How to Improve Your Figure Drawing - Step by Step | Robert Marzullo | Skillshare

How to Improve Your Figure Drawing - Step by Step

Robert Marzullo, Online instructor of Figure Drawing and Comic Art

How to Improve Your Figure Drawing - Step by Step

Robert Marzullo, Online instructor of Figure Drawing and Comic Art

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16 Lessons (3h 56m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Breaking Down the Body

    • 3. Studying Arms

    • 4. Studying Legs Front

    • 5. Studying Legs Back

    • 6. Breaking Down the Torso Front

    • 7. Breaking Down the Torso Back

    • 8. Foreshortening Part 1

    • 9. Foreshortening Part 2

    • 10. Breaking Down Hands Part 1

    • 11. Breaking Down Hands Part 2

    • 12. The Body in Action Part 1

    • 13. The Body in Action Part 2

    • 14. Drawing Female Arms Part 1

    • 15. Drawing Female Arms Part 2

    • 16. Drawing Female Arms Part 3

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About This Class

This is a basic approach to figure drawing. This entire tutorial is 3.5 hours.  I share techniques that I have used over the years to create comic book illustrations and storyboards for television.  You will learn how to systematically break down the various parts of the body into simpler shapes.  As I illustrate each area step by step you will follow along and learn from my studies.  This will give you insight into how I create my artwork and create poses from the mind.  I also share what techniques I use to improve my knowledge of the human form.  Things like gesture drawings, timed studies of the pose, negative space drawing, foreshortening, perspective, organic versus angular lines, and much more.  You will also be given a copy of the art files as a downloadable PDF that I have created here so that you can work along and study from them.  By the end of this course you should be more confident in constructing your figure drawings from the  mind and have a better understanding of the human form.

The tips and tricks from this course will make the process of drawing complex body poses much easier to accomplish.  Good luck with your art!


Meet Your Teacher

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Robert Marzullo

Online instructor of Figure Drawing and Comic Art


I enjoy creating and sharing Video Content of my drawing process. I teach comic book illustration techniques, figure drawing, and digital painting. I use programs such as Adobe Photoshop CC, Clip Studio Paint, Procreate, and Sketchbook Pro 8.

I am the author/illustrator of the book, "Learn to Draw Action Heroes."

I have been teaching online for over 5 years now and love the ability to connect and teach artists all over the world. It is very exciting and rewarding!

