How to Plan, Research and Write an Academic Essay | Nina Modak | Skillshare

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How to Plan, Research and Write an Academic Essay

teacher avatar Nina Modak

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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (1h 42m)
    • 1. Trailer

    • 2. 000 Intro & Welcome

    • 3. 001 1a how to understand the essay question

    • 4. 001 3a example TOK reliable knowledge

    • 5. 002 1a how to research

    • 6. 002 3a what makes a source valid?

    • 7. 003 2a how to set up you document for linear notes

    • 8. 004 1 Writing your thesis statement

    • 9. 005 1 Planning your essay

    • 10. 005 2 What to include in each paragraph

    • 11. 006 1 Write your first draft

    • 12. 007 1 What is editing and proofreading?

    • 13. 007 2 Two strategies for editing

    • 14. 007 3 how to make your writing sound more valuable

    • 15. Conclusion & Thanks!

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About This Class

In this course I take you through how to research, plan and write an academic essay.

Who is this course for?

This course is aimed at students in secondary/high school and university, or adult learners wanting to improve their research and analytical skills. 

What does this course cover?

We will look at the essay writing process from start to finish with an example question. We will cover topics such as:

  • How to understand the question
  • What type of research material you need
  • How to structure all the research done
  • How to get unstuck when you’ve got writers block.
  • How to write a thesis statement
  • Essay structure

And more…

Course Structure

Step 1: Brainstorm the Essay Question

Step 2: Research

Step 3: Make a Plan

Step 4: Write the Essay

Step 5: Edit & Proofread

This is a crash course in essay writing that will give you the structure and process, it takes away all the extras so you can focus on the topic at hand.

Essay writing isn't easy, but it has far reaching benefits. By the end of this course, not only will you have a completed essay, you will also have improved your critical reading and thinking skills, project management, time management and research skills! Useful when you're study AND when you go into the work place.


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Nina Modak


Hello, I'm Nina.

 I have been a private tutor since graduating from university in 2014. My academic career began at an international secondary school, I took the International Baccalaureate with Higher Level English, History and Visual Arts and my extended essay discussed whether the church is a building or it’s people.

After a gap year, during which I worked for a charity and travelled in India and Europe, I attended the University of Manchester. Upon completion I was awarded a 2:1 in the Study of Religions & Theology.

Tutoring is a personal passion. I enjoy teaching; diving into academic study and showing students how rich it can be. We tackle challenging material unravelling its intricacies then analysing its ideas. The techniques I teach my students... See full profile

