the Blackie below it. The whole step. A whole step is the distance off to half steps. It's the distance between any two keys that have one intervening t in between toe ascend the whole step from the for example, We simply skip a note and we end up on eat. Now let's descend the whole stepped down from Jeep. 1/2 step down takes us to this black note, and one more half step takes us down toe F. So the distance between F and G is of a whole step. The distance off. The whole step applies exactly the same way to the Black Keys. For example, a whole step up from the note E is this Blackie? While the whole stepped down from C. Is this black, he and of course, there can be host ups between Blackie's. Only in this example. The whole stuff is between the black keys that are separated by the nose G. Here's a quick summary of what we've learned in this lesson. The half step is the distance between anyone knows toe the note immediately next to it. It's the shortest possible distance between any two keys on the keyboard. The whole step is equal toe to half steps. It's the distance between any two keys that have one intervening key in between 18. Day 18: Day 18 accidental. So far we've learned what the notes off the white case on the piano are cold. We've learned that there is a pattern off seven letter names given to seven pitches. The five keys are also named using the alphabet from a Eugene. But in order to distinguish, the difference is between them and the white keys. We need accidental. There are three basic accidental, and their function is to raise or lower note by 1/2. Step disarmed. The symbol off the sharpen musical notation is this, and the job is to raise the picture of a note by 1/2 step. This means that putting a sharp next to a note gives us the note that is immediately above it. This new note will have two parts to its name. The letter name off the original note and the word sharp. For example. Putting a sharp next to the notes see, will give us the note C sharp and it sound will be 1/2 step higher than the note to see. Here's another example. This is G sharp. Ah, half step higher than G. So the names off the remaining Blackie's are the shark if shirt and a son. With the addition of sharpened notes, our musical alphabet now consists off 12 notes. The flat, the flat is the second accidental, and this is its symbol. While the sharp raises the pitch by 1/2 step, the flat lowers it by 1/2 step. This means that putting a flat next to a note gives us the note that is immediately below it. Just like before, these new notes will have two parts to their name. The letter name off the original note on the flat. For example, putting a flat next to deny would be will give us the note B flat, and it sound will be lower by a hostile. This key is the flat. It sounds 1/2 step lower than the note. This is a flat, This is G flat, and this is the flat and harmonic equivalents. If you've been wondering why the Black Keys have two names, this is the answer, and harmonic equivalents is a fancy terms for having two different names for two different spellings. For one sound. One musical note. The reason that some notes have to alternate names is because of how the concept off the sharp and flat works the sharp raises and you note by 1/2 step. Well, the flat lowers any note by Haftar, no matter what the origin and note is, so you know that is 1/2 step higher than the for example, is a D shine. But at the same time, the same note is 1/2 step lower than E, so it's name could also be e flat. It's a common misconception that only the white keys can be sharpened or flattened, and that only the black keys are named as sharps or flats. But really, any notes can be raised or lowered. For example, sharpening, denote, eat will give us the note ish art. And this, of course, is an an harmonica equivalent off the note F, which means that F and Ishtar are two names for the same sound. The natural. What do we do if we need to raise a flattens, not or lower a sharpened note? How does unaltered note go back to the original unaltered note? This is where the third accidental becomes useful. Its name is the natural, and this is its symbol. Its job is to cancel a sharp or a flat that has appeared before. For example, if we need to ride the notes c sharp and then see, we make our intentions clear that the second note is not sharpened by using the natural Natural is also used to cancel out flat. For example, if we need to write the note e flat, followed by the note above it, we use the natural toe. Make it clear that this second e it's not e flat as well. So the natural has the power toe either raise or lower and note. When it cancels the shark, it lowers the note by 1/2 step. When it cancels a flat, it raises denote by 1/2 step, the double accidental. We mentioned earlier that flattened notes could be flattened further and sharpen notes could be sharpened furniture. This is where the double sharp and the double flat come in. These accidents is are not as common as the other three, but they are important nonetheless did at the shop. The symbol for the double sharp is this, and its job is to raise the tone by a host up. For example, double sharpening did not f produces the note F double sharp they have double Sharp, of course, is a non harmonica equivalent off the note G, the double