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1. Introduction: Hello everyone. My name is Robert Mars Zuo from ramp studio comics, and welcome to my course on how to improve your figure drawing. In this course, I'll be teaching you how to break down figure drawing and simplify the process. One of the best ways to enhance your abilities for drawing figures is to login lots of hours, lots of studies. I want to show you the way that I break things down and build them back up and how I commit more of this to memory. Over the past 20 years, I've been a comic book Illustrator, a storyboard artist, and even performed caricatures for parties. With each of these art forms, I've had to hold my abilities to draw characters and figures in a desirable fashion. What I want to show you is how I hone those skills and how I utilize them to do that type of work. In this course, you'll get to work alongside with me as I break down a variety of these figures, I use perspective to help a foreshortening and just generally share your tips and tricks that I use every day to create my artwork. Keep in mind, you'll also get copies of all the artwork that's created here so that you can follow along and study them and scrutinize them and figure out your own process as we work through this. We will be breaking down each component of the body and drawing them separately, and that process will allow you to really look into the forms a bit more and see how the individual parts work and then we'll assemble them as a whole. The reason why I think that helps so much as if you just get right into figure drawing, you get a little bit bogged down by the complexity of it. If you itemize each area and separate them into their smaller components, but then reassemble them, you'll get a better understanding of how to draw complex forms and complex scenes without filling so overwhelmed by the process. We'll also talk about studying from life and creating gesture drawings, and even drawing it at different time intervals and what benefits that holds as well. I think it's very important to be realistic about what you can create and how long it takes you to create certain parts of your artwork. It also helps you to gauge what you need to study next. By the end of this course, you should have a lot better understanding of how to complete your own figure drawings and just remember that shear practice and filling up those sketchbooks and create and lots of files, lots of artwork is really going to teach you the most. But these building block fundamentals that I'll be teaching here should give you a better understanding and a better point to start from to create more and more figure drawings on your own. I'm very excited to teach you this course. I hope you're excited to learn it and I hope to hear from you soon. Keep drawing, keep them font and bye for now. 2. Breaking Down the Body: Hey, what's up everybody. Rob Marzullo here, Ram Studio Comics. Welcome back. In today's video, I want to show you a way to make figure drawing a lot easier. The first thing I like to do, is break down the form in some basic shapes. I start with an oval for the head, a wedge shape for the torso, and then the pelvic. If you use that 1-2-3 method, you can really construct all kinds of different poses just with that starting point. If you can draw an oval like this, if you can draw a bit of a wedge shape, if you had to break this down even further, it could be that of a box or another oval this way and an oval this way. But essentially this is the torso, and the pelvic. This we'll just draw like you're playing with action figures. Imagine the lower part of the action figure with the body, and the legs ripped off. I know it's gruesome, but it happens to every action figure at some point in their lives. Essentially by doing that, there's our basic shapes. You could really accomplish this with all ovals. If you think of it that way, I think it helps you to go, okay, I got that down. I got that bit, now what do I do? Now, the thing that I do is draw the spine in there. You don't have to, if you notice, I already started to draw these shapes with that rotation, or angle, or bend, to them. Whatever you feel most comfortable with. What I'm picturing is that the chest line would come through here, solar plex, down to the pelvic, and the front of the face, something like that. That's what I was envisioning when I drew it. Now, what I'm trying to help people with, is that if you can accomplish these basic shapes, the rest of it is much easier. You've got the opening for the arms, and from there you have to study gesture drawing. The best thing to do is to do quick studies of the body, 1-5 minutes probably. Start off at five, work yourself down to one minute sketches of the body. What you're going to want to do, is just really study the way that the weight reacts off the body, so if somebody is pushing off this leg right here, the counterweight, maybe this leg's back. You're only going to get this information by doing gesture drawings. It's not just going to come to you. Maybe if you just have the ability to feel that process out. But most of the artists that I know, that are good at stuff like this, they refine their abilities by lots of figure drawing, gesture drawing. I wouldn't even recommend drawing from other artists. The only reason why I say that is because you'll learn things about their style. But if they're making mistakes in their fundamentals, then guess what? You'll probably copy those same mistakes. It's okay to have fun and study your favorite artists, but draw from life whenever you can, and create your own studies, your own sketchbooks, and whatever. Same thing with hand poses, it's like you'll start to see that there's lots and lots of different. Why is it the hand reacts from person to person, and pose to pose? You just have to create lots of sketches of that to get a feel for it. We'll say this is where we're at, just pretty bad sketch, and I probably shortened the legs, because I ran out of paper there like I always do, seems to be one of my artistic flaws there. I can never judge how much distance I have at the bottom, when I try to start forcing proportions. I probably make the leg down here, over to here, being that it's more of a comic book, it heads tall kind of scenario. That's my quick little sketch. It's not impressive and it's not meant to be. It's just to get an idea down. Then I can study an angle, all for one, it doesn't have a hand. That's not cool. But the arms are natural, the pose is a little too accentuated whatever. By doing these quick studies, you can study work and grow from that process. I don't know if I'm going to call 1-2-3 method or whatever, but three main body masses. I don't know who might have came up with this if this is even a thing, I'm just telling you what I generally do with my artwork. Again, the head, I'm picturing this looking right at us. Then I want to do a dynamic feel. I don't ever want my stuff to just be plain and standing completely upright, because I traditionally draw artwork and science fiction type of stuff. There's not a whole lot of people just standing around in my imagination, I guess. They're always doing something crazy and elaborate. My drawings need to reflect that obviously. Here's our 1-2-3 method again. If I had to draw the spine, I would say it's doing something like this, if I draw the chest, it's going like this, I should always try to twist the shoulders. If you think of the head, the shoulders and the pelvic, right here you see they're all lined up. Let us make for as interesting of a pose. To shift that, I'll put the one leg opening over here more. I'll try to twist this pelvic shape like this. Sounds gross but hopefully you get my meaning. I'll turn that like that and then maybe a leg up. Now, one of the trickier things I think to get right are the way that the legs connect to the pelvic. That to me is a whole another study. It's a one day, or week, or months, whatever it takes you to learn. You're going at it, and you study how the legs connect to the pelvic. You hit it hard for a month or whatever it takes you to feel comfortable with that. That's what I do. I repeat that process over and over again for every thing that I do. I get these questions on my YouTube channel, and my Deviant Art, and there's different stuff, Facebook, whatever. People ask me, how do you draw this? What do you do here? They want me to give them all these details. Forgive me for saying this, but oftentimes when there's lot of overabundance amount of questions, about the process, it leads me to think one thing, and that is you're not practicing enough. I don't want to be mean about that, and hopefully I'm not being mean by the sound of that. But what I'm saying is, you're not going to find the magic, the gold mine, I don't know what you want to call it, but the thing that's going to outweigh your practice, or your hard work, you have to do that. That's the answer. To all these questions, half of the answers are just practice and sheer volume of drawing. I don't know how else to explain it other than that. I know it sounds depressing. Sometimes you have to put all this time and to get good, but that's really what it takes. I would say behind every great artists, are stacks, and stacks of sketchbooks, or digital files or whatever style you're working in. Unfortunately, that's the truth of that matter. Just lots and lots of practice. Then you start seeing that things are improper, and why they're improper. Because at first it all looks like you're on the right track. Take any artists and have them panned back at their work from years ago, and they'll tell you that, man, that stuff sucks. I don't know what I was thinking. But what that is is the progression, and the fact that you're now visually seeing things that you weren't seeing them. That just comes with lots and lots of producing work. Yes. Like even this, it's like why is this head straight up from the posture or whatever? I'm not saying it couldn't be that way, but it just doesn't look as interesting. Knowing that, let me see if I can adjust it, and try to move it, tilt it, whatever. So I'll do that a lot too, or I'll sit there and take these poses and I'll try to rework them and see if I can make a good pose out of a bad pose. Which is really necessary because the more you work professionally, the more you got to figure out ways to cut corners and save time. A lot of my work is done in storyboards where the time intensiveness of it is insane. It's where you have to figure out how to hurry up and draw something really quickly and get it done because people are waiting on you to do some, pitch or animation with the work or whatever. Gesture drawing is very important for that. My give in that one, I know I'm blabbing here, so I probably went way over and I don't know what this just took, but probably way too long for just a gestural concept. So even though it's very rough and very crude, that's just stacking these up or is what's really important to start getting a good feel for the way the body works. Again, l'll do another one. Let's try a totally different pose. Let's try down here and I always start with the head. I know another question that I've had recently a couple of times was, do you always start with the head? I've read that it's not right to start with the head and maybe it's not. I can't say that I do everything correctly or right, but I generally start with the head. I don't know why, I don't know if it's right or wrong, It's just what I do. I tried to start with the body and there's definitely certain poses that I start with the abdomen, but it's a lot more rare. I seem to always visually place what my character's getting ready to do. Like even when I drew that head, I already had the vision that it was pointing down. I don't know why. It's just where I'm at with the way that I envision my poses. Well, I'll tell you, stuff like these are the tricky ones for me. For instance, I don't often see somebody's squatting down, looking down at the ground, hands over their knees or whatever, maybe one knee like this. Here's the pelvic, I partially