How to Optimize 3D Prints | James Leiske | Skillshare

How to Optimize 3D Prints

James Leiske, Skillshare

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26 Lessons (2h 48m)
    • 1. Promo

    • 2. Introduction

    • 3. Who It's For

    • 4. 3D Printer Steps

    • 5. 3D Printer Parts

    • 6. Slicer and Host Software

    • 7. Slic3r

    • 8. MatterControl

    • 9. Cura

    • 10. OctaPrint

    • 11. Slicer Settings Overview

    • 12. Walls and Infill

    • 13. Hollow and Solid

    • 14. Surface Details

    • 15. 3D Print Skirts

    • 16. First Layer

    • 17. Bed Leveling

    • 18. Supports

    • 19. Advanced Supports

    • 20. Speed and Temperature

    • 21. Retraction Settings

    • 22. Advanced Retraction

    • 23. Extrusion Settings

    • 24. Two Extruders

    • 25. Printer Calibration

    • 26. G-Codes


About This Class

New Course That Makes It Easy for Anyone to Improve Their 3D Print Quality

3D printing can be a complex process and a lot of things can go wrong. But if you’re armed with the right knowledge you can print high-quality parts every time. This course is designed to show you how to get quality prints every time you print something. We will explore some of the most common software out there used for filament-based printers. We will learn about the settings that have the largest impact on your prints quality. You can learn about the best adhesion methods, how to remove supports, and how to get your extrusion and retraction settings dialed in perfectly.

What you will learn:

  • An Overview of 3D Printing
  • Understanding Slicing and Host Software
  • How to Get the Best Quality Prints
  • Printing Hollow vs Solid Objects
  • Slicer Settings That Matter
  • How to Get Prints to Stick to the Bed
  • Understanding Wall Thickness
  • Overview of Auto-Leveling
  • Print Temperature and Speed Insights
  • Having Multiple Extruders
  • Working With G-Code


