How to Paint a Baby in Oils | Kristy Gordon | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (3h 50m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Materials and Canvas Toning

    • 3. Underpainting

    • 4. Color Lay In

    • 5. Big Form Modeling

    • 6. Describing the Planes

    • 7. Feature Handouts

    • 8. Painting the Eyes

    • 9. Refining with Glazes

    • 10. Construction of the Hands and Feet

    • 11. Painting the Hands and Feet

    • 12. Finishing Touches

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About This Class

In this 3 hour and 45 minute class, New York based artist and teacher Kristy Gordon will take you through the stages to developing a painting of a baby in oils using photographic reference. You will learn how to select a good photo to work from, how to tone your canvas before you begin and how to use oil paints so that they're fun and easy. Kristy will walk you through measuring techniques that will ensure that you get accurate proportions and a good structure to your portrait.  Then she will demonstrate step-by-step how to develop a monochromatic underpainting using Burnt Umber oil paint. With this foundation, you will be ready to move to color in the next class, where Kristy will show you exactly how she mixes the flesh tones that she's mixing! You will learn how to achieve a better likeness as well as how to paint convincing flesh tones. Lessons cover the stages for developing a painting in color, structure of the face and features, constructing the hands and feet, as well as glazing and modeling with color temperature.


Check out my other classes:

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Underpainting (part 1)

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Color (part 2)

Portrait Painting with a Full Palette

Glazing and other Paint Application Techniques

Composition in Art

How to Paint a Baby in Oils

Painting the Portrait in Profile

How to Paint the Flesh Tones

Contemporary Portrait Painting

Painting the Eye

Drawing Facial Expressions: Determined Eyes

Meet Your Teacher

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Kristy Gordon

New York Based Artist And Teacher


Kristy Gordon has twelve years of experience teaching and conducting painting workshops, lectures and classes throughout North America. She is an adjunct professor at the New York Academy of Art and has taught at numerous schools and academies including the National Academy in NYC, and The Academy of Realist Art in Ottawa and Boston. Gordon has exhibited her work in solo and group exhibitions throughout Canada, the United States, Europe and China. Her work has earned numerous awards including the Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation Grant and an Exceptional Merit Award from the Portrait Society of America. She has been widely featured in magazines, art publications, radio and television shows, including International Artist, Fine Art Connoisseur, The Artist’s Magazine, Southwest Art ... See full profile