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1. Trailer: are you School University? Do you have to write academic essays? Are you finding it confusing to understand the question or put all that information you've researched into a logical and coherent essay and get you that a grade? Hi, my name's Nina mode AK on. I am the founder of Murdoch Tutoring. My students would come to me and say, I don't know how to approach this question. I don't understand what it's asking me. It's able. How do I put all this information in my head onto a page that I could get the great I need to go to university or college. What was lacking here is the ability to think critically or the skills to know how to think critically. And this is what we're gonna be covering on this complete courts on essay writing. By the end of this course, you will be able to write an academic essay that is balanced, analytical and interesting. Through these video lessons, you will learn how to understand the question, how to research how to take efficient and productive notes, how to plan your essay writer thesis, Andi, then how to write and, most importantly, edit your essay if these other things you want to learn if you want to write better essays , if you want to learn how you can improve your grade. The complete crash course in SC writing. If you sign up today, join the course and start improving your writing and get to where you want to be with your education. 2. 000 Intro & Welcome: Welcome to the complete Crash course in academic essay writing. My name is Nina and I am going to be your instructor so that you get to know me. I am a private tutor on the founder of Mode Act tutoring a teetering company in the UK And I've bean specializing in English history and religious studies. But ive been tutoring students in GCSE, a level international baccalaureate on undergraduate degree. So if you are a student, if you are, do your GCSE is your a levels AP exams International Baccalaureate. If you're an undergrad at University, this'll course is for you. I'm gonna take you through from start to finish. The whole process is off Essay writing. One of the problems I found when I was teaching was that students weren't given a full structure and process to take some three essay writing process. They also weren't shown the full process of how to understand a question. I'm where problems can arise when you're actually writing your essay. If you've ever come across a situation where your teacher said you don't have enough detail or you're lacking some evidence or you get the point where you've done the research you understand the question really used to think you do on, then you just get stuck and you like you have writer's block or you just don't know how to push your grade from that Ciorbea up another level or to you trying everything. You're trying to follow the feedback your teachers giving Butte, but there's just no getting that. So in this course, I'm gonna show you what you need to do to get those a greats. But most importantly, to improve your writing and improve your critical thinking skills so that you can identify when you're writing isn't good enough. Because actually, that's the skill that is going to take you through much further than your academic career unless you go on to become a professor, so we'll be going through how to understand the essay question. Research skills. How to do effective note taking. Are we talking about How do you plan an essay? I'll give you and numerical system for follow so that you can organize your research into a coherent plan before you start writing. Then we'll be talking about how to write. How well can you go about writing the first draft and then most importantly, how do you go about editing that draft so you can take it from a first draft where it's not that great? It's the first attempt to something that is worth publishing and handing into a teacher to be grated. So that's what would be doing. There will be a lots of video lessons with the theory, then will do. Practice lessons will be a mixture of me talking to you on the screen. They'll be some usually some post its or some diagrams or pictures of the side to illustrate what I'm saying. And then also, I'll be doing screen costs. So this will be me on the computer showing you wet like, for example, with the research section I'll be taking you through. Where do we find things on Google? How can we input things? Where can we find primary and secondary sources on the Internet and also where else to look ? I'll also be showing you how you conform at your documents, as you need to on various other things, also will be using our online white board, so it's a really big mixture, and it's as if you were in the classroom, except you're watching it in the comfort of your home and going at your pace. Remember, you can rewind fast forward. Skip about to the section you need. If you're right in the middle of writing an essay, maybe you want to skip to the writing section. Or if you just of the beginning, you could take this course from start to finish with your essay topic and just follow the tutorials as you go. So that is the plan for our video course. This is the complete crash course in essay writing. Remember that learning to write a really good, analytical, critically and analytical valuable essay is a process. You won't do it the first time, but with consistent effort. You will get there with identifying how you can make your writing more concise and more succinct, which you will learn through these videos. You'll be able to keep developing your writing and again, remember, you can always come back to the video and you can watch them at your own pace. So without further ado, let's get started and we're gonna go on Firth to how to understand the essay question. 3. 001 1a how to understand the essay question: first things first when you write an essay, If you were at school or university, you've most likely been given a new essay to write about. Now the first thing we need to do is actually understand the question on. I find this is a step that is often missed out but is a really key step. You must understand the question first, because if you don't understand the question, there is no hope for you to write an essay that will actually answer it. So how do you go about understanding a question? Well, the process is actually incredibly simple, and you'll probably kick yourself when you watch this. But simple works, and sometimes it doesn't need to be over complicated. First up, look at the essay question. You will read it, and then you'll identify the key word and phrases in the question. Now keywords and phrases are the words that tell you what the question means. So, for example, you could have words like determined comparing contrast. You could have to what extent now these are often words that will start an essay question. Some of you will probably be familiar with these words, or you'll have something along the lines of show how you could have questions that ask you to look at the structure. So let's think about other types of questions you could have. A statement that you need to evaluate to evaluate is also a key word. It's telling you to do something, giving you an instruction. When you have a quote, you will need to analyze that quote and think about the key word in that quote that give you an idea off. What that quote is saying it's an instruction or it it's an opinion. Actually, those quotes your opinions and you need to take it apart and say doesn't make sense. Is it violated? Why, why? No. And then show that through evidence. So you'll take apart those key words and phrases. Have a have, um, paid special attention to a word such as only should Might could would some of those are modal verbs, so if you know about those, they imply meaning, but the very subtle. So we want to be aware of those words a subtle and if you have a word when you're reading and you're thinking I have a feeling about this, but I don't know why? Something it makes me want to answer in a certain way. Notice those words. You're got feelings actually very useful there. That your subconscious telling you there's something there and you need to go and analyze that. So when you're researching anti this is a general world. Trust your gut. If you have something that's interesting, Weird. Um, you agree with you disagree with that, Just makes you feel a bit. I'm not really sure about that Notice it dies in really important to keep that in mind. So once you've identified these key words and phrases, you're gonna be getting definitions off them. Now. What I do is I take a piece off blank paper. Now you can. This is a three paper you could use a four paper on. I write the essay question in the middle, and I take I love to do in color pens because I find that when you're using color pens, it just helps your brain. This may not be the way your brain works, but for me, colors just help me, uh, group ideas and I color code things and you'll find out how I color code as we go through the course. So you've written your essay question in the middle of a big piece of paper. You underlined or highlighted your keywords or phrases. Now, each word and frayed. You are going to brainstorm that word and phrase. Now, I don't want you to do it as a word. Or as a word is part of the question. I want you to do it as separately. I want you to take it. To what extent was World War two a result off? Um, I think. Okay, to what extent was World War two inevitable? There we go. There's a nice, simple question. So I'd write to what extent was World War two inevitable? This is a very small quest. Small question in words. But there are many, many key words. So I had underlined to what extent on I brainstorm what does to what extent mean? Well, I'd say, Well, it something along the lines of Well, how much is there a scale? Um, extent. What does extent mean? And you go if you can't think of it off the top of your head. Think about definitions. Think about what does the word not mean because in understanding what it is not. You can also understand what it is. And if you're having trouble articulating your thoughts, which is a problem in the beginning, it it really is. It's a skill to be able to read Andi, think and be able to write that down. So if someone else can understand it, so don't worry. If you're finding having trouble in the beginning, think about synonyms. So similar words. Anton IMs Opposite words. Get your dictionary out. I'm write down the definition and then we've got towards that World War two. So if it were something like World War Two, I'd write down while his time frame in 1939 to 1945. Um, I'd be I'd dropped down a couple ideas to do with You've got the big three you've got. It was, Ah, World war Nazi Germany, etcetera. You've got relations between Russia and America UK Frantz etcetera. She just dropped down what you know about it, but separate from the rest of the question and then inevitable. So I take the word inevitable and say, Okay, what does inevitable mean? What's the definition so inevitable? Is it definitely going to happen? They couldn't have bean. Anything else that was gonna happen, nothing would have stopped it. I'd find lots of different ways of saying inevitable without actually using the word inevitable. Get a dictionary if you are having trouble. So then you've brainstormed each word individually. You then think about the question as a whole. What is this question asking me? So then you'd read the question back again. So to what extent was World War two inevitable? So I haven't actually include the world word waas because it's no, it's not a keyword. It doesn't tell you any meaning. It just connects the rest of the words together. T To what extent was World War two inevitable on I would say to myself, OK, this question is asking me to think about If World War Two was definitely going to happen, could could something have not stopped it. Was it unstoppable? Did how much were on what scale were all the events that happened, pushing it down the path that it meant it would happen. So I had articulated in my own words as best I could, so that you could ensure that you understood Now if you're having trouble or want to clarify whether you have understood the question correctly. You could also articulate. Okay, What is this question? Not asking me because also having an understanding of that will make sure you don't go off topic. Let's put this down. And what we're going to do next is we're gonna do some or example. So I'm we're gonna go to the online whiteboard. I've got a collection of questions from history, religious studies on English and I'm gonna show you on a little bit of philosophy. Maybe we're going to do some examples together, and then I'm going to set you a task to have a look at it. You'll pause the viewer or actual put a timer on it. I'll put a time on the video so that you can just have a go for 15 20 minutes, brainstorming, and then we'll go over the answer together. So that is the first part. How to understand the essay question 4. 