1. Promo: 3d printing can be a complex process and a lot of things can go wrong. But if you're armed with the right knowledge, you can print high-quality parts every time this course is designed to show you how to get quality prints. Every time you print something. We will explore some of the most common software out there used for filament based. First, we will learn about the settings that have the largest impact on your prints quality. You can learn about the best adhesion methods, how to remove supports, and how to get your extrusion and retraction settings dialed in. What you will learn in this course. And overview of 3D printing, understanding slicing and host software, how to get the best quality prints. Printing hollow versus solid objects, slicer settings that matter. How to get prints too sick to the bed. Understanding wall thickness, an overview of auto leveling, print temperature and speed insights. Having multiple extruders can finally, working with G code. This is a new course that makes it easy for anyone to improve their 3D Printing Quality. Welcome to how to optimize 3D prints. 2. Introduction: Did you know you can get high-grade looking prints out of irregular, cheap printer that is built for the regular consumer. That being said, you do need to know about your printer and the software, as well as the materials. All those three things all have a play in how your printer prints. It can seem complicated in the beginning, common questions you might ask are, what software do you choose? What materials should I go with, or even what printer should I buy? Oftentimes, when we are looking at our designs on the computer screen, we're all happy and amazed at how high-quality it looks on the computer in like the 3D design slicer software, something like that. But when it actually gets printed, there's much to be desired. Oftentimes, it is a hit and a miss. And changing one small thing can have unpredictable results, and it just ends up wasting filament on the failed prints. My name is James and I'm here to help you. In this course. I will show you some of the common software that is used to work with filament based 3D printers. I will show you how to configure them well and achieve the best quality that you can. There are many things that can go wrong with 3D printers. And oftentimes people complain and even give up over these issues. So let's learn about how to fix these common issues. And only, not only get our printer running well, but also able to achieve high-quality results time and time again. 3. Who It's For: Welcome to this second video of this course. In this video, we're going to learn who this course is designed for. I would like to mention that in this course, it is built for those who are familiar with 3D printing. And we'll go over on how to use a 3D printer in the first few videos of this course. Over the next few videos, we will discover how 3D printers work and what programs do. What if you're still deciding on a 3D printer to get? Do not worry, because oftentimes you can get by as a beginner, we're simply doing the factory default settings and configurations. That being said, this course is sorta event for the people who know what 3D printing is and already have been doing it a bit. But do not worry though, I tried to explain all the concepts covered in this course with a beginner in mind. So even if it is meant for an intermediate level, you know, a 3D printing level that's more intermediate, does not mean that beginners cannot benefit from it. All the examples found in this course, they're decent, lease, simple, and easy to follow. Heck, you could even watch videos over and over again until you understand. So let's continue and let's start learning about 3D printer settings. 4. 3D Printer Steps: So in this video, we are going to understand the 3D printing process. 3d printing is not a complicated process if you think about it. After all. If you just get over the hurdle of understanding how it works, it can be fairly simple. So let's see how it works. There's just a few major steps. There's like three major steps that make up 3D printing. First, you have your 3D model. Any such 3D model is originally designed in a CAD software. And CAD software that stands for computer aided design. You can source 3D files in one of two ways. One is you can obtain them from a database of 3D files, whether you buy them or you just download them or another, is you can make it for yourself, or you can have someone else make it for you in a 3D modelling software or like I just said, a CAD software, computer aided design. Another step is you need to take into consideration the materials that you will choose. The filament. You need to consider which filament you will print with. And you also need to take into account gravity. When you are done with your 3D file in your CAD software, the output file will be a file format that is called STL, and that stands for stereo lithography. A few others exist like oh, PJ AMF, or three AMF. But STO is king and it is used most of the time. Now the way 3D printers work is that they take one layer at a time and lay it on top of each other to build up your 3D model. To translate that. It has commands for your printer to follow to create the layers. And those are called, and that's called the G-code, G-code commands. And that is a file. That G-code is actually a file. What you do is you export that file to a USB drive. And then you take that USB drive and you plug that into your computer to print. But the process of making the G-code file from a 3D file is called slicing. So once you slice your 3D model and export your code, you'd take that to your printer and you just have your printer do the work. And then it will start printing Away with your G code that you sliced from your 3D model. So keep in mind. It's a good idea to keep an eye on your 3D printer from time to time to make sure things are printing Well. So that's it. That's the basic three major steps that you need to follow in the 3D printing world. Now, G-code is not the only one on the block. There's a lot of others. And G code is the most common file for those motorized commands. But there's others, like the old Maker box. They have one called x 3G. And then there's other systems that hide the whole process entirely and you don't see it at all. They use proprietary software. They transmit the instructions to the printer automatically. So the way 3D printer a work is they start on an empty platform and then they build up print layer over print layer. As you can imagine, this process can take a bit of time and sometimes it takes actual days to get done. So in this video you can see how that is done. Sped up. The best way to think of it. And how this works is to imagine a hot glue gun as a motorized hot glue gun. Yeah. Another thing to keep in mind is that 3D printing. It's not like traditional tools. So on the left here we have a chisel that is a traditional tool and a disused to cut away at material during the process of making a part. But with a 3D printer, it works a little differently. It takes raw material called filament, deposit. It deposits it through a heated nozzle and the nozzle is on the right there. So now the thing you need to think about is filaments. You need to choose your filament wisely. Filament based 3D printers that come in lots of different types, the filaments. But the common filaments, they are PLA, p0, t g, and then abs. They come in kilograms spools. And then most of the time that look like the one on the picture here. So 3D printers, they used supports to help support prints. This is needed since it builds up layer one at a time from the build plate. So naturally, as you might imagine, overhangs need to have support material. Lastly, I would like to say that if this whole 3D printing process might seem a little complex, you know, while this course is intended to be an in-depth and help you tweak your settings and make the best possible print manageable every single time you do it. I hope I have not made this to complex and trying to make it simple to understand in a nice presentable keynote. So thanks so much for watching. 5. 3D Printer Parts: Welcome to this video. We will learn about the 3D printer parts that go into a 3D printer. So when you enter the world of 3D printing, there is a lot of 3D printers available. It can be quite mind-boggling at times to figure out. But one thing is for certain, if you choose a filament based printer, that is, all these different printers use filament and they all share the same basic parts to function. There are two different filament based printers available on the market today, Cartesian and non Cartesian. So there, here's a Cartesian printer with the arrow pointing to it. This type of printer moves along in x, y, and z axis. I'm sure you know what x and y axis means in the z-axis. But yeah, z axis means up and down. But I thought I would say that Z equals 0 generally means that the z-axis is now at the surface of the build plate of the 3D printer. Now, the next option here is, so the most common, I should say, of a non Cartesian printer is what you see here, a delta dot delta printer. So they still use the x, y, and z axis of course, but it's not the same as in individual motors controlling each axis. It's different in the Cart, Cartesian machines, that's what they do. But the delta machines, they are a bit more complex. So these 3D printers, both the Cartesian and non Cartesian, they have four or more motors, and they're called stepper motors, like you see here. And typically three motors are used to move the print head and or the platform around in the three-dimensional space. But in some cases, the print head moves in all three dimensions and the platform is stationary, but it depends on the printer. But yeah, in others, the platform may move in one or two dimensions. And yeah, but regardless of its setup, all motions of the different motors, they print in a three-dimensional space, the x, y, and z axis. And yeah, it's relative to the platform. And we'll be learning all about this later in this course as well. So there's also a motor for both Cartesian and non, non Cartesian 3D printers, delta printers, etcetera. There's a motor special in its used to push filament into the extruder nozzle. And that is also called the hot end. It's the hot part of the 3D printer. And also that Motor pulls it back and that's called retraction. So pushes or retracts the filament according to what it needs. So when a particular part of the model will have an area that it does not have, does not need material. And that it will retract in. The nozzle, will not deposit material because it doesn't need material through. Some printers may have more than four motors. For example, some printers have to extruders, so they need a motor for each of those. And some have more than one motor per axis. 3d printers have to have a computer processor in them to function. And most of the time these processes, processors originate from some open source standard. So the processes or controls the motors and it reads the G code that we learned about in the last video. So it takes out G code and it drives the film in onto the platform. It moves around making the design into a reality. So most printers out there these days have limit switches, as you can see here on the picture. And the limit switch is on the part of an axis that you wish for the axis to stop. And they look like these here. And it's just a little metal thing and it just pushes a button and it, it's a limit switch. And yet when the printer or the motor hits that and the printer axis will not go pass that point. But I should say this is the only feedback that 3D printers generally have. Most of the time if a print fails, it will just keep on printing. No matter what. There's not really any feedback to tell it to stop. So it will just keep on splitting up plastic into a hairy mess. So you need to keep an eye on your printer when it is running, because if halfway through print is doing this, you should stop it. Now let's talk about the extruder. Extruders right here in the picture. And it's also called the hot end or a part of it is the nozzle. And it is really hot. It melts the plastic filament that is fed into it from that one motor that pushes it and retracts it. And the plastic that's fed into it, it goes through the know-how and the hot nozzle and it lays it down that filament onto a line on the platform or on its layer, whatever layer it's on. And it makes the print layer by layer. And so as it goes along these lines, each layer, you can also keep in mind for other prints that you, you can also set a layer height. So fine layers, they will take a bit of time to pin. And they also have unfortunately an increased chance of errors or blockages in the nozzle. But when they're done, if it all works out well, that come out lot more quality and there are a lot more fine when the print is done. Another cool thing is that some 3D printers actually have two nozzles and they lay down different plastic on each layer. These machines can be slower because they will print with one nozzle then the other. So more time is taken to do that. But you can get more colorful results if you have two nozzles with two different colors of filaments. And this also machines with more than two nozzles. So there's a lot of options out there. When a print is done, you might be able to just potted off the platform, or especially if you have a flexible platform. But you may need to use some tools, like a scraper tool to take it off. But once you have it off and stuff like that, 3D printing and generals, relatively simple. And the machines are pretty simple the way they work. It's just, I don't know what it is. Some people just think it's really hard. But that's the goal of this class. It's to show you that they're actually pretty simple. And once you learn about them, you don't really need to learn more because you'll know how they work. But in this course we'll learn the best ways to optimize a printer so that you can print high quality parts. 6. Slicer and Host Software: All right, welcome to another video. We will go over slicer and host software and continue our journey of how to optimize 3D prints. So lets face it. 3d printers. They're kind of Dom, Actually, they're not very smart. And to make them work, we have to tell them exactly what to do. They can do a lot of things, don't get me wrong, but we have to tell them via detailed commands or the G code. And they will follow it to the letter. So they're so dedicated, but keep printing according to those commands even if it causes of fire like the picture here. So for that reason, it's a good idea to keep an eye on your machines while they print. So to tell them these commands, there is two types of software, slicers and hosts. Some software are both slicer and host. But let's dive into this and learn about this. So basically, these programs are software that take a model that was created in some other CAD or computer aided design software. And what they do is they turn those models into a document, a file, and series of commands. And that file that is exported from the slicer software is called the G code. And Slicers do that job. What they do, that's slicer. And they take the model and then they export it to the G code. And yeah, that's the slicers job. They take model and make it commands for a printer to follow as it prints that model. So slicers are called slicer software because their task is to take a model and slice it into layers and then create commands for a printer to follow as it deposits melted plastic one layer at a time. And I hope this graphic shows that pretty well. There's like a diamond model. And you can see that the diamond models sliced. And then the far right graphic is the printer printing those slices. Now host programs. They are little different in that they, they actually technically do the same job, but they talked to a printer a little differently. They talked to it directly over a USB connection. So host software, they, they send instructions to the printers and they monitor the progress and, and stuff. And it's easy to do that because it's a wired connection all the time. So that's really nice. And host programs, they have other features like manual controls. And those can come in handy if you're troubleshooting something. But so as you can see, a slicer versus a host software is not that much of a difference because for the wired connection with the host software. But it even gets more interesting because nowadays, many slicer software has a lot, have a lot of host type features included as well. So the difference sometimes can be a little blurry. So the way things work generally is that a 3D printer will operate without a host program by taking a USB drive. Usb drive with instructions saved to it from a slicer program. And then in the interface of the printer, you select the file from the USB or SD card to print. So in this course, we will learn about some common software and how to use them. We will learn about slicer spelt with a three, slice number three, our slicer. And then matter control. That's the M logo there. Slicers, the little gold S type Logo, Ultimaker Cura, that's the one with the C cure a logo, and then aquaporin that's self-explanatory, it's an octopus. So these are all free to download and you can use them as you wish. I'm not going over software like simplify 3D in this course because it costs money. So what I wanna do is make it so anyone can download the software and take this course without any additional cost. So all slicer software share some common things, but each software use and each printer you use, as well as each material you use will offer a different experience almost completely. Sometimes it's a different experience and you need to get to know your specific configurations and setups. So first of all, we'll be going over slicer, slice sir, the one with the three slice number three are, it's an older slicer program. You can kinda tell, looks kind of older, but it's still good and has its uses. So we will have a video about it and Slicers and open source software. And so that means it is maintained by a community of people who share the code to make the program run. That is