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1. Introduction: I'm Christi Gordon, and I'm a New York based artist and teacher. My paintings have been shown in galleries across Europe and North America, and I've taught at school, such as the New York Academy of Art and the National Academy in New York. And today I'm gonna show you how I developed this painting of a baby. You can use oils for this class or acrylics, and you can follow along with me using the photo reference that I'm using or use any photo that you'd like of any baby that you'd like in this class will walk you through the stages of developing the painting, moving through under painting, where will use burned number to develop a strong likeness and good proportions. And then we'll move to color. Lay in where will establish the basic colors first, Next will describe the planes of the face and the figure and finally will end with the finishing touches. I'll show you how to construct the face and the features get accurate proportions and also how to develop the hands and feet and also show you how I created this blurry background that really enhances the playful quality to the baby I'm really excited to see how your painting turns out. So be sure to post it in the projects page in skill share. And I hope you enjoy this class. 2. Materials and Canvas Toning: in terms of the materials. I have my palate set up on some white palette paper, and on the palate we have titanium white cadmium, yellow light, cadmium, yellow deep cad, orange cadmium, red light, ah, leisure and permanent burnt sienna yellow Oakar, some cobalt blue, Floridian, green, alter, marine blue, ivory, black and I also have some premixed mixtures. This is a mid tone grey made with ivory, black and titanium white, and we've got a base flesh color that's made with the cadmium orange, the titanium white and a little bit of this blue mixture. And the blue mixtures made of ultra marine blue and some titanium white and lastly, have what I call a base shadow color mixture that consists of ultra marine, blue and cadmium orange. I have a range of brushes of Phil Burt's and bright brushes, and I have some blue shop tells, as well as some walnut Alcon medium, which I have in a little container on my palette. So there are various mediums that you can use for a glaze. This one here is one that I really like. It's by gambling, and it's called solvent free gel, so it's actually nontoxic It's made with a base of safflower and Alka painting medium. And so it does speed the drying a little bit, and it also has a little bit of a thicker consistency, which I'll show you why. But that could be really beneficial. And then I also use walnut Alcon medium, which also is non trump toxic. It's thin like linseed oil. It will speed the drying a little bit. And I'll show you the benefits to that as well. A some of the drawbacks. And you could also use something like liquid liquid has a thicker group here. Sort of feel it is toxic. Um, for me, I like to keep my process nontoxic. Um and so that basically shows you the basic mediums and will be working on a toned canvas . So next I'm gonna show you how to prepare your canvas. We're gonna start by preparing our canvas with an acrylic base, Jess. Oh, so I've got this white acrylic gesso here and some black acrylic paint and some yellow ochre acrylic paint. This is some liquid acrylic. This is a to paint, but either one will do. This is just what I've got today. We've got some liquid tax, some gold. And I like those two brands in terms of acrylic brands, and I'll be using this foam brush to apply the paint. That way it'll get a really smooth, even code free of ridges from a paintbrush. And essentially doing this is really gonna be important because it basically like smooth the texture of the canvas so there won't be the kind of like bumpy, sort of texture of the canvas. It'll just smooth it out, making it to be a really nice service to work on. It'll create like a mid tone tone to work on so that as you develop the painting, you can pull up the lights and it'll stand out against the middle tone of the ground and deepen into the dark, said. It's just easier to work on, then the white canvas. So to get started, I'm just gonna dip my brash my phone brush. This is about a two inch foam, brash and width right into my white acrylic Jess. Oh, and I'm gonna be mixing it right on the canvas. Let's take a little bit more, but you'll notice there's not a whole lot, So if I use too much paint. I'm going to get ridges. So I wanted to eventually be a fairly a really flat and not too thick coat. I'm just gonna put a little blob of the black. I'm gonna mix it right on the canvas surface. Just a little bit of black. The black is really powerful, so I want to creep up on the amount of black and I'll use more yellow Oakar proportionally compared to the amount of black that I'm using. It is the yellow car is not quite as potent. It's a little sloppy just mixing it on the canvas, But it'll we'll mix it together and see what we get. And basically, we're going for like, a mid tone color. So like a mid tone grey, but just a little bit more into the greenish kind of range. So I've added a little more yellow Oakar. This might be a little dark as well. So put a bit more white. This is just white Jess. Oh, so it's not white paint its weight, Jaso, and that looks pretty good. So now I'm just going to kind of pull it all the way across the canvas fairly vigorously and It's thin. It's a thin coat of paint that's even a little bit too yellow. Hot, Let's add a little bit, were black to the mixture and a little bit more of the Jess Oh itself. Just mix that all together. The color. You know, that can change a little bit from time to time, so it'll vary. But generally I like it to be close to gray, but just a little bit in the greenish range. The yellow car helps it be a little bit more greenish, so just kind of vigorously. You can see that I'm like changing up the direction of the stroke like I'm not just going line line line. I'm kind of changing it up. And by going over any places that has little blotches, it just mix it in, mixes it in more evenly, and that I could just lightly brush across to smooth it out after to really make sure that there's no ridges. So I'm just like pulling it all the way across the whole canvas, first changing the direction of the strokes and then once I've got the whole thing covered , then I might just go kind of across to really flatten out any strokes and then maybe go, you know, in other directions so that we don't get any strokes that are any one way, and it's okay to have some variation. I think that's even beautiful to have some lighter spots and some more transparent areas and more opaque areas. That way you're starting right from the start with a beautiful looking, slightly varied kind of visually appealing surface with which to work on, and there that will be a really nice surface to work on. 3. Underpainting: in this video. I'm gonna walk you through the stages as I paint a portrait of my sisters, one year old baby. So to get started, I've got an acrylic Jess owed grey green canvas to work on, and I'm also using these two brights. This one's a number six is the number 12 the brights, other ones with the square tipped tops. And they're not like the long floppy ones. And then I've just Scott some burnt umber oil paint and some, well, that l could medium. You could also use linseed oil. So as I get started, I'm going to start with some oil down, burnt Humber and just start with a loose ghostie gesture, just feeling out where I want to position the figure on the canvas as a position. The head, which is going to be the most important part of the canvas and thinking about the distance from the edge and this other edge. I like to have varying amount of space for either of those, and I also like to make sure that there's, um, a difference in the height of the head compared to the height of like, the non head. So basically there's like more space below the head than than the size of the head. So in other words, we're not just divide in this space in half and having the head take up half of that height . So we're looking to like establish, ah, lot of variety, and we're really just focusing on the composition at this stage and really not thinking yet about the proportions and all of that. But we'll definitely like home that in later. So I'm just using, like big geometric shapes s curves, see curves and getting a feel for the placement on the canvas. So the main things that I want to like look at as I do this are like the distance from the farthest edge, you know, on either of the widths and also the heights. So I'm liking the way this is working. There's kind of an equal amount of space from this edge to the edge of the head and from this edge to the edge of the foot. So in this case, it's the overall figure is like fairly centrally in placed, But I do like that the head is off to the side and it's not right in the center of the canvas. Also, the eyes are sort of on, like the the center of interest. I is kind of like on the 1/3 mark, the 1/3 division of the canvas. Like if we can kind of lightly divide your canvas vertically and horizontally into, you know, roughly three equal thirds, and you're gonna wanna have the main like the main elements kind of on thes lines. So we've got the eye on this line. This is our center of interest. I I basically just decided that this will be our center of interest, I because it's the one on the 1/3. As we move forward, it's gonna be useful to kind of know which I you want to choose one of the eyes as your center of interest and then the hand. Let's just take a horizontal plumb line for the placement of the hand, and I can see that the top of the hand, like the top of the thumb, is just like a little bit above the eye level. So this is just a rough placement for now, Um, there's definitely gonna be some adjustments, but I'm just, um basically looking at the rough placement and the the hand, this hand. Basically, it's interesting because we've got I think the first thing or I is going to go to is the face and this eye, and then we're gonna travel through the body and a secondary area of interest is this hand , and it's also placed on our 1/3 division. So I'm pretty happy with this photo reference, and I think it's gonna make a good painting. And as I feel it out in this compositional stage, I'm pretty excited about the whole overall set up. So now that I've got a basic gestural composition indicated of the figure on the canvas, I'm gonna shift into using comparative measuring to get Acura proportions and a good structure in my under painting. So we're going to be using the height of the head as our base measurement. So I'm going to start by getting the height of the head on my brush. And the way that I learned was to always take it perfectly vertically and perfectly horizontally, and not to use things like the angle you know, angled measurements because those can get thrown off. So in this case, even though the head's tilted. Let's just stick with the height of the head in a completely vertical manner. And let's count how many the whole width of the body is to begin with. So one and it goes to around the shoulder to and it goes to the apex of the calf muscle. Three. Well, 2.5, basically, exactly. Wait, let me check that again. Did I do that right? One two yet that's right. And 1/2. OK, so we're going to recreate that honor painting. And so I'm going to get the height of the head and just check what I've got. So we'll move this back into the frame now. Okay, so one to and about 1/2. So that looks about right. And let's also check the whole height of the figure using the base head measurements. So one to to just below the crease of the hand at the wrist, that's double check that it's good to double check. Maybe it's actually to the top of the knuckle of the fingers. And then let's see about I'm looking at the bottom sliver. Now. It's like less than 1/4 so it's like two and a slight little bit so one to and like, a slight little bit. So it's possible that I have a little bit too much hand down here, - So maybe the hand ends to strike about here, and I'm using really oil down paint at this stage. So the next thing we want to do is we'll take the height of the head and compare it to the width of the head from the widest point to the widest points. I'm going from this cheek, basically to this apex on the head, on the skull, and basically the width is just a little bit less than the height. And it looks like I've got a boat that we're going to come at this a couple different ways . But for now, that seems possibly about right. And then the next thing we're gonna do is we're gonna check the placement of the eyes so aligned the bottom of your brush the bottom of the eyes and slide your thumb nail up to the tear duct of the eyes, move that whole thing up. And in this case, so with babies, they often have really like large craniums. And so a lot of the time they're eye level is actually slightly lower than halfway on the face on an adult. The eyes would be placed like right in the center of the head, and on a child, the eyes would be often placed a little lower than center. And that is what's happening here. So it almost looks like one, too. Um, it's like to, Yeah, you can kind of look at the amount there is, like less than 1/2. So if we go 12 less than 1/2 that seems about right for the eye level. So for now for placing the eyes, I'm just going to do a line, actually, the next one that we're going to use his angle measurement. So if you take this is why I have to brush is today. If you take one brush and tilt it running right along the angle that you're measuring, which in this case is running between the two eyes and then take the other brush and place it on your canvas and make it parallel kind of look with a wide angle view with your eyes to make the two brushes perfectly parallel, and then you can take this brush and just trace that line right onto your canvas. So this is showing the access that the either sitting on and then let's see, like the width of this arm here. So we'll take our base head measurement and we'll just turn it horizontally. It's always good to compare verticals to horizontal, because if you get all of the verticals correct and the horizontal zehr off, it'll all look weird. But if you get the verticals properly related to the horizontal, it'll work out well. And so in this case, you can see that the width, like the length of the arm, is basically slightly less than one head. So that looks about right. And let's just start to anchor in some of the's points. So, um, as far as the structure goes of the of the face, what we want to do is get the access that the eyes air running on and sort of like a center line running between the two figures that shows the two I's with little show like the center line of the head. So it's almost right in the center. If I put my brush from the edge of the head here, too, right between the nose, like right between the eyes on the nose right here. And then compare that to the other side. It's almost equal, but just a little extra wit from this side's airheads, like slightly turned this way. So basically, gonna put that center line access onto my painting just ever so slightly favoring. They're right, in other words, a little bit closer to the right hand side, then to the left hand side. And then I'll just get the Axis going. This is sort of more of a general access, the imagined center line, you know, through through all of the features. So I'm just tilting my brush along with that, and I'll just put this actually need to get some paint on my brush. Let's still check that. We'll just put that own. It's easier to do with my right hand, but I saw basically where it goes and it's clean that up a little. So that's gonna help all the features, a line in a nice structural kind of way. As I put them on already, I can see that my chins gonna need to move over a little bit. So basically, at this stage, we're just working with, like, dots and lines, measuring distances. We're gonna also use plumb lines. So for the thumb here, let's take a horizontal plumb line, making our brush perfectly horizontal and just align it the top edge of the brush at the top of that tip of the thumb and then look across to the features. And basically, we can see that the top of the thumb is just a little bit up. Maybe one I in height above the eye. So what kind? Eyeball it. But basically the top of the hand top of the thumb is around here. I'm gonna block in the placement of this hand. But I've actually got this other photo here because I like this hand better. Um, so I'm gonna use this hand, but put it in the place of this hand. So but for now, I'm just getting the placement. Let's also check the height of this hand, so I'll take the height of the thing in question, which is the hand and move it over to what I know more of which is the face. And basically it actually looks like it's from the chin to the I is equal to from the top of the hand to the bottom of the hand. So mark that in again, just little dots and lines basically marking and distances. Let's get a little bit more into the face. So the other thing about the faces that on an adult we usually have three equal thirds from the bottom of the chin to the bottom of the nose, bottom of the nose and eyebrow on eyebrow to hairline. In this case, we have close to three equal thirds very, very close. Her mouth is open a little bit, which gives a little bit more distance on that bottom 1/3 measurement, but are 1/3 zehr gonna be a useful place to start, and we also have to check. So we'll just check this against a 1/3 1 3rd 1/3 to the hairline. And then the hair itself is just a little less than that. 1/3 measurement. So say the hair starts here. Let's give a little bit more distance through here. So 123 for and it'll take like a little niggling around until everything feels about right . So we want these ones to be basically equal with just the slightest amount of extra distance on the bottom. 1/3 um, don't over do it with that extra distance is just very slight. So from there we're starting to get a lot of information. And we know now where the eyebrows are. Let's extend that across following the same axis of the tilt of the whole head. And then we know where the bottom of the noses and with the most. Let's check that smaller distance. Um, a lot of the time the lower lip is right in the center. In this case, let's see, in this case, it's a little bit different. It looks like the top of the lower lip is basically in the center of the distance, right halfway in the middle, from the nose to the chin. So this is our top of our lower lip, and then this will be our now we can just start to eyeball and mark some stuff in. This will be a bottom of her lower lip. Let's just do a basic possible placement for the mouth uppermost upper lip, and I'm just gonna start to give a little bit more detail, not detail. But just information so that I don't lose track of what all these dots and lines are. So I can kind of see, this is sort of a nose. Let's kind of turn this in this line Here is the tear ducts line. So well, the eyes, her eyes are kind of sloping in towards the tear, you know, towards the center of the knows they're a bit cat eye is so the tear duct is kind of at the bottom area of the eyes of the eye. Extends. Well, that's too dark above that. So for now, young using I don't want to get too dark or too concrete. I'm thinning my paint down still with Lindsay Doyle so that it, um, isn't too strong of a note because I'm still going to be wanting to race and move things around from here. That's inevitable. So I want to just keep it soft and light so that it will be easy to make those changes as needed. So this is just again, like, really just like a possibility of a nice eyes. What I'm gonna do next as faras the eyes go is take this very small measurement of the one I on my brush. Let's move this canvas out of the way of it so I can get in here, have it better right onto the paper. And basically it's like one eye to the edge of the face. In this case, since her head's slightly turned, if it was perfectly front on, it would be one eye to the edge of the face. One. I obviously, on the I won I in between the eyes, obviously one eyes with on the I and one eyes with again to the edge of the face. Since your head is just ever so slightly turned, we have a little bit of extra distance on this left hand side. But that's going to help us have some parameters as we set up the scale of the eyes. So let's see how my leg estimate is working out, and I can see that this I is gonna need to be just like, a little bit smaller. And so I actually like I don't want to be going into lots of details. So, um, not to confuse this what I'm doing right now with actually going in and rendering the features what I'm actually doing is establishing a scale for the eyes early on, like a this stage, so that then I'll have actually something which is my smaller measurement that I can use as I move through the body. So I'll be using, you know, the overall height of the head. I've got my chin to my eye measurement here. I've got my 1/3 and you'll see me doing this as we move forward. And then I'll have my smallest measurement, which is the the I. So by sort of establishing some of the basic proportions in the face, I'm setting up a scale that I can use as I measured the rest of the body. And so it looks like this scales working. We've basically got one eye. When I won I and then just a little bit smaller to this edge. Oh, right. We may as well get an indication of the ears on there too. If we in this case, we will take an angled measurement only because we're doing a plumb line. And if this was a regular face, we would be measuring Ah, horizontal plumb line from the top of the ear to the eyebrow. Um, so In this case, we're basically tilting the whole situation and still noticing that the top of the ear is in line with the eyebrow following this new axis of the head. So following the axis of the head, we've got the year. Let's just get a bit more paint top of the year up there. Weaken taken angle measurement to get the angle of the year coming down. And on the other side, the top of the ear also lines of the brow. All right, so let's just keep working broadly throughout the whole painting. So we're gonna start, um, working into the body. I'm gonna look at the bottom of this elbow area and how it relates to the bottom of the chin. And basically it's in line with it. And then I want to find how far back from the left hand edge of the hand it is to the elbow Apex. And I'm calling like the curving most point on this curve, the apex, the sort of most bending area. And so I take the measurement in question. Get that on my brush, turn it vertically and compare it to the verticals of the face. And it looks like it's basically the same distance as from the tear duct to the chin. So that basically puts that there. I'm using a little too much oil you can see. That's why it's kind of dripping like that. So I'm just going to use a little bit more pigment, and then you can take an angle measurement to kind of capture the nature of the curve. So it's kind of like a curving angle and same thing as we go up and there's gonna be like, a few forms you could even kind of. Ruffin. Let's actually