001 3a example TOK reliable knowledge: Okay, let's look at our first example. So on the board, I'm gonna be writing up an example question from the theory of knowledge course, which is for the International Baccalaureate. And the one of the reasons why I wanted this question is because it's a really tricky question. It's something that you have to understand definitions. You need to identify bias. You need to identify assumptions in the question so that you can actually give a reason logical on objective answer. And it's really about testing you and your ability to think critically. So let's start by reading the question so reliable knowledge can lack certainty. Explore this claim with reference to two areas off knowledge. So our first step is to highlight our key words on phrases. Now, don't worry. If you have never seen a question like this before, this is actually gonna be a really good challenge for you because it is so different to your norm. Because if you can analyze a question that is outside your comfort zone outside your field of knowledge, you will be able to come to the realization that you have the skills to approach anything. So first up we highlight or underline If that you need Teoh online, you don't have a highlighter are key words and phrases. So how about you go ahead and do that? If you want to follow along with this video, feel free. You can take a piece of paper, plain piece of paper right out the question on then do your notes with me. So here we are. We are going to highlight our key words and phrases. So I have reliable knowledge. Lack certainty, explore claim reference on two areas of knowledge. Now, if you cut, start brainstorming these words and you find that there might be something else feel free like this is what happened. You get ideas and then you think maybe I need to define this word. Maybe I need toe. Look at what this means further because I have a different understanding. Once you highlighted your keywords and phrases, you start to brainstorm what the's individual words mean. So here you can see I've actually started. Not from the beginning, I've just started. Wherever I felt comfortable size there started to start with knowledge. What does knowledge mean? Well, it's something you know. It's something you understand? Maybe it's facts and figures. Um, anything that comes to mind on, I like to do a brainstorm first with what I understand. And then I go through into definitions and we'll do that together, and sometimes you need to actually think about what you're doing. So if there you need to take a few minutes to go, what do I actually think? That's OK? So once I did a quick brainstorm of knowledge, I think thought about reliable, and I thought, OK, what synonyms? What could I use in place of that? Usual expected something you know will happen, a person you can depend on And this is this is a tough task because when you're thinking about what words mean, you need to try and use other words, and that is really a challenge. So let's look at some other words. Let's look about lack. What does lack mean? Well, it means to go without to not have something. Perhaps it's something you need, but you don't have. It's talking about the negative rather than positive. And what about certainty? Okay, if you're certain of something, you're sure of it. Your you know what it is. Perhaps you have a solid understanding. You're, like, really sure. I'm actually here. I'm like, What is it absolute? That's a question if you're certain or something, is it absolutely something that is concrete, You know, it's there, you know? You understand it and active that something I wasn't short. So I put a question mark. Next we look a explore or to explore something is to look into it, to examine it. Are there options? We're gonna look into those options reference. Okay, So when something says reference, you're gonna talk about it, or you're gonna talk in relation to it, and then two areas off knowledge. So this is specifically to do with the international baccalaureate system. On the areas of knowledge are science, maths, art, Um, religious knowledge, indigenous knowledge. I think I've got them all there on. What this essay is saying is you need Teoh. Use these two areas. You need to pick two off your choice, and you need to use examples from these two discuss to explore this reliable knowledge can lack certainty, statement or claim. And then when I've got just gone back to knowledge because I had a thought when I was looking at areas knowledge will. I need to use examples from them and then claim it's a statement. Is it an assumption? Is it factual? Is it true? These are all things that you're going to be exploring? You're gonna be exploring. This is a theory is an idea. And actually, when it says explore, you're going to be looking at evaluating this claim because actually, what you're trying to do is come to some sort of judgment on it. I mean, that's why you're writing an argumentative essay. And here, just through my brainstorm, I've gone well, actually, I didn't highlight can because initially, I didn't think it was a key word. But actually, yes, it is a key word on if you look. But if you listen, if you listen to one of my previous videos in this section, I talked about modal verbs like might Could should. Well, actually, in this case, can is something that is suggestive off something. But we don't know what that something is yet, And I'm saying, Well, can It's if you were going to change the word, it's suggestive off. Perhaps it's it's a positive. Yes, it could happen. It's a reliable knowledge can lack certainty, so it's not saying it always does, but it can some off the time. So, as you can see, as you start looking into the individual definitions of thes words, you can explore a much deeper understanding off the tech off the question itself. And now we're gonna go deeper into this next, actually on. And when I was doing essay writing, actually, when I do any work on I'm exploring a topic in this is the first initial space stage, I spend at least half a Knauer looking into a question because you need to spend that time doing your initial brainstorm, thinking about what do I already know? What don't I know? So here I'm thinking, Well, now I've done an initial brainstorm. I can take a step back. My initial brainstorms taken about 10 minutes. I could take a step back and say, OK, what questions do I have for this statement? What do I need to look into MAWR? So I'm thinking, Well, what if I'm looking at reliable knowledge together? What does that mean? Reliable knowledge. So is that trustworthy knowledge will, if it knowledge, how is it defined as knowledge and reliable. Does that mean useful? Something that I can expect to be useful to me or something? That and now I'm thinking of situations Because how do I test that? Well, when you're looking at the question is the hole. You need to explore this claim in reference to two areas. Knowledge. So you would test it and think, Well, in this situation, what does reliable knowledge mean? And does the definition of reliable knowledge change if it's put into certain situations into different situations on this is how you can then think about can lack certainty. So can something. If knowledge can knowledge be certain, does knowledge need to be certain to be classed as knowledge? If something is reliable, does it need to be classed a certain? So then you're gonna be taking this down a logical train of thought and saying, Well, in these certain situations, why does it change on Does based on these situations, could my initial assumption or could this claim be wrong, or could it be right? Or is there certain situations specific situations where knowledge one once had trust in Reliant relied on that it could like certainty, but why would it like certainty. And then would you class? That knowledge is reliable, or would you classes knowledge? So here it is. It's It's a really fascinating question, but it's also a very intricate question because you're looking at definitions on one's understanding off the world on when you can get into this sort of understanding of the question, you can then use this to do some really in depth research on really end up thinking about the subject and say, Okay, how does this apply? What does this look like? And if you were doing this essay, you may want to choose to areas that a similar or seem similar. Like science and maths. The science and maths seems like there. It's very it's very objective. It this is the answer. But then you might find that there are times where it's less objective, less objective. I'm not a scientist maths person, so my understanding is quite limited. But then you could talk about religious knowledge. An indigenous knowledge will. What did those mean? So those areas of knowledge you'll have to define and say OK, in what part off this knowledge am I going to be looking into? Because science our religious knowledge indigenous knowledge mass. They were very large subjects. And for this particular essay, the course state that you only have 1600 words. There is not a lot of words to describe such a large question. So you need to think, Well, how can I hone? How can I put boundaries or parameters on my argument so that I can get to the point? I can get to a conclusion, a conclusion, and make a judgment off it without going off on a tangent? Because if you go off on a tangent, if you're not very specific, you are goingto make a very vague argument. You're gonna give a descriptive and vague essay, which, in the number of words you have, will dilute the strength of your arguments. You could have a great idea, but if it's vague, you are not persuasive. You are not getting to the point you're not keeping to the point and you're not answering the question, and in this case, you're no coming to some reason judgment about this claim. You're not exploring it in enough detail, So to put something into a very small box means that you can take an aspect of it and look at it much more closely in much finer detail. It's as if you're having a microphone particle, a mike refining gloss. You got a pair of binoculars and you're looking at this tiny, my neat part. But then you can go into really big detail about this tiny my new pop. I'm from the You could then make theories and judgments. 5. 