really nice. But at the same time, updates are fixes, can come and go as they please. And they don't always happen as often as you might want them to, because it's just from people donated their time. So there's no obligation for them to do it technically. So. But the next one we will be talking about is matter control. Matter control. It's a host program and it has some basic CAD functions in it. So that makes it interesting. But as you can, you can, you know, as you can see, you can design some basic shapes. Then you can slice them, and then you can print simple models all in one software, one Host Program, which is pretty nice. And then we're gonna be going over Ultimaker QRA. So Ultimaker Cura. It's Cura, the software's boat by Ultimaker. And it's a great slicer software that's free. But it can slice difficult, prints quickly and fast one as well. So that's nice. And it's also an Open Source. But contrary to the slicer spelt with the three of the original one, the old one. That one is also open source, but cure is also open-source. It is mostly maintained by Ultimaker, the company that makes the, those expensive Ultimaker 3D printers. But they also released this slicer as a service to the community to work on third-party 3D printers other than their own. So that's kind of them and it's also open-source, so it has a lot of contributions that makes it nice. We will be using cure mostly in the course, but I will show how, show you how to use slicer and cure and some host program type features and those, but for the most part, o u was curia. But taken, take note, this is just a demonstration slicer that I'll be showing you that the cure, it's a good all-around slicer. But the concepts you will learn can be applied to a lot of other slicers as well. And then the next one will be talking about is OK to print. We'll go over OCT print. And this is a Host Program and it allows you to control your printer without a wired connection. So that's interesting. So it's a new technology on the block and it makes it so you can, you can have those program features wirelessly. This really helps for 3D printers with not much of a user interface as well. Sometimes a single setting in one program might correspond to a group of several settings in another. As you get more experienced with slicers, you'll develop a favorite program and it's a favorite settings to use most of the time. And these will also depend on your 3D printer model, what material use, what slicer use, and what you print with them. So in my experience, I have gone through a lot of printers and programs. And there's kind of a sweet spot that you eventually find with the printers, the materials and the programs that have good results every time. So it's a lot of trial and error, but hopefully this course can help you save costs by not going through a lot of those trials and errors and already learning them from here. But yeah, we will just follow along and Cura, it's just a demonstration using Cura. So don't get too hung up on Cura. But there are many more slicer software out there. But I've, I've picked the most common free software. So it's accessible to everyone that's taking this course as demonstration softwares. But look out for in future courses for both free and paid slicers and host programs. I've gotten a lot of requests for simplified 3D course, but look out for that in the future. And that's a paid slicer. So I'll just be using the free ones so you guys can download it as you wish and follow along. Thanks much. 7. Slic3r: Welcome to the next class and we're going to be looking at some software. It's called slicers, spelt with a three. So slicing software, they take an a 3D model that was developed in a CAD software, computer-aided design software. They take that and they make an STL stereo lithography file. Well, the STL file that was made from the CAD software, that they can load up this T-cells in a slicer software. And you know, that's, that's what they work with. And most of the time anyways. And then they export that as G code to the printer to print. And yes, so you need slicer software, which I explained thoroughly in previous videos. And the first example will be this slicer software here, it's the oldest of our examples. It's an old, old open-source software. So the slicer software, it's spelt with a three. So SLI, C Number three, r. So you can go to slicer with three and you can download that. And it's an old open-source software. But it is pretty powerful. But nevertheless, it's still relevant in my opinion. So what we have here, a slicer opened up with just the default settings. In C. All of the defaults. When you initially set up slicer, you can accept all the defaults. But I'll be showing you how to change some of this. And then all over here, you have the platter and so explain what the player is. So the plate or tab is the regular or slicer thing that you export the file and from as an S, from an STL and then exports as a G-code to a USB drive to be plugged into the printer. But if you wish, you can actually go to preferences here. And you can open up the controller tab. So just press show Controller Tab and it will require a restart. So I restarted slicer and now there is a controller tab. And what a Controller Tab does is it's configurable to basically be a host software, like I explained before, where you can actually have a secure USB connection plugged right into your printer and you can control it from there. And you have to remove a thumb drive and put it in or SD card or whatever it's, it's controllable and that's why it's collude controller. But see how the play testers for placing objects. And yes, so you can actually add it here. You're going to just add a cube or whatever you wish. And this tube is just as an example of what's on the build plate now. And that the controllers for controlling the printer over a secure connection. But the place later is the plate, basically the build plate of your printer. And this is just regular slicer functions. So once you add an object to slicer, you can click on it and you can actually press more. And that'll add a bunch of copies. Or you could rotate it. So rotating is an option. And then you can also move them around. So just click on them and drag and move them around. As you can see, it's somewhat of an older software, but it's still, still as relevant in my opinion, but you can also scale so it's 100%, so let's do 50% and that'll scale them down. And so for more, you can actually go to the Object menu and you can move stuff. Move the objects on your plate. Well, so you can rotate around the x, y, or z axis. You can near, you can scale, scale to size and whole bunch of different options. Most of them are available just right here, but Object menu has few of them that are not available, like the mirror options. Alright. Alright, so on the right side of the softwares Print Settings, filament and printer settings. And yeah, so that's self-explanatory. But what you can do is you can go to file and you can actually load config and and basically import or whatever. So you can do is if your were manufacturer of your printer, filament or anything. If they have a file for slicer, you can load the config. If not, then you actually have to manually go, press this gear icon. For example, if you're doing your printer or filament, filament settings or print settings. So print settings of course, is the actual print settings on preprint, filament and printer settings are different because they're specific to the printer or fulfillment. And of course, you would have to enter the correct settings for your, your printer, like the bed shape and all of these things. So many extruders that has et cetera. So the biggest suggestions I would have for print settings is go here to set the bed shape. And you can just type in the bed size for your yeah, here's a bed same shape and most of the time it's rectangular. And you just enter the size though, and then you can add extruders if there is any and rip rap, you can choose what, what, which one, but if there is the G-code flavor, if there is, choose the rep rap, if there is nothing else. If you don't know otherwise, RepRap is the default option. They're the best one for that. Yeah. So for filament settings, make sure to look at the filament manufacturer suggestions for filament settings. That's pretty straightforward. And then you can go to extruder here and you can change the size of your extruder. And then serial port. This is where you can enter the information for controller. So you can actually connect to a printer through this serial pellet part and stuff like that. So let's go back to play tr and press the gear icon and go to Print Settings. And it's best to leave this on default. But of course, as you get more advanced, it's best to adjust the layer heights and. The first layer heights and all of this. And so to get higher detailed print and to adjust the print settings for that. Now, for everything in that I have done, what you wanna do is each time you change something, say the nozzles are actually find nozzles or point to. What you wanna do is you want to go here and press the floppy disk icon. So if you keep on changing other things like filament infile, infile to 10%, the floppy disk icon, you need to press that. It's the good old fashioned software. You need to save it. And you can custom infill a teen and then press OK. And then when you go here to a printer, you can press custom infill setting and are actually st, save your print settings there. So go to the gear icon to open that again, printer settings. And you can select the default or the custom infill setting. And you can have limitless of different settings for print settings. So Sicer is quite amazing with this. You can choose a filament setting is best for your filament that you buy. And then if you have two different printers, you can just go down and select your custom profiles for your Printers. Select those each time you print, but then all the time have the same filament or vice versa. If you have one printer and two different filaments, select the filament setting that you have selected, and the print settings, etc. That's a nice bonus of slicer. It's, it's quite powerful when it comes to that. So you can download the program is and you can read all about it. Slicer is more of an advanced program. So, but in some ways it's more it's more advanced, but it's in that regard then it's harder to learn. But in the end, if you learn it, it can be more advanced for some of the things that you can do. It's an older program. It looks older, but it's still powerful and advanced. So this is why hymns still showing this to you and it's also free, so free and accessible. And yeah, if you're wondering to more user-friendly slicer, then slicer, but yeah, on the same framework, Prussia slicer. If you go to just Google per show printers and they'll show up. But pusher slicers are good. Ruskin of this open-source program. They just took this and branded it for their own printers and it really helps, but Brewster slicer can also be used for other printers, third project printers to, but yeah, so slicers good for advanced users and people that want some powerful features for our slicer. In the end, the choice will depend. And what you are printing, what printer you have, and what your style is through trial and error, which will work best for you. So next we'll be looking at other programs. Next few videos is simply an overview of these programs. Just to show you, give you an example of what they can do. And to help whet your appetite as it were. To help you choose which slicer and programs you wish to work with. It'll ultimately comes down to user preference. So I hoped, I hope to not regard, Thank you so much for watching. 8. MatterControl: So welcome to matter control. This is another software we're going to be sampling as an example. So I'll just do a quick overview of this software in this video. Symmetric control is like a, a design software you can design with simple shapes. It is also a slicer, and also it is a host program where you can connect directly to your printer via a wired connection. So Matter control is pretty powerful and it's maintained by a group called matter hackers. And you can go ahead and get matter control at Mehta So what's matter control? There's a bunch of tabs here. So on the hardware tab, you can have your printers listed here where you connect to your printers. In the Design tab, this is where your designs will go and where you will get your basic 3D editing as well as your slicing. And then the library is where you can actually store your designs that you have, that you, or you can buy designs as well. But yeah, the libraries where you can store your designs that you make or you buy. So let's go to the hardware tab. And here you can press this little button right here, this plus button create printer. And here you can search for your printer that you are using. So curiosity, for example, and her three. So you can actually, so it'll attempt to automotive checked your printer. But you can also do manual connection and stuff like that. So then you can connect. But connection timed out because it's not connected, connected, but make sure that you wouldn't have it connected via USB connection or SD card connection connected to the USB of your computer. So obviously with this build editor, you right-click to rotate around your plate. Middle mouse button click to pan around and stuff like that. Fairly standard features for a 3D editing experience. And yeah, you can also click this cube to move around as well. So you could actually add content. You can just import projects, or you can click quickly, add some basic shapes right here. So that's easy enough. And then you compress, compress slice, and it will slice it for you. And then this little bar here, you can zoom in here and you can simulate what it will be like. It's nice and fast in this regard. So matter controls pretty nice when it comes to this. You can overview what it will be like layer by layer as a prince. So that's really important. All right, so while we're doing this, let's go ahead and click on this tab over here called Slice sayings. And here there's some predawn stuff like standard fine and coarse material like PLA and stuff. But something that I would like to show you here is you can click this Edit Selected settings or you can actually add new settings. And here you can add a new setting. And here you can go through and edit all the detail 0.01. and different things like that. First layer thickness, you can edit all of this, the infill, percentage, and different things. So they can edit the speed adhesion support filament. And once you save it, let's just exit out for now. But once you save it, you can actually then from this dropdown, it's saved already, but so quick that you can actually edit selected settings as well. And you can rename it here, test and close. And so now you can see that test right here. And so this is extremely useful for, say, your building apart somewhat in mass production type environment. You can just have a profile for the material and the quality, and all the settings can be saved. So if you're printing the same part over and over again, this is definitely what you wanna do. So yeah, let's go ahead and go to fine detail and go click Slice settings quick SICE. And now you can see this should reflect those changes. Now with the matter control, you can bring in some other objects here. Let's go like this and this. So obviously this object will need supports. So I kinda want to show you how this is done. Right here, the toggle support, you can do that dropdown. And there's a few settings here for support, but you can generate supports. But with matter control, sometimes the automatic supports. So if you don't want automatic supports, you can go ahead and go to this thing and then remove the automatic sports. And he or she can bring in a new piece. And let's go ahead and do this. And then what you can do is you can make that newest piece actually support entirely. And so when it prints it will. So you can slice that. And when it prints it, we'll see that that is supports there and be more easily removable. So in matter control, there is also a control tab, figures matter control. And what this is, is it's a way you can control your template, like your printers temperature and all of the other things here from your computer. So you could actually literally have your printers in another room. And from a computer you can turn on the temperature and all these things and control your printer. And print from matter control, it's really nice. So lastly, I would like to show you the library tab. You can actually go in here and sign up, sign up for matter hackers account or formatter control. And you can store your files in here or you can go to the store and you can purchase fire files with an account. But yes, so that's matter control. It's really nice for a person that wishes to just have a bit of everything, bit of cat, little sample of CAD software. You slice a slicer as well as a host program. So that's mattered control. I just wanted to show you that in case you're interested. Thanks for watching. 