flat. The symbol for the double flat is this, and his job is to lower the tone by a host, for example, double flattening. The note E produces the note e double flat, and it is an an harmonic equivalent off the note deep. Do you do all these accidental? Any note out of our 12 can have a least one alternate name that is an an harmonic equivalent. The choice off spelling depends on the particular musical context off the moment, which you will learn in music theory. Musical notation. Accidental Czar written on the left off the note head. Here's a quick summary off what we've learned in this lesson. The sharp raises the note by 1/2 step. The flat lowers the note by 1/2 step. The natural cancels sharps or flats. The double sharp raises the note to buy a whole step, and the double flat lowers the note by a host of 19. Day 19: Day 19 not ating pitch. Since we perceive musical tones as higher or lower in relation to each other, we need a system of notation that can visually represent these relations. The stuff a set off five parallel horizontal lines provides such a system. Musical notes will be written out through the five lines, as well as in the four spaces between the lines. Notes that sound higher are placed higher on this stuff and notes that sound lower, our place lower. Keeping in mind that note on the stuff I read from left to right, just like in everyday English, we can see that notes can move in three ways. Accord down to the next space or line up or down by more than a step or the same note can be played again. It can be repeated. Musical notes that are played together are written on top of each other like this 20. Day 20: day 20 going higher and lower, although five lines and four spaces are already quite efficient at representing tones. Visually, we do also have a means of representing higher or lower notes than this stuff would normally allow. We do so simply by adding lines as they are needed. I don't top off the stuff for knows that go higher or below for notes that go lower. These extra lines are called ledger lines, and just like the stuff, notes can be placed through the ledger lines themselves or in between the spaces. Noted. That notation is meant to provide the reader with an easily and quickly discernible musical score. Having too many ledger lines makes it difficult to recognize and understand what the notes are. So ledger lines are usually limited to about four Lord Fife. Accidental is that belonged to notes on ledger. Nines are no different than normal. They are written to the left off the note and parallel to the note head 21. Day 21: Day 21. So many notes, so few lines. How can this stuff off? Only five lines and four spaces be used to represent all the notes that we can hear in music. Whether we listen to classical rock, pop, jazz, hip hop or any other style, there are pictures that are very high and other pictures that are very low. How does this stuff and the few ledger lines manage all that? The answer is in the Chlef. The cleft from Latin Club is meaning. A key is a music symbol that tells us which range of notes are going to be represented on that particular stuff. There have been numerous cliffs throughout history, but the most common nowadays are too. The basically for long notes and the trouble left for higher notes. Without a clef, we wouldn't be able to identify which note is which. And because off this, the clef is the first symbol to be placed on the stuff. The trouble Cliff, the cleft that is most used in our times is the trouble Cliff. Originally, it was part of a group off cliffs known as the G Class. They were called so because their job was to designate where do Nog is on the stuff, and this depended on where exactly the clef was drawn. For example, if the G clef was drawn starting from the first line, the lowest line, then the notes on that line itself becomes the note Jeep. Once we've determined where G is, we can obviously work out what the other notes are by counting up and down the musical alphabet. Do geek love that we are familiar with today is the trouble Cliff, and it indicates that the nog is on the second line off the stuff. And once we know where Gigi is, the rest off the notes on the trouble cleft become named so tips for reading the trouble Cliff. The middle line is a B, and you can count backwards or upwards through of the alphabet. So the note below it is an A on the one above. It is a seat. The bottom line is an E, and since we move up alphabetically the next notice enough. Here's an example of that, you know, on the trouble. Cliff, originally for violent 22. Day 22: Day 22. The base cliffs. While the Trouble Club is used to represent relatively high pitches, the bass clef is used to represent low pitches. The symbol of the base left is written like this. Originally, the base level is part of a group of cliffs known as the F Class, just like the G cliffs. The AFC lapse would be drawn higher or lower on this stuff, depending on what was necessary. The two dots off the symbol what indicate where the note F is. And, of course, once we determine where the note F is, we can work out what the other notes are by counting a pen down our musical alphabet. The base left we used today is the F left, written in such a way to mark the note F on the fourth line off the stuff and the notes on the base left, then become named. So here's an example of a tune on the basic left the grand stuff. Since it has so many keys, the piano uses two staves, the bottom one for the base left, played by the left hand on the top one for the trouble played by the right hand in music notation. The states will be joined by a brace, and so it becomes what is known as the grand stuff. 