002 1a how to research: Once you've analyzed your question, the next step is to start researching. Now, if you are in school, maybe 14 to 16 you won't have done it that much. Research intently. If you're on a level, you've done a fair amount. But maybe you're still learning university. You should be fairly competent, But learning to research and where to research is always a skill you can could keep developing. So let's talk about research. Where do we researched? What type of sources are we going to look for and what do we need to really push? That s a to the next level. So let's start with where to Research class. Notebook cars Notebook actually is a really good place to start because usually your teacher electorate has set your question on the topic You're studying at the moment, so that's a good place to start because it gives you an overview. It gives you an idea off here of the problems. Here are some basic information background. These will help you when you are on. Also, when you're analyzing your question, let's stop so it gives you a broad understanding. Google Google is brilliant, comes you can get pretty much everything on Google. And actually we're going to talk about that because because you can get everything you need to be far more discerning. You need toe. Actually think about which sources you use, which websites which books etcetera Because anyone can put anything on the website. Think about this course. There was no vetting process. I recorded it. I published it. You are the ones deciding whether it's all value and whether it's useful to you. So this is what you have to do with sources as well. So where do you start on Google? Well, there are lots of resource is Wikipedia is a good source to start with because it provides you with a broad overview. But do not quote or so Use Wikipedia as a source in your essay. Because Wikipedia is like an encyclopedia, but also because it's online. It has many, many offers, so it is too variable as a source. I mean, the level of writing on Wikipedia is a lot higher than when I was at school, but still it is not a source you should quote, however, because it gives you a broad overview on it has quotes Andi. It has references. It's good for that. So if you find something interesting on Wikipedia and like all actually, I want to look into this more, see if there's a quotation or or a footnote and you'll see that the Boston page will go over how to find those footnote at the bottom that tells you where that quotation that piece of information came from. An actual Wikipedia is quite good at giving references for the information in an article so you can go to those references. And actually I find when I'm doing my own research of that quite a good place to gather a kind of good breath off other sources. In other places, I can look so after Wikipedia. Google generally finding articles, noodle articles, commentaries by people, block posts a great good. But again, you need to be really quite discerning as to which block posts you use or articles, because you want to identify whether it is a well researched, well reasoned piece of information. And you, as a scholar, need to decide Well, is this useful to my argument? Why, why not? What strength does that source half Then one of my actually some My favorite results on Google is actually the Google books and the Google Scholar. Now they haven't actually known about very widely. And I'm really sad about that because these you can get a lot of books on Google there and show all the pages usually beginning and lows of the page. It's also a good place to decide whether it's a book you want to go find in a library, your school library, public library or even if you want to buy it. Also, Google Scholar, now in Google Scholar, is where you concert academic articles. And if you have a school university log in, sometimes your school university has actually got a subscription to these websites that post the academic articles. Some of the academic articles are also available online for free on Do you can just download the pdf and we're gonna go through where and how to find those. Now, apart from the Web, there is off course. Also the original books. Books are actually a really good place to find information, and you might think, Well, yeah, of course. And I'm I'm saying Yes, of course, but I'm also emphasizing it because it's something forgotten quite often because we have the Internet. So the reason I like books is because the vetting process to publish a book, especially something academic, it's far more rigorous than posting it on the Web. Anybody could make a website anybody composed anything on the Web. So the level the the rigors, editing in proof, reading and all you meant to process to produce something great is much lower on the Web because you've got everybody and anything posting on the Web. But whether you've got a book, you have usually to write a book, it's are a long, long process. So if you want to write a book, you've actually got to be committed to it to finish. Then you've got editor. Then you gotta send it to your editor to have another look through it and tell you where there are problems. And then it's got to be sent to a proof reader, too. Check it before it goes to print, so the whole process is much more rigorous. Also, when we're thinking about academics, scholars published books because they've done a lot of research, so you can go to these books and find out what these writers and the scholars actually think about your topic, your field of study, and you can get a much more in depth view. And sometimes I find more succinct and detailed view than the Web. So you use a collection of sources and you'll find them in books. You'll find them on the Web. You find the journal articles, perhaps newspaper articles, magazine articles. Um, also a medium that is now really great is documentaries and podcasts use these interviews and you couldn't cite them a sources. You can also use radio interviews because you got a lot of those recorded now and we're gonna be talking about the two types of sort of primary and secondary in our next video and look up. Where can you find them on what they mean and why you should have them in your asset. 6. 002 3a what makes a source valid?: what makes a good source? What do you need to be aware of when you're writing when you're researching on choosing which sources? So as we've talked about a little bit in the previous videos, you need to be aware of bias assumptions, the context in which are right it is writing in their personal affiliations or ideas, because when we using a source on we using it in an argument, we need to be aware of these writers personal ideas, their contact, why they've written the way, live what they've written their assumptions. Are there leanings? Shall we say their bias? Because when you are using them in your argument, whether that's for and against those bias will either support or tear down your argument. So what you should be aware off. Okay, let's think about what will to again, because it's quite a nice, simple example if you're looking at propaganda posters from the time, so that would be a primary source. A propaganda poster in from the UK would say that Nazis were bad. On the other hand, propaganda posters in Nazi Germany would say the West are bad, whose point of view is correct. Well, it depends what you're arguing. But when you're using them as sources, Andi, if you're looking at ah question as to ah, maybe the social feeling at the time in Nazi Germany, you could use the poster talking about how Western people are implying a Western people. A bad that anybody who does not fit the Nazi ideal is not really great. It's no good. Then you could use that poster as a great piece of evidence. How weather If you're looking at what people in the West thought you couldn't use that poster because it is so biased, is written. I've made from the German not to point of view, so it wouldn't be representative off a Western point of view. But you can show how there it was a differing in opinion and the different roles of government in how they manipulated. Andi encouraged public feeling at the time, so likewise, if you were looking potentially at, um reports at the time, so again, those will be primary sources, maybe, Ah, Secret service reports. You could say that What? Let's think about the personal intentions off those writers if they were Secret service, whether that be in America or Russia or Nazi Germany. Their Secret service would have bean wanting to push the interest of their nation. So is the information reliable? Yes. Note what extent, How much? And you need to verify those based on the research that comes out now, many, many years after the event has happened, because if you're looking at, um, maybe the number of troops or machinery or money available to the country's, maybe there was propaganda going out from Russia, for example, saying that they had lots of ammunition, lots off guns and people and army and numbers, etcetera, etcetera. But was that true at the time? Yes, on if we thinking Cold War, maybe that's quite a good example. So for thinking Cold War era, the that was when America and Russia were at a nuclear standoff, they it was the nuclear arms race. They kept producing the kept producing the cup producing. So in order to make the other, I feel like they were getting better. Did they put out information that was accurate? Yes or no? Well, at the time, America may have thought it's accurate, so they would have pushed their production. America may have put out fake information so that the Russians felt a bit off balance and a bit worried. But then we look back, we go. Okay, Well, at the time, this would have been thought to be true. But the Russians had their intentions. The American had their intentions. They were trying to protect the interests at the time. So you need to be aware of bias and the intentions of the author at the time it was written on. The same goes for secondary sources when we're looking at scholars, so scholars are not independent off bias, No one is independent of bias. It's just we have our opinions of the world because a shaped of our experiences on what we've done on what we know. So you, as a scholar, actually need to wipe your mind clean and say, OK, we'll let analyze this first that ask questions first and then come up with an opinion later. So this is this process of analyzing sources off saying, Well, how is it significant? To what extent it does it support my argument? Why? Why know where the faults, where the merits, where the problems? Because where ah, the areas in the source that made me go from. I'm not really sure what this means, and I'm not sure what the intention off the writer says here. Or maybe the writer. The scholar has a big glaring gap in their argument because a scholar, the secondary sources, the lecturers, the professors at university, right these papers, the ones who are writing block posts about history, religious studies, English, etcetera. They're not perfect. So you as a scholar, cause you are, it doesn't matter what age you are. You have to question them, and it might seem daunting in the beginning. But you say, OK, let me understand what they're saying. Is there argument? Reasonable? Because they're writing a persuasive piece of writing that trying to persuade you to their point of view. And you need to think, well, does it persuade me Why? Why not? Is it reasonable? And that's how you did determine validity. You say, Well, it is a reasonable argument or it's not, or it's a reasonable argument to this point, However, in this part there is problems because their next your argument doesn't link back to their first argument or the first point, and that's what we look for and did how we look out and find out whether a piece of evidence our source of primary or secondary, is significant or impactful to our argument. And to what extent we are always looking to what extent? On the scale of things, where does that piece of evidence where does that argument lead us? And now we're gonna be looking at Smith's talent pools and analyzing some sources so that you got a better idea of what I mean. Just before you go. Thanks for watching. I hope you're finding these videos of valuable and informative. If you are. I'd love it if you left a review. Please let me know what you thought. Leave a rating on. Tell me what you thought about the course. 7. 