9. Cura: Alright, so in here we will introduce Ultimaker Cura. And this is the one that we will use mainly to demonstrate all the stuff in this course. It's kind of a standard one. It's an open source program. But mainly it was maintained by Ultimaker, the company that makes the Ultimaker machines. And Cura is their software or their slicer. It's a typical Slicer where you take an STL and slice it becomes a decode from that. So like I said before, it's maintained by an open-source community. But the lion's share of maintenance and contribution comes from Ultimaker, hence Ultamaker or Cura. Alright, so this is the software, this is what it looks like. Going from left to right. You can click here and you can have your preset printers. So you can add a printer or it can manage your printers. So if you have fewer open, opening up Cura, brand new and stuff, you'll add a printer. And here you can actually just add printer that's on your network. Or you can add a non networked printer. So that's network is kinda of a host type feature of Cura, but the non-network printer you can just select from here. So you can select all the printers. If you have an Ultamaker, that's the one that's shown, shown first because they're biased. Of course, there's custom of course. But yeah, so there's a lot of printers, reality 3D, like the end or three and so on. And Persia printers, they all work and are compatible with Cura. You can choose your Persia and stuff. But what you'll wanna do is if you have a custom printer. So yeah, you can go to Ad Network printer. Just open that up again. And right below Ultimaker, that's the one that's highlighted at the beginning because while it's ultimately cure, so they want to highlight their own printers. But if for some reason your printer is not included, which is unlikely, but if it's not included in the pre, pre-done menu here, just press custom, custom fff printer, you can add that. And then in here, you can add all the details of your printer machine, of the bed, width, depth, height, and build plate. What it's like in all these different merlin and whatever. And you can choose all your settings here, and then also your extruder settings. But we're not gonna do that. I'm gonna go back to the under three for an example. But one thing I would like to mention though, is say you did have your enter three or whatever printer you have, click on that and then click Manage printers. You can go here to enter three, and you can put press machine settings. And that will bring up the same window as the custom fff printer, where you can add your own custom stuff in case you wished to edit the existing pre-done printer template. Ultimaker already had. All right, so moving on. Here we have generic PLA. If you'd just click that, there's little custom drop-down menu. And here is material. You can click and select which material you'll win lot would like, and there's a few brands here, managed here. But most of the time what I do is I put generic and PLA. If I'm selecting PLA and, and then the nozzle, you can select which nozzle you have on your printer. And that's where you select that. And then over here is print settings. It's just kind of an overview of print settings. You can do alter quality, especially if you're at 0.2 millimeter nozzle. And we'll be going into this Print Settings here. Alright, some from here, you can select all your settings. But sometimes printer comes with a profile that you can actually go ahead and use. So click on Ultimaker cure up here. Click Preferences, Click profiles, and you can import press here and you can import your profiles. They're ones that you make or ones that other people have made, especially companies that are shipped with a printer. Profiles are handy as well. Yes. So this profile section, this is where you can select an another place to select that. So I showed you Ultimaker preferences, profiles. But you can also go ahead and just go here to profile and then click manage profiles. And that'll bring up the same window. But, and then it will show all the profiles that you can select from here. Of course, there's just the recommended button here. The recommended and you can have recommended print settings are easy to manage from here. But custom, of course, is nice and custom. So that's that. One thing I would like to say is this is the prepare mode. So you right-click to orbit around and stuff. And you middle click to pan. So you can actually click file, open files. And you can add your STLs here. Alright, so what you can do is you can actually go ahead and press slice. And that will slice your cube here, ready to reprinted, saved to a file or save two removable, which your, your SD card or USB drive or something like that. And another thing is prepare mode or prepare motives. What we were on preview mode is this. And here you can actually go ahead and let's zoom in here. And you can preview layer by layer how your print will be printed. It's pretty nice. And then monitor mode. This is another way to monitor printers, more like a host type program. We'll be going over this later. But yeah, repair mode and preview mode. Those are two nice modes. But yes, so like I showed you before, if we click on this, there's some basic settings here. This has meant for just a basic print. But if you custom. This is about one of the most advanced amount of settings available in a slicer. But if you click this little icon here, you can actually click all or expert or all or some. And what this will do is it will load up every single option for you. And you can see the list is quite extensive. And that's just that. Now there's many more dropdowns. So the list can be quite extensive. And you can throw a lot with that many, many settings. But generally by a Keep it up basic. That's good enough for me. Right? So that's nice to, nice to know. And so here if you just click on your model, you can go ahead and move your model around. You can go ahead and click here and you can scale. Let's just go into out a bit. And there's rotate. So it can rotate as your wish. And there's mirror. You can go ahead and just mirror it. And PR model settings so you can select Print per models support blocker. This is important. Of course with this cube can't really demonstrate it, but actually you can. So let's go ahead and rotate here. And you can actually go ahead and put a support blocker there, and supports will not be there. But I'll just go ahead and delete that. And here is custom sports. This is actually where you can do is go ahead with custom supports. You can add custom supports. And so you can turn off supports entirely and just add these little custom sports if you wished to just have them instead of having an automatically generated support. So that's, that can be handy sometimes. And then cure also has a marketplace. So I can say here customs ports needs an update. And it's actually it's actually from the marketplace. It's, it's not there when you just press install Ultimaker, so it's good to go head. Has to be thinking for a while. But, so this is like the whole amount of plugins that you can get. But let's go ahead and click on OK to print connection, you can actually go ahead and collect connect to Cura talked print. But many options with custom plug-ins from the marketplace, like the customer sport's pretty useful. So that's Cura, just a basic overview. We'll be talking a lot more about Cura and be using Cura as our example slicer program for this course. But thanks for watching and hope you learned a lot. 10. OctaPrint: Many of the programs used to operate 3D printers are focused on slicing with some host capability. Electorate print is primarily a host Program and is designed to run on a Raspberry Pi. It runs as a web server and you can access its interface through a web browser. Several of the major slicers also have the ability to talk to it directly via its API. Aquaporin is an open-source program, will talk about what occupant is and why you want to use it. So a Raspberry Pi is a small computer that runs the Linux operating system. Raspberry Pi's. They cost around $35 in the United States anyways. And that price is not including the power supply cables and an SD card for the operating system. So if you run OK to print on a Raspberry Pi, you got a lot of benefits of running a printer from a dedicated computer without trying, trying out, without, you know, without having a larger, expensive computer, taking up your space and your money. Because Raspberry Pi's are pretty affordable. So some 3D printer manufacturers, they recommend controlling their printer with awk print. So a typical setup looks like this. The pi is powered independently and is on a wireless network, is connected to the printer via USB cable. Ok, to print. It's kind of difficult to set up though. So there's actually some good tutorials on the Internet. Of course the better ones are the official website. And so there's a lot of system specific things you need to know. And we will not go over that part here, but you can find very detailed setup instructions at the site we are showing here octa, forward slash download. So the recommended procedure involves downloading the software in the form of a disc image called octopi for the Raspberry Pi setup. Anyways, this includes a version of the Raspberry Pi operating system with the reprint pre-installed. So once you've installed it on your SD card and configured it with some settings for your network and printer, you will use it to boot your Raspberry Pi. The hardest part is often getting the Raspberry Pi onto your local Wi-Fi network. So if you're on a network that requires you to login through a webpage, you may indeed need to temporarily hookup at mouse, a keyboard, and a monitor, your Raspberry Pi. You may also find the configuration is easier if you simply use a direct Ethernet connection to your Raspberry Pi. So occupant is not a slicer, that as something you need to understand. And it is intended to be used in conjunction with a slicer. So a slicer creates G code that you can upload to OK to print. So you can do this directly from some slicers using an API key. So what you wanna do is you wanna go to the Settings menu, just the toolbar icon. You wanna quick API and then you want to copy the key that you find there. Then for example, if you are using the slicer software, we wanted to go to the printer settings. And under General, you can enter the address of the machine running octa print. So in the next box you can press paste in your API key. So you should look up directions for that on octo prints website doctor for more information about that. But if you are using Cura, you will need to install the ocher print connection plug-in in the marketplace. But after that, after Latins installed, it requires a restart for Cura. So keep that in mind. Next, go to your printer settings within Cura and click the button that says connect to octa print, select your aquaporin instance and paste in the API key. Yeah, so once you are all set up, you can use Octave print to load a file, start a print or send single commands. So to load a sliced file into Octave, you can upload it or drag a file onto the aquaporin window. You may get an option to upload the file to occupant or to the printers SDK card. So just keep this mind loading the file onto the printers SD card is usually extremely slow and you'll have less flexibility once it is done. However, if your printer has its own LCD interface, you will have to select this option to make the file available there. So typically, if you're using octa print, you won't be working with your printer in that way. Because that's the whole point of entrepreneurs to print a file that was uploaded previously though, you can just click on the files list on the left hand side of the screen and the window there. And you can just click on the files and then you'll have your to files. There are icons next to each file to display additional info. So you can also download, you can remove, you can load the file for printing or to load the file and begin the print. So if you select the Control tab there next to temperature, if you select that tab, you'll be able to move the print head while you're not printing. So that's a handy feature. And you can also make adjustments to the flow and feed rate there as well. And the Control tab, the temperature tab allows you to adjust the temperature of the extruder or of heated bed during a pin or to preheat them before you begin one. So the terminal tab allows you to see what commands the printers executing and also will send the printer individual G-code commands. Alright, so aquaporin is a good choice for controlling your printer. If it's an older model, the otherwise would need to be directed controlled by a laptop. It can also be a good choice if you want to control your printer remotely. Especially that can come in handy if you have like a print farm or something. So occupant is a nice option and it's free, so it's covered in this course. Thank you for watching. 11. Slicer Settings Overview: Welcome to the next video slicers settings overview. So with 3D printing, the only problem, in my opinion is that you call it 3D printing, color 3D printer. A 3D printer because of the word printer. So you often think of a printer like a paper, ink, jet printer or whatever. And it applies not all the time, but it implies that you just press a button and you let it print. And most of the time those inkjet printers print by just pressing a button on the computer and it prints. They have their fair share of issues as well. But still, they worked for most of the time. And, you know, most of the time, this can be the case where it works for a 3D printer as well. But you have to keep in mind that you are making a physical item. And it is more than likely until you have the settings dialed in any ways. And hopefully this course helps you with that. But it's more than likely that something will go wrong. You're making a physical thing with a 3D printer. It's completely different than other printers. So that word printer, I want you to make sure you don't correlate those ideas with the other renters. So you have to take into account all the properties of the material that you're using, the filament. And some materials will melt at lower temperatures are higher temperatures. Some prints may have tall spires are, are skinny elements, which we might want to take into account of when we are, if we want to print them little slower so they can print those elements or faster if you want speed. Yeah. So it's important to think about how the physical printing process actually works. And when you might have to sometimes strategically lie to your software, printer settings are not entirely independent from each other. Often when you change one, you need to change the others. Where that happens, I will let you know how the relationship correlates with all of that. As far as this practical anyways. And I will try to show you how to do it with your own tests as well. But going forward, I will be demonstrating mainly in Ultimaker Cura slicer software. It just keeps things a little more simple that way. So we don't have to bounce between different software and tools and can kinda get mixed up. But that being said, of course, most of the things that you will apply and cure can be applied in any other slicer software as well. So the Settings I explained in Kuru will be found another software, but maybe names, something else. So I'll show a few examples of that for those cases. So yeah, slicer settings are often interrelated and you often can't change just one in isolation. I'll let you know how some of them relate to each other. So the key thing to keep in mind is that the translation from a model on a computer screen to a real thing and plastic isn't always perfect. So that model we have there we're looking at, looks pretty perfect, right? But imagine trying to 3D print that. Most of the time, it won't come out perfect, like it looks here. So there are no consequences for a model on your screen. But when you try to enter the 3D printing realm to print that model on the screen. You just have to keep in mind that you're printing in thin air. Put plastic will be mean lain down layer by layer. So if in doubt, take a step back and think about how your physical product will be printed and try to act. To understand the 3D printer, you must become the 3D printer. Just kidding. But you just need to understand that it will be printing layer by layer, put supports exactly where they need to be, changed the speed accordingly, like those hairs they're coming down from. That would be a difficult one. But it's not impossible. But yeah, so that's no for this video, just wanted to kinda give you an overview what we're going to be covering. Thanks for much, so much for watching. 