drew that in first sorry. There's the opening of the legs and maybe this other leg is down to the ground and back. I struggle with poses like this because it's not something I would see every day or even be able to find reference quickly or easily enough. Now keep in mind, that's why I got three cameras now? I got two cameras and I've got my computer camera. We got cameras on everything locally now, so it makes it a lot easier. But this is why if I get a pose like this, it's too tricky and I just can't nail it, guess what? I'm centered around taking goofy pictures of myself and my family trying to get the right pose, and I've trained myself to be able to draw through that because obviously I work out a little bit or whatever I'm a pretty buff guy. Not really. Anyways, I can draw through myself and come up with a character that ends up or pose that ends up looking like a superhero. You pretty much almost have to ignore a lot of the parts of the picture, to even do that because our proportion just aren't as here or less as we would like them to be. So it just comes with practice. Like that one, it's not great, but I can work with it and then I start making changes. Chances are at this angle, this shoulder, you're probably barely going to see it. So if you do see it, you're just going to see a little bit of the shoulder. So I pull out all the way and over to here and say, I'll help self perspective. Whoops! I think it does anyways. So I'll just practice this technique where you draw the head, the upper torso and the pelvic, and then add the limbs on and you'll start to get a better idea of all the various poses you can create from that and then obviously studying from life to add to that information and it's just like if you drew a leg here, you do the upper leg, the lower leg, the foot, the knee and you just really start to itemize parts of the body like that. So through the rest of this course, we're going to break down arms, legs, hands, things like that and really tried to pinpoint ways to break down the body and draw quicker. So now I want to show you a quick one in a foreshortened perspective. And here I'm going to use just blocked in shapes, kind of cubes, cylinders, but I'm going to draw it in a perspective shot, and by doing this it again simplifies something that would be pretty complex. If you're going to draw a body in this downward perspective, in this foreshortening, it gets pretty tricky with all the curvature of the body and the musculature and what goes where. So doing something like this just essentially gives you a blueprint to work over top of and I resort to this whenever I struggle in a certain area of my drawing. So if it's something that I'm comfortable with, then I probably won't feel the need to do this. But if I start to struggle, then I go back to the basics and this is to me what the basics are block method, cylinders, wedge shapes, just easy to draw, easy to digest elements of the structure or whatever it is I'm doing. You can see I can make changes to that perspective really quickly and easily and I can check perspective because it's drawn to a vanishing point. Where with body parts it's kind of hard to envision that unless you're working pretty tight from a good reference photo, then maybe you can check it against that, but sometimes you don't have that. So in this case, I go to the block method. And it does take some practice to get yourself to be able to draw like this and see into it, not just see boxes and cylinders. Like anything else, it will take some practice. But the more you do it, the more comfortable you'll feel and like I mentioned many times over in this course, you'll just start to naturally skip steps. That's just part of what happens as an artist, the better you get, the more comfortable you feel. You'll just do away with certain steps in your work and I don't even know, sometimes I think it's just involuntary or subconsciously. But you'll look back at your work and definitely notice then. So here I just soft erase it down. I've got enough of my blueprint work out of the way my construction and then I just get in here and I start to refine it and I can start to think more about what the character looks like now softening up the forms, giving some anatomy, some shapes of musculature. But I have that underlying glorified stick man to show me where my work needs to go and again, in a perspective view. So ultimately you're just able to break these things down and make it easier for you to carry it to the next level. Just repeat it, try this with various angles. Another good tip for doing this and feeling comfortable with it is to actually take photos and break them down in this same method. So I'm not working from a photo here, but sometimes it's good to work from a photo. Try these methods over top, and then you can see what areas hold true to the design process. In per set, just share volume, like I'll repeat over again in this course. When you sit there and draw this type of pose over again certain areas are going to start to make sense that at first, you just couldn't kind of envision. I noticed that the more and more I draw repetitive patterns or angles, you just start to pick up on things. So it's really that repetition that's essential to getting better at this stuff. Alright, so that'll help bring this one to a close and in the next lesson we'll be approaching how to break down arms. So I hope you'll join us for there. So let's proceed on. 3. Studying Arms: Hello everyone. My name is Robert Murray Zulo from Ramp studio comics and welcome back to the course on how to improve your figure drawing. So in this next lesson, I'm going to show you how to break down arms,we'll just systematically go through parts of the body. But I think it's important to realize how you can individually separate certain components of the body and then reassemble them together. It's the way that I've found that has helped me the most with my figure drawing. When doing the arm, I look for some basic shapes. This is one that I see for the shoulder, and for the bicep, I generally see something like this. Some more of a football-shaped, the tricep, something like this or from this particular angle anyways. Then for the form, I generally will see this muscle here, and kind of a cylinder shaped like this, so on and so forth. Then we had assembled a hand and we'll be getting into hands, later on in this course. Essentially, that's how I place some of the shapes. Now, this takes a bit of practice to even probably get to that level where you're comfortable just throwing in those shapes. What I'll first do is show you how I got to that or how I get to that comfort level. Basically, if you're starting out, you might want to start more with a circle, a line, another circle, another line, and another circle, and this represents the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist. Something to keep in mind is that, generally the rest will line up to the shoulder, and then you'll add the hand on afterwards. We're starting this basic guide, you can give direction to your next part or illustration. Then from here you'll add cylinders, like so, and like so. You can see it's pretty good, but it helps us to see a little bit further into what we're doing. I'll set this one off to the side. I'll actually even copy this and move this over. If I was to take this now and refine it a bit, and look into the arm illustration a bit more, you can just soft erase down or use a light table, whatever method you're working with. Then you can start to place these shapes that I already shared over here. I will say this is a different angle, or I don't know if you could tell, but it is a different angle than the one off to the right there. Basically, we have to envision what those shapes will look like over here. In the part that you need to study, you learn how to draw this way, but then also you need to study the way that anatomy works and the way that muscles work. Muscles will always pull from one area of the drawing of arm and they'll connect to other areas. Some parts will overlap and intersect, and some parts will go behind other parts. That's where studying your anatomy will teach you that. Now the other thing that you need to be aware of is, say I'm just drawing the perimeter shape of the arm now. I'm trying to give it some form, I'm not trying to draw into the anatomy too much, but I am placing some of the muscles as I go here. So let's say I get it to about there, and let's say I didn't draw this shape of the bicep here. I just have mainly the silhouette, which I think it's important to always study your silhouettes. I think it's another way to commit a lot of this stuff to memory. Say I just did that and I didn't get into the musculature too much on the inside of the drawing yet. It's also important to study the thickness. After you get the silhouette, also study the thickness of the overall shapes. Let's say you were to break them down like this and you get this by studying the shadows off a photo. We'll say it goes something like this. Just with those simple wines that I added there, we're able to give a lot more of a dimensional look to that arm. Then you can start to perceive where maybe light hits on this part of the arm as well, and bounce light and all that fun stuff. But we won't get too much into that, because that's almost a whole other series of videos and topics. By placing just some of these smaller shadow shapes like that, you can really start to get a more dimensional feel to the arm. I think it's important to do that. So you want to study the overall silhouette, and you want to study the way that shadows react and give it depth. But that all starts with these basic crude shapes. Let me go ahead and take this, scale it down, move it over. The other thing is just to log in a lot of different poses. Let's do the back of the arm. We'll start again with the very basic rudimentary building blocks. What I'm perceiving just so you know, even though I've only put down a circle, a line, a circle and a line, I'm actually perceiving that already in my mind that it's going this way and at the arm is going back out and away from camera just a little bit. I just want to illustrate that for you because you want to start envisioning that as early on as you can in the process. Now's a larger circle for the shoulder, I'll do a cylinder up top, the top of the arm. I'll even round the cylinder and the way that I would perceive it connecting to the shoulder. So I'm already starting to illustrate that visual guide for myself. Then here I want to perceive that it's going away from camera. I'll taper the cylinder just a bit, and I try to always make sure that the cylinder for the form is the equal distance from this base cylinder to the top of the shoulder. Again, like I said before, if you were to raise this, it would actually meet the top of the shoulder, then you would add the hand on. Just keep in mind, I see a lot of illustrations and it seems like the forms are always too short. Let's make sure to add that enough, and also the common mistake as well is not to taper the wrist as far as it need be. Now let's go and take this to the next stage, and let's add a little bit more. I'll even add a bit of a wedge shape for the hand, but we won't get into detail on the hand yet because I want to save that for another lesson. So we got the elbow back here. Let's go and copy this, I'll shrink it down first and move it over, copy and paste and move that back over. Now let's go ahead and give this a little bit more form. So on this next stage, we can start to figure out the shapes a little bit more and over top. This will do again that kind of oblong shape like this for the shoulder or you'd make sure to make the shoulder a good size, larger in width and height than the rest of the arm. Just another thing I notice a lot is, people tend to draw the shoulders a bit small. From back here we're going to see the tricep, now It'll be like this. Now the tricep will generally come outward. If I was to draw off to the side, it would almost be shaped like this somewhat, and then it splits down, the