003 2a how to set up you document for linear notes: Now we're gonna be looking at how we take notes. I personally prefer to do mind maps, but I'm going to show you how you can take effective linear notes as well. I would sometimes use thes if I was tired, and I didn't want to do a mind map war. I just needed something a bit more linear. Right. So the way to do this is first in the header. You are going to need to put your source. So here, we're gonna have name on tight, certain source. Then we're gonna have the horses. Name Andi title. You're also going to add the publication date, website address? Um, probably sure if it's a book, etcetera. So all the details you need, you do need to keep a note of this. And the rest place to put it is in the header next next. Now that you've got the I don't make this a little bit bigger. Now you've got the source at the top of page. Now we're gonna answer a table, so you're gonna need a table with three columns. So I'm just gonna take away this column you want it will automatically make it equal. That's fine, but you're gonna change, though A is gonna be march smaller because here you're going to put page number in here. So this is the column for page number I don't want as capt. So page number here is the note. And here is a column for your analysis ideas, thoughts. And you may want to highlight this. I like to make them bigger. Sometimes we'll need them bigger. Sometimes you won't bob to you. Now if you're typing this up, it doesn't matter whether they're small or not. Let's just leave them small, and I'm going to increase the number of rows. So this is really just how you set up, how to take linear notes in your computer, and that's it. And then you just start typing in the next video, we'll show you how to use it. 8. 004 1 Writing your thesis statement: Now that you've done all the research, you're going to be putting your ideas together. The first thing is actually to figure out what is your thesis statement? What is your answer to the question in one sentence? Because if you don't have a driving aimed in your essay, your essay will not have a logical or coherent argument. Onda, well dressed, fall down before it even starts. Now the purpose often essay as we talked about already, is it is an investigation into a problem. And you are going to be providing a persuasively written solution to that problem. And your thesis statement is the anchor. It is that driving force behind the essay, and it is what's going to keep you on task. And we're gonna talk about how you write your in thesis statement in a minute. But first we're gonna talk about the difference between explanation and argument on The reason I wanted to make a specific point to talk about this is because this is the problem I find when I'm marking essays. I have some lovely written essays. Unfortunately, they have no argument or their argument is incredibly weak on this is because it is an essay full of narrative, full of explanations, full of descriptive writing, which, even if it's written well, does not answer the essay question nor persuade me as a reader off anything. So have you said an explanation type essay is descriptive, and if you think of the word explanation, what would you do? When you explain you describe, you tell how something works now with a persuasive essay, you have an argument. An argument to be persuasive ist the aim to change someone's way of thinking to change their mind. And when you are writing an essay, that is your aim, you want to change the reader's mind. Explanations don't do that. They merely inform. But a persuasive essay could be valuable because it provides a solution. And if you think about the essay in this way, you can think about Okay, how would I show someone that my way of thinking is reasonable? It's logical, and it's better it improved on what's already there, and by doing that, you will. The analytical will. You need to be to be able to persuade someone you'll need to give detail. You'll need to be evaluative to show the strength and merits of an argument, the strengths and weaknesses of an argument and why, even when there are weaknesses, your one still holds up. And to do that, you need to actually have an opinion. This is also something that happens with an ex explanation type of essay. Although lovely written doesn't actually have a point of view on that's weak. An essay that doesn't have a point of view is a week s A because it doesn't show any thought on this is the idea of writing an essay is to hone your reading unthinking skills and to hone your thinking skills by putting them into a funnel and think, OK, this is what I think about a topic, and you need to have the courage to actually think about it. Toe had come up with some sort of idea that your own I'm them, put it across in. And I say, as we've talked about your critical thinking is your preparation for this You are evaluating on understanding, comprehending all the information that you've done all the research you've done and then you're critical thinking is connecting all the ideas into your head and this when you're writing your thesis statement The sentence that answers your essay question. This is where it really starts to be put toe work. 9. 005 1 Planning your essay: planning planning is the stage where you're working out the big picture and filling in along the details. This is the point where you were putting in the hard work in the effort to organize all the research you've done and put it into a logical and coherent argument so that when you go to the next stage, which is writing, you don't need to do any thinking, and you could get your first draft done in a couple hours. So let's talk about the structure of an essay, what needs to be included in each paragraph and how you can then start taking your research and putting it into a plan that will create an analytical, a logical and coherent unreasonable essay. So let's think about what an essay is and the structure off it. An essay is, as we know, a long form piece of academic writing. What does an essay consist off? It consists off paragraphs. Those paragraphs consists of sentences. Those sentences consist of words. Now we've talked about a persuasive and analytical essay, needs to have a logical and coherent argument and structure. But how can you think about that? Yes, you're going to do a plan with power. If 1234 You got an introduction. You got your body paragraphs. You got your conclusion. But I want you to think about in another way. On this is a really interesting way that I found recently, relatively recently as an essay could be described as a set of stepping stones. And you're going from your first idea to the next logical one to the next logical one and down until you get to your final idea. And I thought that was quite nice because you've got a logical flow and you can think about it as in your taking one step, then the next and then the next. And actually that's That's a really great way to think about it, because just when you're walking outside when you're walking down a path, you have to take one step at a time and think about if there's a little pond was stepping stones. It's one at a time to lead you from one side to the other, and this is the same idea with an essay. You're starting up here with your introduction and then you'll go on Teoh. Here's my next paragraph. Here's how I can introduce you the reader to my idea, this first part of my idea that will prove my feast fixed and then the next and then the next and then the next until it brings you down to your conclusion, which is your final idea. How you gonna wrap everything up on show your conclusions to the essay question and give your reader something to go away with? Have you persuaded them? Have you shown them the culmination of your investigation on why your idea is valid and logical? The benefit of planning is so that you can work out all your ideas and thoughts before you start writing. Now, when I'm working with students, some students over the years actually have said what? I don't understand the Bennett. Why I should plan. I'm just Why don't I just right? I've got all the information here, So why don't you just right? Well, the result off every one of those essays I've read where a student doesn't want plan and I've said Okay, go ahead, try it. Plant don't plan. Just write the essay on we go through in a marked their esos Andi The introduction starts. Okay, the you know, they lay out some information, they might have a thesis. They might have a strong thesis if we worked on it before We've done anything. Planning, writing wise. Um, but then the next few paragraphs off their FAA are incredibly convoluted. They have multiple ideas. Within one paragraph, they're jumping around. They'll repeat themselves in a later paragraph or two paragraphs later. Three paragraphs later. And then it's only by maybe paragraph 56 or seven that they actually start to have any sort of coherence to their argument, Andi. And then by the conclusion, they sometimes even add in information that hasn't even been said in the rest of the the essay. And I say to them, Look OK, right. And sometimes to my students, some of my students don't even see the point in planning. Even after this Where I'm saying, OK, you have a lot of information that is all over the place. It has no argued. It has no structure. And I'm like, OK, do back to plan. Can you tell May once from this essay you've written, what is the point of each paragraph on this? Brings me to what I actually want to talk about with the benefit of planning. Now he is at work. It is effort. It seems like you're wasting time, but you're actually know, even if you leave your essay until the last minute and you're doing it about 24 hours before the deadline or even less if it's due first thing on in the morning, you need to plan because it was struck to your thoughts. You use the planning process to work out those thoughts so that when you're writing you're not working or force out while you're writing. Writing is a way of working out thoughts. And when I have a student who haven't planned, there s a I can absolutely see when they have not done plan. It is incredibly obvious maybe to you as a student is not. But to a teacher, it is so obvious that you have not done a plan. And for the reasons I've said, it's convoluted. A repetition of ideas in random places, multiple ideas. Prepare off. Now, when you are writing an argumentative essay and if you want to write a valuable one, you need to be so precise with your language because you need to choose the words that are going to communicate in the best way possible. Your meaning. In order to create a strong argument, you knew toe have a structure Each stepping stone needs to lead on to the other one. If you start repeating ideas your reader, your teacher, your lecturer is going to say, Well, you've already You've already said that. Why you saying it again? You just It's boring. Yeah, repetition when it has no point when it has no effect to it is boring when we have paragraph structure when we have an essay structure. As I mentioned, essays are made up of words, off sentences and my idea so you can think about it like this. Each paragraph is a stepping stone. One stepping stone is a paragraph within a paragraph. We have sentences. Each sentence is one thought because one paragraph is one idea absolutely no more than one idea per paragraph. I cannot stress this enough. One idea per paragraph. One point you talking about on each of those sentences is one thought to do with the idea it needs to link, and then those words that you use to communicate that thought which communicates that idea are chosen specifically to communicate meaning. And when when I talked about how you analyzed research, how you analyze the scholars argument or source thinking about how they communicated meaning and now you, as the scholar at the person writing the essay, needs to do exactly the same thing. So think about how did they do it. If they're doing it better, the new and then you think, Well, how can I do my best to communicate with the language? I no, that's also quite important is to use words you know and understand. Don't use the word because it sounds fancy, but you don't actually know what it means and how to use it, because your effort to sound smart will actually make you sound stupid. That also happens quite a lot. I'm not saying Don't try out new words, but don't assume you know the meaning because this isn't an exam essay and you have time to look up. Go look up the word you want to use and check that it's the right word. Try out in a sentence or noted out a noted down in your plan. Before you written this sentence to see Well, what does that fit? Because if you're using words, you don't know the meaning off. You're actually gonna dilute the strength of your sentence off your paragraph in of your argument because you're trying to sound smart. If you try to sound smart, you will not sound smart. So the benefit of planning is that you can go through this process of testing ideas, order of thoughts on order of paragraphs and check It does is make the most sense to my argument. Does this prove my thesis statement? Is it persuasive? Um, I using the right language in order to communicate this. The planning process is to work all of that out before you start writing, because otherwise you're gonna have a lot of editing to do a lot, a lot of lot of editing, and that's not fun process. So that is a very quick introduction into what we're going to be doing in our planning. We're gonna be working out those stepping stones so that you can take your thesis statement and laid your reader down to a reasonable, valid and logical conclusion. By the end, your final idea In the next video, we're going to be looking at what are included in your introduction. How do you work out your body paragraphs? What do you need to include in your body paragraphs? And then how do you get down to your final stepping stone? Your conclusion. What do you think of the course so far? If you're finding it valuable or interesting on, if you're finding it especially useful, please leave a rating in review in the course page. 10. 