check the height of this upper arm here. Just get the distance of that Haydn compared to the verticals of the face. In this case, it's one of our 1/3. Let me double check that. Sometimes the smaller measurements it can actually be important to like, really be careful in really double check, yet slightly higher than one knows. So maybe about Like that, and so actually have got about the right size there, and at a certain stage you can start to kind of rough. In a suggestion of the forms, you'll find that at a certain point you have enough of the information to basically suggest the distance is What I'm going to do with this hand is I'm actually going to use thes fingers on this side of the sort of this photo here. I like that we get the shadow side on these fingers, so it'll be interesting to see how it goes. It might actually be a little bit tricky, but I'm hoping to be able to use those fingers. I'm not sure if it will work. Actually, in this, um, I might just have to go fully for this hand, but basically, I sort of find that there's something a bit awkward with this hand. Although I do really like the shadow side of those fingers. So for now, I'm just gonna block it. And loosely, I think the answer will develop in my mind as I go Then then, as I get into the body, I'm kind of looking at this distance here from the wrist to the elbow and how the intersection of this line breaks up that distance and it looks like it's basically a little bit sort of. If the's air the two marks here, it's like not quite half. It's a little bit to the right of half. Then I'll take an angle measurement. It's just just subtle angle, almost Willits. I don't know what that is, certain angle there and then the next one. We just want to keep working really slowly and carefully. We want to get that distance of the height of the body right underneath the elbow onto our brush and compare it to the verticals of the face. In this case, it's a decent amount, more than the nose, the chin to the nose. So I'm actually gonna need to give more distance to that body. Let's check it also at the chest area coming down from the chin, and that's from the chin. It's equal to from the chin to the top of the I. So when I find an area like this where I'm sensing that there may need to be a fairly large correction, I definitely want to just double check that. It's totally possible at this stage that they'll be like a pretty large correction to make . And, you know, I just want to, like, be sure about what I'm doing here. Make sure that's accurate. So basically, from this apex of the chin straight down vertically to the bottom of the chest is equal to from that same apex to basically the tear duct core or the outer corner of the eye, maybe just slightly below it. So this is probably about right then and I can look at it visually to incense that I think that is, like about right. So I think I did, you know, cause I just do it loose gesture to begin with, and it can be definitely, like, inaccurate. So this, Yeah, this looks better. Just kind of loosely blocking in some of the land works of the shirt. I'm gonna take my rag, which is my razor, and just dip into a little bit of oil here and erase out any parts. You know, I might even erase out some of these construction lines. Just clean it up a little bit with the body, like the chest and body area. It's important to take the same amount of care and consideration in the measurements because it is easy to get some distortion. Wait a minute. Yeah, it's easy to get the body like not as precise is the is the head, but we really want the body to be accurate as well. And you can just look at the kind of silhouette shape that's made with the really things on her shirt and the kind of geometric sort of shape. This is kind of like a triangle. This is kind of like oh, rounded square kind of a tilted, rounded square. We see a bit of her neck here. The leg is like pushing up on the chest, so this rounded form here is like the calf pushing into the chest. And then we want to. We can come at this foot here a couple of different ways. I think it will be useful to take a vertical plumb line down from the face to get the front edge of that knee and just perfectly vertical. It basically extends down from the outer corner of that tear duct. Gonna get more paint on this. It's good to have Lake a good amount of paint on both brushes cause you never know which brush is going to be. The one that you'll be using at any given moment I find. And then let's taken angle measurement. I'm extending from our curving point, actually before we do that? Let's also take a vertical plumb line down from the, um the, um armpit right here to see how that relates to this curving point. And it looks like that is close to fine. Maybe we'll just move this down just a little bit. And now we can take an angle measurement extending out to describe the calf. Then we'll take a vertical plumb line down from this hand toothy heel, and we are changing the hand a bit. But if our thumb was up where the photo has it, you know the foot would be ending right about here. And I'm looking at this shape, the type of negative space shape right here and how you know what distances right here. So as I sort of did that, I was just like, glancing at how I feel. Like what I initially put in was a little just a little too low. And maybe this could all to move down just ever so slightly angle measurement to describe the bottom of the foot. Let's take the height of the foot. Just making sure that we're measuring the proportions, all the big proportions. The foot basically goes from the tear duct to the bottom of the chin. And so baby's feet are really small. Um, on an adult, the foot would be the whole length of the head, but in this case, it's just a fraction of that. So just like setting up kind of the bounds, the parameters of the foot, who will go into more detail later. And with this other leg again, there's a certain angle. We can even taken angle measurement, describing the top of the leg and then another angle. And then it sort of rounds into the ankle and kind of rounds of certain angles into the foot and toes. I got a sense of the ankle on the other side. We can just do a little sense of the bony structure right there, which is describing how the foot bones kind of get covered over with the leg bones. And so, if you watch the liver drawing videos that's describe anatomy and the gesture, you know, this is a nice example of a nice fluid s curve. And, um, it will really help for you get that sense of fluidity in motion. And so all of that's coming into play as we block in the under painting here and let's get let's take the height of the head and compare it to the length of this arm. And if we got our frilly bit ending about here, the length of the arm is just a bit more than one head. So something like this. This arm here also has a nice kind of a subtle S curve, and this side has actually a subtle S curve as well. Then you can kind of block in the geometric forms. We've got kind of a circle up here for her deltoid. We've got a certain division about halfway through the arm that's describing the elbow, and it's so adorable when babies have there baby fat, she's got, like, a little roll on her lower arm. There. There's a certain a nice strong angle describing the wrist, and we'll want to take the whole width of the overall like width of the hand and compare that to the verticals of the face, which is just slightly higher than from the chin to the bottom of the nose. And it's going to give us the parameters of the width of the hand. I'm just blocking and I'm just basically doing an indication of the angles between the fingers to begin with. And the angle that divide like that ends all of the bottom of the fingers and just going to clean this up a little bit to some of the excess lines or just kind of distracting. And we're only seeing, like, a little bit a little bit of the pinky. We're going to go into the hands more in a second. So the next thing we want to do is start to map in the shadow patterns at this stage. So I like to start with a fairly concrete shape to the edge of the shadow, like you can see here that all of the shadows air basically occurring on the left hand side of forms. And like the edge of the shadow here, it gradually turns from shadow toe light. But at this stage, we want to just map in ah, concrete shadow, make it, um, you know, definite make a definite nge for where that turn happens and basically just block everything in, you know, So there's no even separation between, like the ear and the edge of the face. I'm just mapping everything that's in the shadow side into a unified shadow pattern, having just one tone for everything in the shadows. And you can see that it's like a, um, you know, it's it's a dark enough tone that basically it's gonna hold up when we move into the light . Um, the color lay in. So it's gonna like hold itself. It's gonna, um, stand up and be dark enough to read a shadow. Even once we start to go into the half tones basically into the darker parts of the lights and everything like that, so don't do it to light. There is, like a tendency to sometimes do it just a little bit too light. Don't do it too dark, either. Use like a bit of oil so that it's kind of thinned out. We're gonna be refining the features more later. So, um, don't get into any details on the features, but squint your eyes and just it'll help you really be able to see what the shadow pattern actually is and just simplify. It's so that everything that's in the shadows, we'll just sit in there nice and unified. We don't have a lot of shadow on this arm just a little bit on the deltoid. And then we do have that shadow pattern that wraps along the back side of the fingers and then on the leg, we've got just a little passage again, like everything on the left hand side, Same with on the calf. And as you do this, this is gonna help you refine your under painting as well, because you're drawing with shadows and you're gonna be able to see, like the shapes of the shadows, the shapes of the form Get in the habit of kind of flicking your eye across, you know, distances to see how everything's relating. And that's going to be a really useful drawing tool that's gonna help you make the kind of refinements that will give you more likeness and, um, just make everything kind of click into place. I think this heels just a little too high, as I kind of look at this distance here. I do think it needs to be maybe somewhere closer to where it waas. And then there's a shadow on the left hand side of this calf and basically on the whole bottom of this foot, this I just want to make sure it's dark enough. I'm just gonna make it a little darker. Yeah, I'm just starting them all up just slightly. It's like a fine line. I don't want it to be too dark or too light. Not to say that. It's like, really, you know, you you don't need to be picky and worried about it or anything. But But, yeah, do take some like care to make sure that it's definite enough and dark enough. And then there's just a little shadow patterning on the left hand side of that form. And there's and we've got a pretty good little triangle of darkness underneath her armpit and also kind of weaving itself through some creases in her clothing that wraps towards the left hand side of her body. And there's just a little kind of tiny shadow patterning right in here. And so then once we got that done. And if you haven't taken my workshops and, you know, gone over and over, the, um, features handouts with me before, or you know we're seeing them in my videos, take a moment to quickly, you know, to really work through the features handouts, print them all, follow them along with the lesson and and then and do that before moving into what we're about to do next, which is that we're just going to refine the features a bit. And I'm shifting into this round brush. This is a number. What is it? Actually, it doesn't say. I think it's like a number two or something, but basically, it's a small round brush, and I'm just gonna kind of go into her eye a bit. Um, in the features handout, I talk about looking for the apex of that curve. So you've got an apex like a turning most point of the eye here, and then we'll sort of restate something similar for the line of the lash. The first ones, the upper I'll increase from there, will block in the pupil and the circle of the iris. Have the paints too watery. I'm just gonna dab it and we do that. There was just a bit too much oil mixed in. And what I'm doing, like today on the features, um, is really just a beginning. So I I think it would be great for you to watch the features handout video follow along with that, Do a little bit of what I'm doing right here, you know, and not get too too finicky about it, Kind of knowing that we're going to go over this and over it again. But really mostly use it as an opportunity to become familiar with the drawing of the features so that it will give you, um, some groundwork as we move to redefining the features and then refining them and just all of that. So, yeah, darkening in the circle of the iris, the edges of the iris or darker than the, um, center of the iris on both of them, you'll notice Yeah, the irises covered at the top by the upper eyelid. The iris is fairly large and takes up half of the white of the eye with the nose. I just do a little statement of where the back placement of the nostril, you know, the edge of the wing of the nostril on the outer edges occurs, and then just a subtle, cute little definition of the holes of the nose as sort of two curving, angled straight lines for the mouth. I think we should take a moment to double check our most let's extend. In this case, I'm basically turning since the whole head is turned and we have our vertical of the head at more of an angle like this. And we have the angle of the eyes, you know, at more of an angle like this, Um, as we take what would usually be a vertical plumb line down from the, um, pupils of the eyes to the corners of the mouth. In this case, it's the edge of the iris. We're just gonna tilled our brush following that vertical like the center line of the face . So basically, following that angle down from the edge of the iris down takes me to the corner of the mouth so that most corner seems good. And on the other corner, it extends down from the pupil. So that's actually pretty good, too. And we've got the two little triangle e shadow things on either side of on the corners of the most. And then this line, which was our halfway point on the height of our bottom 1/3 is gonna be the edge of the lower lip. And then we've got this little definition, which is so this is the top of the lower lip. This is the bottom of the lower lip. Let's just do a soft little merging of the two because that side of the lip is kind of like in shadow. And then we'll just extend also a little note down here that describes of the muscles heading into the chin. And then, let's see. We do have a little bit more definition here. There's a little note of her bottom teeth showing just a suggestion of that. And then there's also this very important smile Shadow. You can actually taken angle measurement on your reference photo to see what angle this is sitting at and just connect that. Basically, it extends towards the outer wing of the nose and kind of an s shape that wraps back into the cheek. And also, let's just anchoring the eyebrows. This was our 1/3 line that indicates where the eyebrows should be. Now that I've got the eyes blocked in, I can see that the browse maybe should just be like gonna switch studio from brush ever so slightly lower. There's just not quite as much actual distance from the upper. You know, the upper edge of the I to the brow, and I'm keeping these soft. She just has really light little baby eyebrows, and you can kind of clean up some of the other lines as well, so that will give us enough information to move into color. We've got accurate proportions, which we established in our under painting. Using comparative measuring, we've gotten, ah, clear light side of shadow side and make sure that your shadow side is dark enough so that it'll hold up as we move into color, and we've started to familiarize ourselves with rendering the features and with the construction of the features. 4. Color Lay In: of the features, the mail, the fun begins. So we're gonna move to color next. And at this point, you should have watched the video describing how to set up the pallet and arranger colors in the same order as I've got. And also you make sure that you're under paintings completely dry. Before we work into it. You'll notice I have done a little indication of some of the background patterning. Um, I did that off screen so you wouldn't have to watch me. Why? I don't want to make the video too long. Basically, we're going to start by blocking in the lights at this stage. I'm actually looking at my screen. I've got the photo, um, pasted above my easel and also on my computer screen. And in terms of the best color accuracy I find looking at the computer screen the best. But I do have both versions pasted, um, you know, in view. So I typically start somewhere around the forehead and working into the most saturated area in the light. So I'm going to start with this base flash tone, and I'm gonna put just a blob of that up around the most saturated area. And what you're really gonna want to focus on as you're moving to the color lay in is that you don't go for the latest lights. There's definitely a tendency to make this flat color lay in in the lights to light because we're looking at the lights, the latest lights and in the lights. So basically, go aim for just, like a notch darker in terms of tone than what you think. And that's gonna leave room to lighten into. So I've added a little bit of white just a little bit and just a little bit of gray. I'm finding that it just needed to be de sat traded ever so slightly and basically, I'm just gonna bring that tone throughout a lot of the lights. And as we move down, our light source is coming down onto the face like this. So as we move down and away from the light, the light is going to get progressively a little darker and a little gray er, so I'm going to mix a little bit of gray. That's gonna be too much, and you can just lightly brush right over the eyes. I'm using a slightly grey er note for within the eyes. I like to actually rub it a little bit with my finger to which really helps, Um, just push it right into the grain of the canvas. I'm doing it with a light touch so that we can still faintly see the under painting of the eyes through. But overall, I want to make sure that I'm getting, um, a complete like color early. And so I'm really filling in everything, and there's no under painting showing through. There's no area without paint. Um, left at the end of this color lay in. So there's like subtle little subtle variations here and there into the cheeks. Maybe we could mix just a touch of red cadmium red light to get a bit more saturation and the nose to, and you'll notice that I'm stopping at the shadows. So for now, I'm not going at all into the shadows. I'm just stopping at the shadows, and also there is, like, a lot of variation, you know, in the in the actual photo, the source photo, um, of different tones, different values, all different forms and everything like that. But we're not going for that yet. We're really just going for the color land, which is a flat color lian that just, um, basically only captures the sense of what's called fall off, which is the overall sense of the light source being later and brighter up here in a little bit darker and de saturated as we move down away from the light so you can see as they get into the chin. I've added a little bit of gray in, so it's just ever so slightly darker and ever so slightly less saturated. You could add the bluish, the, um, blue mixture, or you could add gray. Or you could add both those air gonna be your main colors for de saturating, going to go into this note in the shin. It's like on the neck, like underneath the chin and sticking with just the light side, though, so I'm not going for the shadow side, which rules over here and into the chest. I actually see a little bit of a cool blueish note in here, and then from there it expands out to something a little bit more fleshy. So I've just added a little bit more based flesh color and in terms of the brushwork. I'm basically putting it down, initially running along with what we called painting with the form. So it's like the brushstroke initially is sort of mirroring the shape of the edge. But then I want to kind of scuff that up and make sure that the way that ends is a sense of the brushwork painted across the form. So I'll show you that in a second of mixed a bit more based flesh color in. To get a little bit more of the fleshy notes on DSO, you'll notice how at the end, see, I just wiggle my brush across the form so that it's if this is the shape of the form, like the shape of the edge. The brushwork goes across the form perpendicular to the shape of the edge, and that's going to really help give your painting a lot more sense of form. And, ah, it'll just look a lot stronger. So really, get in the habit of internalizing that notion and applying it as you go and then yell Move into the shoulder. Up here, there's a little bit more of a sense of fleshy PG de saturated orange, fleshy note up here and there is in the reference photo, like a really sense of a lightness to this area, like some areas that in the final rendering will get very close to being white. But really, hold yourself back from that note at this stage, what we want to do is set up a slightly darker, slightly flesh here looking color, um, so that it basically has room to lighten within it. So I'll end up in the big for modeling stage lightning in the center of this form, and you'll see how that when we get to that stage really gives it a lot of sense of form. So it's kind of like knowing where we're going, you know, we knowing what the next step is, we're sort of setting it up for that next step and being sure to make this ever so slightly darker. Then what we wanted, you know, then what we know it's gonna end up to be so really this flesh color this base flash color is your friend. You're going to be using a lot of that in this color Lee and phase. So we've got the light side of the hand again. Even with hand, I'm gonna leave the shadow side for now, we're going to get into that shadow side. Ah, in the next stage. So we're sticking with the lights. First, we're just gonna do a complete light side color block in color Lee. And it's good to really, like complete each step to your maximum capability before moving on to the next. So what really creates a huge sense of depth in this painting? Is that this arms really late? And it's kind forward tourist towards us, and then this arm really is quite dark and it sets, it really sets back. There's a good sense of space and depth, So getting into this arm, I'm using the base flash color. But again, I've added a lot of the de saturating notes like the blue mixture and a bit of the gray, and you can see how I really wiggling across the form so that the actual shape of the brush stroke is perpendicular to the edge. Also, as I'm working this like light side lay in, I'm not using