back, goes up, one side is up higher, generally the inside portion or not generally, that is the inside portion closest to the lat. Just kind of that shape there, we'll draw that in. Depending on how defined you're trying to make a character look muscular, you could start off very light with this, if you're not doing something as stylized or is as intense as Comic book illustration. The elbow, I like to just keep with that circle. It's got a bit of a downward point to it and it tapers up. It's also a good point for where to draw the line that you see in the back of the arm, that meets down to the back of the wrist. It actually need to tilt this hand a bit more. The forearm generally is larger and wider at the top here, and then tapers down pretty heavily. You get a bit of this muscle on the side there. The restraint at the very end widens back out. It just knowing this about anatomy and studying the way the muscles go and what direction they head. Obviously this isn't a perfect sketch. I don't know if there is a such thing, but you just keep doing it and doing it and you'll get a better feel for what you'd like to see in your own drawings and how much of a stylized representation you want versus realism. The more time you put in, the more realistic it's generally going to get. If you keep soft erasing this and you keep coming back with a new perspective and draw over top. Generally, you're going to get closer and closer. Now, especially if you're starting from reference. If you're just eyeballing it like I'm doing here. Then you might tend to distort things and give it a more stylized look. But that's what I'm after being. More into comic illustration so I'm okay with that. But, there's no harm in studying reference and recreating the stuff inside to learn. One of the tricky parts is right here, how the tricep comes down and around. I think it meets somewhere around in here. I don't want to draw this overlay segmented as a matter starting to do. But I do want to illustrate some of the parts of where the muscles head. The shoulder does this tricky thing where they almost rotate up and back around. It comes down further in between the bicep and tricep. Then it goes up and around this and meets the back. A good way to perceive all of this is that all of it is interconnected. That everything segways into another thing. A muscle group to muscle group. Something like that. That would give us an overlay straight down but a back view of an arm. I don't know that you would actually see as much of the bicep as I've drawn here. I think the tricep would get in the way more. You'd see less of this bicep. Let's go ahead and select this and scale it down and put it next to our base template there. I want to show you one more before we to conclude this lesson. I want to show you basically another way of looking at it. I've shown you how you can break down the shapes with a quick line for a shadow here and I've showed you how a couple representations of how you would work up from the basic form. Now the other thing I want to show you to get in the habit of is to break down the shapes even a step further. Let's go and take another arm positioned like this. I'm just going to skip talking about the beginning stages. You could just watch me rough this out and hopefully you're following along. We'll get these basic shapes into place. But then what I'll do now is I'll go ahead and go right to designing this in more of a 3D typed fashion. We have to remember that we're creating 2D images on a 2D surface, but we're trying to envision 3D. We're trying to make things look very dimensional and we're basically cheating. It's a bit of a Tom foolery if you've ever used that term before. But, so basically, you're trying to really make it look like it's three-dimensional, even though it's not. Now, one way to do that is to actually get in here and do as many three-dimensional lines as you can. Really draw these lines and pretend you're looking at something in a 3D program. It's often times where I'll tell my students to study a little bit of 3D. Even though you're working as an illustrator and you're trying to create things on a 2D space. I recommend that you study 3D programs and there are some free ones out there that you can get into without dedicating your life savings to it. But you'll get in the habit of looking at things like this in a 3D space, which I think helps your visualization process. You go like this, you draw as much of it in a 3D grid as you can. Then also you break certain parts down and you do your studies. You say, okay, this muscle right here, looking at photos or whatever you got to do. How would it look in a 3D space? You can shade and visualize that better by segmenting these certain areas and breaking them down. I guess you're just itemizing parts of the body and really focusing on it. Then studying this muscle here. How does this react and how thick is it to the base and how thin, how quickly does it taper off this way? But I think these little lines that help you draw on 3D space. Let me soft erase this down again and now illustrate even further. I think it really helps you to see that and break that down. I'll draw it again. Just quickly here, I'll do a little bit of line weight just to further illustrate it. You see I'm almost making things look a little too angular and a few spots. But I'm doing that intentionally because I want to really push that direction that I'm going for visually of the depth of these segmented muscles. Something like that. There's a few more muscle strands away it goes around like this. Again, this isn't entirely about accuracy as much as I'm trying to explain the process in which I break things down and study. Also the bicep in the way it connects to the shoulder, you're generally not going to have it this segmented unless you're a really big bodybuilder or something. But for the sake of studies, it's not a bad thing. We'll just over illustrate that. We'll show the separation from the shoulder muscles. We'll show those three-dimensional lines, 3D lines. We won't even have them taper off to adjust this muscle group like this. You'll almost picture like we're drawing closes from X-Men because you always see the lines on them. If you're familiar with who that even is, but maybe, maybe not. But by doing this, you're really painting the picture that each one of these areas are segmented and that they're rounded, but they have a bit of depth to them. Again, that's what this line here is for. The sign to the back of the elbow. Sign to the bottom part of the forearm. You can shade this end if you want. Keep in mind all these art files will be supplied with the course, so they're available here for download so that you can follow along and study these. Probably I already knew that, but, just in case you didn't. Just like that. Again, each part, so even though you don't want to get in the habit of over segmenting your natural drawings, you're typical figure drawings. It's okay when you're studying because it reinforces the shapes in your mind, then you can go back and soften them up. I obviously don't recommend doing this if you're drawing up a real life drawing or anything like that. But for studying it's more than adequate. We'll go like this. Again, just really trying to visually get the idea of the shape of these muscles and this arm. I do this quite a bit for my studies. I just feel, it really helps me to understand it. Then from here, just save these, and I'll save them in your sketchbooks. Save them in your computer under titles and things, so that you can access them. In that way, if you do, spend your time really doing some intense studies, you can pull from that reference. You can remember where you're at as an illustrator and what things were clicking mentally for you. Because that happens at times, there's times you go back and you look at some of your old work. I was doing well with the drawing hands or feet there and then I somehow forgot that and I don't know why that occurs, but it's just something that does happen. Chances are what it probably is when you were doing well with it previously, you were inspired. Because inspiration is a big part of drawing any of this stuff. There you go, that's how I break down and do some studies for person various arm poses. With that I conclude this lesson. Next, we'll head over to studying the legs and breaking those down, what shapes as well. Let's continue on. 4. Studying Legs Front: Hello, everyone. My name is Robert Marzullo from Ram Studio Comics and welcome back to how to improve your figure drawing. Let's go ahead and get started. Our next lesson is on legs. I'm going show you how to break down some light pulses and how to better understand drawing legs. Like we did with the previous exercise, I'm going to start off with a very basic structuring. I'll start off with just the ball and rod or dowel or however you want to look at it. Basically, the stick man. If you ever talked to anybody that can't draw, the first signal says while you draw, so while I can't even draw a stick figure. The funny thing is, that's where it all begins. Really, they're not even aware that they're on the right path. Essentially, when you lay it out like this, should just giving yourself a design to what direction you're going to take with it. I recommend doing this for anything that's more complex to anything that's a little bit harder for you to visualize. Start with this very crude method. What it allows you to do is just keep the basic shapes in place, so you don't overthink the process and you don't immediately go to start detailing your work. That can be a bit of a hindrance and quite confusing at times, especially if you don't understand the subject matter. Just get in there and do these very, very basic shapes like this. Even the foot, you could break the foot down into just a bit of a diamond shape with a wedge for the back heel. Very simplistic and it allows you to really flow through this portion of the drawing process and get the initial pose down and then go okay. Where is my muscles to go? Where's my anatomy going to go? That's where, again, studying your anatomy is so important. Essentially, you can draw a lot of muscles from an A to B kind of method. You can know that the muscle here goes around the knee and then curves and goes back up and that this muscle goes in front of and points downward in between these two muscles. The other relationships that you want to look for are the fact that muscles will generally have angles and tilts to them. For instance, this muscle will be lower on the leg than this one back here. Just taking special note of things like that, that make it easier to draw because you can use these little mnemonic devices to go. Whereas the tilt in the part of the leg, this muscle higher than this muscle and that makes it easier to draw because it's more simple to remember that one is higher than the other. That works with a lot of things in the body. The ankles and the direction from the foot to the knee. You just start picking up on these the more that you draw the stuff and I recommend just filling up your sketchbooks with pulses and pulses of especially legs, unless you're lucky and legs are an easy one for you. I've always felt legs were a little bit more complex to get the feel for. I study them further. I heard a lot of people say, don't focus on your weak suits, because you'll end up with nothing but a punch of strong, weak suits. I'm sure I'm slaughtering that term there, a metaphors or whatever. But I don't necessarily agree with that when it comes to drawing. I think that you get better by studying the things that you are not good at. I do understand the idea behind what was said there, that you want to focus on what you are great at so that you can be truly great at something and I do agree with that as well. But when it comes to drawing, I think that you learn more by your failures than you do by your success. I think that you should study on the things that you do struggle with, an intent unlock mental barriers to what you are not able to achieve. Now, that's just my opinion. Take it as you will, but