005 2 What to include in each paragraph: So we've gone over. What? Doesn't essay looks like? What does that say? Structure looks like benefits of planning. Let's actually look at the things you need to include in your introduction and your body paragraphs and your conclusion. So first up will start with the introduction. So what is an introduction, Do you think? What do you know about it? Yep, it is. You're introducing a topic. Your telling someone about it You're just giving back or an information? Yes, that's exactly right. So one of the things that you will need to do in your essay is absolutely introduce your topic. Give a bit more background information you will need Teoh include your thesis statement. But it is also the place where you are going to lay out your argument. You're going to tell your reader what to expect in USA on. This is where you are gonna need to start defining parameters off your argument. Now, what I mean about defining parameters off your argument is when you were doing your initial brainstorm off the essay question, you may have found that there was in difficulties with the definitions of words. So sometimes this will come about a law in, um, well, sometimes come about in history or English, but it comes about a lot in philosophy or religious studies, anything that is to do with morals and ethics. But it happens and everything. So the reason why you need to define parameters and definitions is because if your reader doesn't have the same understanding of the word as you, they're gonna have a different reading of this. I say. And you don't want to assume that they know what you're talking about. You want to define what you mean so that, you know, your reader is gonna follow along your argument in the way you intended it to be followed along, and I when I've bean teaching and we've done the brain storming of questions with my students. Some of them say, Well, that words obvious, isn't it? And I'm like, Well, yeah, it's obvious, but to make that assumption about your reader on depending where your arguments going to go , this is why you define all the key words and phrases in the very first part. So if you haven't done that and he thought it was ah, not a relevant point. This is why When you have your reader you want, you want them to understand your argument as you intended it. Don't assume that they're going to. If you don't define tricky words, you also may find that for the purpose of your argument, you need to define tricky words or obvious words. Because through your analysis and three of research, there are dual meanings or more than dual meanings, multiple meanings. So which one do you mean? Or is this part of your argument where you need to analyze the different meanings off these words? Other parameters of your argument Now, depending on what you're studying, you may need to define the parameters parameters, meaning boundaries off. You're only going to talk about a specific person or persons. Maybe you've got a question that talks about, uh, crowd, um, global to again. Maybe you're gonna talk specifically about the UK people in the UK or your specifically going to talk about people in Russia. Or you may even need to define your argument even more and say, I'm going to deal with this specific essay question problem to do with a to do with one world leader or only in a certain city. So here you are further as well as the definitions, your further defining your argument, because the more defined your argument is that you have like, it's like making a box around your thesis statement on the question and saying, I am only going to talk about these things to do with these. This way you keep your argument really succinct because you're not talking about everything . You will only have maybe 503,000, 2500. Even actually, when you get to dissertation stage on you're writing, attend 12,000 word essay, you still need to define the parameters of your argument because otherwise you leave it to be vague. A new vagueness will be the death of your argument because it has no meaning. It's just Oh, these people did this and these people did that, and it's just it's not valuable because there is no detail. There was no specifics, and that takes away from the meaning, so introduction will lay out and define the parameters of your argument and tell the reader what to expect in the coming stepping stones. Let's talk about body paragraphs so body paragraphs are all the paragraphs that are the introduction of the conclusion. So I like to explain it that the body paragraphs, like the filling of your sandwich you will have for a basic I say you will have at least three body paragraphs. But for a more developed essay, you will have mawr, especially if you're a level university. Level will have far more than three paragraphs if your GCSE level three is the absolute minimum, but I would potentially encourage more, depending on how much time you have on how many words your teacher wants. So each paragraph, if we're thinking about how many words or sentences you need for a paragraph Ah paragraph is at least 10 sentences or 100 words. That is the absolute minimum for any self sort of argumentative essay. Now, if you were in G. C. S. E's, maybe that's too much and you're still learning. Or if you're young, given GCC's three sentences is also acceptable. But it's not very developed, so you need to think about that. But you cannot have a sentence. A paragraph of one sentence, absolutely no, because that's just one thought, and it has no anchor a tallest. You cannot do that when I mark essays and there's a one sentence paragraph. I don't know what the point of it is. I don't know how it strengthened. Your argument, actually, just makes me confused on bond. It just says to me, you don't know where to put this thought, So figure it out and put it in a power off. What do you need to include in a paragraph? Now, when you're writing your essay as I've mentioned, one paragraph is one idea. If one step ings don't, so you will have a topic sentence that states Your one idea it's making a point. And you want your point to be very to the point. Don't have extra words. Just tell me, what is that paragraph gonna be about? What do you gonna tell me in this paragraph? What's your idea, then? For a paragraph, you need at least three pieces of evidence. You'll have some supporting and you'll have some counter evidence, and you are going to explain each of these pieces of evidence and you're gonna analyze and evaluate these pieces of evidence when it comes to account a piece of evidence. If you're like well, why am I including account a piece of evidence. Well, you're going to include a counter piece of evidence because it shows your teacher, your electoral, your examiner, that you have understood a contrast in view. But then you're going to evaluate it and you're gonna tell them. Well, yes, there is this contrast in view. However, it doesn't disagree with my argument to this point or there is a problem with this counter argument because off X y said this point, this point this high, this thought this thought this thought so you will be out to show your reader that you have taken a full and complete analysis off this part off your field of study. When you're analyzing each piece of evidence, you're gonna be showing the significance in the impact off the evidence to your point the idea that you're talking about in this paragraph on, then you're also going to show how this impacts in this significant to your thesis statement, and at the end of each paragraph, you need to link back to your thesis statement and show why this essay support your thesis statement. Why does it answer your essay question? So you you don't want to just assume that your reader knows exactly what you're talking about. You want to lead them along. You want to hold their hand and take you wisdom because that ensures that the reading experience is more enjoyable. It's easy to read on that. Your reader currently understand what you're saying because if you aren't reader can't understand, we're saying, Why would they believe you? And why would they put persuade it? And if the point of your essay is to persuade a reader to a different point of view, and that's what makes a good, argumentative essay. If you haven't led your either by the hand through each idea through each step of your essay, forget it. You're not gonna have written a valuable essay when you're looking at your evidence, you also going to be evaluating it so no earlier. You're looking the impact in significance off it, but you're also going to be analyzing the faults and merits over, and you'll do this with both the evidence that agrees with your idea your point in the paragraph, but also gonna be doing this with your counter evidence because this shows that you have fully understood And this is why it's important when you're researching to really open your eyes and your mind to what is written in front of you, because then you can have a full idea off. Where are the where is the evidence that supports your argument? You wanna also be aware of when those that evidence that supports your argument also potentially has a weak foundation? Because if you're just choosing evidence based on the fact that it supports your arguing without actually having done any analysis over any evaluation, you're going to create a weaker argument because someone could come and say, Well, yes, I've read that piece of evidence that you're saying supports you, but here is a reason. 