too much oil like almost none may be. In very rare instances, I'm using just a little bit of oil. But mostly I want the pain to have a certain amount of body at this stage. In other words, like kind of thick, not not super thick. You don't want it to be so thick that it gets in the way in subsequent layers. But, um, you do want to actually have, like, a little bit of body, a little bit of thickness, and that's gonna help the lights really come towards us and jump out in space and the the shadows. When we get to them, we're gonna do them, Ah, little bit more transparently. So they'll, like, really set back into the distance. And so that, too, is gonna really create a sense of form. As I get into this hand, I'm just gonna make it a little bit pinky er than the rest. So I've added Cem, um, cadmium red light to the mixture, fingertips and ears and noses and toes and things that stick out have more blood flow. So they have a little bit more pinky readiness to them. And actually, while I'm at it, I may as well go into these pink little toes, the toes, or even pickier. So weaken really get some nice, a nice little pop of color in that area, and then as we move into that leg, it's more de saturated. It's a little bit or kind of grayish, with still a hint of the fleshy kind of note glowing through. I'm taking the time to make sure that the brush stroke is wiggled in so that the stroke is across the form and I'm like, lightly brushing. I want to actually lightly brush beyond the edges. Oh, I missed the here. Let's get that year in. You'll notice that I'm only doing the right hand ear because it's in the light side. But the left hand here is in the shadow. So well, leave that for now, this leg here I see through the shin a certain kind of bluish note. And then as we get into the upper leg, it's a lot more rich and fleshy and color pp orangey and into the toes again. We'll go for a red, a little hint of red added to the mixture, so the cadre had mixed in, and the top of the flow is a foot is just a little bit more normal, fleshy, and then we've got her clothing to. There's a little bit of a light patterning. Not all of the clothing is in the light side, but we do have a bit of that. Roughly caller, Um, that looks to me to be, like kind of white, kind of gray, maybe even slightly pinky. So it's kind of a complex color. Some areas end up just like a little bit darker. That's not like, um, a full on shadow. It's just a little bit of a deeper color. So I'm using a good thickness to the paint, and I'm not being like super precise and kind of just looking to fill it in, You know, get a complete color Lee and completed, and that's going to give me something to work into so that I can refine it in the next, you know, in the coming phases. But getting like an indication of the colors that sit there and how they react to the light and in the shadow is what we're aiming for next. Yeah, and squint a lot as you go. I wouldn't say that, actually, the rest of the body here is actually part of the shadow side, so I'll just leave it for now. Um, we do still have the hair to get into for that. I've got a Graner brush. It's got this is actually in pretty bad condition, but it's got some longhairs and shoot some short hairs, and I'm gonna use that. Gonna makes a little bit more oil in. And so I've got some yellow jokers and transparent red oxide. Little black, a little gray. I actually probably could have mixed more black into my gray mixture. I think I'll do that in the next mixing of it. I like the gray mixture to be, um, just, like, really half tone. Just title eight. The color of this palette. I'm also I just picked up a little bit of the flesh color again, and I'm just lightly brushing a bit of that through so that the hair kind of is really thin and mixes in with the, um, the flesh tone in the lights. And I think that's really all there is for the flesh in the for the hair and the light side . The rest is gonna be in shadow and you'll notice that I've left. It's super soft, so it's really hair like now for the mouth will mix a little bit of cad red into, um, I have mixed into what I was using for the hair, but basically de saturated a little bit with something brownish and lightning a little bit with some, like based flesh color or some white. And let's just see, it's kind of brush something through here, open modes air, actually, kind of tricky. I'm just gonna lightly I'm sort of gonna wash it with my fingers so that they soften it. We want to keep everything really soft in this stage and actually think that's fine for the light side. We're going to go into it more around the corners and the edges in the shadow Liam. And so to finish this color lay in I'm gonna do the background will speed up the video a bit for you guys so that you don't have to waste your life away watching we paint this background in and then I'll slow it back down so that you can see how I'm gonna soften the edges afterwards. So I'm using the surreal Ian or Cobalt blue. Whatever you've got on your palate, it's the more turquoise sea blue color with some grey and some white to get this bluish color and some areas air a little lighter, even a bit more turquoise sea. And as I put in the strokes, I'm just like changing up the direction so that some strokes are vertical, summer horizontal and using a good body of pain. So the paints like somewhat thick, and I do have another photo here that is basically the background before it got blurry. So I'm actually looking at that a bit and putting it in first as the indication of the It's actually a mushroom ah blanket that's covered in these mush neat mushroom patterns. So I'm going to do it a little bit more sharp edged first, and then I'm gonna show you how to achieve that blurry quality afterwards. And being able to achieve a blurry quality is really nice for anything like motion. That's part of what I was drawn to. This particular photo is, you know, it really captures the sense of movement and motion and kind of a fun sense of play of childhood. So with blurry edges again, like the way that it's blurry, Um, it's helpful to paint it in at the same the same type of way that we do the rest so that your painting across the form and that's going to really enhance the sense of blurriness and also the appeal to live the stroke that's going to be achieved. There's a little bit of variety in the type of blue in different areas, like it's a bit darker over here, and it gets a bit later towards the bottom. And there is even a little bit of a sense of some of the wrinkles in the fabric in some areas. So I'm painting leg right up to the edges so it hits the edge in a wet on wet fashion. Um, and that's gonna help us when we get to the phase where will be actually creating more of a blurry effect because we're going to take a big brush and sweep across it and one thing emerge into the next, and I'm gonna have to be careful with the yellow. Any time it touches the blue, it's gonna pick up blue, so I need to kind of wipe it off before reloading so that we don't get blue mixed in through all of our yellow as it moves towards the leg, it gets a little darker, a little orange ear. And for some of these more basically shadowy parts of the yellow, I'm going to use some orange and a bit of this blue mixture to create a shadow version for the yellow, maybe even a little bit of burnt sienna. So I put down a blob than judge it based on hue, value and saturation. And I think it could be a little bit more of a ready orange, especially to the bottom. It gets to be kind of reddish, and then as it moves up, it gets into a bit more of this yellowy orange. I'm still using the Graner. I'm wiggling across the form, and it's creating a good sense of the softness. And and I'm not being really particular about the edges. I'm letting things bleed into each other at the edges. We still don't know exactly. I'm going to dip into the lizard permanent of it here. We don't know exactly where the edge of things we're gonna be yet. So for now, it's actually helpful to just have a soft sort of edge, Um, with the direction of the brushstrokes going across the form. Okay, so I've got a flat color land for all the lights and everything in the background. And basically, now I'm gonna take this soft brush. It's a synthetic brush. It was once one of those white bristle brushes, and now it's been stained red. But it's soft and it's synthetic, and I'm going to just do this like light wiggle stroke along smaller edges. So I'm doing It's basically a little bit more precise along a little wiggle. Yeah, along the along, the more precise edges. And then I'm going to do a bigger swoosh on sort of broader, blurry notes. So I'm going to go through and do that t side to side, just like actually, we could even do it just in a big way for most of it. At this stage later, we'll go in and tweak it a little bit so that it's, you know, got some precision as well as blurriness. But this is our color lay in phase, so we basically want to just have the colors there, which we do, and now set it all back. Just a touch by doing this T side to side blurry kind of stroke. I'm wiping it off off scream every time I take it off of the the painting to take the excess paint off and then go back in, take the excess paint off cause it's gonna pick up the color. And so you don't want to introduce that color, you know, as you go back in. So you need to just wipe it off every time you, especially with these black parts. Maybe the black parts are going to be a good place for just a little wiggle stroke, because they the black so sort of such a powerful color that it could, um, tint to the colors around it really easily. So we need to just kind of carefully go in and give it a softer edge with a bit more control. So for the wiggle stroke, I just do a little side to side. We go. In some places, you can do a little airplane stroke where you start with the brush on the canvas and lift and pull as you go. You could also take your finger and just smoosh it a little bit. So basically like whatever it takes, experiment with different techniques to see how to get it to do what you want. Oh, there is a little area of, ah, dark, dark red patch coming in over here. Gonna wipe the excess off again. This is just a cotton rag. And I am being careful. I did go a little bit onto the figure, but I'm sort of intending not to go too much onto the figure. They're so that's a good color. Lay in for the light side and I've got a nice I'm happy with the softness that set up the beginning of the sense of the blurriness to the background. And so bring your painting up to that stage and will go into the shadows on the figure next to complete our color lay in. The next thing we need to do is just complete the lay in for the shadow side. So to do that, I'm gonna start in the face right now. This shadow color, which is basically the burnt umber and the, um, uh, ground sort of showing through actually looks pretty good. Um, and I find that often is the case, so I'm gonna mix up something sort of similar. This is the base shadow color made with the ultra marine blue and the cadmium orange, which tends to have a slightly more green issue. And I'm just gonna lighten it up with a little bit of base flesh color. And maybe I'll give it a little bit more richness that the little yellow car, which will actually enhance the slightly greenish quality to that note. And I'm gonna add a little bit more oil for the shadow Liam. Like I said before, it's nice if the shadows air just like slightly more transparent, then the lights and I've added a little altering blew into there, too. So you can see it's a pretty kind of complex, neutral, slightly greenish color. And as always, I start by just putting Ah, blob of that onto the canvas and then judging it based on hue value in saturation. So as I look at my source photo and I look at my painting, I feel like the tone, so the lightness and darkness is pretty good. I think that the hue so the actual color of the color, it might be looking a little bit too green. Maybe I'll actually just cut that green with a little bit of the opposite of green. So on a color wheel like the opposite of green is red, and I'll just mix a little bit of that in there to make it even just a bit more neutral. And I think that's pretty nice. And then as they get into the ear, I'm mixing a bit more, read into it like I said before fingertips and noses and years Tim, to have a little bit more readiness to them. And as I get into the cheek, I think I can also add a little bit more. You know, I think a ready, orangey sort of color the hair to is a bit more. I'm gonna add a little burnt sienna, actually. So basically I'm using this base sort of mixture that I started with and just adding slight little adjustments. So there's little, um, different hues, little variations in the in the color, But it's all kind of mixed into that base notes, so that overall there's like a certain unity. If you squint, all of these shadows blend together, and that's how it should be. All the shadows should merge together visually at first glance and then as you look deeper you can see more of the variation, and there's only just a sliver of shadow running through the side of this arm. Maybe I'll use a little bit of this greenish note to just do a light indication of some of these separations in the different forms of the arm, the elbow and the little rolls. I'm using an airplane stroke as I do that. So with an airplane stroke, it's like you start with your brush firmly on the canvas, where the color is fully there. And then as you run along, you lift and pull. I'll do it somewhere else. Let's do it somewhere. That's really obvious. I'll do it on her chest and then wipe it out. So you lift and pull like an airplane taking off, and you can see how it creates this blended edge. And so it's kind of like it just blends as you go. So that's an airplane stroke, and that's going to be a nice one to use at certain points. The shadow side of her fingers are also quite warm. I've added even a little bit of cad red light into that, and as I get into the side plan of her leg. Um, the shadows reflect their environment. So I was always taught shadows or mirrors. So basically, this side plane of her leg is actually reflecting the blue of the cloth. So we're getting, like, kind of a cool. It's not as saturated is the blue of the cloth. The shadows never are, but they will have some of that note. So it's a little bit cooler in there, and we see the same sort of thing here, although we also see maybe a bit of warms in some of the areas, probably reflecting some of this yellow that it starts to move into. We could even do a couple the knees air also often like red. So we'll do a couple little airplane strokes that just suggest very just a start into the suggestion of some of the structure of the knee with some radish notes. And it looks like as we get into the side plane of the foot again, we're getting into some cool notes. So at this stage this flat, this color lay in stage we're looking to get. We've established a flat light side color. We're looking to finish off with our shadow side color, and we're not adding a lot of form. In other words, we're not Lake rendering the big for modeling on the turning of the forms At this stage, that's going to actually be the next thing that we're gonna do. But what we are doing is we're shifting. You know, we're getting the flat color with certain hue shifts as as we go. So again, Hugh means the color of the color. And so that's like basically affected by the, um, what the plane is is facing color wise, Um, so we'll get areas that are red or like this Hell over here, it's really warm. It's It's probably picking a lot of the glow of the There's actually a little bit more. I could introduce this in a little bit more of an orange note in here, and I think that's really affecting the color of that. He'll yeah, you can really see it. And then as it shifts into the ball of the foot, it gets to be, ah, lot more bluish. I mean kind of purple E ish, actually, but it's definitely influenced by the blue around it. I could actually give a little bit more of a pinky undertone to some of these toes and the calf. Let's see, Looks like we've got some bluish notes at the top, and when I say bluish, it's like, totally de saturated. It's sort of like mixed into the base shadow color, so it's just a subtle adjustment of that. So everything will have some of that base shadow color as well, like mixed into it. But, um, tinted with variations of certain colors for certain areas. And that way you're gonna have that unity, you know, first and foremost to the shadows as well as the subtle variations that are occurring. And now that I'm getting into the shadows, there is a darker, deeper, um, quite deep shadow on the cloth, actually lay great behind the leg that's helping give a little definition to the leg, and I'm gonna wipe my brush off with my rag. Just take the excess off, and I'm just gonna do a little wiggle stroke side to side to just soften that edge a little bit. Notice that I'm just doing it like sort of a little wiggle stroke like it's not too much. So I'm not losing the definite nous of the sense of light side shadow side. But it does just soften the edge a little bit, which is going to be useful as we move to the next stage, because ideally, in the next stage will have, like a definite, really clear sense of the light side in the shadow side. But we won't have any edges that air problematic to contend with. So that's kind of what we're aiding for here. This little smiled fiqh thing. It's kind of like a purplish color again. I'll just sort of whom still use my finger to just soften that a little bit. Um, what else? The body, the claw, the clothing. Well, the clothing is actually sort of a complex color. It's like a little bit pink. It's like a little bit blue. So I guess it's a little bit purple and in some areas are maybe more blue. Or, you know there's variations. I'm gonna dip into a little bit more oil. See, that's making a dry brush e edge there. Whenever it does that, I tend to like to use just like a little bit more oil so that it flows a bit more fluidly, and I'm mixing a bit more of the turquoise sea blue. You may have civilian or you may have cobalt. Um, in this case, I'm using a surreal Ian. And then there's these areas where it's a little bit of a deeper, darker purple color that's describing some of the folds in the fabric, and then we've got quite a deep crease. Um, that's giving a little definition to the leg here and the, um, little armpit shadow. It's cool, but it's also got a little bit of lake, um, richness to it. So it's not. It might look chalky if I do it to blue, so I mixed a little burnt Sienna into it to just, um, give it a bit more richness and then the back area. I do sense like a certain pinky pinky purple e color back there. Um 01 other thing. There's there's just a little shadow pattern, little side plane to this arm over here, and it's a warm shadow because it's reflecting the warmth of this orange red area on the blind kit. So that completes our color lay in. So at this stage, you should have a flat, light side and a flat shadow side. For every element in your painting, you should make sure that you've got nice wet into wet edges so that there's no little bits of under pain and glowing through at the edges. And basically, now you can either let this dry or you could actually just move forward, even when it's still a little bit wet and will be moving too big for modeling next. 5. Big Form Modeling: we're moving too big for modelling, which is basically reestablished the large forms of the figure. So we're gonna establish the egg shape of the head and the cylindrical nature of the legs and arm and even the flattened cylinder of the body. So basically, we're gonna be darkening towards the edges of all of the forms and lightning in the center . So let's start with the head and looking at the right hand edge of the face. It looks like a darkens in a cool sort of way. So I'm using the base flesh color mixed with a bit of blue and even a little bit of gray. And I'll just use that little wiggle stroke to just wiggle a little bit in right alongside the edge. And then I'll wait my brush off to get the excess paint off and just wiggle it one more time at that edge so that it blends continuously all the way to the edge. Maybe we'll introduce a little bit of red into the rounding of the form of the cheek, again, just wiggling in the note and then creating a greedy, gradual rendering into that. There's a little bit of a top plane to the cheek that rounds in a radish way and also the cheek, actually, that everything's going to be darkening towards the shadow side and then darkening at the edges of both of the shape. So I'll also bring in a little bit of that rounding of the form towards the shadow and on the chin area. It just rounds and a bit more of a Kulish note. I'm introducing some blue, so you'll kind of take some time to, like Look at the way that the edges rounding wake. Is it warm? Is it cool? Just the type of temperature and but mostly just making sure that there's a darker tone occurring at the edge of the form. And as this cheek rounds towards the shadow, there is a passage of darker warmer. So I've added a little bit of cadmium red. Same thing for the nose as it turns towards the shadow. There's a little bit of a red or note along there, and as it turns toward the shadow on the bottom plane of the nose and in the forehead, it turns towards the shadow with a little bit more of a Orrin G. Maybe orange ear than red, like not quite as red. I have a note, So I introduced that in. Then I take the excess off my brush and then maybe introduce a little bit more flesh tone to just give it something to mix in and then wipe the excess off again and then softened the edge on the other side and maybe introduce just a little bit of ah mixture. That's reminiscent of what I've got in the shadow side to help create a wet into wet. And so this transition, Um, this intermediary note is creating a softer transition at that, turning from the light side into the shadow, and it's also enhancing the sense of form. So, yeah, again, this stage is really all about the big form, because work. That's why it's called big for modeling, and we're like darkening at the edges of all of the big forms. So then, as we get into the shadows, I'm using some burnt sienna, a little bit of the shadow mixture that's got the ultra marine blue and cadmium orange, maybe a little oil for the hair. I'm doing little airplane strokes that creates like a hair like texture so just working through the whole form, just darkening right at the edge, make sure that there is not like a little sliver of light right along the edge. Sometimes we'll kind of darken up to the edge but missed the very edge. So if you have to even make sure that it, you know, if it has to, even it could cross over slightly into the background. That's better than having it like Derek and Darken, and then have a millimeter of the old color right at the edge, so that will stop the turning completely. So just really making sure that the darkening goes all the way right up to the very edge and and the side of the and the side of the baby's arm on the right hand side darkens in a slightly cool way similar to the right hand side of the face. So see how, right now