that's what I found with my own artwork that I gain more by studying things that I struggle with. Then in turn, I'll learn something about myself or my process and be able to move past it. You see there, I was just able to fill in the anatomy and this particular course isn't about anatomy as much as it's about showing you the underlying structure and how I get to the anatomy overlays. I'm not going to explain a whole lot in the way of what muscles are what, where they go, other than me illustrating it as I do it. You have to go out and study your own anatomy and maybe later on, I'll do a course on just anatomy. But anatomy itself is so in-depth that it could fill up multiple courses. This particular one is just to get you the underlying structure and learn to break down your shapes to make the drawing process easier for you. You can see by doing that I'm able to fill this stuff in and not worry too much about my base drawing anymore. I've got that part down and I can just worry about adding little bits of detail and filling in some musculature. Then as I study my anatomy further then I can get more in-depth and go, okay, muscles start here and in there, how chiseled do I want this character to be? How overweight out of shape? Whatever the case maybe. That's essentially how it felt at it. Let's go ahead and size this one down. We'll do another pose. Like I showed you before and the other lesson, basically, you also want to always get in the habit of breaking down these elements individually and then reassembling them together. Let me show you that again. I'm going to illustrate the upper part of the leg again. This time I'm going to break it down like I did with the previous arm pose. We'll start off with just a basic cylinder shape. We already tapered it off, which I really don't need to, but we'll go with it. There's our basic upper leg shape, and if we were to get a little bit further, we can place the knee right here with an oval. We could place the backing or the side of the knee with another kind of cylinder shape if you envision it like that. Essentially you got a cylinder here that tapers, a cylinder here and a novel and just as quickly as that, we pretty much have the base underlining structure for an upper femur, upper part of the leg. Let's go ahead and copy this, that over so I could show stages of some of this work. Now, what I would basically do here is try to start defining some areas the leg and whether or not I want to get in there into the musculature or I can just first try to make it look more three-dimensional. To do that, I would start doing things like this. Like I mentioned before, with the arm breakdown, it's good to sometimes draw this in as much of a three-dimensional perspective as possible. It really starts to help you get a feel for where your art is. When you study something, whether it be a photo or drawing from life or whatever you're doing, you can start to really see where your problems may lie and where you're strong suits are. Now this is more of a 3D grid and it's not perfect, but it gives me an idea. I can start filling in some of the muscles and I'll generally start with ones that give me a good direction. The middle, also here on the leg is probably a good starting point from this particular shot. Then next I'll go to this one and this one generally go around the knee and come back up and then go behind this one. I'm not going to get into terminology because I've probably slaughtered at anyways at this point, but I just want to show you the way that I do it. This comes back in and it was around here. As far as the knee, the knee could be broken down into more of a flat spot here, even though it's not quite that flat. Then a bit of a wedge this way. There's usually a pocket of scan or muscle or tissue right above there like that. Again, I'm over illustrating this just to give you the idea how break this stuff down and get it mentally locked in so that when I go to draw it again, it becomes easier and easier. This part of the leg usually comes up and if they're really chiseled, you'll see a line there. Again, this is more in tune with what I do because I typically draw comics and superheroes. I want to get more of that defined musculature in there. Then if they're really in shape even say align back this way. That's almost just really overly obsessed. Then as far as adding dimension to this again with doing that line to show some depth, you could say that this muscle here is pretty defined and you could put a bit of a shadow there. You could do a bit of a shadow against this one here, and this one, you have to remember, it tapers off so whatever shadow you do there would get thicker and then back out. Some point like this. Again back here, this one isn't as defined generally as this inner one, but you could put a small shadow here and just runs and repeat, just keep going. That's how I would basically define that leg and really tried to round it out in a 3D space and see what my perception is of that particular muscle area and where we compare it to realistic stuff and then see how on point I am or what changes I need to make. Let's go and scale this down, and let's go into another one. Let's go and do some female legs because these all look pretty masculine and male. Just to show that the difference is there. I'll show you something else as well. Another way to do legs is to keep in mind that they do this reverse bend, something like this. Just throw these and to get them in place. Not too harsh, but just a little bit from the feet out like this. Then let's go and go right to overlaying our shapes like this. Things that take note of what the female legs is, that they generally appear longer, mainly because there are skinnier and more elongated. So you want to really get that in there. Also the pelvic angles down further. So where the male pelvic goes more side-to-side, but female pelvic goes more up and down. I'm sure you're probably aware of that, but it's always good to reinforce any information with little bits of data there. I'll say something like this and you say I'm just really rough and this end, just to get an idea down and then I'll refine it. There's just a typical standing straight on Paul's, one leg kind of back. Then I would solve two races down or at least try to. Then I would get in here and refine it a bit. Essentially, the only difference in the way that I do this is that I'm just not going to get so much into the detail of the muscles now. Needless to say, there are lots of women that have very defined legs and probably a lot more that are more so than men. But for this particular illustration, I want to show the difference on how you would tell them that bag and I think it makes more sense to do on the feminine legs. All I'm going to do here is do a little bit more on the outlining, not get so much into the interior details and the musculature, and again, it just preference because obviously there's lots of woman with really buff legs. So you just have to make that decision on your own as far as what you're going to illustrate that day. But for this particular one, I'll just do enhance the muscle and enhance of the detail and just omit areas just a little bit. Basically, let's see here. This is always a tricky part for me because the legs tilt outward a bit, but based on the poles and the weight-bearing leg, muscles will shift. There's slight differences from side to side, so I just have to focus on that. The knees would point slightly outward from one another. Where would the leg come down and connect? I want to say about here. It almost gets a bit trickier when I don't focus on the musculature, at least for me anyways. I always look at it like this. Everything that I draw, gives me guides and cues to the next thing that I'm going to draw. I always talk about in my courses and my drawings working in contrast. So everything provides me contrasts to another element that I'm drawing or painting or whatever it is I'm doing. I feel that way even with drawing anatomy, that everything that I put in is a placeholder for something else. I actually feel that drawing like this is easier to do because every muscle is a placeholder to the next muscle. When I omit that, I have to be really careful about the placement of the outer edge of the line work and I have to just really deliberate with what I'm putting down to get it right. But flaws will stand out more. That's just me, I don't know if that's entirely accurate to everybody that's watching, but that's that's the way that I can see it. I think that when you're drawing female legs like that, it's really easy to overdo the musculature and then give them a masculine look so just take your time and keep the lines very light and get as much of it in place. You can see I've got proportions or just a little bit off and I think even this flips a bit more. I want this one a little bit larger because it's coming out towards camera. But in this one looks tilted funny. So you just basically keep making incremental changes to your work as you're progressing through it. I think more like that, it looks a little bit more appropriate. I have to hold back, I want to get in there and do all this muscle shapes, but again, I want to illustrate how you would do a little bit less defined set of legs. I think maybe the bend is a little too plain and none of curvature. Now, at this stage I'll just make small incremental changes to refine the art. That'll complete this lesson. Next, we'll head over to the next lesson where we'll address the back of the legs. Let's move forward. 5. Studying Legs Back: We'll go ahead and address the back of the legs. We'll start off with the butt. This'll be a female butt. Hopefully, I wouldn't have to explain it but you never know my butts may not be as good as they need to be. Essentially with this, I would start again with the basic shape, this oval. It could be two ovals like this and the part of leg coming down as a cylinder. I just want to stress the fact that getting in those basic shapes early on is very important. Generally, the leg will come down, then out at the knee and then just back towards camera just a little bit. I'll draw a little bit of the calf muscle in there like that. Something to take note of with legs is, they generally will go inward like this and we get the side of the knee and then the calf will come back out. Just another little thing to remember when you're drawing legs. From these poles we'll have the butt coming over. It's an oval, but we'll just define the line right across here. Probably taper inward and up and get the shape of the hips in there. From this side we'll just get the curvature of the silhouette and place like that. The thing to take note of with the butt is, when someone's walking, obviously the shape is changing and depending on the weight-bearing leg, one side will be a little bit different than the other. That's probably the main thing I would say. Everybody's a little bit different shaped as far as proportions go and things like that. It's really just preference in your design unless you're studying from life. Generally, there's a little bit of a dimple, if somebody's really tonal they'll have the definition of the muscle right there. Just little things like that. Another thing you can do to show direction of the leg, there's almost not a whole lot of direction in the way that I have illustrated here. If I take a few lines and do something like this, all of a sudden that pushes that leg further forward and this one further back. You can also do that with the thickness of lines like this. I'm not going to illustrate it too far because again this isn't so much an anatomy. As it is, on just drawing various poses and improving your figure drawing. There's a bit of a separation that goes like this. But again, if you over-illustrate, it almost looks too defined. If you want to really solidify your knowledge in the way that you're constructing things like this, do like we did here with this leg and do the three-dimensional line work. I recommend doing this quite a bit on studies, especially things that you're trying to really commit to