123 Onda. Actually, your assumption is wrong. They on the premise of their argument. Is this actually so actually, this evidence doesn't support your argument, or it only supports it to this much. So you have by your ignorance, m potentially laziness weakened your argument, and someone else can come and refute it. Then finally, you link back to your question. You link back to your thesis team, and this is usually the last sentence of your paragraph because you want to ensure that your reader is on the same page on that. They understand how your idea and the evidence you've put forward actually does prove your thesis. The last sentence is in these conclusions to your paragraph. Your last thought on the matter actually do serve a purpose as well, because when you're writing your conclusion, you can take your thesis statement and all the conclusions you've had in each stepping stone in each paragraph for each idea, and then summarize them in your conclusion. And lastly, the conclusion the conclusion is your final paragraph in an essay. It brings all your ideas together and it gives an overall conclusion. In your paragraph, you will need to restate your question. Restate your thesis on, then Remember, from when I was talking about Body Paragraph, you're gonna take those conclusions those final linking sentences from each of those stepping stone paragraphs and summarize those in your conclusion. You're going to look at all of this and show the reader how you have reached your thesis statement of why it is valid on what is the overall conclusion that they should know. This is the last step in persuading your reader toe a different point of view. It's also the last thing. You right. So it's not a complicated paragraph because you've already done. Although work you state nothing, nothing new in your conclusion. If you put in some new information in your conclusion, as I have seen done from from students over the years, you will completely confuse a reader, your examiner or your electoral your teacher grow. Why on earth have you added this here? Why isn't it in the body of your essay If you have missed out a pertinent piece of information So this is if you do it in exam, you have lost it. You cannot put it in your conclusion just because it's the last paragraph and just want toe chuck it in for some extra point. You will not get extra points if you put it in your conclusion, because it doesn't make sense at all. If you're writing an essay for coursework, you need to think about why have you only just thought about it now? And also where could you put it in earlier in one of the body paragraphs? This is why we plan so that you go through this process before writing. If you do get to your conclusion in when you're planning and think, Oh, I've got another idea. You have time on You have space because you've written anything and you go Okay, where? Which paragraph with this best fit into or does it need a paragraph of its own? Does it support and strengthen my argument, or does it weaken it? So you need to evaluate that before you put it in and think is it's actually good for my argument. Is it valid? Will it help me persuade my reader? So that is a conclusion. It is an overall summary and concluding remark on your essay and on your thesis statement, you'll link back to the question so that the reader understands that this is the end here. Oh, my summaries of everything and that's it. Be persuaded if you want to check whether your essay is a good one. Show us a plan the way we were taught to read articles, acting academic articles on books, if you want a quick understanding is you read the introduction on the conclusion, and that should tell you everything to expect and to know in your essay because they are the summaries off all the pertinent and most important points. Then if you need detail, you go to the middle power off the body paragraphs. So now we're gonna I'm gonna go over how you actually start creating a plan. And I'm gonna give you a structure in a Roman numeral structure that I have used throughout my academic career and is now I find the most logical way an easy way to clam Any sort of writing. It's the way I planned this video course. I used Roman numerals to show levels of information and what I want to talk about. Show paragraph, stop structure. So stay tuned. Go to the next video and we will go over how you structure your plan. I'd love it if you left a review. Please let me know. We thought leave a rating on. Tell me what you thought about the course. 11. 006 1 Write your first draft: Now you've got your plan together. It's time to start writing, so you will know your plan is ready when you have all the ideas on the page on, Do you feel confident that you know exactly what your argument and you have everything in order. So now is the time to start writing Now, when it comes to a first draft, don't expect it to be great. Actually, the aim of first draft is just to write your plan. Follow the plan. Don't think that this is the first point in the essay writing process where you don't have to think just right. Just sit down and write it out. Get all your ideas down and follow your plan line for line. That is the best advice I could give you for writing a first draft. Just sit down and write. It's going to be rubbish. But if it's just to give you a place where you can start editing from to give you an idea of time. When I was doing my essays at University, when I had a really solid plan, I knew that I could sit around and write my first draft of my essay on I would type about 500 words in 1/2 an hour. So if I had a 2000 word essay, I knew it would take me two hours on. In a way. This you'll find out depending on your typing speed and how detailed your plan is. I wrote an incredibly detailed plan with all my referencing, Andi, all my sources, I knew line by line what was going to be in each part off my essay induction Body paragraphs conclusion. And as I said, I followed my plan line by line and just created the sentences, and I got it down. On paper, I find this the least painful way to do the essay writing process. Also, if at any point you get stuck, worried or confused by your plan, if you have done your plan with thought on care and effort, you will have down all the information and you Actually, at this point, if you know that before going into writing, when you get to the point in your writing where you're going, I don't know where I'm going. Look back at the essay question. Re acquaint yourself with your thesis statement and then look at where you are on your s a plan and just say the plan is solid. I just need to trust the plan followed plan. And don't think this is a one point, as I said, where you won't need to do any thinking. If you've done enough planning other things to note, don't worry about the word limit. At this point, your plan will actually go along with your word limit. But don't worry. You actually want to write a little bit over your word limit so that when you're editing, you can make your argument even more succinct. You always use more words than you need when you're writing your first draft. The editing process is when you use your thinking skills again to say, Okay, how can I make this better? But at this point, don't worry about a word limit. Just worry about writing everything that's in your plan. I'm just getting it down on paper. Don't worry about sentence structure. Punctuation on grammar. At this point, it is more about getting your ideas down on to a page in some sort of format, if you again. If you put in the time for your plan, you'll know that your argument is logical and that you've already planned it in a certain way. So just follow the plan, follow the paragraph structure and just get it down. On paper, you will correct all your sentence structure, your grandma, your punctuation and spelling. When it comes town down to the editing and the proof reading process. When you write your first draft, it is not the place for it. And really, that's all there is for writing the first draft. So this is why this section is incredibly short now that you have your plan now that you are have done all your research, pulls the video hit well in the video here and go and write your first draft of your essay and then in the next section will be looking at how to edit and proof you read your work. So just turn off your phone. Turn off any messenger Turner. Just turn everything off. Say to your family or your housemates that you are going. You just need quiet. Or take yourself to a coffee shop. Just sit and write and focus. If you're listening to music, some of the best listen to music is like Alfa Wave Munich because it just helps your brain focus. Don't don't listen to music that's gonna get you wanting to dance, because that'll distract your brain. Just really hone and focus. So if you need quiet, go somewhere quiet. UM, noise canceling headphones. Always useful or you can use earplugs. You can just plug yourself into the music and play it really loudly. But obviously don't burst your eardrums. That wouldn't be useful. Turn off your phone. I cannot stress that one enough, because if you have constant notifications from Facebook or Instagram or Snapchat or text message or voice messages, whats app messages, anything like that, it will stop you from concentrating. So if you have an iPhone would just turn the phone off or put it on airplane mode or turn it to do not disturb. You can set aside two hours to write the first draft on all notifications. All phone calls can wait until then. If it helps get up early, do it first thing in the morning are have a high protein snack and just do it. So that's it. Good luck writing your first draft, not the You'll need it if you've done your plan properly and I'll see you in the next video for looking at how we edit and proof read. 12. 007 1 What is editing and proofreading?: at this point, you are now going to have your first draft written. Andi, you are now ready to start editing. Now what I want you to remember is that the first draft is usually rubbish. Don't expect it to be great. Expect spelling mistakes, sentence structure, mistakes and in coherent sentences. Expect bad punctuation, forgetting to punctuate. Maybe you've when you're typing, you've just missed, uh you just switched around some of the letters. Don't worry about it at this point. This is what we're going to do. We're going to edit, and we're gonna prove freed. So let's think, Let's understand what editing and proof reading is editing Is the process off making your argument argument coherent, making sure the FAA makes sense on. But to do that, you are going to edit. You are going to look at changing, moving, cutting, adjusting the argument you're going to be condensing. Rewriting it is the process of making your argument actually make sense on communicate accurately the meaning you want to convey. So at this point, you might even rewrite the entire essay. That is okay, that is normal. And actually, we will be doing part of that. We will be rewriting sentences because the first time you write something as you will have noticed, when you did your thesis statement writing, you wrote it with many, many words the first time and then the second time. And then the third time you wrote it, you condensed it. You made it more succinct, more concise amore to the point. So this is the idea. When you're editing, you want to make your essay more to the point, then proof reading is purely the process off, highlighting errors in the typing in the spelling in the punctuation. So maybe you've forgotten to add an apostrophe or you for gotten out of colon or semi colon , or you've missed out or added to many full stops by accident. So it's merely just checking that everything before it is printed is in the right place. So it's not about changing ideas that that's the editing, changing power structure, etcetera, rewriting that is, editing proof. Reading is merely just making sure it's ready for print. So how long do the editing I'm proof reading process take well, it will probably take longer than the actual writing off your essay. So the S of the actual writing of USA. The first draft is the quickest part off the entire process of writing an essay. Funny that probably not what you expected, but then the editing is, as mentioned, clarifying your ideas, making sure that everything is where it needs to be. So, to be precise, it's going to take a long as it takes if you have a deadline where you're going to do it faster. But you need to be conscientious about the quality of your work and set reasonable expectations for your work if you have left this till the last minute. But if you have time, if you've left yourself time on, I suggest leave us off a week at least a week, at least a week for editing, probably better to. And this is to do with making sure you have enough time away from your essay, because when you are doing an essay at the last minute maybe doing it in three days or a week, you are consumed by essay. You cannot see anything else about your essay, which means you can get too close to your essay, so give yourself 1 to 2 weeks to edit your essay to proof. Read it and make sure everything is where it needs to be. Don't leave your I say still the last minute. I know everybody does it, but usually it just leads to more stress on day. Bad writing. Just a point, actually. About saving your essay in your computer When you are writing your essay when you're doing re drafts, I suggest that to make it easy to find you don't just save your essay as, ah, English essay History essay. Really two studies. I say put the actual title the question off your essay in the document name. Then do an underscore and right draft and then right 001 for example. Now, the reason you do that is because you're gonna be writing multiple drafts. Andi, when you are redrafting when you are editing your work you met you will probably want the original and then open a new document for your edited copy number two, which, when you save it again, you'll have the s a name and the number two and then you can copy and paste them. Rewrite in a new document. It just saves your time. And then you could have two windows open next to each other, and I'll show you how to do that in some of the later videos. But when you're going back to your documents on, you can't find where you put it. You can just search in the search bar off your union control E if you're in a Microsoft laptop. 