12. Walls and Infill: Welcome to this video. In this video, we're going to be talking about perimeter and infill. So when you work with 3D printers, the end result, the 3D prints, they have a surface and you can kind of determine how smooth that surface is by the settings that you choose. And so I'm going to introduce you to some of the terms in this video. And so if a 3D print, there's perimeter or a wall or a shell, that's what they call them. That's the outside of the 3D print. And on the end cell inside is called the infill. So I'm going to demonstrate that to you now. So to demonstrate this, I'm going to go ahead and click here, and I'll put in my cube here that has a hole. So I'm just gonna go ahead and zoom in a bit. We can take a look at this 3D print. And I'm just gonna go ahead and scale it up just a bit so we can see things a little bit better. Okay? And then I'm gonna go ahead and select a nozzle that's a little more typical of a nozzle. Such a fine point. And then press preview. And okay, in order to see the layers you have to press slice. And down here on the lower right, you can see the amount of time it would take with all the settings that you have to print. That's the Cura time that they have there. Yeah. So in Cura, there is the simulation of a 3D print from the very first layer to the 208 layer. That's how many layers it will take to make this 3D print. And you can see there is the wall around it. And you can also see this animation down here. We'll show the nozzle and animation of how it will print that layer. And it will print pretty fast just around there. And then it will put all the infill in there as well. Yeah. So that's what this is is infile. And you can determine how much infill you want, and you can determine how thick your wall is. Again, the wall can be called perimeter or shell, but I like to call it Wall. So when you are printing with filament based printer, you will typically use. Okay, so here's the shell and here's the wall thickness. If you just go ahead and let's press one and press slice so that we'll slice that. So we can see here is the wall is little more thick though. And then let's go ahead down to infill. And with a filament brace printer, the infill technically will be between 15 to 20% generally for the infill. And you can choose what type of infill you wish a grid. We had it cubic, I think, but this is the grid system. And there's many different options for that. Of course, as you can see here, when you get to the top, there's a few layers of just full on wall. That's the top wall, the top perimeter, that top shell, whatever you wanna call it, and wall thickness, that determines how many layers there is. So believe it or not, I view select one, there's two. So if you select two, there's going to be four. And I'll show you that here. So, yeah, so now you can see there's four wall layers. So in most slicers, but it especially Cura, there's some standard settings. So you can click on Recommended. And you can actually choose what standard settings you would like. So you could choose 0, 15% infill, gradual infill, support he and all this stuff. And a lot of this will be chosen for you, just kind of a standard setting. But in Coase custom button, you can also choose standard settings, low-quality, super quality. Let's try low-quality. And we can discard all our changes just to show you what's going on here. And now, it will change accordingly. And let's do super quality slice. And now it just takes a little longer to slice. And it will take a lot more type via hours because it's lot more quality. So wall thickness, you can see here that it's 11 millimeter. We changed it. And so actually change this back to standard quality. And let's change the wall thickness to one millimeter. And you can see the wall count will determine the number of walls when calculated by wall thickness. So technically this will be two millimeters you could actually do for and it will be four of those. So there's many options for you to trues. Yeah, there's one thing to keep in mind. If you want your printer to be fast, you can use fewer parameters. So I'll use to, but at the same time seems like twice faster or at least lot faster. But at the same time, you do one, at least a few line while counts, while line counts. There just saw your perimeters. A little more strong stuff. Of course, that's the whole purpose of the infile to keep it the innards, the inside of the cube strong as well. So yeah, you can go ahead and choose how many millimeters of wall thickness you would like. And it will go ahead and change the wall count. So let's slice that should take a little longer because of what's going on here. And you can see now the wall, the outside wall is really thick. There's many lines. And that by comparison, it makes the time to print it a lot more as well. I'm gonna go ahead and right-click and clear the build plate. I'm gonna go ahead and select my Finder. And I'm going to drag in another cube here. And with this cube, it's, it's where the The cut inside. While you can see there's model errors, but the cut inside, the wall thickness there, it's going to be really, really difficult to print. So let's go ahead and preview this. Let's do standard quality. And let's do one millimeter that's slice. And I can see here, it will not print the wall around that. Even though the model technically has a wall, it's just too thin for the 3D printer. So you might think, well, I'm just going to increase my wall thickness. Let's increase it four times per slice. And you will find that it actually really doesn't fix that. All it does is it adds a lot more time to the print. So adding wall thickness won't fix these little errors like this, where the hole is just to the wall right here is just to it's smaller than a print line, you know. So that's something you have to keep in mind. So now I'm going to show a smaller things, going to clear the build plate going in my Finder and just put that cube and their skill up here. This is just a solid cube. So now I'm going to make this standard quality, discard the changes that we've done, make the wall thickness one. And now I'm going to scroll down to infill. And we're going to actually have that 20%. And let's slice it so we can see what's going on. This is kind of what we've done so far. It's cubic mix, kind of cubic lattice type work of infill. You could change that to grid. So let's slice that. And you can see now it's a grid type system. So you can change it to a lot of stuff generally. Depending on what you're working with. It involves lot of trial and error and figure out which infill you would like best. I used generally grid, but that's just my personal preference. Each model will vary in its needs and structural durability. So if we actually go head and 40% for the grids, what that will do is that it will make more grids, thus making the model that much more stronger. But it will increase print time. So it's like three hours basically. So let's go back down to 20%. And you can see it shaves off pretty much a whole hour off of that print time. So it's a lot of give and take to figure out which works best for production value. I mean, if you're printing something and you just don't care about how long it will take. You just wanna extremely quality. A lot of this stuff you can just put up really high, though your model will last long time and it will be really strong. But if you're printing parts off in a production print farm type environment, you'll have to play around with these settings to make sure that you get a good print time, but keeping the structural integrity of the model. So in this video, we learned about print infill and the perimeter wall or the shell of a 3D print. And yeah, you might be thinking, well, I'm set to go, but we haven't talked about a solid model where there is absolutely no. It's just completely a brick and it's completely solid. Infill is like 100% basically. And then we've also talked, haven't talked about a hollow model where there's actually no infill. Those special use cases are possible and are used sometimes. So we'll talk about that later. But anyways, thanks for watching. Hope you learned a lot about the infill and the walls for 3D prints. Thanks, bye. 13. Hollow and Solid: Most of the time you can get away with one or two parameter walls. And an MPhil problem, something like 15 to 20%, you know. So like we saw in the last video, but there are two special cases that come up a lot. Printing a hollow or printing a solid part. In these cases, the standard selections just won't cut it. What happens with 0 infill? This is a hello print. Your print will need to bridge across the open space at the top. That works with this cube because it is really small. You can manage to do that. But it might be a little more difficult for larger cube or it might be completely impossible for other geometry. If you want to print something hollow without a top, that is called a vase print. There are two ways to do a vase print. So here we are in Cura and we will look at a vase print. This is a vase type model, but as you can see, it's not a vase, it's solid. But don't worry, we'll figure this out. Yeah. So one option to do is to use the spiral allies outer counter option. So special printing mode. So to get to that, you want to click here, go to Print Settings and click the sandwich icon right here. Click that and click Advanced. And then just scroll down. You might have to open some of these tabs. Scroll down until you find spiral lies. There we go. Spiral, spiral-like outer contour. Just click that. And then also press smooth spiral as contours as well. Click Slice and click preview. And now you can see that it did it. It's now if A's. So yeah, let's just go up and down here. You can see it just prints nicely like that. And so that's what it does. It's aspiring allies type. So basically what I'm trying to say is spiral eyes. Outer contour is intended to prevent the appearance of a CME along one side. So in some cases, though, it can actually make matters worse. So my recommendation is that you just experiment with turning this on and off, print with it on and see what happens if it principle, well, here's it. If it doesn't, then you may want to use a different mode. So let's figure out what to do without spiral eyes, outer contour if, if that just doesn't work. So we're back to our solid cube here. Let's go back to Basic Settings. Make things a little more easy. So, so you might be thinking, well, I just turned the infile to 0 and have no top layers, right? Um, but you can also set infill and top thickness manually though with this situation. But not with the special spiral mode that just automatically removes it. But the old school mode, sometimes it is called old-school vase mode. Since before this special spiral mode, this is the way that vases were printed. So one of the benefits of this method is that you can still use multiple parameters or wall thickness if you want your vase to have a thicker wall. So let's go ahead and do that. Let's make our wall thickness little more. Alright, so what you wanna do is you want to put the top layer to 0 and the infill density to 0 slice. And this is what old-school mode is. You can see it's a vase. But the benefit of this is you can see that the walls now are pretty thick, so you can actually take the wall thickness. Let's slice it again. We doubled it to number four instead of two psi set again. And now you can see the wall thickness is law thicker. So that's the benefit of the old school vase mode. So the other extreme would be printing a solid or like 100% infill. And you wanna do this if you want to print something transparently and clear material. But to do this successfully, your speed, temperature, and cooling settings may need to be adjusted. Printing slowly gives the plastic more time to fill in the space without trapping bubbles of air. You may also need to carefully adjust the flow of plastic to fill the gaps. If you wanted to completely remove the air bubbles without excess material causing printing problems. Most of the strength of the solid parent could be achieved using 90% infill. So let's just go ahead and do that personality percent infill and top layer, which is put one to see how that goes, right? And now this should be relatively a solid model. Yeah, that's, that's going to print about solid right there. But if you really want your print to be 100% infill for like transparency, for example, you're better off doing 100. But I find that 90% infill works better if you're not going after that transparency. And yet you still want a solid model. But as you can see, that definitely adds to the print time, five days or days, ten hours, as compared to, let's try it with 0 again, 0. And the old-school spiral mode. Let's see how long that takes, even with a wall thickness. Okay, so that's one day Now let's take, take it down to two slice that see how long that takes 14 hours. So definitely All of that affects the print time you off to keep that in mind when you decide to print something, you have to keep, you know, if you're one, it really solid and strong and you have five days to spare. Why not? But I'm going to show you another little trick for this solid stuff. So I can have the infill density 0%, but we can do is you can set your solid top and bottom surface thickness. So top thickness, bottom thickness, top there's bottom layers to 895 because that's the amount of layers that are there. So let's do 895 right there. And bottom layers 895. And let's see the precise and slice thoughts. And it'll take five days of course, because that's what's going to happen with solid model. And oftentimes, you can try it. Five days is a long time to spare, but I almost suggests tricking the software a little bit and doing that top and bottom layers works better for me than doing the ninety-percent infidel or whatever. For some reason this totem top and bottom layer thing kinda works a little bit better. Anyway. So in this video we saw how to depart problems, standard selection of parameter and infile values, and to create hollow or solid prints because infile will interfere with transparency. Just as an example. And it won't be quite as strong as completely solid print. But you can use these two modes as you wish. Like, especially if I'm a sprint is needed, that's needed for a hollow situation. Solid print, needed for an extremely, extremely strong print, something. So thanks for watching. That's hollow and solid prints. 14. Surface Details: Yes, so we all know that all you should know by now that 3D printers build up an object layer by layer. But the side effect of this is that each layer that is made will have some degree of texture to it because it is layers of a print. And some on the surface of the print. Layers will be seen most of the time, at least with FDM printers. Yeah, but sometimes you can post process to print to remove the lines like seen here, sending them down, for example, with sandpaper. But before you go into all that postprocessing stuff, why not try to control a bit of the appearance right off the bat, right on the printer bread, right when it's printing, make sure that you can kind of under this video is all about that. So you can understand what's going on under the hood and control how it looks before you even have started printing it. So there's a lot you can do, right? And the slicer to help control the outcome of a prince surface finish. Yeah. So one small one thing before I continue, I would like to say is one small, simple thing you can do is change the orientation of your print. And we saw that already in the last video of how that can help. But continuing on the bottom of a plate, a build plate in a printer that will give different results. Some people use glass spilled plates, some people use metal. Some people use a texture build plate like you see here, or like magnetic mats, whatever like I use. But these all give different surfaces. And inevitably the player, the print that sticks to the surface, that part will be textured as such. The print that is attached to the build platform. And there's our turnout much a person can do with the build plate. Other than choosing a certain type of build plate for a certain type of texture defect that most closely matches with the rest of your print. So we know that bottom of a print will get its texture from the surface you're printing on. But what about the top layer? There is a little different situation. What the top layer, and there will be visible lines and the top. And basically that's the path that the nozzle followed to print those lines. So I have Cura here open with a simple little cube shape to show you what's going on. Secure, Cara has a few settings you can use to affect the texture of the top surface. The settings are most easily found by searching. So first we're going to look for, so just go Pat for search. And you can see top and bottom pattern. That's what we're searching for is top pattern. The bottom pattern is less affected by this. But anyways, so there's line, there's concentric and the zigzag. So it's actually do lines and slice and preview. And you can see. Let's zoom in just a tad to understand what's going on here. So that's lines and actually zigzag view slice. There's not much difference other than it will zigzag the print n versus lines. There's not much difference with that, but then there's concentric slice that. And you can see that's a bit of a different design there. So concentric is little different. On the other, it uses lines that follow the curvature of the perimeter to fill in the space almost as if you had used an infinite wall thickness on those layers. So if you want to hide this top surface texture entirely, you can actually enable irony. Irony. Does a second pass over the top surface of a print with little or no plastic being extruded at the same height as the previous pass. The idea is to use the end of the hot nozzle to remount the top two, you know, kinda iron the top surface and just overlaps it. So it just makes the surface smoother. And this adds extra time to your print because you'll have filament sitting in. But yeah, just let's go here. Where you can do is just go iron. It's there. And you can click Enable ironing. Alright, slice. And you can see that in here and curate even shows the irony. Pn will help iron that out and make it look a little nicer. But you should keep in mind that, you know, this of course adds extra time, in this case just a few more minutes. But nevertheless it's good to know. And then also it also increases the likelihood of a filament jam in the nozzle since there's just filament stuck in there and that it's not actually extruding. It can have a chance of ruining the rest of your print. So for this reason, you may want to enable the option to iron only on the highest layer of a print. But what about smoothing the sides of a print? Nozzles don't have a consistent geometry that b can be used to smooth the sides of a print. In any case, lowering the nozzle to smooth the sides would risk running into other parts of the print. Cura does have one other interesting option that might make the layer lines less obvious. So let us show that fuzzy skin. It's an option. And what it does is it randomizes and it kinda adds noise to the motion. The outermost perimeter wall or shell of your, of each layer that is laid down. So rather than making things smoother, this adds additional texture that may result in a more consistent appearance, especially if you're printing on at texture bed with the sites to match. This can also help to conceal prints artifacts like layer transition seems and the ripples that may many printers often produce. And the walls as the corner around the walls and stuff like that. But yeah, any random noise to the surface will affect the tolerance of the shape. And so you keep that mind. And this will effect probably the MAR, I'm just more desirable look is just, you know, make it look like it's meant to be. So if it's going to be ruined with layer lines, why not increase that threefold? Make sure looks like it's meant to be. But depending on how your print will be used and whether the reason one surface or another needs to be smooth. You may want to reorient a print or try some of the settings that I have just shown you. So I hope that helped. Thanks. Watching. 15. 