memory and get a better idea of the forms, because you can over-illustrate the shape. If I want to really push the form and see how far the depth that I'm getting with my drawing is, I can see into that with these. Something like that. Just go across the whole thing and then you can really see how curved this leg might be in the drawing. Then if this leg is coming back, another thing to take notice of is that [inaudible] I put these lines going on a downward bend. Well, back here they're going to go on a slightly upward bend because we want to reinforce the feeling that this leg is coming back at us at a different direction. Just little things like that. This one would actually change shape as it goes across, so it would level out at the horizon line and then go downward. If you do that enough, you'll start to get a better visual picture of a three-dimensional space in your illustration. You can obviously soft erase this down and just keep refining it as you go. Let's go and shrink that down and I'll do the calf muscles a bit. With the back of the leg and the calf muscles, something good to take note of is that, again will start with basic shapes, the calf muscle actually widens out and turns back down and one side is more elongated than the other. Let's get a basic cylinder shape and place. The knee protrudes out to one side like this. The calf muscle goes inward like this. Then one muscle is actually more defined the inside muscles of the leg and more condensed downward like that. You've got the ankles, the back of a heel generally come in like that and a flat howl at the weight. Proportions are all going to be depending on the athleticism of the character drawing things like that. That's generally how you can perceive a back of the leg to a calf, and these actually come in pretty tight right there pretty slim. If I had to illustrate that further and break it down, I'll do this one in reverse. I think it's just helpful to always study this stuff as much as possible and break it down in a lot of different ways. It's how we basically learn with anything that we do. If you segment and break things down into smaller bite size pieces, no matter what you're doing, you'll figure it out. Just like how, sometimes you have to break something to fix it or really understand it. The [inaudible] break a few eggs to make an omelet, thing. If I was to draw this again off to the side and I really segmented these muscles to really understand the shapes that are going into the construction of the lower leg, then I could segment each one and add this bit of depth like this here. Maybe this one is a little bit less intense because it blends down into the other part of the leg with less segment. Let's divide. This one could be said to be another piece by itself right into here. Maybe a shadow here. So again, I would perceive it almost like you're breaking apart pieces and reconstructing them, with blocks of wood. That's one way that, I've always looked at it when I've seen illustrations like this. It kind of resonates with me that you would be separating the pieces and almost making them out of something else. Again, given enough studies of doing it this way, you'll just really start to get a better appreciation, of the parts of the body and be able to draw them from memory and more. Obviously, you would see the foot it wouldn't be non-existent like it is over here. So the good parts of that angling out from the side. Yeah. So that's how I would break it down and again, I would do that to every part of the body, at every angle. You just start to get a better feel for it throughout that process. Okay. Let's go ahead and do another pose. Another shot just to reinforce what we've studied here. Move this over. All right. So let's go ahead and do one with a little bit more of the legs. The one leg is out of bend kind of pivoted off the foot and the other one's a little more straight down. So the other thing is, remember to always start with a curved lines. None of these limbs are perfectly straight, so it's always good to throw curvature in your lines from the very start. Then we'll block it in, get the basic forms in place. So again, keep it very basic cylinders just to start. What the effect that this one is going away from camera and then coming back towards camera. So we're going to draw that cylinder, with the opening pointing this way reinforce that perspective. Want the heel up and then a wedge shaped for the foot like that. I'll start to draw in some of the structure of the anatomy. So we can basically go over top of this with a little more confidence once that underlying structure is in place. So remember the knee comes inward. Okay. A little higher actually from this angle. The leg goes up and it widens out, up into the butt like this. Remember to change the shape of the butt from one side of the other because the way the legs pivoted and the way it's dispersed. Then the legs going to probably tape around right here. Then since this is coming out towards camera, It's going to appear larger, than the other form. Again, this is why you want to draw as much of this in a variety of perspectives. Because it starts to give you an idea for how the stuff works and what shapes and forms to look out for. See a little bit of cut to the calf muscle there. All right. Let me go and soft erase this down and try to refine it. Still a bit clunky. High pricey part of the foot over here. Then again, the calf muscle, It's going to be, if we look at our diagram over here, we've got it shorter here and elongate there. That's the other thing that's nice is when you start filling up these sketchbooks or drawing a variety of these poses, you can lean on one of your previous sketches for reference. Then the more you do it, the more you'll be able to turn, a specific pose into something else and be able to elaborate off it and make new poses. Soft erase this down and try to refine it a bit. This leg actually is too high up, so let me fix that while we're at it. You'd think it would be lower than the other leg, will just elongate the upper part of the leg to do that. The other thing when you're drawing perspective of body parts coming out towards you, lines will just intersect and go in front of the previous sections, like you'd see me doing here and here. That's one of the ways that you can easily show, depth in your renditions. I'm pampering foot turbo here, then heel somewhere in here. Yeah. So this is just the refining stage of it. So you just keep playing around with it. Move things around, try different shapes in your forms. But again, it's that underlying structure that allows all this to take place and make it easier to conceptualize. Then pass that, it's just lots of practice of drawing a variety of proportions, angles and really studying your anatomy. Basically, you just have to recreate as much as you can from photos and people in action. You'll, really get a feel for how the body works and start trying to convey weight in different shapes and forms in your illustrations. So It's like that and I would just keep refining it. Add some shadow to base your character and to a foundation and just keep working it up from there. All right. So that'll complete this lesson. In the next lesson we'll be covering the torso from the front pose. So I hope you'll join us. 6. Breaking Down the Torso Front: Hello everyone, this is Robert Marzullo from RAM Studio Comics. Welcome back to my course on how to improve your figure drawing. Now we're going to cover the torso. The upper torso can be broken down into a few shapes. We started here, but again, I want to really pump this stuff into your brain box, and get you thinking the way that it requires to draw this stuff effectively. Again, I'll take a little bit more of a basic approach to the start of it, and also more of an angular approach this time. I want to show you that you don't necessarily have to use circles and ovals. Now if you feel comfortable with that, then that's more than fine. But it's really just the basic building block principle that you want to shoot for. I had a tough time getting that out. Essentially, by first defining this basic shape, and again being somewhat aware of what the anatomy looks like, I exert to work into the forums and simplify the process by breaking it down like this. I'll leave the openings for the shoulders, sometimes and then I'll throw, I guess I'll include the shoulder pieces on this one just because there's a neat relationship between the shoulders and the chest, that I want to be able to illustrate it, so just going to throw those in there. Now again the anatomy may be a little bit disproportionate to what you're after. Again, I'm more of a comic illustrator so I tend to inflate parts of the anatomy and make things look a little bit more heroics. But for the most part, a lot of the information is still there. For instance the obliques that comes through the side here, the abdomen here that chooses often to multiple muscles, sometimes eight or 10. Not exactly sure which, I think an apex pretty impressive, so that's about as many as I ever add. Then the rib cage, you start to see areas of the ribs on the side here or sometimes even towards the front. Depending on the flexing of the chest, the stomach muscles will appear to be higher, or lower based on how far their back is angled. These are all just things to notice and it's all style choices as well. The neck muscles just come down into here. That's how I would take that form that you saw me start with a basic angular shape and add some little bit more organic feel to it with the muscles. Now the thing I wanted to show you with the shoulders, and I've got these illustrated a little bit too heavily there, but I'll soft erase this down and show you further. The shoulders and the chest, the thing that I always take notice of is that they actually connect. Again, it all interconnects, but, they really connect like the musculature goes from the shoulders right through the chest like this. It's very apparent, in somebody that's in pretty good shape. It's good to show that in your illustrations, especially if you're drawing somebody that's got some good definition physically, so just keep that in mind. It's something that you can easily incorporate into your work and make it look a little bit more believable. I've got this lateral a little too far up, so I'll bring that over this way. You can see is just as I start to render this, I can move things around a little bit and just fine tune it and get him just where I want him to be. I'm going to start with muscles across the side there, they tend to actually blend in to the obliques, we'll do that. Again get some of the rib lines there, bring those trapezius right through there, and the collarbone, just like that. Again, this isn't perfect. To get perfect anatomy, and a perfect structure and all that good stuff you really have to take your time with it and do a lot more shading, and reworks that I'm doing here. But this should hopefully just give you a better idea of how you can construct your own and get a little bit better with it. There's our starting point, so I'll go ahead and bring that off to the side. Let's show a bit of a tilt that happens in the abdomen, so I'll go ahead and start another sketch. Again, I'll start with a really basic structure this time, even more basic than the one I just illustrated. I want to illustrate the band in the abdomen so I'm going to start off by creating a couple separate pieces basically and then my design. Get the shoulders and they're still, try not to make them as large as I did on the other illustration. Those are a bit much. What I'll do here is just try to really focus on the way that the abdomen bends and the way that it pinches on the one side of the love handles or obliques, or side handlebars, whatever you want to call them. Again, it's good to study stuff like this because the body's not always just sitting straight up, rarely is sitting just straight up. So the more you can do studies like this where there's some contouring going on or some twisting or stuff like that, I think the more that you'll