13. 007 2 Two strategies for editing: strategies for editing your work. Now, you can do this one of two ways, or do a combination off. You can edit on your computer or you can edit on paper. So if you're gonna edit on paper, print out the copy of your first draft of your essay, take a pen and then start editing on the paper. You may want to, because if your ass is quite long, you want to make space, so double space your document so that you've got space between the lines. You what you could make the margins bigger as well is that you can annotate and write notes if you're printing out. I like to have some sticky notes available, so let me see where my stickiness. So I have a pad of sticky notes here, so just different sizes. You can also use some scissors to cut them as well, seeing cutting into lines on Just use thes if you're running out of space on your draft, actually, so here is the draft. I did, but I did it on paper. This is a hand written draft with edits, and as you can see, I've taken a different color and done the evidence. But because I was running out with space, I used sticky notes to add to it. So this is on each page, and I know that I am moving things around. I'm adding extra text. So this was the first round of editing I did on this document. Or as mentioned in the previous video, you could take your first draft, but you've typed up. If that's the case, you open a new document next to it and the new copy and paste a sentence or a paragraph into that new document, and then you go through and edit it and analyze it and check that it is a succinct is. You want it to be that it puts across your point in a reasonable, logical way on that you haven't got any language or any words in there that are not needed . So that first round of editing that you do is primarily going to be okay. Lets cut, cut, cut, and actually you want to. You don't want to be emotionally attached to your essay, because then you're not going to be doing good editing. Good editing is when you take a step back, you're not emotionally connected to the work you've done because then you can look at it from an outside point of view and see it for what it is. That's difficult. That's gonna take practice. But really, if you want the most effective editing the most efficient meditating, you want to take your personal view of yourself out of it, take your ego out of it. It doesn't say that you're a bad person or a bad writer. If you have cut a lot off text, it just means that you are aware that to make your point better to be more effective and efficient in your writing, these words need to go. That is it. It doesn't say anything about you as a person. 14. 007 3 how to make your writing sound more valuable: now, while we're editing, you're really going to be crafting. This is at the point where we take what we've already written, and we ensure that we are communicating our meaning. Some people think that the process of writing the first draft is the crafting part. But actually, I find that the editing is mawr. The process of crafting because any what something in front of you to work with someone were writing an academic essay. There are words that gonna help you show that your essay is valuable on. We've talked a lot about that. You need an essay that's valuable, that is gonna provide a solution to the your reader because they have a problem. The problem is something to do with your essay question, but there are some words you can use when you're writing, and there are a selection. And it these words that been price value are also words that increased tension in the feeling of the reader. So when you were doing your research, did you notice when a scholar use something like obviously or even though, regrettably or they used? Perhaps I also saw one written. There was quite nice Andi, it said in the former manner. So these words are used to indicate problems in the previous research, but also imply to the reader that you have a solution to that problem. You also want to make sure that you're using the correct technical language because each community, each field of study has a certain vocabulary that is used. So if you are doing work into philosophy, for example, you will want to use the names off the school of thought the same with history and English . You will want to use the vocabulary that is regular to the topic. If you're talking about poetry, maybe you'll use the words sonnet, iambic pentameter. You'll use some words to describe the structure, so you might want to refer to the number of stanzas, so that's like the little mini paragraphs. But because it's a poem, it's not paragraph. It's a set of lines, so that's a stanza or reverse. It's not a sentence, it's a line. So you see the differences. If you're analyzing, Ah, a work of literature you talk about. It's a fiction piece of writings, and maybe you want to talk about pathetic fallacy. You want to talk about the themes or the Maybe they've use a certain type of language. So ill iterating in XTs, etcetera all those different words. Those technical words used to describe your field, those the words you want to use as well as those tension words, because this shows that you haven't understanding. It makes your language accurate, and it's also expected by your reader. But you want to make your writing clear. So again, I'm gonna stress. Don't use the word you don't understand. If you don't understand a word, go check the definition of it. Don't just assume Oh, it sounds right. So I'll just chuck it in there because it will make me sound smart. If you use a word that you don't understand, you probably won't use in a way that accurate without having checked that it's accurate. Andi words used inaccurately don't make you sound smart. Also, if you're using over complicated language to sound smart, do you think your audience will be able to follow you? The answer is probably no, because if you're using over complicated language or make it difficult to understand if your aim is to persuade a reader to a different point of view, you. What do you think? If it's understandable or not quite so understandable. Which do you think is gonna help you? Understandable Language is the way to go. Also think about your audience. So when it comes to teachers, lecturers and examiners, one of the things I say Teoh my students is you don't know when your teacher, your lecture, your examiner is gonna mark your paper so you they could be marking it first thing in the morning. It's a beautiful day. They've had a great sleep, so they're gonna be really fresh. Which means that their point of view is gonna be more a more positive when they're marking an essay or your essay could be the last of a stack of terrible essays. They've had a really bad day, or maybe they're ill and they're just feeling pretty horrible. They're gonna be marking much more harshly at that point, probably because they're feeling towards just life in general is a bit more negative. We all have. Our good days are bad days on our energetic ones and are sluggish ones. So you need don't know when your essay is gonna be marked. So make your essay structure and language as easy and logical to follow as possible. And if you can make it interesting that even better if you're writing an essay for someone else, think about a different audience you have in mind. Maybe you're writing it to post on the Web. Maybe you're writing for a boss or just writing for yourself. Think about who you writing this essay for. What would they find valuable in your essay? So what would they find useful and make sure when you're writing that, that could be that's going to be communicated by a language, a word choice on your structure. So when you're editing, you need to keep these in mind so that you can again, and I'm gonna stress this so much so that your essay makes sense. If it doesn't make sense, you're not gonna persuade your audience. Make sure that in your introduction you've laid out your argument and that everything that follows is expected. Make sure your conclusion has an overall conclusion. There's nothing new in it because there's nothing more confusing, as I have said in other videos, than finding something new in your conclusion, or you've laid out a really nice essay in your introduction and then the body off the essay doesn't actually follow it. That is incredibly confusing. And if the aim is to persuade something to someone someone reading your essay, then it's not gonna make sense. So look back over your essay while you're editing and check. Does anything need to be a rearrange? Does anything need to be written rewritten? Can you edit the language to make it more interesting to show tension and then solve that tension to keep the reader interested? Because if you're interested in your essay, your reader will probably be interested. That's a little marker for you if you're bored by O. S. A. I can guarantee that your reader is bored by your essay just before you go. I just want to ask a quick favor. If you're finding this course interesting or valuable in any way, please, can you leave a rating and a review on the course page? I find it really helpful to find your feedback and also ill let other students know whether you like 15. Conclusion & Thanks!: Congratulations. You have now finished the complete crash course in essay writing. Thank you for joining me. I really do hope you found these videos. Interesting. I hope you found them. Most importantly, useful on given you but the tools to start developing your writing to see where you can start improving. Because really, my job as a teacher is to make myself redundant. To help you learns that you don't need me anymore. That's what makes a good teacher. And also it shows that your skills are developing and you now connects self correct. You can self develop on, actually, as a teacher, that is a fantastic reward. So I really hope that you found this useful. If you need to go back, go back to any of the videos. Remember, if you haven't fast forward rewind, skip about when you need it. If you've got another essay coming with another piece, of course. Work. Don't forget you couldn't go back to any of the videos. Use them if you need to to question what does this essay question mean? What are the key words? Think about how do these scholars proved their evidence? How did well, how do they prove the theory with evidence. Think about what do you think that's really the most important part? When you're writing an essay, you need to put your opinion across, have courage to have that opinion and then persuade someone to your point of view. That's what's gonna make your essay interesting and get you those higher marks. But most importantly, improve the quality of real writing on really having a writing skill. Any writing skill and being able to put across an opinion in a reasoned logical way with evidence is going to stand you in good stead for many, many, many years for the rest of your lifetime. So thank you for joining me. Feel free to check out my other courses. You may find some of them useful to help you on your studying. And don't forget. Always come back. Andi, if you haven't already, please leave a review. Tell me what you thought. Tell me what Waas, The most useful part of the course for you on If you've had any ex success with your essay writing on, you've seen an improvement. I would love to hear about it. Okay, that's it for now. Thanks again for joining me. And I love to hear how you're getting on with your essay writing