23. Day 23: day 23 Sea cliffs, since we're not familiar with the two most common clips, will now examine this eclipse. These are also still in use today, but not as widespread as the trouble and the base cliffs. This is the symbol for the Seacliff, and as the name suggests, it indicates where the notes see is specifically the middle seat. When the sea cliff is placed in such a way that shows the middle line, Toby the note See it becomes the alto clef. And when they see Glovis placed in such a way that shows the fourth line Toby the note, see, then it becomes the tenor clef. And, of course, once any note is established on this stuff, we can know the other notes by counting up and down the musical out of it. 24. Day 24: Day 24. Some final points denotes time. Rule the notes. Time rule concerns the direction off, this time off a note in order to write music neatly. The rule states that if they're not had his on or above the middle line off the stuff this time points downwards if they're not had is below in the middle line, this time points upwards. This rule should help make written music easier to read. As the examples show, most EMS will stay within this stuff. More importantly, perhaps, is that notes on the grand stuff don't collide into each other. This rule, however, is sometimes ignored if it means that the music will be neater and clearer. In the example here, the last 28 notes the B and the scene have stems going up, but this is because they're part of a larger group off. Being denotes multiple voices on the stuff denotes time. Rule is neglected. Also, when one stuff serves for writing to separate voices, the word voice here refers to distinct individual musical lines, and it doesn't necessarily mean that they are going to be sung. Notice how oldest times off the first voice point upward and those of the second voice point downwards. This is done so that the voices remain clearly distinct at all times. The alternative conforming to the notes Time rule is barely legible. Writing rests on the stuff. Finally, take note of how arrests are written on the stuff. As you can see, the whole rest hangs on the fourth line. The harvest sits on the third line, and the others are written around the middle off the stuff. 25. Day 25: part three, Giving life to your notes with musical expression, apart from regiment pitch composers at several other marks, symbols and instructions to their it in music, so that their intentions for what it should sound like, are as clear as possible. By the end off this part, you will be able to recognize what the markings on this score and many others mean. Day 25 dynamics dynamics are the instructions that indicate how loud or soft and note should be played. The specific turn for loud is the Italian word for it, and this is its symbol, the term for soft or quiet his piano, and the symbol is this. Dynamic markings are written just below the note. In addition to these two, we have symbols that indicate more specific nuances off loudness or softness. As this table shows. Adding more piano signs indicates softer dynamics while adding more forte. Signs indicate louder dynamics. In between these two poles off loud and soft, we have to moderate dynamics, mezzo piano, meaning moderately soft and meds off Orta, meaning moderately loud, gradual changes apart from piano and 40. We also have symbols to instruct the performer that the music becomes louder or softer. Little by little, the musical term for gradually getting louder is the Italian word crescendo. It is often shortened simply as crash or replaced entirely by the symbol known as a hairpin . The term for gradually getting softer is the Italian word. Diminuendo often simply shortens. Tow them. The word them itself is often replaced by the hair pin going in the opposite direction, and another word for them in window is de crescendo, which can be abbreviated as the crash. The question, though, is sometimes stretched out over several measures so that its execution is prolonged. Notice how, in this example, the dashed line connects the parts off the world. Poco Italian for a little and Montel Italian for a lot can be added to crescendos and demand windows to specify better the degree off change. Sudden changes. Dynamic changes are not always gradually. Composers often call for sudden and abrupt changes as well. One of the simplest ways off rotating and abrupt the dynamic change. Just to add the word so veto shortened simply as so Soviet on is Italian for a sudden, when a Notre a group of notes are Toby played loudly followed immediately by software notes . The indication for a piano is utilized 4 10 p. R. No means loud and then immediately soft when I noticed to be emphasized more than its surroundings. The markings for sandals, shorts and simply as S F set is employed for Sando is the Italian word for forcing or with force in music, it suggests a sudden emphasis. 