start to feel comfortable with, not only just the basic poses, but realizing exactly how the body works in motion. Some more of this further down. That'll be our base design. I'll keep the neck off in somewhat. All right. Let's try that and let's go ahead and soft erase this down. Now again, I can go back in here and clean up just a little bit. Still be open to move lines around if need be. Again, I want to show that relationship from the shoulders over the chest. I want those to look more interconnected, that's all. Then, the side pinching down to the oblique. Not sure if I'm getting the anatomy names proper. Just keep in mind, this course is more to teach you the way that I draw, not on technical terms of anatomy because that's not my strong suit. I don't want to say that that's something that I'm teaching you. I don't want you to adopt any terminology I'm using. Just more or less the process is what I'm trying to show you. Later on down the road, as I feel more confident about all the anatomy, then maybe I'll do a full anatomy course for you. But at this point, I do want to be forthcoming and say that my knowledge on that is less than perfect. I would say my knowledge on most things is less than perfect, actually. But hopefully, the information is valuable here to you. You see, I'm just refining that a bit, adding in little bits of segments to the muscles. I'm just trying to visually build up on that initial rough sketch that we started with. Got some of the ribs in there. Something I'm noticing here that I should probably do is straighten out the side a bit more. The reason being is it will in turn put more emphasis on the pinching right here. That's what we're trying to illustrate. We just want to show that part of a form and how that works. A good thing to keep in mind when drawing the human body in figure drawing is that you want to make sure things exist on a different plane or a different rotation. If you take the shoulders here and you take the hips here, obviously, in this type of pose, there's are good amount of change in rotation or angle. In rotation at the waist as well, you could bring that out even further in the drawing at any rate. I would really focus on that. That's going to give your drawings more realism and more effect if you're aware of those things. Just keep in mind, and we'll do this when we get into poses a little bit later on in the course. But when you have your head, your torso, and your pelvic, they can each be facing in quite a different direction. In turn, your gesture drawing, your characters will have more movement and more areas of interest in the pose. Just keep that in mind, but like I said, we'll get into that more as we progress. Now, let's go ahead and do the female upper torso, and let's see if we can pinpoint some of the differences there. We'll start with a straight on shot. We'll do a neck opening, the shoulders like this, the upper part of the abdomen. This would be the rib cage, shoulders. Then, we'll bring the waist down, angle right back into the hips. The way that I like to illustrate this is to keep in mind that there's a couple curvatures that happen here. The waist comes down, and then the silhouette or the hips go back. If you get a couple of those lines and almost immediately, it kind of helps so you don't have such a flat body, which is really easy to do. It's easy to just trace out the shape and then not worry about the inside forms or details. I try to get as much of that and as possible like that. As far as the bras, obviously, preference on size and all that because there's lots of variables there. But then, the main thing is to try to get the teardrop shape in there. Maybe I've spaced them out way too far. It's easy to do that and it's easy to make them look overly rounded. So you want some rounded miss in the form there, but you want to make it look more of a teardrop, and then also blended back into the chest more as a soft blending into the chest form. That can be tricky to do, so generally what I'll do is I'll just rough it in like this and get some of my shapes in place. The rib cage like this, stomach muscles. Again, we'll kind of hint to the form. We won't make her look as muscular as the guy over there. Then, do the opening for the neck. Some way of that. We'll go over and soft erase this tone. I'll just start here and try to get this form. Now, one thing that I notice about drawing the bras and trying to get them to look a little more natural is to have areas where they flatten out against the body just a little bit. Bit of roundedness on the form on the outside, then quickly bring it back into a curvature right through here. Just a little bit of a flat line right there on the sides. Generally, we'll help make them look a little bit more realistic. They still look a little bit off like there's a bit of a weird shape right here. But that's where obviously just manipulating the lines and playing around with it until you get it just right. It's going to help. Then, the connection point from the waist here seems to roll inward here, and then softly outward here, and then around. It can be tricky just to get it right because you want everything as a multiple component curve. It's not just one line like we would draw on a 2D illustration. It's seeing into that a little bit more and getting away from just drawing flat looking objects, which is very easy to do. It's very easy to get caught up in a drawing and just silhouette everything and make it look really flat. So I'm trying to avoid that. The shoulders, something like that. This line down the middle, I would say, just try to always give it a bit of curvature even from a straight on shot. This line should have a bit of movement to it from side to side so that it shows that this is a organic form. The nipples are just put slightly tilted up in that, not to the center of the breast. Again, just to show direction and a bit more form, and that might be outward a little bit too much, but that's going to be preference. The belly button right about here. Give a little bit of a pouch, her belly right there, and so on and so forth. It's really just playing around with that and seeing what shapes resonate with you and your style and things like that. Because there's lots of different ways obviously to draw the female body and the male body. It's just what style you're after. Again, mine is not ultra realistic. I'm sure it's not perfect here. Now, let's try, let's do. Let's put that right there, and let's go ahead and do an angled shot, and what we'll do is the same thing. We'll start with the very basic starting point like this. I'll go ahead and immediately get the spine in like this because I want to show the bend that occurs in the upper body, and I'll go and start with some basic shapes like this, and like this. We get much more basic than that, and that's what I really want to stress in this course that if you can draw these basic shapes and just really focus on the way that you connect them. That you can draw anything. Figure drawing is one of the toughest things, so if you can get this down, believe me, you can draw anything. I think that's important to note because I think so many people fear drawing and think of it as something that only the talented can do, and I really don't believe that, I believe that talent is a developed thing. Really, the true thing that people are admiring about somebody that can draw is their passion. It's the passion that got him there to put in the countless hours and developing their skill set. But it often gets overlooked and thought of as, "You're just extremely talented, you're a savant." That's not really the case that the majority of people that I've ever met that are truly gifted at illustration and all that will all attest to having boxes and boxes of bad drawings that got them to where they are, paintings or whatever the case may be. You can do it as well. Just fill up those sketchbooks and don't have any know your heart. You'll be there in no time. We've got the clavicles in and here we want to make sure that we show a good angle, we put one in front of the other. That's always a good way to show a bit of depth there, and the way those look from side chomp. Now the nipples are going to be appearing to point more forwarder or out towards the direction of the chest there. I'll need to put a bit more bend under this brush here. Again, I always have to fight myself from making them look just orally rounded. It's just too easy to draw circles for bras and that's not how they look naturally, obviously. You got to get just a little bit of change in direction of the line work and make them look touch more organic and realistic, and another tricky part is just the subtlety and the bends of the ribs here to the hips. Likewise to the back here. I'll get rid of some of these construction lines. Again, I'll get the trapezius in there like so, the belly, and the other thing I think is good to do it like right now the polls look stiff and it looks a little bit odd and proportions, and one of the things I think that helps to convey that is that if you were to draw a line down the middle, that it comes outward backhand, and then back this way. Again, this is where drawing things in 3D perspective or visualization process will help you catch flaws, and I think that I've got the shoulder up just a little bit far. Besides this, a little bit too large, maybe in comparison to the hips. It's all of that. What I'll do is go ahead and [inaudible]. I think this one for the first time and then try to fix those areas as I refined my line work. Again, try to get away from this overly rounded effect that I got going on there, adjust all the forms just a little bit there. From this angle, I could probably say that the rib cage looks a little high there I think. Actually, maybe it's just the way it's going up this way. Let's try that. A lot of times, I'll just sit here and keep maneuvering lines around, especially when I get stuck on a certain thing, and keep in mind that you are going to fight certain things. I mean, I've been drawn for most of my life and there are certain areas like you see me kind of struggling here. It's just kind of part of the journey. But a good thing to take note of when that happens is that that's an area that you have to approach, that you have to attack and get proactive and say, "Okay, this is what I need to study in excellent." Oftentimes I'll rejoice in the fact that I find something that's more difficult for me to illustrate, because that means that, that's what I need to study next and that's how i grow an an artist, so don't ever fear that. Don't ever think that, "I'm not good enough and I am not getting any better. I still can't draw abdomens as well as like or whatever." That's part of the growing process as an illustrator. Just be happy about that. They actually figured it out, because a lot of people, they don't rejoice in that. They don't look at that, and they simply just want to stay in their comfort zone and draw only the things that are good at, and I just don't think that's a good habit to get into for. That's my less than perfect abdomen. Would I like it to be better? Sure. I'd like all my drawings to be better, and that's why I draw them. What we're going to have to go and settle on this one for now. I think my proportions are a bit off there, and the other thing is now that I've sized it down, I can see a little bit better too. I think this brush right here is a bit large. I'll see if just by toning it down just a little bit, because you got to keep in mind that the one that's furthest away from the camera, it's going to be smaller even if it's only slightly smaller, because that's how perspective works. I think that's a tiny bit better. Now, let's go ahead and move on to the back of the torso. Let's continue on. 7. Breaking Down the Torso Back: Welcome back everyone. My name is Robert Marzullo from Ram Studio Comics. I'll be your instructor in this course, How to Improve Your Figure Drawing. Now we're going to approach the back muscles. These can be pretty tricky, at least for me anyways, but I'll explain to you what I