it looks like it goes light than dark than a little bit light, like it's actually tricky to get it to just progressively darken all the way up to the edge . Sometimes you'll have to kind of dab it like right on the edge. Um, so do whatever it takes. It might take a little bit of fiddling around, but make sure that you're getting, like, a complete turning all the way up to the edge and actually as they look now, um, I'm gonna actually lately whiten this latent this this could actually round it a little bit of a warmer way where the top rounds in a little bit of a blue away. Here we go. And then I'll just get a bit of my base flesh color on my brush, and I'll just kind of lightly wiggle it on the left hand side of that note so that it just blends in to what I've put down, creating a seamless transition and then working on to the other side that darkens in a warmer way, kind of reddish kind of purplish in some areas and a little bit more orangish towards the bottom. So sometimes it works to do little strokes like this, which are like airplane strokes, like I'm lifting and pulling, lifting it off the canvas. Sometimes it also just works to kind of rub it a little with your finger afterwards, and sometimes it works best to do like a little wiggle all the way down, so play around with the different approaches and basically just do whatever whatever works best for each area, this darkens in a little bit of a warm way. But knee here darkens and a warm, slightly pinkish way get sort of in the habit of differentiating like the type of warm lake like If it's a pinky type of warm, you might use the Eliza and permanent. And if it's like more of an orangey red type of warm, you might use more of the cadmium red. This also has a little bit of a pinkish, reddish, purplish kind of note. So I'm using some a lizard, and there's a little bit of a grey, which is acting like a blue mixed in as well. And you can see how it's really starting to establish the cylindrical nature of that form. And on the edge of the bottom of the calf, great. Here it cools up to that edge. So I've just introduced a little bit of a blue some of the cerulean blue, and again I'll just pick up a bit of base flesh color and just lightly brush that into the top edge of what I just put down so that it creates the gradation. Yeah, and even the toes. I'm going to switch to a slightly smaller brush. The toes definitely have, like, a cadmium rid sort of a warm note. And so the toe darkens down into this darker raider note. And so I'm working mawr on establishing the big forms than really establishing the, um you know, the linear like the exact and shape or anything. Yet right now, I'm introducing a bit more of the lighter note at the top of that toe so that it has that above the slightly darker, rather note. And below that, we see a little bit of a another toe poking underneath and that toe rounds and a teeny, tiny way into a darker, warmer note. So basically, I'm just going in and giving the darker, warmer notes darkening towards the edge of the bottom of the toes and then as the foot, because again, we also want to create the rounding in the lights that occurs just before the lights at the shadow. So I think as I look at this foot, I need to do a little bit right in this area. It rounds in a slightly orangish. It's kind of a complex like oranges greenish. I'm using some orange and a little bit of the cerulean blue. And just introducing that extra tone medium tone in between our darkest and lightest tones and moving into the other leg. Yeah, there's like a little passage of kind of a purple e darker note along the edge of the leg over here and then the top of the leg. Um, it actually looks like I already sort of have this part darkening just by the way that I painted it in, Um, I could bring a little bit of a darkening into the shadow side edge of the leg. There's actually a bit of reflected light that will go in later, but for now, I'll just establish that millimeter off it, darkening up to the edge. And I'll do the same with the toes, introducing the darker, redder bottom plane of the toes. So they're rounding downwards, and the leg up here also actually rounds back. So I'm gonna introduce oops, that's a bit too strong. Howell mix a bit of base flesh, color and gray into that, and on the top plane of the foot introduced that secondary cooler note. All right, And then we've just got this arm left this arm. It's subtle, but it does even when you don't, like, see super clearly a turning of the form like a big for modeling in your photo reference. Or if you're painting from life, Um, it's still good to just put it in, like so and also to If you really look for it, you will find it. So there is actually a subtle sense of a darkening and cooling towards this lower edge and towards the top of the arm, it maybe has a slightly warmer rounding of the form I'm gonna actually dark in this. Make it a little bit darker. So sometimes it's nice to actually push the sense of form for modeling just a little bit, and we don't see a ton of for modeling in the photo reference on this upper end. But I'm just gonna put it in any ways again. It does. It enhances a sense of form, and it ends up making it look even better. And the hand has a reddish darkening towards the edges. So that's the darkening towards the edges. Maybe just a little bit more on this leg, actually, Yeah, just a bit down there. There we go. OK. And so the next thing that will do for the Big Four modeling is we'll lighten in the center of the forms. So uhm, I'm going to use some titanium white initially in some base flesh color. So we're not going for the lightest note in, um, they might see in your photo reference, but we are just We're kind of going for just a tone darker. Then maybe the lightest note Lacey. So you're leaving room to still have something to lighten into when you hit the highlights . But as faras, the Big Four model ings concerned, we do want to get a lighter tone in the center of the form. And so this is establishing the cylindrical nature of the leg before we even get to, you know, refining the different planes and really constructing the features. So it's just setting up like the bigger the bigger shapes First, which is gonna give it a really nice sense of form. Maybe there's even like a slightly stronger light through the shin there. So again, this is just like based flesh tone with a little bit of white. You want your lightest lights to be a little bit cool, so this is setting up for the latest lights. Like I say, we'll put the highlights on top of this. But this is some of our lighter light, so titanium white has a cooling effect when it's mixed with other colors. So just by adding titanium white, you will have a cooler note than what we put down initially for the flesh color. So basically, it's setting up a good structure to the light logic, the temperature variation within the light and shadow pattern, and this to you can use like your finger or wipe the brush off and kind of wiggle it to create or scratch. Even sometimes with the back of your brush tryto have it so that the, um, you'll put the note down, and then you'll kind of soften the edges so that it blends kind of seamlessly. And that's gonna help the Big Four modeling as well. I'm even gonna lighten in the center of the thumb. That's a little too light. Yes, some cell of your later lights will be darker than others because it kind of depends on the area that you're painting into. We've got like a lot of tonal variation set up, so there's some big leaps already, which is nice. That's going to give it a lot of depth. And so, like, observe the shape of the latest lights, like in this chest area, just knowing, like the muscles we've kind of got a certain shape that goes like this, you know, it's kind of rounding where it meets the neck form and the chin, you know, kind of comes out and then we've got so really nice little lighter lights in the center of the cheeks. I wiped my brush off so I get the extra paint off and then I'll just, like, wiggle around the edges so that I basically softened that tone in. There's just a little bit more so we're basically just first going to start by going through and darkening towards all of the edges. And then we'll go through and Leighton in the center of the forms and having done that will really have established a strong sense of the big forms so that as we move forward and next will start to construct the planes of the features and, like the planes of the different smaller forms that sit on top of these larger forms just a little bit in the center of this leg. So with this latest note, it's important that you keep it sort of within the center of the form and don't extend it all the way out. Or you'll ruin your big for modeling like we've carefully dark and up to the edges. And now just make sure, as we put in this lighter note that it stays localized in the center. They're so that's the Big Four modeling now, and so you can see that we've got the egg shape of the head. The cylindrical nature of the legs and arms and basically of darken towards the edges lightened in the center of the forms, and it set up really well now to start to construct the smaller forms that sit on these bigger forms. I'm going to restate the features before I move into describing the planes in different tones and different temperatures of paint. So if you haven't already watched the video on how to construct the features more at the drawing level, watch that video. And so, as I'm restating the features, I'm just gonna use a bit of this transparent red oxide paint, which is also called Burnt Sienna in some brands. And you can kind of already see, like, the under glow of where the features were. And I'm just going to kind of punch them up a little bit, really looking at the angles that make up the curve. I'm using this bright brush. It's a number six and in some places all shifts to a smaller round. And so I'm not doing it in full color yet. I'm actually just kind of restating the lines and the construction off the features. I might dip like a little bit of black into my burnt Sienna just so that it's a little bit darker. And, yeah, basically just restating the lines as I really like state the features. I'm paying attention to the different angles that make up that that curve of the I, which I really talk about in the video that goes over the handouts about how to construct the features and for babies. Their features are really rounded, so after really paying attention to the different angles that are constructing the eyes. For example, I'm gonna round out those angles so that there is the roundness that exists in a baby's futurists, and I'm using a little bit of walnut Ellicott medium. You could also use linseed oil, the line of the crease of the upper eyelid, the line of the lashes, which makes up the upper edge of the I. Her eyes angle slightly inwards, like cat eyes anchoring in just a little triangle at the tear duct. The upper eyelid extends beyond the lower islands. You can see that the lower eyelid ends about here. Then you've got the curving eyelashes, and the upper eyelid extends just out from that. Let's do a little suggestion of the cast shadow to connect the pupil to the upper island. In the case of this photo reference, we don't see a strong cath shadow, but it is going to help the face look more relaxed. And then, with the nose, I basically just state the line of the back of the wing of the nose. A little suggestion of the nostril holes, and then we don't see a strong indication of it. But I'll just get the landmark placement of the other wing back wing of the nostril with the mouth. Let's anchor in the triangles at the corners of the mouth, little triangle shadows and then the nice, curving line of the upper lip, the upper edge story of the upper edge of the lower lip and looking at the curve, there's more of a straightness through the upper lip. We've got her little baby two front teeth, and then I'll just do a little line to indicate where the lower lip ends. And I'll also just indicate some of the lines of the year, actually looking more closely at the most, there's a little hint of her lower teeth coming into Seoul. Just given indication of that, they're so that's gonna help me next. We're going to move to describing the plains of thes features. So first start by restating the linear aspect of your features and will construct them in tonal full color Next 6. Describing the Planes: we're moving to describing the planes of the features, so basically, we're going to start to construct the smaller forms that fit on the larger forms that we established in the last lesson. So we're looking to describe three tones. Three different planes for each form. So there's a side playing a front plane, another side plane, and they'll be like a darker side, a lighter side in a medium tone side as we move into constructing the different forms. So I'm gonna start with the top plane of the forehead, and basically it looks like we've got the top plane as being more saturated and more oranges. And so, basically, we're gonna be using three words to describe color. There's Hugh, which is like the color of the color, their saturation, which is like the intensity of the color, like the vibrancy. So orange is really saturated. Brown is like less saturated, less intense. And then there's also value or tone, which means the same thing, and it's like the lightness and darkness of a color. So we're gonna be looking to have three tones. Three values. One you know, for each planes who have got the darkest plane on the side. We've got the lightest plane on the front plane of the face, and we've got a middle tone plane as the top plane to the forehead. So, um, yeah, the top layer of the forehead has a little bit more of an orangey, a little bit more saturation. There's like a bend in the forehead that occurs basically right here in around and sort of way. And then we've got the front plane of the forehead being later, a little bit cooler. So when you mix titanium white in with a color, it naturally have a cooling effect, and I'm gonna mix a little bit more blue. Or you could also use gray just a touch to cool it just a little bit further. So that looks good to me. And then there's also actually sort of the other side plane heading over to the right hand side, which is just a shade darker than the front plane, and it's a little bit cooler than the top plane, so perhaps it's not quite dark enough, so the top plane is kind of saturated and orangey, and the side plane is kind of de saturated and more Bluey Grey. Yes. And then it kind of fades lips into the into the hair, so keep the carriages really soft. We've also got the cheek again, the cheek as lake, a top plane, a front plane and a side plane. It looks like the top plane of the cheek is a little bit Pinky. I'm gonna use a little Eliza Aaron and actually little cad red. That's probably too much. I'll make some white in as a well, and it could be a little darker. Actually, I'm going to switch to a smaller brush. So there's some days flesh color, some of lizard in a little bit of blue, the blue mixture here to de Saptari and there that's looking good. And then as we head towards thesis, I'd plan of the cheek that looks just a little bit less factory. So I'm adding a bit more blue, so it's got a little bit less red in it, and it also just looks ever so slightly later tonally than the top plane that's looking good. And then we've got our front plane of the cheek and that the front plane is lighter, just like the forehead structure. And actually, I've sort of got, Ah, lower plane. And that rounds down towards the bottom of that rounded form of the cheek and that looks a little less read a little bit more orangey. Um, it could be a little darker than that. You can just wipe it off if it doesn't come out the way one so that it doesn't mix into what you're doing. I'm going to use a little burnt sienna mixed in just to help darken it a little bit more there. And then where the different planes meat, I'm gonna take the excess off my brush, just wiping it with a rag. And I'll just do a little wiggle stroke right along that transition. So it's just like a little side to side wiggle with a light touch, and that just softens the transition. And I'm not hitting the very lightest light yet. There will be a lightest note in the center of that later, but I'm going to save that for when I get into, um, the speculation of the very highlights at the end. So as we move into the nose once again, we've got our lightest note in the center front facing plane of the nose knows is there are often a little bit reddish lake, noses and ears and fingertips. They have a lot of blood flow, so they get a little pinky er. So I used the base flesh, color and a little bit of cadmium red light. And then we've got the side plane to the right, which is a bit cooler. Oh, mix a little bit of blue blue mixture, the ultra marine blue and white mixed into what I was using before. Let's see how that looks. So basically, you just put a blob on and then judge it based on the three parameters, the hue, the value in the saturation. So as I put that on, I actually think it looks ever so slightly too dark in terms of the tone value. So I'm going to use a little bit, and it also looks a little bit too cool. So I'm going to use a bit of based flesh color, and I'm just gonna lightly brush on top of that. And that looks better. So there's just a subtle transition between the front plane being lighter and pinky er and the side playing being a little bit darker and a little bit cooler. And the revolts have got the very important bottom plane of the nose. So there is a plane change that occurs right here, where it turns from the top plane of the nose to the bottom undercut plane of the nose, and you want to make sure that you get that a little bit darker. In this case, it looks a little darker, maybe even a little cooler. And even that I don't think is enough is dark enough. Go a little further. This plane change is really important, and a lot of the time it's hard to perceive that plane change on your you know, if you're working from model or on your photographic reference because the plane change occurs, the nose is really rounded, so it occurs in a really soft way. The transition is so gradual that it's hard to perceive it, so I'm wiggling along that transition afterwards to create a soft transition. But knowing that I definitely have that dark enough and then moving to the other side played on the left, it is a little bit readier. It's darker Ridder. Let's use some burnt sienna and a bit of both of the Reds And let's just try it will put a blob on there and see that looks pretty good. Yeah, I use a little bit more cad red as we get into the ball of the nose and then I'm taking the excess off with my rag and just wiggling along that transition. It was how, right on the nostril here, we've got a little passage where it's part of that darker side plane that I've just put in and you've got a little passage at the bottom. That's part of the lower plane of the nose, and I'm just gonna punch up with moral. Is Aerin permanent the line that's describing the back wing of that nostril? Given a little soft edge, and I'm gonna just punch up with some burnt sienna and some permanent a lizard permanent. The little hole soups, the little nostril holes, too, And, yeah, with painting, you can always use your rag to just wipe off anything. Three mistakes. It's not set in stone. It's a really organic process. So there's a lot of push and pull. Oh, like what's happening right now? All right. And then yeah, even moving into the eyes themselves. Um, we don't see a lot of the I lived like the upper eyelid, but we see a little bit of it, and we're gonna want to suggest just a hint of the fact that there's different planes in different tones on that, too. So it looks like it gets a little cooler and a little darker. Has it rules towards the side? I'm mixing a bit of gray in with my base flesh color, so it just cools its very small, very small area. But it just cools a little bit as it rolls to the right and it actually cools and darkens a bit as it rules to the left. And it's a little bit later, great in the center and same thing on the other. I this side on the left roles, even a little bit darker gray er towards the left. And then we've got a little bit of a small little flesh, your area showing in the center and a little darker, maybe a bit warm rolling to you, right? So three planes, three different tones, even three different temperatures for each plane and let's let's finish with the cheeks will move into this cheek and again, just like going really thoroughly through. We've got a top plane that's a little pinky er and then you've got a middle plane that's a little lighter and just a little bit cooler rolls down to a slightly darker, slightly fleshy here, orange ear tone the bottom. And it's also rolling towards the shadow side in a rich color that's fairly saturated. That kind of shows the peaky color, um, a little bit orangey little bit red. And I'll just work the transition, softening that transition a little bit, just sort of taking a moment to picture at all. Great Eights gradually, and I can also just restate that shadow side. I'm going to use the mixture that's the ultra marine blue and the cadmium orange, and I'm gonna make a little orange into it, just a little bit more orange and maybe just a touch of green. Different brands you'll find will make this color sort of different looking. So you might find that you're is already has, like a little bit of a feel of green to it, depending on the brands of paint that he used. But mine doesn't really have that, so I just wanted Teoh. Add a little bit more of a slight greenish hint, so I'm just restating that shadow side this time a little greener than it was when I first put it down. And that a lot. So give me some wet into wet paint to work with. Add Alloudi yellow to this mixture. I just wanted to be slightly more orangey, slightly less pinky. That feels better. Maybe I'll ship back to my larger brush to. It's good to use the biggest brush that you can for the job. I think I'm gonna go back and forth between my smaller brushing my bigger brush. So that's just a boat. Um, completed the different planes for the forehead and for the cheeks again, just looking for three, at least three different planes. You might have 1/4 if you see, like the under plain say of the nose, looking for a different tone for each plane, and each different plane will also have a different valley temperature. So, you know, judging whether it's warmer or cooler, just sort of judging the nature of the color. And let's get a little blocking for her eyes so the eyes have a little bit of a bluish color. They're kind of bluish, greenish, greyish, I would say more bluish, um, thin greenish. But there's a kind of turquoise sea feel, and I'll just lightly lake. Start with a note, see how it looks. It looks a little light, sort of just dark and it a little bit. And I think I'll darken it a little bit more. And for the white of the eyes, the white of the eyes will be much darker. Then one might initially think so. It's it's gonna be a gray color. Um, it should be about the same tone. Is the skin around it just more cool? So, um, basically, I'm using, like a gray gray color here, and there's gonna