26. Day 26: Day 26 articulation, apart from loud and soft notes can be played smoothly, detached, accented and so on. In other words, musicians can articulate notes in different ways. Articulation refers to the musicians specific technique when playing a note. But rather than writing instructions for how to breathe, how to press a key or how to bow a string for every different instrument we had articulation marks. And these indicate how denotes should sound. The exact technical execution is done mostly up to the player. Licato llegado means that the notes are to be played as smoothly and as connected as possible. The idea is that there shouldn't be a gap between the notes. Lo Gatto is indicated in return music with a slur, a line strung between note heads. It can be strong over two notes for several notes. - Stuck condom staccato means that the notes are not connected but detached from each other. The musician achieves this effect by shortening the note, usually by about half its original duration. December 4 Stock Autumn is that dot with the note head similar to the llegado slur. The staccato don't is written close to the note head. No matter where just 10 points start cutting symbol. They weren't stuck at this. Imam is the superlative off staccato, meaning that the notes will be detached and shortened even more than enormous. Staccato. The symbol forced the Scotus imam. Is this Arrowhead like figure? Uh, Mark Otto? The work Mark Otto is Italian for market in music. It indicates that, I notice emphasized more than its surroundings. The exact amount off emphasis and out is given depends a lot on the particular context off the music, but we have to typical kinds off, Marquardt assigns for varying levels off emphasis. The first is usually referred to simply as the accent, and it's not ated as a vertical wedge close to the note head. The other is a horizontal, which and it's known as Mark Otto itself, or sometimes Marta Lotto Italian for hammered this sign, indicating stronger emphasis than the other exit sign. 10. A Little the Worth A Noto is Italian for health, but it's sexual used by composers shows that the interpretation depends on context. The most common interpretations off the tunnel Tamar are too firstly toe. Give the note a slight accent. Secondly, to extend denounced duration, a bit more than its full written value. So, in other words, DiDonato Mark indicates an emphasis, either through a mile dynamic accent or through a little rhythmic prolongation. Deter Noto sign is a short line close to the note head for Tato in Port Otto. Notes are connected and played smoothly, like in La Gata, but they're also individually slightly pronounced. The effect is that the music moves along smoothly with a kind off gentle per se shin. To each note Greece sandals. Lysander is a slide from one note to another. The effect is a continuous runoff. Adjacent pictures, the symbol for the glitz. Sando is the line with the abbreviation geoglyphs on it. It can go in either direction up or known the where the bliss isn't always written, but the bliss Tando is implied with the line. 27. Day 27: Day 27. Temple Tempo is the musical term for the pace off the music. As we've mentioned in Part one, anything that has to do with time has a profound effect on the character. Off the music tempo is indicated on top off the first measure off the music. Here the tempo is marked Allegro Ma little, which means very quick metro. No markings. Besides the traditional terms, a metro markets sometimes added as well. The mark consists off to parts what each beat is worth, whether an 8 9/4 note have no or other. And how many big spare minutes this example means 80 quarter note beats per minute, and this example means 60 have no beats per minute. In compound meters, the pulse is measured with dotted note bees. The metal marking here indicates that the temple is at 90 dotted quarter note beats per minute. Some maternal marks are written with the approximately equal toe symbol. The temple marking here means that the music is at around 100 quarter no beats per minute, giving some leeway to the performer. And this is an alternative. The letter C here is an abbreviation off the word Cherica, which means approximately one of the first great composers ever to use the method. Omar was Beethoven changes off Temple once the temple was established. Music rarely remains fixed. Temple changes are called for using these terms for getting slower. We have the terms retarded. Dando shorten as writ or retired rally in tandem shortened run as well as Britain Photo. All three are Italian for slowing down the dash, Linus sometimes added to the term to show exactly how long it should be applied for to accelerate. We have the term at Stella Rondo, which is often shortened as Chen just like dynamics. The words Moloto and Poco can be added to these turns. Montel is Italian for a lot. So multi Oh, actually, for example, means accelerating a lot. On the other hand, the word pocho is Italian for a little so poker, it means slowing down a little. The return to normal tempo after a short change is marked by the term our temple Italian. For in time. Temple premium is Italian for first or original time, and it marks a return to the original tempo after a longer die aggression out of it, fair amount us A. For Mata Italian for pose indicates that