3D Print Skirts: Oftentimes, new people that are getting into the 3D printing world, new 3D printed enthusiasts. They will find that a 3D print will not stick to the printer bed. And then 3D print when complete, will look something like this disaster, this picture here. So in this video we're going to understand what causes this in the 3D printing process. And well, what causes it is the 3D print comes loose. But the 3D printers not smart enough to stop just because it's a machine and it keeps following the G code rules directions to the letter. It keeps on going no matter what, even if the print fall off. So this video and the next one are dedicated fiddling with some settings and a slicer will be using Cura that will make it. So your 3D print will stick to the bed, or at least have a better chance at doing so. So we have cure open here with a basic cube. So we can demonstrate with these adhesion settings. So a skirt is a line of plastic the printer draws around when you, your print. When you want to print your print. But a skirt is a way to prime your nozzle before it begins to print itself. So if you didn't quite have the filament all the way into the nozzle before he started printing their skirt insures. You'll have the plastic flowing well by the time you get to actual print. It also shows you if you messed up placing a print and it will saw. I'll show you right here. If it gets too close to the edge of the better something, place an imprint too close to the edge of the platform. Cure will prevent you from printing it because of the skirt. So to access this uniqueness, go to scroll all the way down. And then you'll have built adhesion. And you can choose skirt and you can slice it there. Let's preview it. And you can see here we have the skirt. And one thing I would like to say is if you put the cube, they're concise it. But curio will demonstrate to you that it's unable to slice if it's too close to the bad, even if the print can still print this. You know, the slicer will not be able to cure, is smart enough. It won't. Here you get where I'm trying to say the skirt touches over the edge of the bed and won't print. So that's one very useful thing of sqrt. And next is a brim. Let's try the brim. Just select brim, slice and brim. So Abram is similar tourists skirt, but it with a 0 distance from the print. This way it will stick to the first layer while preventing or it will print printing and you can peel it away once the parents complete. You can use a brim to stabilize a print so that we're truly well. It also helps rent corners for more pin-up because they're kind of fuse to them down to the surface. And some slicers like hero we just saw, this is a feature, but in others, you may need to create one using the skirt feature with the 0 distance from the print. So that is the brim and the skirt. Those will solve 90% of your printing needs. But if they turn out not to be enough, you'll need to try other techniques and we will find about those. Talk about those in the next video. Thanks for watching. 16. First Layer: Welcome to the next video in this course. This video is going to be about your first layer and rafts to different things. But mainly it's all talking about the first layer and how to establish a good first layer so the rest of your print can work well. So yeah, here we have our cube in Cura, just the basic stuff. Sometimes a 3D print just will not stick to the print bed, even using basic techniques like a skirt or brim. So in the last video, we learned about those two things. They help. But, and this view, let's learn about a more aggressive way to make the 3D print stick to the platform. And that is to make adjustments to the height and extrusion width of the first layer. Or might need to add another printed layer below your print called a raft in difficult situations. So let's see how it's done. Let's see how we can do it with this cube here. So what we wanna do is increase the height and the extrusion width of our first layer. Alright, so what you wanna do is you want to click on this sandwich icon, just go ahead and click expert or all whatever it is. Just so you can see all of the options available to you. And the first layer stuff will be in the quality group right here. This quality. So which will wanna do and curious, you can actually search for it. You can actually search initial layer. But so yeah, just go here, initial and it'll show up. But you don't need to search for because, well, you can know it's already here. Initial layer heights and initial layer line width, stuff like thought right there. But so what we wanna do is we want to increase the heights and the extrusion width of the first layers. So either way, you can set your initial layer height to 0 or 0.4. Initial layer height 0.4. All right, there we go. And then what you'll wanna do is go down to initial layer width. Just go ahead and press 200%. Now what you can do is you can slice. Let's preview. And let's go down as we print away. And you can see now the initial layers there are quite thick. So we can see our normal layer height is 0.12.12 millimeters. And this means that 0.4200%, that'll be like pushing out four times the layer height and the width and stuff. Basically, the layer width will be double and there'll be four times the layer heights. So our extruder might have some trouble keeping up with this, or it might not be able to fully heat plastic moving through it so quickly. So you need to keep that in mind. But the initial layer of the print is generally printed slower than the rest. But that's because we're pushing so much plastic through the extruder. You may want to lower the study and even more. A lower initial layer speed also reduces the likelihood of the first layer lines being torn up as the printing. In many cases, this is all you need to do to get your print to stick well. Making the first layer lines, you put down thicker and wider, pushes more plastic down to the first critical layer. That way your print can be stuck to the print, the plate. That way it doesn't flop around halfway through the print. Yeah, that just increases the chance that the layer will stay in place during the course of your print. So for prints like this, that's a works really well. All right, so yeah. What you wanna do then is just go down to speed and find this speed grouping and search for this initial layer, speed, speed, speed. And just take that down to whatever you think will work well. And it will make it so it prints a little slower in those initial big layers. That'll just help it work out better. And you might even want it smoke slower. It's good to practice. But one thing wanting to get across to you is that initial layer speed should be slower if you have these initial layer heights and widths, larger, thicker. So another thing I want to talk to you about is rafts. They're kind of important. So let's go back to Basic. And here you can see we have skirt. And in the last video we talked about brim. But I wanna talk about raft. So you can slice that. And now you can see it's just completely like fused to the surface. And that's a really good first layer situation. It will just it's kind of a waste of plastic in most cases. But not necessarily that great for this big cube. But say you had some small little thin piece of plastic that you're trying to print. This raft is basically your only hope to keep that print from losing it. And so with a raft, we selected graph. Let's just go back to all. And it's also important, I already have it selected here. He remembers the settings, but it's important to keep the layer, initial layer heights and initial layer width and the initial layer speed slower. That way. You know, it just worked better. So as you've seen, getting prints to stick to the platform is not always a simple topic, but I hope this video has helped you. You, you may need to play with some of the settings a little to see what works. But here's some more knowledge that I hope can help you with your printing journey. Thank you for watching. 17. Bed Leveling: Welcome to another video. In this video we're going to be talking about bed leveling. And it's important to know all about this with 3D printing. So bed leveling, it's an important part of your success in the 3D printing world to have a bed that is properly aligned is critical. However, bed loading can be a bit misleading since the bed is not technically level to any level. Instead it is level, the batters leveling, so that is aligned to the movement of the axis of the movements of the nozzle. So the axis of the nozzle, it is aligned to that, not the other like so in other words, the bed does not level is not leveled to gravity. Her say instead it levels. So it calibrates your printer to the level that your nozzle axis MOOC movements go on. Many nice 3D printers out there Auto Level their bed without the need of user control. These 3D printers have a sensor that allows the printer to measure the tilt of the platform and adjusted accordingly. There's a lot of math involved and it tilts the bed, the print bed to match the axes movements. So as the nozzle follows a surface, it will move even across all of it. This is particularly useful for delta bots, which uses an accelerometer attached to the nozzle to probe the surface. Or the printers can have aftermarket auto levelers added to them later if you wish. Different printers have different leveling strategies. Some are completely manual, that just rely on the user to check the distance between the nozzle and the surface. And generally you can use a piece of paper just to have enough traction between the paper and the nozzle to see that it's a good fit. And then you have to level all sides of the bed that way and adjust the platform with the screws. This takes a little skill, but it gives the user actually the most control and it can actually yield the best results if it is done really well. But it's a bit finicky. It can be problem, so auto loan is pretty nice. Others may sense the offset of the platform. Then construct, instruct the user how to address these screws. If necessary. We're even beginning to see machines like the picture here that use three independently driven screws to raise and lower their platforms as needed. This allows them to physically align the platform autonomous plea by adjusting the relative heights of those three points. So it is crucial to have a well calibrated machine, to have good prints and have a level bed. Otherwise, there will be problems. Printers have different degrees of automation to achieve this. But yeah, I just check your manufacturer's manual for details to figure out which type of levelling situation you're going to have to do, manual or auto or whatever. Thank you so much for watching. 18. Supports: Welcome to another video. In this video we're going to move to talking about supports. So supports are needed because 3D prints are built out from a platform. Bed. And support is needed to needed a piece of your print because parts of your print hanging out into open space would fall and fail to print if it was not for the support. So we can see here this F shaped pieces of 3D print here is shaped like an F. And you can see that there's some parts here. If we and print it in this orientation. Parts of the horizontal bars of the F, The F will be hanging out until open space. So if you print it this way, the piece needs to have support. So our letter f requires support only if it is printed in this situation. To avoid this, you can just go to rotate and rotate it 90 degrees. And you could just even printed like that. But to complicate matters and to demonstrate things out printed like this, to show you how to use support. So if we were to print it like this, that's great and everything. But it might not work for more complex shapes. So an aide to talk to you about sports, and this is a basic video on supports. In the next video will be more events, but this is just a rundown of supports. So slicers, they give you an option to print support material. So in Cura, what you can do is you can go down here to the support tab and just click generate support. And just that generate support box. Just click that. And once you click that, it will generate support. So and the parameters here will become invisible. You could actually preview, slice and preview. And you can see how that will look with those supports. So here, 45 degrees over support overhang angle may explain that a little bit. 45 degrees overhang. It's generally a safe without support. Meaning if there is a 45-degree angle, it's safe to go without support. But yeah. And curate Gibson angle for the maximum overhang that does not require support. And this angle is defined relative to the horizontal. So alone, lower number means more support. So you know that. So if it was ten, there would be more support, 90 less support. So yeah. Another thing here is support placement is everywhere. If you'd just click there touching, build tight slice that you can see here that it now generates supports that it's only touching the build plate. And so that can be useful. And touching Bill played only create support. Up from the printers platform does not build additional support on top of a part of your print space between the two bars. So this vertical f, for example, could use some support, but since it might be difficult to remove, the software gives you the option to attempt to print it without it. So I'd suggest you could try to print it without it and see how it goes. Well, a lot of 3D printing is that. But in this case, because the upper bar is longer, the plastic can bridge the further, further out here. So it can bridge that pretty well. So platform should work, but you should test it. Another thing is called a support density. So yeah, with support desk density, let's talk about that a little bit. Sport does. Density is important to understand. It is like infill, percentage and it controls how widely spaced the sport lines are. So to get to support density, let's just go ahead and go from basic to all. And that will load up there. And it'll bring up a lot of options here, but just go down to support. And now you have tons and tons of stuff for support. Let's go to support density right here. And it's a 20%. So just think of that as like an infill, 20% infill for the sport, a separate infill perimeter. Via this, this port underneath and overhanging part is made up of a few regions. First, there's general bar support that makes up the bulk of it. Then there is interface layers, which you can enable. Interface layers can enable them right here. And these are interface layers right here. Interface thickness, support interface, stuff like that density. And what this is is they are layers of support that are denser near the object to preserve the object's shape. So making sports denser close to the print allows a sparser support to be used elsewhere, which saved scope filament and it makes it easier to break up sport when your room removing them. So you can actually see how that looks right there. Zoom in a little bit. And so that really helps when you're trying to remove support later, leave me. So the support interface layers are separated from the model by an air gap that cure it calls the support z distance. This is a gap between the support and the model in the z direction. The other side of the overhang or on top of the sports blow the material model. This gap prevents the support from Foley fusing to the model. All these settings or decision you'll need to make on a case-by-case basis. Trading off scarring of the print surface, and the risk of breaking off delicate, overhanging parts. These are general cases, but some challenging situations require special situations. 19. Advanced Supports: Today we're going to be talking about advanced supports. So we have this file here and this STL urine Cura. You can see that might cause some problems. Sometimes we can avoid support simply by a reorientation apart or by solar activity supporting just from the platform. So let's hear orientation. Just put it at 90 degrees, like and it will print this well. But let's be ridiculous. And not do that. Let's print it like this. Just for the demonstration of this class, slice and preview. And I can see there's a has to be some support in there and that will be difficult to remove for sure. So there are times when you technically need support, but removing the support might be so difficult that you may choose to skip support entirely or to limit it as much as possible. In this case, it would be nice to skip it. You talk about some of these cases in this video. This print most sensibly be printed like I said, on the other side, just rotate it 90 degrees. Easy. But anyway, it goes without saying that you do not want support in the hole because it's very true for tricky and difficult to remove afterwards. But in this case you might try printing it without support at all. Let's go ahead and do that. Lets go down here and just unclick support, slice. And great. No problem with that is underneath here. It might be a little rugged. Alright, so up next we have the space. And obviously the best way to do this would be it standing upright. But say we had this as a part of a bigger print and the vase was oriented light like this. Let's talk about that to figure out a few of the things that we might want to do, just in case you had to print it like this. But I can said the best would be printing it up right, then you wouldn't have to have this big support over here to the left. And but yes, so this printf does require a lot of sports. So one thing that you might consider here, I changed it to 50 overhang instead of 40, just to show you how that can change things. Now the support spire type thing is all completely separate. You have to keep you have to worry about that because by the time the sport actually makes it to the top, it may actually have run into an issue and not even make it to the top. But you also have to optimize the angle. So sports meter surface of the object that is sloped rather than nearly flat. Because. Um, if supports attached to a surface that's kinda sloped, It'll be so much easier to break off away the support afterwards. Trust me, that is important. If it attaches to a flat surface, it will be more difficult to remove. So you also want to avoid interior supports. Looks like there's no interior supports. But let's go ahead and change some settings here. So yeah, what we have here is some interior supports and this will be a problem and easy fix to this is just to support placement and select touching, build plate, slice that and that'll be