be different tones for different planes of the white of the eyes to so the white, the eyeballs around it. And so the white of the eyes roll towards the left hand side in a darker and cooling sort of manner. The I will definitely go through weird looking phase. Um, it's gonna look better once I get the darker parts in like the pupil. So next I'm just going to use black and a little bit of brown and I'll just punch up. I start with the line of the lash, the line that creates, like the upper island, and then I'll put in the pupil. Normally, the pupil would be connected in some way to that upper eyelid. In this case, it's not, Um, but I'm gonna just suggest a light, little cast shadow which will just connect it. Just give it a certain connection to that upper eyelid lash line and look at, like the size of the iris, the colored part of the eye and how much space it fills up of the of the white of the eye lake. It's normally about half, and sometimes I use the back of my brush to kind of soften. So I'm actually gonna scratch with the back of my brush along basically the edge of the iris. Here, the edge of the colored part of the eye gets a little bit darker, so I'm just putting this darker line around the outer part of the eye, but that I'm scratching along the inner edge of that so that it has a soft edge and same thing for the other eye. The other I I'm gonna make it have a slightly less black is slightly more brownish eyelash actually gonna keep thinking about this as they work on the portrait. I'm gonna want to choose, like, one of the eyes to be my center of interest. I and I'm gonna wanna have more contrast in that I as I think about it now, I might end up choosing this. I on the left is my center of interest. I leave you, I will. So I'm gonna actually dab back the contrast of the other eye, and I'm gonna go into a blacker note after all in this I So basically, whatever I you choose for the center of interest is going to be the one that you're gonna wanna have the blacker blacks in and you'll want to just suddenly have the other. I have not quite as black of blacks basically, and so that's gonna be creating higher contrast in your center of interest. I and the reason I'm choosing this I as my center of interest, is just simply because it's more in the picture. This one's actually a little bit closer to the edge, so I think just compositionally it's going to make more sense toe. Have this one be the center of interest? Well, just punch up the little line. That's the crease of the upper eyelid. Then getting into the chin again. We want three different planes. You've got her top plane. And also remember, as you getting into like the top plane of the chin. The toppling of the chin here is a little darker and a little cooler than any of the lightest lights up here. So it's subtle. But But I am making a definite, slightly darker, slightly cooler note as I mix up the colors for the chin so that that's gonna have the sense of fall off, which is the fact that the lights actually coming from appear. So as the light moves down the face, it gets progressively a little bit darker and a little bit cooler as moved down the face. And then as the chin rules to this side, it looks like it rolls in a certain yes, slightly darker, slightly cooler kind of way. Right now, I might have to darken to brown of a note down there, so I'm just adjusting that with this slightly cooler, slightly later than what I initially put down note, And then as it rolls to the other side, it rolls into a darker warmer. I'm using a little bit of the brown mixture you could use. Also, some burnt sienna, the neck to has, like a slightly darker, slightly cooler side plane. A little bit lighter, little bit flesh your center plane and then a little bit darker, a little bit warmer side playing to the left. Also, I want to go into that lower lip, especially, um, we've got. I'm going to use some like base flash color, some white and some cad red. So it's a similar tone to the skin that's too late as similar tone to the skin around it, but just a little bit pickier. Maybe I'll even cool it down just a little bit. A lizard permanent is a little bit more of a pinky purple E color. Um, maybe I'll mix a little bit of the blue into their That feels a bit better. And then I'll mix a bit of a lizard permanent as we roll to the left hand side, which starts to edge into the shadows. Also, we see a bit of her tongue there. This might be a little tricky at first, but we'll just start with something and adjust it. Not used to painting tongues, but Seimas always we've got we just analyze it. We've got, like, a later kind of pinky pinky, purple e, pretty pinky note. And then it rolls toward the darker maybe a lizard and maybe even a titch of brown just a little darker. Has it rules to the left. I'm going to go right into those deepest shadows, giving it a little bit more of an Eliza Rin and black. When I initially put them in, it was just kind of a brown note. So this is going to give a little bit more richness, and I'm also like, not sure how it's gonna work out with her teeth. I'm turtle work out eventually, but I have a feeling that might go through an awkward phase. I don't often paint like really toothy toothy mouths. Um, so it's gonna be interesting, but let's just do a start and we'll adjust it so it gives you some white and some base flesh color and some blue for gray. Um, let's see. And we'll just start with a blob and judge it based on the three parameters Hugh value and saturation, so that looks almost a little bit too light. That's going to be the trick with the teeth is we don't want it to be to light or it'll be like screaming like That's actually a pretty dark color, but it looks pretty light on the canvas. Just a couple little suggestions of teeth as the teeth roll towards the left hand side, they to get a little bit darker when I'm gonna need to just go around around the teeth a little bit. Basically, I want to cover over the under painting so that I'm setting it up to for so for the next phase. So I don't really expect to capture the teeth like perfectly at this stage. But I do want to give it a good shot and be setting it up for the next passage. And so that means I want toe really as much as I can cover over the under painting. Um, that's gonna really help it be set up will for the next stage. As I get into the corners of the mouth, it just cools a little bit a little bit more bluish, grayish, and I'm gonna use the back of my brush to just soften that scratch that a little bit. I'm also just going to use the back of my brush to this scratch along this suggestion of the upper lip and maybe a little bit of a note that suggests the, um I'm gonna scratch that subtlety settler, but that it's adjust some of them musculature under under the lip moving into the chin. The Big four model is actually working pretty well, like in terms of the different planes for this area. Maybe I could give a little bit more of that little plane shift rate in here. I think I could go into the armpit a little bit more. Give it a little bit of a darker plane underneath the armpit. I also I'm thinking that, um, I want to have the face have the most like rendering and have the body just a little bit softer. So I'm going to spend more time carving out the face, and I might leave some parts of the body a little bit more looser, a little bit more just suggestive of suggestive of the forms rather than describing at all , okay, and then I'm going to do a special focus later on the hands and the feet. So for now, this gives a good idea of how to move forward with the face blocking in the different planes, looking for three different planes at least and looking for a darker plain, ah, lighter plane at a mid tone plane and a different temperature for each plane as well. 7. Feature Handouts: I want to discuss some handouts that you can download and follow along with me. There's the eye, the nose and the mouth handouts. So download those print emote, grab a hard surface and trace along with me, and let's discuss them in more detail. Let's start with this more front facing I, where you can see the construction lines more clearly, and this center line that's coming through at an angle here represents the tilt that the I slopes either towards the nose or away from the nose. And this drawing the nose is on this side. And so it's basically the relationship between the inner tear duct on the outer corner of the eye. Obviously, it won't be in your final painting, but it's just representing the tilt. So if you you know some guys have, like more of a slope inwards like a characteristic feature, that's kind of cat eyes, some eyes characteristically slope away from the nose, and also the tilt of the head can change like the person. That perspective will change the Children they had eyes. So if the eyes, if the heads Children down the idol slope in towards the nose and if the head's tilted back . The perspective will make the eyes slope away from the nose so you can take like a horizontal plumb line. Check that relationship there and then and yet trays along. As we're going, you get a good kinetic feel for the construction of the features, so next will break the upper eyelid down and even see how are breaking this curve into two angled straight lines, with the apex favoring in towards the nose on this side. So breaking the curve into two angled straight lines, Apex waving and towards the nose, you can break the lower eyelid down into two angled straight lines with the apex favorite away from the nose on the lower edge. So you get this kind of skewed rhombus effect where the apex is, and I'm gonna be calling the turning most point on a curve, the apex where it's in, towards the nose, on the upper eyelid and away from the nose on the lower island and then breaking down the upper I'll increase. You can break that curve and two angled straight lines, three angled straight lines. And for the lower eyelid, you can break it into two angled straight lines, with the information favoring away from the nose. Look for an two angles to describe the eyebrow as well. Don't just do it as a big generic curve that looks really weak. Instead, break it down into two angled straight lines as well. And then the iris is fairly large, takes up half of the white of the eye, and it's partially covered on the top by the upper eyelid. That's really important because it gives the I more of a relaxed look. If you can see the whole top of the iris and the pupil in your painting, it gives it this like Stary by guide kind of feels. So make sure that is partially covered at the top to get that more relaxed look so moving on to the more rendered version of the eye. And again keep tracing along with me. You can see how the I curve Thea Upper Island breaks down into two angled straight lines, with the apex favoring towards the nose. The lower eyelid broken down into two angled straight lines. Apex gave away from the nose, which is on this side of this drawing as you do the final rendering you'll really curve out this lower lid and have it really wrap around the eye at the corner so you don't want like a big point on the corner, the outer corner of your eye in the final. Instead, he'll really wrap this around to show the curvature of the eyeball, then breaking the crease of the eye into three angled straight lines. They're slightly curving, angled straight lines. But really looking to nail those apex is, which is what's going to give the structure and solidity to your constructed the construction of your features and then the lower eyelid broken down. It's too angled straight lines favoring the back of the, you know, away from the nose. The iris, like I said, it's fairly large, takes up half of the white of the eye, and it's partially covered on the top by the upper island. So that's really important. Um, as you go into the pupil, those basically a cast shadow when the light source, which is this represented here, is coming down on the face. The upper eyelid has a thickness to its little cast, a shadow on to the eyeball, and you can use that cast shadow toe actually connect to the top of the pupil? A swell. So looking at this again, we're having the I the iris partly covered at the top. Then we're using a cash shadow that will come down on the I, and the pupil will kind of connect to that cow's shadow, so that gives it more of a relaxed look. This illustration down here shows how the pupil, when there's like a strong light on it, or when the person scared the pupil gets small. And when it's relaxed, or when there's like dimmer lighting, the pupil gets larger. So a lot of the time. If you're painting, say, a model from life and you have like a really strong light blasting on the model, their pupil might actually look small, so I'll tend to make it a little larger again, using that cast shadow that comes down from the upper I to connect the top and give it more relaxed. Look the curve of the eyelashes kind of curve and come off of the line of the upper eyelid , and they grow in clusters so they're not just evenly spaced or straight like this. They curve and crisscross and glowing grown clusters and the lower eyelid. There's some that curve and crisscrossing blanc grown clusters coming off the lower eyelid , and that's favoring the back of the eye. So there's not so much eyelashes towards the front. There's this really important little light rim of thickness to the sort of top shelf of the lower island, which is really important to get in. So really, observe that and definitely get that in. It could just be like one little brushstroke, kind of a pinky, flesh colored brush stroke. But it'll give a lot of dimension to your eyes and really make it look solid and structured . Also, don't forget the darker front plane to the lower eyelid. That'll help really solidify, like bringing the eye into the face. Um, the hot highlight of the eye little white dot, which is a reflection of the light source. It occurs right at the edge of where the pupil meets the iris coming from the direction of the light source, and I'll show you how all of this applies to the demo. And when I do the demo so and then looking at the profile, I you can see how the shape of the upper eyelid looks like a wedge shape, so it's like a triangle, so avoid the temptation to sort of pull it back and curve it to make it into the shape of an I know. It's like a full wind shaped like a triangle, the line of the lashes kind of curve and come off of that line of the upper eyelid. And then we've got the pupil looks almost just like a line. It's like a dark little line coming down off of the line of the upper island, and the iris looks like an oval. It's a circle in perspective, which is called in a lips, and there is this little clear dome in front of the iris, which is called the cornea. So you don't wanna have the colored part of the I extend all the way to the front. There is the little clear dome that sits in front of the iris. Also, the upper island has a certain thickness to it. They both do the lower eyelid as well, and the upper island has more thickness than the lower island. And so there's a certain angle created from the upper eyelid to the Lower Island. And also, if you think about like where the center line of the eye is like if we have our pupil, we have our iris, and we have the cornea and the sort of center line through that where the upper I crosses over the lower eyelid is just slightly lower than center, So the vertical height of the upper eyelid is taller than the vertical height of the lower island. And again, we've got that little light room of thickness showing on the top shelf of the upper island and then looking at the 3/4 view. Same considerations. Break the upper eyelid into two angled straight lines, with the apex raven in towards the nose, the Lower Island in the final rendering. You'll really round that out. Get that little top light ridge. Get that little light rim of thickness to the lower eyelid, and again make sure it really wraps around the curve of the eyeball. The iris from a 3/4 view will look like an oval, so we're starting to see the turn of the iris. It's not a full circle and also always set the eye socket into shadow, and that shadow gets darker, darker, darker as it rolls towards the crease of the upper eyelid. And there's the little darker front plane to be lower eyelid as well. So I think that will really help you as you refine the features refining the I and let's move to the mouth. So let's start with the front facing most and work through the center crease of the most. So it goes horizontal first and trace along with me and then angled straight line, going up, angled straight line going down. This is like a Big M angled straight line going up again, angled straight line going down and then that horizontal note again. And then the upper lip is sort of a curving, angled, straight line going up, down, up, curving, angled, straight line going down and the whole upper lip. When the light source is coming down on the model will be in shadow and the lower lip. We won't have any edge to describe the lower lip. The lower lip color will basically be like base splash color mixed with a little bit more cad, red and white, so it will be the same tone as the flesh around it. But it will be, ah, little bit pink here. So put in that tone than the pink your color. Take us off Russian wiggle along that edge to create a totally lost edge here and instead, the definition to the lower lip comes from the shadow underneath the lower lip, which will often be a cool ish color, sort of a grey green often, and then the lower lip is constructed of two circular fat pads. You'll get this little David in the center, and sometimes they'll be like a highlight running through here. Um, depending on the direction of your light source looking at the 3/4 most, it's the same considerations as the front most. Now you'll take all of the horizontal Zell's that were, you know, the base of the front view, and now they're receding to a vanishing point, which is kind of over here, and the whole face will really be receding to the vanishing point. The eyes, the nose, everything goes to that vanishing point, and so again, the center line of the mouth can be constructed with the horizontal and an angle straight line going up can go straight line, going down, up again. The horizontal distance is getting a shorter as it goes back into space down again and that little horizontal that anchors in the back corner of the most and then the upper lip kind of an urn angled straight line, going up, down, up, curving, angled, straight line going down again. The horizontal width is getting shorter as it turns back into space. The whole upper lip is in shadow when the light source is coming down on the model and it gets darker, darker, darker as it rounds into the center line of the lip and then the lower lip. There's no edged lower lip here. You might see a little divided between the two circular fat pads that make up the lower lip , and the construction, or the sort of edge of the lower lip, is defined by this cool shadow. Underneath the lower lip and with the color of the lip, you'll probably is like a warm radish brown for the upper lip. Cool the color a little bit as he moved to the back corner of the most, and then it turns into this soft, cool sort of grey green note with a lost edge that describes the muscle. Talk it like the back of the most. So that's the 3/4 mouth. And then looking at the profile most, um, so all the edges of the mouth will have soft edges except for this center line of the lips . But with the profile, you'll want to get really sharp edged right at this part here. So the upper lip cuts up at an angle straight line about a 3/4 decree angle coming up, 45 degree angle going out, and then it slopes in underneath the nose. You condone. Construct the sharper edge of the um, center crease of the most cuts up at a certain angle down. And that little suggestion of the horizontal that anchors it in softens into the muscle. Took the back curving, angled straight line going up and down on the whole upper lip, sitting in a shadowy, ready Brownie Purple e kind of tone, which gets like darker and warmer as it rounds into the center line. No definition through here with the front act of the lower lip. It's sort of overshoots from the center line of the most and then cuts down at a certain angle and then angles underneath the lip and out into the chin. And the structure of the lip is really defined by the shadow underneath the lower lip. So you really study these angles here. That's what's gonna really get you a nice looking profile, and you can see that the nose also, by the way, sits half on and half off the face, so there's a tendency to make the nose, like all the way off. But you can see how it's kind of half on and half off the face from a profile, and that takes us into the nose. Things happen out here. You can see there's more of a constructed version of the drawings in a more rendered version. So basically, let's start with this constructed version of the profile nose and you'll break the curves, as always, into angled straight lines. Sometimes this here will just be more straight, so you can kind of see what it's like on it. The person that you're painting. Sometimes you'll see the definition of the bony structure there and breaking the curves into angled straight lines. There's a really important insertion point right here. We're like the nose inserts into the skull and that occurs like right above the tear duct. So the tear duct would be like here. And you can see that the nose inserts into the skull just above the tear duct. And that should have a really strong angle change almost like a rating and go. So there's a tendency actually to, like, curve this out and make it yet it's really curved. This line will turn into the eyebrow a lot of the time, but you weren't really. There is a strong angle change there and make sure to capture that. And then you can break the planes into the front facing plane of the sort of bony ridge of the knows there's a side facing plane and and also really important on the nose is that there's this very important form shadow on the bottom plane of the nose and a lot of the time with soft lighting. It's hard to really see that, like in the nose is so grounded, so the transition happens really softly, so it could be actually hard to perceive. But I promise it's there. If the note if the light source is coming down on the model and definitely put that in. Put it in a little darker than you think. You can wiggle across the edge, get it soft, and the nostril will hide within that and avoid doing. Don't do a nostril that's like a big circle pig nose. Instead, describe the lines of the nostril as like to angled straight lines sort of pulled down in the center to create the opening of the nose and again that sits within the form shadow off the nose. And then there's a cash shadow that comes down on the face off of the nose, and a lot of the time cast shadows air cooler and form shadows. Air warmer. Always check. You can see with the lighting. If that's true, and then in the more fun like finished version of the knows, there's often going to be a highlight. Save the light source is coming this way. On the figure they'll often be a highlight running along that band in the Plains, where the side plane meets the front plane and a little speculative highlight on the ball of the nose, too. So looking at the 3/4 knows same considerations. Get that strong angle change with the nose inserts into the skull. Get the bony front plane and of the nose and that different tone for the side plane. Watch that the front plane of the nose is nice and narrow and bony and construct the curves of the nose of angled straight lines. Definitely get that form shadow on the nose, the lower plane of the nose all being slightly darker and get the nostrils to find with a nice warm color and two angled straight lines pulled down in the center and for the back nostril. The center line here is basically like this part, and then we sort of pull back and see some nostril holes showing behind it. And then there's the cast shadow that comes down off of the nose as well. And in the finished version, you'll put the I had a light that runs down the bony plane where the front plane and the side playing meat and the little speculate highlight that occurs on the ball of the nose and then front facing knows same considerations. Look for three tones for the side plane, front plane and other side plane always really get that form shadow on the lower plane of the nose and describe the nostrils with two angled straight lines instead of the big circle pick nose and get the cast shadow coming down on the faces. Well, and then this illustration here just shows how the front facing noses vertical, the 3/4 knows shows some of the angle, and the profile shows the full angle of the nose. Also, if you go from the back wing of the nose and kind of follow it up, the same angle is the nose. From a profile view, it takes you to the bottom of the eye, so there's a tendency in a profile to place the I too far forward. But following this, you'll get the I anchored in in the right spot. So this is going to really help you as we move forward next and start to construct the features in our paintings. 