the note should be held for longer than it's written duration. The symbol is this, and it's commonly referred to simply as oppose. It's precise duration is left up to the performer or, in the case of orchestral music, upto the conductor, the posts cannot care anywhere in the music. For example, here it is at the beginning, here it is above arrest so that this island's is prolonged, and here it is written over a byline. This indicates that the short silence should be inserted between these two measures. When the music is for several instruments. Differ, Martha Sign is this thing for all the breath mark for wind instruments, the breath mark is an instruction to take a breath for other instruments. It's interpreted as a slight pause. The tempo is not altered as much, but the last note before the mark is short and slightly to allow space for the breath 28. Day 28: day 28 bar lines and repeat signs. Apart from the regular bar line, we have a variety of other bar lines that indicate where we are in the music or what to do with the notes Defined by nine is written at the last measure showing us that the music ends here. The double bottom line indicates that there is a significant change in the music, such as the beginning of a new section. Uh, - music that is written inside. The repeat signs is to be played twice. It is repeated. There are two repeat signs that normally come together to begin repeat sign and the end repeat sign. But when a section off music is to be repeated from the very beginning, the first repeat sign is normally left out. - Upon repeating, a new ending is sometimes called for. This is not ated with the alternate ending lines. The brackets numbered one and two are alternate endings. Once the music is repeated as instructed by the repeat signs, the second ending replaces the first. Here's a simple example on the first plane, the matter displayed to the first ending. At this point, it is repeated from the notes see, and the first ending is replaced by the second ending. Other repeats Da capo Roszina, The couple Athena Marking is an instruction for the musician to go back to the beginning and play to the measure marked Sina. The term the Kabul scene is Italian, for From the beginning to the end, it is often abbreviated simply as D. C. Athena. In this short example, the eight measures are played in full, and then the 1st 4 measures are played again. The music ends at the world. FINA does send the um Al Xena did. That's annual Sina Italian for From The sign to the end is related to the couple. But instead of repeating from the very beginning, it is an instruction to repeat from the measure marked with this sign, the term that's annual FINA can be shortened in tow. DS Delfina in this example, the melody is 16 measures long. Once the 1st 12 has been played, measures 5 to 8 are played again. This is because measure Fife is where descend you is. The melody finishes at the word FINA, Italian for and the capo coda da capo Al Qaeda, Italian for from the beginning to the ending, instructs the musician to go back to the beginning and play to the measure labelled Al Qaeda, Italian for two. The ending. Once there, the musician skips to the measure, labeled Korda a musical term for ending decoder itself. It's marked with this symbol. So in this example here the melody is 16 measures long, its first, later the term da capo Al Qaeda. From here the music goes back to the beginning until the term I'll call them. And from here the melody goes to the cold outside on this place to the end. 29. Day 29: day, 29 piano specific markings. Ascender piano has two or three pedals, the better that is used most is the one on the right, the sustain pedal. Its job is to let notes ring out, sustain even after the piano keys have been released. This symbol, penned or simply P, instructs the player to press the pedal. The symbol that looks somewhat like a flower is known as the release paddle or pedal up, and it instructs the player to let go off the sustain pedal. This line is an alternative to the release battle symbol. The wedge is where the pedal should be lifted, and so the sustain stopped. The left pedal is the soft pedal, also known as the Una corrida. As the name implies, its job is to soften the overall number off the piano. Although performers employed the soft pedal at their own discretion, it's use can also be specified with the words una Korda or do, according the release. Off the pedal is marked with the Term three Accord or Toyota La Corda. The middle battle, the one that is not found in pianos that have only two pedals, is this personal top headed This ostinato pedal allows the pianist to sustain only denotes that are already depressed when the pedal is engaged. This means that a note or a chord can be sustained while the fingers move on to other notes or chords. Pianists often employed this pedal at their own discretion when they see that the music requires it. But mother composers sometimes specify its use. The terms ostinato pedal or shortened, so Sped instructs the player to engage it and similar to the sustain pedal. It's released either at the really special symbol or at the end off the line. Final note. When a stuff holds two or more voices, the notation must be clear. Every expression mark is written alongside the note it belongs to.