a lot better. There's manual ways to do that. You can do support blockers and things like that. But for this particular print touching build plate is the easiest situation. So if you look at full support settings, Cura has several options that can help some of these cases. Let's go ahead and go to full were expert, Same thing. And let's scroll down to support settings. Because now there's a bunch of stuff. So support horizontal, horizontal expansion. This is a good example. Support horizontal expansion right here. It will thicken the support structures. So they are less likely to fail to print or and they're less likely to break during the printing. And other one is support join distance. This one is useful for turning lots of small isolated support structures into one larger support area so that they won't get knocked over so easily. And if you have more control where the supports are placed, you can use support blockers available by clicking the icon to the left. So just click and select this model and come down here to support blocker. And you can actually go ahead and start adding some stuff. And that will actually add some support blockers. And you can see how that will work. Okay, so that was a bit messy. Obviously you have to fine tune these things. Make sure that they're lined up. So and prepare. It's actually way better solution to move them around in the prepare instead of the preview. Now let's click on preview and see how that works. Alright, so that worked halfway. This one here. Then work all the way. It's kind of a pain. But anyways, let's just you've got the point. Let's delete that. And so let's go ahead and go back to Basic. And there's group to sport. You're just get rid of that. Generate supports. One thing I would like to show you is to add custom supports. You can do is you can go ahead and add your own custom supports here just by clicking and you can add them there. And that's obviously not the best customer support situation. But customer support is available in the marketplace only. You have to search for that in the marketplace. Custom supports. Yes. So accustomed supports are pretty useful in Cura. So but I just cleared the build plate. Let's have our final thoughts. Sometimes the best results in 3D printing come from bending the rules a little. If not outright breaking them. You may not always want to use support, even though technically it may appear you have to always come to see new orientations and see how that will work. Just reorientate, reorientate your 3D model and see if that helps. So with 3D printing, a little piece of advice, if you can forgo supports, do it. Design your models in such a way that you don't know. So need supports at all. If you do need supports, keep in mind when I talked about thank you for watching. 20. Speed and Temperature: Welcome to the next video, speed and temperature. So as a beginner to 3D printing, most of us are guilty of this. You may have set the temperature and speed settings for your printer, and you may have never adjusted them after that point. You just set it and let it go. But I'm here to tell you that speed and temperature settings have a direct impact on how your print comes out. So the first thing you want to pay attention to, it's the extrude or temperature. So right here we have this extruder. This is the most important temperature. But there's also most of the time a heated bed temperature as well. Of course, that depends on your machine that you get on, but temperature in general is a trial and error type of thing. Most of the time, the materials that you get will have suggestions of temperatures. But it, it's definitely a broad range most of the time. So some combinations of filament and platforms don't even require you to, you to heat the build plate. Like for example, if you use blue tape with PLA, most of the time, you don't even need to heat the build plate. But that is not to say that heating the build plate won't hurt. So if you had if you have a heated build plate, why not use it? So as it pertains to the nozzle, if the temperature is too low, the printer will have difficulty extruding plastic and then the layers won't stick properly. And you can see how that would end up just to disaster. And we'll just go, yeah, just get too difficult there. So unlike manner, if the temperature is too high, the nozzle on the printer, it won't perform well over bridges and overhangs because the plastic will be to melt, melting and it won't even be able to bridge gaps, no overhangs and things. So if you have an extremely high temperature, you also might even see a discolored plastic. So some plastics will even release toxic fumes if they're burning. So instead of melting, Well, what you want as it to melt, you don't want it to burn. Don't set those temperature is too high, it could be toxic. Along with all the other negatives. Most printers are equipped with cooling fans pointed down at the print. These are intended to help the print cool faster, which is particularly useful for overhangs and narrow areas of a print. But it isn't always what you want. Pla generally benefits from coin as fast as possible, except for the first few layers, which will stick better if they aren't cooled too quickly. But ABS on the other hand, should. That's the filament type, abs. Should be kept warm as long as possible and you almost never want to actively cool it. So ABS prints tend to warp and crack if there are cool too quickly. The cooling section lets you configure when the fan should be used and at what speeds. Yeah, so each layer of a 3D print needs time to cool before you print another layer on top of it. Otherwise, instead of a nice clean layer design, you will when wind up with something that looks like this kind of horrible. This happens if footprint is tall and skinny you us at the time, but not all the time, even this cube CEO with cooling, it's really important. So you can fix some of this with cooling all the warping potential. You don't want warping potential. So fixer with cooling settings. So here's a few tips. The minimum layer time settings will help with this. This will reduce the printing speed to give the layer time, well, the minimum layer time. So it will give layer time to cool before printing on top of it. And studying of about ten to 15 seconds should give it enough time to solo, solidify. If you have a print cooling fan though, five seconds will likely be enough. Slowing down too much can make this printer have a jam though. So don't slow down too much. So the minimum speed setting allows you to limit how slow it'll go. Slowing down might not have the desired effect for various thin sections though, since the hot nozzle over remain in contact with the plastic, keeping it warm. So if they'll fit, you can always use two copies of your object as cooling towers. Or you could just have some general cylinder shape as a cooling tower. But I find the best solution is just to make two, because then you'll end up with two anyway. So in this picture, you can see here on the left that was printed by itself, kind of bad looking. And on the right, those two were printed together much better. They have time to cool. So what happens is it moves between the two. And as it moves between the two, it should fix the problem of so it can cool. And what's nice about just duplicating the pieces. You always know that they're the same height and stuff like that always work. But you can in general print at different speeds at various parts of the print. So next, some final thoughts. So for the first layer, we want to go slow since there is some uncertainty and the distance between the nozzle and the platform, printing slowly as almost more forgiving. Your platform. Maybe cool, especially if it's made of a thermally conductive material like aluminum. And you want to keep your first layer warm longer. So, but on the flip side, you might get better print quality by using one speed for everything. So it's really trial and error in the end. If you're printing it very high-speed, especially with thick layers, you might need to increase your temperature since the plastic won't have as much time in the hot too to fully melt. So managing the temperature in the material and the speed and the flow of your printer can all be a bit tricky. And each setting will be having a subtle effect on the other. And it's like an ecosystem. If one is adjust too much, the others don't work. But I hope you'll learn a few basic techniques, like using the cooler tower, for example. That in fact, that's probably the single most best thing in this video is that cooler tower. And in my opinion, just duplicating the print. That's what I do all the time. It solves a lot of problems. But yeah, in the end, trial and error, just fiddle with the speed, temperature. And eventually, eventually in a production type environment, you'll get a good setting that you can depend on him on to print over and over again. Thanks for watching. 21. Retraction Settings: Alright, so in this video we're going to be talking about retractions settings. So this an important top. So when you get into the 3D printing world, you will sometimes see the as you print. If there's multiple islands on a print, that is to say there's open spaces between the objects being printed, like the picture you see here. There can be problems that occur that you also can see here. The reason for this is that in the nozzle, there is still plastic that is in there and sometimes it loses out even when the nozzles quickly going over to the next part of the print. But yeah, so what happens inevitably is that some of the plastic that is left there and then it's oozing out as the nozzle traveling in the open space. Happens. What happens in the picture there just and they call it streaming. So what you can do to reduce this oozing is fiddle with some of the retraction settings. So with a 3D printer, what it will do is it will pull back the filament while it is travelling in the open space. And so what that will do is it will make it so the pressure in the nozzle is not as much during this travel time. And then once it hits the part, and once it starts printing again, the retraction pulling back creature will stop and it will go back to normal. So retraction settings is what we are talking about in this video is to help reduce stringing. And yeah, that's the problem that we see here that we will face today. We see in that picture there. So setting retraction settings too little. So not enough retraction settings that will actually increase stringing. Plastic. On the flip side though, if you have too much retraction, you'll get filament gems in the nozzle because it's just moving of filament back-and-forth too much. So in this video we'll talk about what the retraction settings mean. If you're not having stringing issues though, I would say it's usually best to weave retraction sittings at what they are at now because you don't want to break something that's already working. But if you have stringing, then this is the video for you. So many of the issues we talk about in this video will not be visible in a simulated, simulated environment like Cura or a slicing software here, one of the challenges is that the reality of the print may be a little different than what is on the screen. Many of the issues we talk about in this video will not be visible in a simulated environment like Cura here or a slicing software. One of the challenges is that the reality of the print may be a little different than what is on the screen. So the retraction settings are found under the travel tab here. And yeah, so now traveled settings there, but retraction settings can be found here. So what you'll first need to do is make sure that the tick boxes are ticked. And naval retraction and enabling retraction will open up a bunch of other retraction settings as well. So the first one is retraction distance, that's right here. Retraction distance is the length of filament that was pulled back when the printer wants to jump across the gap. So printers that drive the filament from just above that acyl mean from the top of the so the Bohdan 2b is going down from the top just above the nozzle. So printers like that, what you can do is you shouldn't need more than a millimeter or two in the retraction settings. So you just press two or something like that for the retraction distance. But printers with boater and tubes that are coming in sideways, a little mean larger values, often four to six. So let's jump back to six. So the picture that you saw in the beginning of this video, they were examples of prints that happen when you retract too little or not at all. You might also want to adjust the retraction extra prime amount. Right here at retraction extra prime amount, you can use a value of 0, but if you find that, that isn't enough, there isn't enough plastic in the nozzle immediately following a travel. With retraction, you might want to increase this. So it helps with that. These values should be small though. So typically 0.01 or 0.10. And there we go, somehow like that or more, depending on that. So I'd fiddle with that. So retraction speed is how fast the filament is pulled back. So that's right here. Retraction speed. You generally want this to be as fast as your machine will allow. Most printers can handle at least a 100 millimeters per second. At just that. Sometimes they can't handle it. But I encourage you to fiddle with retraction speed. Like I said, most printers can handle hunter Miller's meters per seconds. Some not. Other printers may be even able to handle more like a 150 or whatever. But here's one key element of this. Here, your extruder motor skipping. You can slow this down. So you could even do trial and error and increase the speed to 100 is still fine. 110 still fine. But then if you find that 130, it's starting to have that sound in the motor, go back to 120 and see maybe 1-10 is the sweet spot, unos. So just fiddle around with retraction speed. So coming down here we have retraction prime speed. So what this does is it's the speed at which materials push back out again. So by default, this is the same amount as the retraction speed, but using a lower speed here can help protect against filament jams. This may even, you may even find that using a value closer to ten millimeters per second to allow pressure to equalize before you continue printing gives you better results. So yeah, around with those settings. So that about wraps it up for the basics of retraction settings. In the next video, we will learn some of the more advanced things as it pertains to retraction. Thank you for watching. 22. Advanced Retraction: Alright, so this is our second video about retraction settings. And some of you may find that some filaments or moral or vulnerable to stringing, like for example, PE TG. For these types of filaments, This video is for you. So the z-axis is the up and down direction. And sometimes you want to have your nozzle hop up just a little bit. And this is called Z hop or Z lift. You can see this in Cura by going to travel section. And then you can set the z hub or Z lift to whatever you wish. Generally a good one is like one millimeter. So this helps reduce the risk of the print being ripped off the print bed as the nozzle travels along at surface. This allows you to print faster sometimes because then you don't have that risk of ripping off the print from the print bed as much. So this works especially well with delta bots. But there's things to consider. Any movement can introduce a change and increase inaccuracies. So you have to weigh the consequences for the amount of inaccuracies that you might have versus the chance of a print being pushed off the bed with the nozzle moving and all that. So like I said before, it's a lot of trial and error or 3D printing. So if you, if you just think of this, if you're a z-axis moves really slowly, this also might be a problem just due to the time spent lifting and lowering the nozzle. And that might make a chance of losing plastic as well just due to that time. So there's a lot of side effects that might happen. It's just like any good medicine. There might be some side effects. You should probably just have the Z hub at about one layer height. And that should be enough space between the nozzle and the print. But delta bots can do a bit higher. So it depending on your printer that is. So you might also want to tweak the retraction minimum travel setting that is in the travel section. And it's right here, retraction minimum travel setting. So I'll explain what this is. So tweaking this is a good thing to do. This avoids. So if this is on, this avoids having a lot of retraction in a small space. About two extrusion widths is a good starting point. So you could just have two or 1.5 like that is there. So it's a good starting point. If you make the number very big though, it won't retract anywhere, which won't be good either. So keep that in mind. Similarly, you can set a maximum retractions count, right here. Maximums retraction count, that's a 100, but, and so what this will do, it will limit how often you'll retract. This setting works in conjunction with the minimum extrusion distance window to make sure you're not retracting the same bit of filament too many times. This can wear out, cause an extruder failure. So May 100 be a bit high. But I just wanted to show you that setting. Anyways. So retraction settings can seem like something of a black art. But with a little experimentation, you should be able to come up with values that help you avoid both stringing and filament jams. You have to find that happy medium. So yeah, I hope this was helpful. Thanks for watching. 