8. Painting the Eyes: So I'm gonna start in by going into the center of interest. I right here and I'm gonna use a little bit of black, some burnt sienna and a little bit of motive. Alcon medium. You could also use linseed oil. It's basically just a oily substance to make the pain just a little bit slicker and floor fluidly and also make the darkest darks to slightly transparent. So I'm just punching up that line. Then I'm gonna also punch up the pupil a little bit, just making it darker. So because this is my center of interest, I I wanted to have a little bit more contrast than this eyes gonna have next. I'll just makes a bit of cerulean blue and some gray A little bit of meridian the greatest de saturates, the intensity of the blue making it a little bit more realistic. And I'll start by putting a dab of that onto my canvas. Judge it based on three parameters the hue value in saturation. So basically it looks about the right color. It looks slightly too light, I would say, and the saturation is also ever so slightly to intent, so I'll add a little bit more gray, a little bit more blue and even just a touch of black to darken it ever so slightly more. And towards the top of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye I'm doing it gonna have that color just dark and a little bit down towards the top of it, so that there is the sense of a cast shadow being cast onto the eye from the upper island. That's starting it even a little bit more, and that also helps connect the pupil to something, which is that cast shadow above it. So I want to just have it sort of soften the separation between the pupil and the line of the upper island. The eye lashes. I'm doing like a little wiggle stroke where the two notes connect to just soften the transition to soften the brush, work out slightly, and I also run along the edge of the iris with just a slightly darker tone because the iris actually scoops in words and then the cornea on top scoops outwards. But that inward scooping shape produces the slight darkening towards the edges of the iris , and also because it scoops in words, there is a slightly lighter note that gets picked up right here. So if the laters is coming this way on your subject, the lightest part of the eye, that kind of crystal Lee part where it shows the most color is on the bottom of the iris opposite the direction of the light source. And I'm just gonna wipe my brush off with my rag and wiggle with my brush along the separation between the darker noted the edge of the iris and the lighter note so that it just great eight smoothly from one into the other. And for the white of the eye, the white of the eyes gonna be darker than you might initially think it should be like a gray color. It will be the same tone as the skin around it, but a little bit darker. I'm a little bit cooler, so a little bit gray or rather than the PCI flesh color. And towards the top of that, I'm just gonna introduce a slightly darker tone, which will be the cast shadow being cast down on the up on the I from the upper eyelid. Wiggle across it one more time, so it just great smoothly into that that I'm going to dip into my white and I kind of dip and pull in such a way that the paint's basically dangling off the tip of my brush here. And then I'm just gonna place that little dangling paint on to my painting. So that note is actually quite thick. It's an impasse toe, and it really gives it a shine to the I. And I'm just gonna wipe my brush off with my rag. And it looks like we've got a slightly softer edge on the bottom note of that, and I'm gonna keep the top edge a little bit sharper. And then towards the edge of the left hand side of the upper eyelid, there's basically three tones for this upper eyelid. There's a medium toned, the latest tone in the center and a darker, cooler tone to the side. So I'm just gonna kind of bring a little bit more of a darker, cool note into the left hand side of that and also allow the this line of the upper eyelid and the eyelashes to kind of fade into this cooler. A soft note. It just softens that line a little bit. Maybe I'll also introduce a little brown, which could go into this eyelash just to soften that a little bit as well. So with the final rendering of the I, I'm looking for a balance between some sharp edges, like the pupil and a lot of soft edges so that it still feels Les come. It gives it a lot of form, and it gives it just that sense of softness. And also it just looks more accurate tohave some soft edges. If if the painting was done exactly as it is, but all the edges were sharp, it would look, um, a little harsh. It wouldn't look quite right. And I'll just go into this line of the crease of the upper eyelid and just using a really thin touch. Bring a little bit of a burnt Sienna into that line, and then I'm gonna pull out a little bit more form to the lower eyelid. There is a slightly lighter note great in here, the forms around the eyes are really important. And with a smile, you get this kind of pinch e lower eyelid pushing up onto the I a little bit later, in the tear duct and then moving across the face. I think I'll pick up the speculum highlight on the nose areas that are naturally a little bit, um, shy near, sometimes a little bit oil earlier have a speculative highlight. So the shiniest of all is, of course, the eyeball, which is super wet and shiny. And then the tip of the nose often has a slightly kind of shiny nous to it. And there's a little speculate highlight, sort of a more soft edge Settler one. It's not quite as oily oven area great in here and then moving into the other. I I'm gonna use black again. Had a little I'm going to use a little more burnt sienna, maybe even a touch of grey. So this note is going to be dark, but not quite as dark as the line of the upper island on the other side. So I'll start by punching. Better, actually, could be a little darker than that. So you normally when I go into the final details of the eyes, I start with this line, and then I also go into the pupil. And then, in this particular photo reference, there is a separation between the pupil and the upper eyelid. I lash line. Ah, lot of the time, it will actually connect. Um, and in this case, I'm gonna again create that sense of a connection with the cast shadow that's coming down from the upper island onto the eyeball. And I'll just extend that darkening around the iris. Maybe a little bit more over here, too. That'll lay in the blue, the overall color of the iris wiggling along the edge so that it's got a soft edge and leaving the pupil the black dot sharper edged, but the rest is pretty soft. And again I'll pull up the lighter Crystal Lee part of her eye on the bottom side, opposite the direction of the light source and for the speculum highlight on the I I'm gonna use kind of a white ish gray. So it's not quite a slight as the other side, maybe a little later than that, actually, and just punch up the weight of the I kind of a grayish color. And I've just wiped my brush off with my rag and I'm gonna just wiggle. I wanna have slightly softer edges in this. I compared to the other one. This eyebrow eyelash extends just a little too far over. Punch up the crease of the upper eyelid with the brownish color. It's got a little bit of black mixed in which I don't want. I want to be not too dark, and we only see a little bit of that line on this side and into the tear ducks. I'm gonna put a nice a little pop of a lizard crimson, a nice reddish note, and that gives a lot of life to the I to have that little bit of color pop pick up a little bit of the lightness on the side plane of the Lower Island. Maybe just a little later still there. And so that basically shows you how I would bring the eyes to a finish after having initially blocked in the basic shapes and then moving in to capture the contrast and really controlling the level of contrast so that you direct the I clearly mawr toe one eye than to the other 9. Refining with Glazes: so there are various mediums that you can use for a glaze. This one here is one that I really like. It's by gambling, and it's called Solvent Free Gel, so it's actually nontoxic. It's made with a base of safflower and Alka painting medium. And so it does speed the drying a little bit, and it also has a little bit of a thicker consistency, which I'll show you why. But that could be really beneficial. And then I also use walnut Alcon medium, which also is non trump toxic. It's thin like linseed oil. It will speed the drying a little bit, and I'll show you the benefits to that as well. A. Some of the drawbacks. And you could also use something like liquid liquid has a thicker group here, sort of feel it is toxic. Um, for me, I like to keep my process nontoxic. Um and so that basically shows you the basic mediums. So first, let's take a look at walnut Alcon medium. So when you're preparing to make your glaze, you're gonna use ah, lot of the medium basically and just a little bit of pigment, and you'll find that as you get familiar with the paints. Some paint colors are more transparent than others. You conglomerate A's with any of them, but some will be even more transparent than others. So, for example, this one which has burnt sienna, is a very transparent color. And so I'm just using a very little bit of pigment and a whole lot of the medium and mixing it together, and you can see how transparent that is. Whereas if you use a color that has a little bit more of an opacity to it, like rid and mix a bunch of the medium in, you can still get it to be transparent. But it's just a little bit more. It's like semi its. It's like semi transparent, but it's close to transparent. But as you get familiar with it, you will be able to feel the difference. And then, just to show you the difference here, this Sullivan Free Jell um, is thicker. And again. Let's just use Let's use rid will be using red later in the demo. So again you'll just use a very small amount of pigment compared to a whole lot of medium. That's a little bit too much pigment. It's not quite transparent enough, So let's squeeze more medium in, and you can kind of see how, since it shows like the white coming through underneath, you know, you can kind of feel that it's getting to be pretty transparent. I'll just make it even a bit more transparent. So to basically make a glaze. All it means is that you're using a lot of medium either oil or some kind of glazing medium , like the solvent free jell versus a very small amount of pigment. So as I'm moving towards the refining details, gonna do a bit of glazing to refine the colors. And I'll be using this gambling solvent free gel, which, as you can see, is a little bit thicker than the linseed oil. And so, looking at the painting overall, I feel like it will be nice to get a little bit more depth to some of the colors, and I feel like there's a bit more of a bluish overall hue. So what I'm gonna do is I'm mixing some of my cobalt blue with a lot of that gamblin solvent free gel, so there's just a little bit of pigment in a lot of the gel, and it'll just create a really thin, translucent coat, which I'm going to just bring across the surface of the painting. I'm curious to see what it'll do to all of the colors. You can see that it's making the Burgundy colors a little bit more. Have a purplish Berg. Indeed, it's also just bringing a unifying tone across some of these blurry, sort of under painting notes and actually making it even feel a little bit more blurry just because it's bringing even more subtlety and unification throughout the colors. And I'm even curious to see what it will do in the skin tones. And because I'm curious, I could just try it, and I will be able to wipe off any areas that I don't like the effect. So it's really just kind of to see what happens, knowing that with oil painting, it's pretty organic and you can really play with it. And I'm also using a bit more of the medium proportional to the pigment as I move into the face of the The note isn't quite a strong. It's just adding a very subtle, bluish depth to the colors, so it'll take me a little bit. Just get the school feeding, covered. And yes, I kind of like increased the amount of pigment in any area that I want to have should be even more of a strong addition of a blue note. And I can kind of use mawr of the gel medium in areas that I want just a little bit of a hint of the blue, like in areas like Flash. So I'm just going to continue to carry this through on. Then when I come back will go into some other addition off different tints and I using soft sort of wiggly strokes as I put in any notes that are adding like extra blue and areas where I really feel like there's actually a little bit of a blue pattern on the quilt behind her, or or maybe a little darkening towards the corner is creating like a sort of framing device so that any addition of blue notes is done with a soft hot and this subtle blue is helping to push back the form in areas like the edges and the arms, just sort of turning the form and preparing for a stronger note of a light tone in the center have some of the forms, but you can see how fun and easy glazing is. What I really like about glazing is that you can preserve all of the work that you've done with, like rendering of the form and, you know, measuring the proportions, getting accuracy in the structure and make these kind of subtle refinements to the Hugh without having to repaint the whole thing. So it really gives you a lot of freedom to fine tune the colors in your painting as you move to the latter stages without feeling like you have to actually go in there and repaint all of the details of the form, rendering all over again there. So I do like the effect that that's creating, and I'm going to take a big mop brush, just a soft sort of mop brush and just lightly brush across the glaze to kind of flat. Note any tones. Watch of any hairs drop come off, just lived the hairs off. So it's not embedded in your painting, but you just kind of flattening down the application of the glaze so that it's even. And I think actually, I'm also gonna go in next with a little bit of a warm glaze to enhance the warmth in certain areas. Um, I'd say a cadmium red. Let's try that. Yeah, well, try that. And we might even use some burnt sienna in parts. And this is gonna b'more localized to specific areas that could be more rosy. So whereas I did the glaze of the blue, like all over the whole painting, just gonna pick into specific areas that could have an enhanced sense of warmth. I mean, I'm making this orangey red note just more saturated, a little bit more saturation to the side of the arm, the foot the other side of the leg as well. There is a nice, glowing orange sort of sense running down that side of her body, even onto her arm on to some of her clothing. Another really wonderful thing about glazes is that it gives a really nice unification throughout. So I'm able to kind of unify this whole left hand side of her body with a little bit more of a rosy nous. Just by bringing this passage through left hand side, and I can do it fairly quickly and gestural e, um, and if some parts go down a little bit too strong, I'll just take my rag and just sort of wipe a little off and again, I'll just go back. There's a couple little hairs embedded in there, so we'll just take all the hairs out, definitely doesn't look good to have paintbrush hairs embedded in into the painting. And, yeah, maybe, lastly, I'll go in with a warmer note. In some of these dark, darkest warms, darkest, the darkest notes are a little bit warm, a little bit pinkish, so I'm glazing right on top of the darkest darks, and you have probably noticed that the glaze is really show up the most in the lights. But they do effect the darker areas just a little bit. They had sort of a depth to the color in the darkest notes, but definitely they show up the very most. In areas where you're under painting is light. Just gonna bring a little bit of warmth into some of the kind of folds increases I'm seeing , kind of a glowing warmth in the depth of some of these folds to her clothing, I think having the toes ah, lot of the time, toes and years and knows is have a little pinky nous and cheeks, of course. So that's another good place for introducing some glazing. If you didn't capture the hue in your first pass on the painting, they're so that shows you some basic glazing to enhance the colors and sort of refine the hue in your painting. And next, we're gonna take a look at refining the hands and the feet. 10. Construction of the Hands and Feet: So let's take a look at the construction of the hand. And ideally, you might like to have these handouts printed out so you can follow along and trace along with me that we'll actually get like a kinetic feel of how to construct the hands or feet. And you'll really get like, a firsthand experience of the details that I'm talking about. So if you take a look at this diagram here, you can see that the overall construction of the hand will begin by getting an equal proportions from the distance of the palm of the hand to the distance of the tip of the middle finger, and even basically construct a slightly wedge shaped box. The width of this will obviously depend on the spray, the fingers and then one interesting thing to note when you get into the rendering is that the side off the hand with the pinky finger has more of a rounded musculature, whereas the side of the thumb has a bony structure that's really square, and we'll have a nice straight sort of edge to it. Here, also, from the pointer finger extending down, you can have the skin and muscles overlap having this line overlap on top of the thumb to create extra depths. And when you're rendering the fingers, it's nice of you. Exaggerate the bulge at the knuckles so that it just looks a bit more dynamic. Sometimes it's not a huge bulge on a finger, you know, But you can kind of exaggerate how it goes outwards at the knuckles and also in the forearm , the muscles in the forearm basically round towards the side of the thumbnail, that kind of head down that way. And if you look at the bony structure of the hand, you can see how the wrist area is made up of a bunch of little bones. And then we've got the longest bones coming right in through here in the hand, in the palm of the hand. And then we basically have a slightly longer bone for the first segment of the finger, a slightly shorter one for the next and the smallest one of the tip of the finger. So they do go kind of long, a little bit shorter and then shortest and their tapering towards the edge. So if we look at the rendering of the 3/4 hands 3/4 angle of the hand. You'll start with the box to construct the palm of the hand, and then you'll basically break the fingers down into boxes as well, constructing the fingers with a series of boxes for this finger. I can see that we're looking at the side plane and the top plane and then for this finger were actually seeing a little bit of the underside of the finger and more of the side plane . And you'll get better at analyzing this, Um, as you get used to constructing the fingers. But it might take a bit of thought to figure out what direction you're looking at the fingers out for. You know how to construct thes boxes, whether you're seeing the side plane and the top plane or the bottom plane and the side plane, and you'll do the same for the thumb. I got a side plane and the bottom plane for both of those. It could be nice to do kind of a rounded mass at the base of the thumb, and as you get into the rendering the of the fingers, you could make the top of the finger nice and pointed and the bottom of the finger rounded , seeing kind of see how my finger has like a pointy top. It's on the male side and a rounded bottom edge. Then when you just grabbing something like the hand holding something again, you'll start with the box of the palm of the hand you'll get from this one. We've got that rounded base of, um, a series of boxes to describe the construction of the fingers and then, when you're rendering the hand look to really describe with a tonal shift, the bend in planes. So in this hand we've got thes thing, the plane, this side facing plane facing this way and it's a bit lighter in tone. And then we've got the front facing plane of all of these fingers facing more front words, and it's a darker tone, this hand again. You can really see the same premise, starting with the box on the underside of the hand. There's kind of a pointy nous that extends out towards the middle middle finger in the structure, and again, you can really see how it's nice to exaggerate the bulge at the finger. And then this drawing here basically shows an interesting fact that the in terms of the bend of the fingers are first knuckle break. Actually, Ben's most and our second knuckle break doesn't have as much flexibility. So you can see like my this top knuckle so you can see, like, this top Michael Lake really bends, but the second knuckle, it only bends a little bit. So in this drawing here, you can see that ah statement having the first knuckle band be a bit stronger and the second knuckle band be kind of slight. And then when you're dealing with a four shortening situation as you construct the hand, that primary box of the farm with hand, you're gonna have the side planes received together kind of narrowing as they go back into space. And you'll also have this distance here