23. Extrusion Settings: To another video. And in this video we're going to be talking about extrusion settings. It's kinda learning the basics of that. So when you start 3D printing, you will find that sometimes the nozzles and the filaments might not actually be the advertise sizes that they say they are. So to fix these errors, you may need to adjust some settings to make up for the differences. In this video, we will talk about some of the errors you may face and how, and you can fix the common inaccuracies. So what happens and what happens with the extruder nozzle and all of this is plastic flows into it and out the other end of your extruder and your nozzle. And we're going to talk about how to tweak how that works and to optimize it. So the first question we should answer is to find out the diameter of your filament. So there are two standards for filament diameter, 1.75 millimeters. And generally the other one is about 2.85 millimeters or advertised as three or whatever. Until you're familiar with a particular brand, you should check new spools with a pair of calipers in a few places to be sure. It's not too different from the sitting in Cura. You should also check multiple angles because it may not be perfectly round. Alright, so if you're having issues with your printers CCG to extrude, you might have a clogged nozzle, but you very well might also help filament that is too big to even fit through the extruder. So in Cura, the settings for working with material is a bit different as it is right here, up in the middle, right here, just click there and you click on material. And so here you have generic materials and some brands and Cura are listed. But you can also click here and click Manage materials. So you can customize your materials settings quite a lot in here. But you can also select some of the generic, generic material if that works for you as well. And so if you're using a filament with a slightly non-standard diameter or you need one that you have, one that needs a different temperature. So you do is you just click on create that button there. And when you OK, discard that. Okay, so when you click on create, you'd have here custom material. And so custom for brand custom material. And you can change all these names. You can put it in the brand and the name that you wish, and material type and different things like that. So one thing you need to be careful of in this settings area is in cure a few sittings like temperature and fan speed are normally provided by the material definition. So that is to say, when you enter in all this information print settings, you can put it all in the temperature and all of this. And and that's what's going to be your definition of what it prints out. But you can override these in your settings where print. So for example, it's not changing anything except for the temperature, 250 degrees, whatever. Okay. So it's going to print it 250 degrees. But if you go ahead and go to material, you can see those 250 degrees. But because that pulled the information from the custom material profile, and you can just go ahead and put that back to 200 of you wish. And that's done. So it will print at 200. But every time you pull the information from the profile, it will be back at 250. Just go here to the custom material. Custom material profile management materials. One, print settings, go back to 200, and you will see that now it's set to 200 from then on. So just save the profile is like that. So these settings, they become a permanent part of this profile. And so from then on, the override the settings from so yeah, just work really well. If you dial in all your settings pretty well like that. Alright, so if you set the filament diameter too high, your prints will have gaps because the printer thinks there is more material coming out, then there really is. But in like manner, if you set the filament diameter to blow, your print will be a bit lobby and it will just look over extruded. So over extruding is also likely to result in a filament jam. If this happens, the gear might start grinding filament because you're trying to stuff too much filament into the nozzle with nowhere to go. So if this happens, you will have to remove the effect of filament, lean the gear before proceeding or so another option is it could cause your extruder motor to start skippy. I'm making a clicking noise as the gear drums backwards. Alright, so in Cure here, let's go to this. And instead of custom or the material can actually select your nozzle size. So a lot of Slicers, you can select your nozzle size. And your slice also needs to know the size of this printer nozzle. So set in your machine, settings and curates right here isn't simple. And this may actually be slightly larger than the manufacturers. Advertised size, either due to the manufacturing or printing over time. You can always extrude a little wider than your nozzle though. So you may want to use a little line width that was larger than your nozzle diameter, that's advertise. So for example, if you have a 0.4 nozzle, you could sit on 0.5. to be safe. So that, that's an option. So that's that. But in the quality section, let's go to the quality section. Your quality Section. A QRA has a line width setting, right here, line width setting. So and other, other Slicers, They may also have Setting called nozzle diameter that they use for this purpose, but in curates called line width setting. But you can accomplish the same thing by telling the software that the nozzle was bigger than it actually is. Nine line width setting is, you can set back to four if you wish. But that's the same thing as actually clicking right here as well. So you can see line width setting, keep or language city. So that's, that's the same thing. Many of you little tweaks and things like that. So we've discussed variables that adjusts the 3D printers output to make it line up with the reality of its hardware. What is advertised, and stuff can be different from reality. So it's important to adjust these settings if they are a bit off and figure out what the reality is. And print quality can do degrade quickly if you're printing at different settings and you actually have the material nozzle size and all of this for. So these settings are a little tricky because they interact with each other. You're trained one affects all the others. You will need to really take some time to understand how your 3D printer works to avoid major issues in future. So my suggestion, like I've always been telling you throughout this course, try small test prints like the little cubes, for example. Just test them out and see how settings work out for you. And eventually, eventually you'll find the sweet spot. Thanks for watching. 24. Two Extruders: Welcome to the next class. Today we are going to be talking about having to extruders on a 3D printer. So when you have a 3D printer that has two extruders, you can print and in two colors or with the combination of two different materials. And a common different material to use is none other than dissolvable support material. Really useful? Printing with two nozzles can be a little interesting. So I'm making this video to hopefully break things down just a little bit for you. So you can manage your machine right here and this button. You can select your machine that has two nozzles. And you can choose, Yeah, just choose your machine that has two nozzles. And then and so it looks a little different than others, like we've been doing with before, the Ultimaker S5 ourselves to nozzles. And so the user interface is a little different. So if you have a machine that has two extruders, there will be labels for it. Label one and label two. Really nice. Go figure. But there's small, one small problem that we have to deal with that naming structure 12. You don't really know what is what nozzle one or two is that on the right? Are is on the left. Who knows? So my suggestion is that you check your manufacturer's documentation to figure it out are a simple solution. More primal solution is to simply experiment with your printer and find out what is what. Put a red filament and one and a blue filament and on the other and see what, what, what does what, and anyways, so as an activity, Let's try setting up. So dissolvable supports. So I actually don't have any file. You're in the cure, but that doesn't really matter. Where we are going to be doing is talking about the settings, not actual file. So to help support. So obviously you go to the support options here and you can press generate support. And now that generates a lot of options for sports. Wow. So just make sure that generates supports checked. And it's important in these settings to pick what nozzle will do what and figure out what nozzle will be dedicated to the support material. So support extruder is here. You can choose nozzle one or nozzle to which whichever one will be dedicated to support. So if you had dissolvable support, for example, and nozzle to, you figured out what nozzle to was. Just select nozzle too, and then that will be your support extruder. And another thing I would like to show you is support interface. So what you need to do is find that here. Naval Support interface. So one thing we can always search for, forgot, OK, support interface extruder. So yeah, to enable, That's the support interface extruder, but and you can select which one will be that. Of course, that kind of selects at all for that. So just scroll down here and go down to enable, unable, unable to label enable support interface. Alright, so now there's even more settings to deal with. So enable support interface. So let me explain this. What it does is it enables entire opening every hanging surfaces to get support. And that's something you can do with dissolvable support, especially. So dissolvable support would you will find it. You should use it with two nozzles. So obviously, and it's so much more easy to remove support from difficult areas, like space between little gaps and horizontal bars or whatever, over hand each other, just dissolves, will dissolve a little support is much more easy to remove because it dissolves. But I do have a warning for you though. Dissolvable support materials more expensive than regular old support material, but there's an easy hack for that. So like I said before, you can use one extruder as a support extruder, we selected that before. But you can save money and you can have support interface enabled, like I showed you here, support interface enabled. And so that can save your money. And what that does is it enables you to have this more extensible, soluble, dissolvable support, only touching the part of the print that it's supporting. So basically it uses regular old filament to print up the support material until it gets to the point where it's touching a support then enables the printing of the dissolvable support. So, so let's get into the nitty gritty a little bit and see what it's like printing with a dual material like we're having here. So most of the time you'll be printing with two different colors or with a soluble support. But you can also mix materials to like one that is rigid or another that is flexible. So keep that in mind. So yeah, there's some more tips and tricks to do that. I'm going to close down the support. And we're gonna be talking about dual extrusion. So they will, some of the settings that are special for dual extrusion. You can enable 2z shield. And what that does is it's an a barrier wrapped around your print that is made to catch any oozes of plastic and make it so those oozes of plastic do not stick to print because it via two nozzles. One of them's going to be working in another one's going to be just kinda there while the other ones working. And Inevitably there'll be some oozes of plastic from the other one because it's still heated insta. Next is a prime tower and enabled prime. And prime towers. A structure bill off to the side of your print that the printer uses to run some plastic through the nozzle immediately after it switches over. So this helps to ensure that any material lost to losing doesn't leave a void in the print. Alright, so anyways, that's some tips and tricks for two extruders. But one side note I would like to tell you is we've called the extruders 12, but in G-code, they're normally called 01. And so some other Slicers of event Cura may use this numbering system. So just a side note there. Thanks for watching. 25. Printer Calibration: So in this video, we're going to go over some simple calibration methods. So we all know if your printer is not calibrated correctly, it will yield results with much to be desired. They will come out all stringy and they generally won't stick to the printer bed in like manner if your printer is calibrated. So if it's calibrated, your prints will come out perfectly after they are done being printed. Another situation you may find yourself in is that your nozzle will dig too deep into the printer bed and that just won't work at all since nothing will come out of the nozzle in that case. So depending on the printer manufacturer, you get, you may have it calibrated out of the box, but most of the time during shipping, things will fall apart or they will fall out of calibration, at least just because of the rough going of shipping. Or if it's a kit, obviously, that'll be where you assemble it. Most of the time. It won't be calibrated perfectly first, try. Another option is over long periods of time, your printer will inevitably fall out of calibration just due to general usage and moving parts will move things around obviously. So for this video, the tools you will need will depend on your printer, but whatever it takes to adjust your bed level for your specific printer, that should be good. Sometimes it's just twist Dina knob or something like that. So if your prints are coming out stringing and like the pictures here, they are not state or if they're just not sticking to the bed. Very good. That means that your printer is not calibrated very well. And that the nozzle is far away from the bed. Or even if it's not too far away from the bad, it's just not not there quite enough. So in like manner, if your prints are not coming out at all or if your nozzle is digging into the printer bed, that means that the nozzle is too close to the bed. So the goal in calibration is simple. There's some simple methods to get your printer bed. So not so far are not too close to the nozzle, just the perfect amount. And the picture there is about what you want. So after you do a test print, you want it to come out like that picture. These layers are even and flat. They are just slightly smashed into the printer. And that, that helps because it's good that way your print sticks to the bed while printing, but they're not too far. So these prints are calibrated to close. As you can see, they look clumpy and some of the layers don't even show up. The nozzle is too close to the bed. And on the other hand, like I showed you before, these prints are calibrated to far and these prints or stringy and they can barely stick to the bed. So that can cause problems. But yeah, sometimes this process takes few tries to get it just right. That's a nice note though. You should calibrate a little too far then or to close than too far the other way around. Because if it's too close, then that's better than too far because then your print won't even stick. Now this is just a simple way of calibration. And the main goal of this video is to show you to how to adjust your bed. So take a look at the manual of your printer and adjust your bed and try to get a first layer print that looks like the picture here. Not too far, not too close, just perfect. And that'll be a good calibration, a good indication that you've calibrated your printer. Well, thank you for watching. 26. G-Codes: How to optimize 3D prints G code. And this is actually the last video. So thanks for watching this course. So with G-code, if you've been dealing with 3D printers much, you probably have heard the term G-code. G-code is a coding language actually, and it's actually a fairly old one at that. But it has evolved through the years. And it's special to use 3D printers. So d code is a series of commands that is used over the course of a 3D print. And they need to be machine generated with all the machine being the 3D print. So machine-generated. And it has a lot of tedious calculations that it goes through. Most of this you can let the slicer do. And that's what it makes. Of course, that's the purpose of a sleazy. But there are some commands you may want to run at the beginning or the end of your print. So here we are in Cura. Just go to your printer that you have plus press managed printers and click on machine settings. And that's what we windows open right now. So there is a start code, G-code, end G-code. These are the starting and the ending commands. And they hone in the machine. They turn heaters off or on. And things of that sort do a lot of things like that. So in Cura, you can access these commands here in the machine's settings, right there, start and then G code. But I do have a warning. You're now entering territory that can mess things up a little bit. So my suggestion is you shouldn't edit this unless you know what you are doing. But it's a good idea to know that it's here and it's at your fingertips just in case you need to debug things or edit some customization things. So G-code is used to move and initialize a printer. So for example, G code command of G 92 will reset zero-point of how much filament you extruded so far in a print. Say I decode is used to move and initialize a 3D printer. For example, you might want to use a g CO command of G9 V2 code to reset the zero-point of how much filament you'll have extruded so far in the print. G28 is a command to hone the x and then the y-axis at G1 command is to move an area that is safe to dump plastic. In another G28 command is to hone the z-axis after waiting for the nozzle to eat. There's another G1 command to prime the nozzle by extruding the length of filament. Then Ajeet 92 command to reset the extruder by defining its current position as 0 before the beginning of the end of the print. So G-code can also be used to control temperature and cooling. M 104 sets the nozzle temperature and m 109 waits for the temperature to be reached. The M1 for 0190 code to do the same for the printers heated bed and the m1 06 and the m1 07. They control their printers fans. So as you can imagine, a lot of codes, there are many G codes that we could talk about. But my suggestion, if you're interested in G codes, to customize those and stuff. And it's a very, there's a very good guide about G codes and the rip rap wiki page. Just search, RepRap G-code end that will come up. Thank you so much for watching this course. Have a good day.