which initially was, you know, half to half like 1 to 1. It will be a shorter distance now than the fingers, so the fingers will be larger and the horizontal distance of the palm will be shorter. To really sell the foreshortening situation, make it look like the fingers air coming towards us and the palm is shooting back into space. So I think that's going to really help you as you move forward into rendering the hand and let's look at the foot next. So let's look next to the construction of the foot and similar to the hand. We're gonna start with basically a overall box that will just lay in the overall perspective of the foot, just basically massing in the entire area that the foot fits into. So this basically is just setting up the perspective and just blocking in the whole space of the foot first. And then from there you can extend a couple angled lines heading up into the leg. And if you look at this diagram over here looking at the skeletal structure of the foot and proportions that make up the foot, you can see that the hell proportion basically takes up about 1/3. And then the space of the arch of the foot up to the right. Around here on the ball of the foot is another third and then from the ball of the foot. Extending towards the front of the big toe is another third, so that will help you set up the proportions as you draw on your foot and then what you'll do next is you'll start to break the toes into little boxes for themselves. So describing in this one aside plane on the top plane for each toe, and generally it will actually end up looking on, especially in a small drawing or painting like too much information to really describe in precise detail all over the toes. So it often looks good to just do kind of a suggestion of the other toes and then to really describe the big toe with the most clarity. And so, with the description of the big toe, it's kind of like a finger. You'll have a pointy top on the nail side and around a bottom, and then it kind of goes so it kind of steps down to the toenail, and then it kind of goes like that. You'll want to describe the arch of the foot and the little curve here along the toe between the ball of the foot and the fall of the toe, and you could make the shadow a little bit deeper and darker here to really show the weight that tends to look nice and you'll get the ankle steady and and So when you're describing a front facing foot like this, you'll want to analyze the perspective. So we have to front facing feet here. Basically, this one. We're looking more directly at the foot and this one. We're looking a little bit more down on the foot, so you want to really analyze the foot? I will say that most of the time you'll be looking at the foot from this perspective, and it is a common error that I see in a lot of work to actually end up describing the foot Maurin this way, looking down on it, so really analyzed the angle that you're looking at the foot. If we look down at this diagram here, it basically describes one point perspective. So we've got our horizon line, and that's the level of the eyes. And then we have what's called a vanishing point, which is essentially the position of the eyes on the eye level. And so what you'll do is you'll start by describing the front plane, and then you'll extend the side planes back towards the vanishing point so you can see that he used to lines are receding towards the vanishing point, so it's wider in the front there were in the back, and that's gonna be how you're gonna construct the box for this foot. And so you can see that as you're setting up the perspective, these two side planes air receding back into space, and you'll also notice that this height here is not super high. So, um, you'll want toe, really capture that. And so you can see on this foot that basically, when you're looking down more on that the foot, this vertical distance, the height is longer. It's more what we think of in terms of the length of the foot eso. When you show that length, it makes it look like you're looking down on the foot. But when you keep it nice and short vertically, it helps make the foot look like it's receding into space. And so, from their U boats, describe the toes as little foxes with little front planes. Side planes. Um, the toenail basically describes where the top plane starts, and then you can. It looks nice if you kind of do like a ball above your basic, but I'm block, and that's kind of representing all of the bone structure that makes up like the the base of the foot, Um, and then on top of that ball basically sits the leg bones and at the bottom of the two leg bones that tibia and fibula. We have the ankles, and you'll notice that the outer ankle is actually lower. In other words, the ankle on the baby toe. The little toe side is lower, like the apex is a little bit lower, and on the big toe side on the inner side, the ankles a little bit higher. So you get a certain angle creative in the relationship between the two ankles, and then when you're describing a back view of a foot again, you'll start by massing in the overall perspective of the foot, just blocking it in as a box. And then you can put a circle in to construct the hell and then describe the ankles again. The inner ankle is higher. The A text. The bending most point on the ankle is higher, and the outer ankle is lower, so there's that certain angle created. It looks nice from a back view. If you let this ankle overlap, the description of some of these distant toes that just gives it more space. And then again, we've got the hell. We've got the arch of the foot, the ball of the foot and just a little suggestion of the big toe and then extending up from the hell. You can see the Achilles tendon heading up towards the calf muscles. And from a view like this of the foot, I would start with, like a gesture. That kind of gets the overall sweep of the motion that's creative with the foot and then from there, blocking the perspective. So we're seeing aside view of the foot were actually seeing some of the underside of the foot in this drawing. And then we'll extend these angled lines in towards the leg, get the suggestion of the ankle and there and then describe the toes extending forward. So that shows you how I would construct the foot. And I think that will really help you as you move forward in your own drawings and paintings of feet 11. Painting the Hands and Feet: So let's start to refine the hands and feet next, and you might like to watch the videos that describe the construction that's going to really help as you move into the next phase. So I'm gonna start by restating the lines with a warm, burnt sienna and a lizard in crimson color, just kind of articulating the shape of the toes, the lines and the edges. Um, there's a curving line along the top plane of the big toe, and there is also a curving line right along the top of the second toe. Um, let's work from the other side to make sure that we end up with the right number of toes. So we've got our side plane of the foot. Now I'm actually shifting to a little bit more of a bluish. This is the cobalt blue mixed into my old ism permanent burnt sienna mixture. So it's just a little cooler as I describe the linear aspect of the toes on the left hand side. And then we've got the separation, Um, the first toe, the little baby toe and let's see 12 There we go. I want to make sure I end up with five toes. So we've got this toe overlapping a little bit on to the next to which sticks down a little lower and I'm using pain that's got some medium. This is some woman Alec, a medium in a little container, so the paint is thin, a little bit transparent, which I often like when I described the darkest notes and I'm gonna use a bit more of a burnt Sienna as I just suggest the exterior lines of the ankles. I'm gonna be painting sort of over this, Um, but it is nice tohave the statement. It might even show through very subtly at the edges in some places and actually create a nice effect. I think also on this drawing on the big toe, let's describe this curve and top plane of the toenail and same thing for this second toe, the other toes. We don't need to describe the tone eel, but I think it's an important structural placement for the those two toes, and we'll just do the same on the other foot, using some burnt sienna and a lizard permanent, too, just anchor in the linear aspects, describing the edges of the toes. Maybe even a little bit of a lizard permanent and even a little bit of black as we get into the deepest, darkest parts of thes back toes, the separation between the baby toe and the the toe next to it. It's a little bit of a triangular shaped right there. So look at the shapes that the lines are making, Um, so it doesn't all have to be just lines That could be, you know, a little bit of a shape to it as well. And on the back ankle again, the healing ankle, I mixed a bit more of my cobalt blue into that. It can look really nice if one side of the body rounds to a really warm note and the other side rounds to a cooler note. And in this case, we just have different areas. We have, like the toes rounding in a really warm way, and same for the hell and for the hand will use, um, a lizard permanent the pinky red color and some black, and just go in there to the deepest, darkest notes, creating a little bit more separation to some of the fingers. Maybe a bit of burnt sienna which is slightly more orangey than Pinky to get the crease at the wrist, and I'll move to more of, Ah later a lizard permanent and burnt Sienna note to just run alongside the bottom of the fingertips. So this is kind of like drawing. It's like drawing and color. And next, we're going to start to render the different planes really paying attention to describing the side, playing the top plane and just the different planes to the feet in the hands. Okay, so let's start with this foot and we're gonna describe Let's describe the front plane of the toes. First. I'll use, um, cadmium, reds and whites. We get a nice pinkish color, Um, maybe a little bit of the base flesh color, and we'll just bring that. Oh, it could be a little darker. So and we'll just bring that along the front plane of the toes. And then let's move to a whiter, Mawr based flesh calories. So a little bit less pinky and it's a little bit lighter, and we'll bring some of that in to the top plane of the foot, noticing the way it kind of rounds into the top plane of the toes and also on the toes. We have the front plane, we have the side plane and we have the top plane. So what I'm noticing is the side plane to the right is a little bit lighter, then the side plane as it rounds to the left. So that's gonna be really important to keep in mind as we block in this note so that we're getting the bigger sense of form to the toes into the foot. Same thing goes for the foot. We've got the later side playing on the right hand side and it rounds to a darker note on the left, you can see a suggestion of some of the various bony structure, um, the bones, like in the foot up here, creating the second mass. So you sort of have a couple masses have got this form down here that the toes air kind of rounding out of, and then we've got this kind of form, which is bone the bony structure of the foot. And then we've got this kind of padded ankle. She has, like, some flesh, you know, on her body. So it it's got a little bit of ah thickness at the ankle, and that's often the case for kids, and it's really cute. So when you're painting a baby a lot of the time areas that might otherwise be more bony in their nature, they actually end up having a little bit more of a roundness to them. And so I'm just gonna use some white with a little bit of base flash color and a little pink mixed into it, maybe even just a touch of blue. I'm hitting the lightest lights now and moving up, just connecting the foot into the leg, and the latest lights are a little bit cooler, which is often the case, and that's gonna be really important to when you're painting kids. So, um, we often start with a base flesh color and and we're working from photography. You may like to enhance the base flesh color into a little bit more of an orangish sort of note so that it's not too white, which sometimes photos can appear a little on the white side. But as you move, you know, into the finishing touches were moving into a little bit more of a cool kind of pinky whitey note, which really captures the sort of light, like Rosie nous of a young child's skin tone versus the tan kind of color coloration of an adult. Again, there's just some subtle sort of hints to the form in her legs, even up around her knee, that actually suggests the fact that there's a bit of padding on her legs. So we're not seeing, like the bony structure of the knee as much as sort of little rules around her legs for adorable little legs. I think I could narrow it down, um, a little bit more around the knee area. Let's just cut into that a little bit. This looks slightly wide, said, just making any little revisions and just a little bit more. We see a little bony nous at the back of the knee here, and then I'm gonna take the excess paint off my brush. And I'm just gonna wiggle along the transitions that separate the light from the shadow and also separate one plane, you know, side plane from the top plane, just creating some softer transitions. Also, Lake rounding the front plane of the toes into the darkest initial, edged the line work so that it had a soft, gradual transition just gray dating from the later note into the darker note. And so, by doing that, I'm kind of We started with a linear aspect, and now I'm kind of moving away from the linear aspect and into more of a form rendering version. And in the other foot there's a couple planes. You've got the top plane of the foot, which is a little bit later. Then we've actually got the bony structure of the toe overlapping in front of that. There is a nice, warm, deep, fleshy the zone in here and a similar color kind of purplish in here. In terms of the overall planes of the foot, we see a little bit of a lighter plane picking up rate in here on the front plane of the foot. So you got the top plane, the front plane and the bottom plain. And there's basically light, medium dark in terms of the tonal structure, so really kind of analyzing those shifts in plain, you know, the shifts in the in the direction that the planes facing in the direction that it's facing towards the light and making sure to articulate that so same thing for the toes have got the toe actually moving to a lighter note right at the tip, just the same sort of patterning as we're seeing. The foot moved to a lighter note towards the front. So we'll just bring a little note, uh, onto the front of each toe that's a little bit lighter. And then we've also got a top plane here at a sort of bottom plane here. So there is another also slightly light tone running along here compared to this bottom sort of plain of the toe, which is a little bit darker, and some of it is fairly subtle, but you can definitely see it. And as you really like, stretch your mind to identify the planes. Really, With that eye towards identifying and describing the planes, you'll be able to pick them up and render them, and you can see that it just adds a real sense of like fleshy nous and like rounding of the form. So there's a little bit of a later top playing through the hell back here is well and again , let's connect the foot into the leg. We get some of this light of the top plane of the foot kind of carried into some of the latest notes, especially through the center of the leg kind of along the shin bone area. And again, we got a couple adorable little Fuld's right along the ankle zone of her. But it'll just take the excess paint off my brush. And let's just work the transitions one more time, just kind of wiggling along some of the transitions and tone so that, for example, it's rounding from the tone at the top of the thigh into that darker blue or note that I introduced when I blocked in the lines. We'll also just like wiggle along. The transition between the lighter tones on the darker tones here and through here is, well, a little bit on each toe as it rounds towards its darkest note. So the separation from the latest note to the darkest notice just blended out, creating a real soft, uh, sort of softness while maintaining that sense of the description of the planes that please created. Looks like we could go just a little bit deeper in the hollow of the foot and maybe also weaken, Just work with the edge quality um, kind of looking at the negative space like the exterior shape of the toes, like the baby toe looks a little bit more pointed and a little bit more separated from the toe in front of it. And then these toe seem very tight together, almost crossing over each other. Yeah, and then I'll just restate the darkest notes one more time, maybe giving a little more separation between the baby toe on this other toe. And actually, let's just hop back to this other foot. I'm gonna go a little bit darker into the very deepest note. It's nice to save, adding the accents like the darkest of dark and the lightest late for the end, so that you can really add that final punch sort of once everything else is established and I'll just scratch with the back of my brush to soften the transition. Sometimes I like to do that, using the back of my brush as a softening tool and then with the hand. Same thing. Let's take a moment to, like analyze the plane's. We've got the hand rounding to a darker note over on the right hand side and then seeming to come a little bit more into a slightly later tone in here. And then we've got, like, the top plane of the fingers, like as they come forward. There's basically a band in the fingers, like here's we've got the dark plea of the top plane of the fingers looking a little bit darker and the front plane of the fingers as they turn at that knuckle band change looking a little bit lighter. Whoops. That's picked up some weird color. Let's go back to more of a pinkish color. Just paint right on top of that. Yeah, So this hand is a really good example of what I discussed in the handouts, where, when there's a bend in the knuckles having a really clear shift in tone at that place where the bend in the knuckles occurs. So I'm starting with that first as like the main note, and then we still want to describe the individual planes of the fingers themselves. So first we get that big plane change, and then we get in. The smaller plane changes from front plane to side plane of each finger. So on the left hand side of the fingers, we've got like a little bit of a darker note, just a little bit. And then on the right hand side of the fingers, we've got that lighter note. And on this one here, it looks like the top plane is actually picking up some reflected light from the warm cloth around it. So it actually has a really read kind of color to it. So and then let's just soften the transitions. I'm gonna sort of softened through, um, but leaving a little bit more of a concrete nous to this main knuckle change. It's nice to actually kind of exaggerate that the main bend in the knuckles and definitely exaggerating it lake beyond what I see in the photo reference. And, yeah, it's going to give a nice sense, a lot of clarity to the fact that the fingers are bending and coming towards us. It's nice to be able to do that in art, where you can kind of conceptually consider what will make something read even better. And on this hand, let's put a suggestion of the thumbnail and just a teeny little suggestion of the other nails gonna start to soften out some of the transitions. So you're putting in the really strong concrete lake. Plain changes, you know, looking for the front plane, the side plane, the top plane, different tone, different color for each. Just barely suggesting the fingernails always keep those really subtle. They can attract way too much attention if they're overdone, and then basically just softening along the different transitions so that the overall effect feels fleshy and and soft. They're so apply the same techniques to the other hand. I think this video's gonna get way too long if I do the other hand as well on camera. So but that shows you how I would approach the hands and the feet again. You might like to review the handouts that I discussed, think about the structure and then just really always focus on describing the different planes of the hands and then softening out the transitions between this description of each plane 12. Finishing Touches: All right. So I think this painting is just about done. I think I'm just gonna go into the lightest lights one more time with a little bit of Ah, um cooler, slightly slightly pinkish pink. Pinky white is a cooler color than like an orangey, um, sort of color. So with baby's skin, they don't have, like, a tan kind of quality to their skin. They have more of a slightly pinkish kind of quality and remembering that we want the lightest lights to be a little bit on the cool side compared to the overall lights, which are really where we have the rial warmth in the lates and just gonna basically bring out the form by lightning in the lightest part. So the highest point in the form really bringing out the cheeks, bringing that sense of form to the chief and a little bit in the muscles around the mouth. Just hitting the latest lights one more time with a light, cool note, maybe working some of the highlights in a little bit, just softening the edge on one side of the highlight so that it has a bit of a softer edge and maybe just going in with a little bit of a stronger highlight to make the tongue a little bit more shiny. Yeah, so just hitting the highest point of the form. In other words, the most sticky outie point on the form and lightning it just a little bit more thinking about things that are basically pointing upwards. And it helps to have studied like the anatomy in some parts. The photo when you're working with photos, it doesn't always show, um, the lightest lights really clearly. So I've added the lightest note at the bending point in the plane of the forehead rate about here and also a little bit on the upper brow bone. I think I could bring a subtle extra light in here. It just, um, kind of enhances her expression, and actually, I'm scum bling on top of some of the shadows underneath the lower lip. She just has a very subtle, subtle shadow under her lower lip right here. If I make it too strong, it could actually, um, in some cases, like change the expression a little bit. In some cases, it will need to be a really strong shadow, and in other cases it's a little bit more subtle and just double checking for the last time that the hairline transitions in a really soft settle way so that there's no strong demarcation between hair and face there. And so I think that's basically done. So I hope you've enjoyed this video. It's been really fun showing you how to capture the likeness of a baby as well as capturing the skin tones, which, as I say, or a little bit lighter and a little bit more cool. Kind of in the pinky range as well is looking at how to paint things like baby's cute little hands and feet and also create sort of a softness to the background. Just give a sense of blur and motion. So I hope you've enjoyed this video, and I can't wait to see what you create.