think helps to get these in place, the back in general. Again, start off at the very basic line across for the shoulders and the spine. Then maybe a cylinder opening for the waist area like that. If you haven't figured out yet, this is an angle shot that I'm perceiving, because I should explain that. I'll just do this wedge-shaped. So again, I'm going to start with a more angular approach like that. The reason why I think that works well is because the back tends to be a bit of a complex shape as far as the angle that it comes down from the neck like this, it slopes inward and then back out. It's got definitely some compounding curvature going on there. Let's just take this one shape at a time, let's get the neck up here. Let's get the line for the shoulders like this, and then we'll have those meat down to the starting point that we created here. Then we'll do the shape of the shoulder, something like this,and then we'll do that same shape but then will perceive that it's hidden bit by the a lot of the side of the back there. That's our basic rudimentary shape. If we had to simplify it would just be maybe a square here, square here, oval here, circle on a circle with a shift in the bottom. What I'm saying is just basically look at it as simplistic as possible so that you don't get bogged down in the complexity of a shape. We'll say that this is about where we want it for our beginning process. Then there's all this other stuff of like okay, what are the muscles go? How does the anatomy racked? That's where you're going to want to really study anatomy. The back can be tricky in the way that the back muscles separate away from like this. See it as bit of a diamond back here, they pull against that. Again, I'm not going to get too much into the anatomy, I'll draw a little bit of it in there to illustrate the way that I would draw the back. But we're focusing more on the foundational elements that work up to that anatomy. Like I mentioned in one of the videos before, there's separation of the muscles back here and a couple little strands of muscles up the back. They go across next to the spine, things like that. You get the obliques and the love handles right across the side here. Now we'll take this soft erase it down and try to refine this just a little bit. Now I get in here again and just clean up and get a little bit more definition into the shapes that I'm seeing here. You see I just put little curves away from one another to define areas. I don't go full on in there and say there's the shoulder blade or something. When I can just define that by separations of the line work. Down the muscle here, two separation. Usually it's still makes it look pretty defined even with these little bits of line breaks. I recommend doing that and you style it up. I think it looks a lot better than tracing every muscle. The back comes down through here, one muscle is there. The other thing to take note of is when you're doing this stuff, it's so hard to really say that okay this is the way it looks here, that's the way it looks there. Because all these muscles shift based on the way that the characters is moving, flexing, lifting an object, whatever. So although you could draw them in one particular perspective and one particular way, you have got to keep in mind that as soon as that person moves, or flexes, or balances or does anything, these muscles shift pretty heavily. Without studying your anatomy in full detail on bodies emulsion, you'll never really see that. It's one of the reasons why I don't really recommend always just drawing from standing model poses. Its a very one directional limited perspective on what the body really does. You're better off, if anything, studying gymnastics, dancers, UFC fighters, whatever it is you're trying to accomplish with your drawing, you need to study those variety of movements and you'll gain so much more prospectively from your work. Let's say the bowel or want to take this one. There's some separations in the shoulders as well. I almost threw this two segmented, but that's what the shoulder does, it rotates around. If you're looking at this area right here from the top, just a quick note, the shoulder basically looks like this. It goes around and then points downward down to the middle of the arm. Just keep that in mind. So when you go to draw these muscles, you can actually get them to rotate around the trapezius, I believe it's called. They will rotate around there and they will connect to the back. This is where studying your anatomy and breaking these down will start to make sense over time the deltoid divides up and has these different segments based on how defined the character is. Let's go ahead and shrink that down and move it over. Now let's do the female back and I'll do this a little bit more straight on, so let's start real simplistic once again. It's just a line and two circles. I'll just go ahead and immediately do more of a V for the back. Then a cylinder shape just very slum with a slight rounded base. The reason I want to illustrate this in even more simplistic of a way, is to show you that they're really the same form, but the female back it is just proportionately different. If we start with this basic shape, it gives us a little bit of the hourglass effect that we want. One of the shoulders down just for a simplified pose. The shoulder is basically the same shape. You just have to perceive it as a little bit thinner and more elongated to the forearm. Then the back comes downward, inward back out. This is pretty much just like a one continuous curvature that goes around like that. We've got the same back muscles, so we can start to lay those there little bit. I'd probably say not as defined, but it really just depends on the person obviously. Those small back muscles right there. The buttocks kind of be down like that, is kind of point out something like that. The shoulders, the lattes are still the same or I'm sorry, the trapezius, we'll just say traps just to make it a little easier. So the traps just go upward and they're still there. They're just not as defined or as enlarge as muscle man over there. We'll just go ahead and push those up like that. Still show the definition a little bit, so you've got the separation and the bag, a little bit of definition back here. We've got the muscles that come up this way, which generally can be pretty narrow spawned in some women there. Then the shoulder blades. So for a not overly defined character, that's plenty, that's probably even a little too much. It's all subjective to how defined and how muscular you want, whatever character you're drawing. Then you just keep adding on from there. I'd probably make the hips a bit larger in comparison. That's something else that I'll adjust as I do as soft erase and draw back in. Because I generally would expect the shoulders to be wider than the hips, but the hips to be almost slightly wider than the inset of the shoulders. This is proportional issues that everybody is going to be a bit different. It is a little bit based on your style and what you're after and then who you're drawing. If you're drawing a particular person, then obviously you're going to go off their body frame and their proportions could be totally different than the next person. I'll just refine these, I won't draw the arms, I'll just get the shoulders in there. Don't worry more about the curvature of the hourglass figure, that's pro comment on women and I'll define a little bit of the trapezoid trapezius there. [inaudible] confused. A little bit of the back muscles, a little bit of the shoulder blades, a little bit of the lower back muscles and the top of the buttocks. Keep in mind that the separation from the back here, the back generally rolls out like this. These are just directional lines like that. If you are trying to shade or define it more than what we're doing here right now, always keep that in mind that the back dips in right there. I'm sure it goes without saying. I'm sure we've all seen a backer too. I don't need to explain that, but it's helps to illustrate it and explain what I'm thinking as I'm drawing it. So depending on how some of the person is, you may get some of the ribs kind of showing through. This can be determined or be specific to a pose as well. If they're leaning over and stretching, you may see a little bit more rib cage there. Then, if they've got larger breast and you may see just a little bit of the breast from the side. I think they would have to have pretty large breast for that to happen but we'll say for the sake of this illustration they do and there you have it. That's how I would illustrate the female back from a straight perspective. One more that I'd like to illustrate is a combination of these and that's the side chart. Take it for granted, that side chats are generally pretty easy to draw in comparison to what we've been doing here but we're going to do one just regardless. I'll get on the shoulder form like this. You notice I immediately drew the silhouette of the back of the spine. Sorry. We'll do that even more simplistic, so it doesn't look like I'm skipping too many steps here. Hoping everybody can follow along. There's the spine opening to the neck. We'll do a block shape for the chest. We'll connect that right there with just a curve, we'll perceive that the rib cage is floating and through here. This connects it down, the small of the back. There's our beginning shapes. Essentially, cylinder there, square here, oval here, lines here, would be another oval there. Pretty simplistic stuff. That's what we want. Basic shapes to get started. Now this will be a female. I add breast on her, what will basically do or maybe one breast and it's a profile shop, is to start out with a slope, somewhere to a point but then round back, probably flatten out just a little bit right there. Again, we want to get in a habit of not drawing just this rounded, spherical shape for a breast. It's just unrealistic or at least on some people I suppose. Then the ribs, would come downward and back this way. I don't think from this particular angle you'd see much definition from the rib cage to the top stomach, just depend on the pose, I guess and the character. I think the back would need to slope in further so I'll find that a bit. Again, I won't draw the arm but just a bit of shoulder in place. I want a pretty slim shoulder. I think that it's less of the overall back. Let me thin that down as well. Just feel like it's almost the characters too wide from the side. Then the neck up here and the trapezoid, I am so used to calling it trapezoid. It's trapezius. Goodness. I don't even know what a trapezoid is, that's a shape isn't it? Maybe it's nothing. Maybe, it's entirely made up word. Okay. I think the breast is just a little bit low. Let's try raising that up and bag just a hair. Seems like this. I'll do just a little bit of the arms so I can see into the design a bit more. A lot of times, when I illustrate by comparison to other things that are nearby in the illustration. If something is a bit off and I'm missing a component of the body, it can often times be what's throwing me off mentally, so I'll sketch that in. What I'm getting at is like if i draw a character missing a head, I might over compensate or skew the neck because I don't have the head there to balance out my proportions. I'm not sure if that works with you, the viewer but that's just something I've noticed with my own illustrations. There's our rough base, little pull off in proportions, I would say but maybe not so bad for somebody animated. Let's go and softer racist down, like so and refine this a bit more. So again, I can worry a little bit more about cleaning up the lines and focusing on line clarity, line weight and the overall stroke of what I'm drawing less about the structure because I've already got that in place. Let's get that clavicle on there, come down this way, it's a slight bump to the nipple. Again, try to make this breast not look too overly spherical, which I always tend to do. A little bit of definition of the rib-cage, not too much and a little pouch and the angle back. Again, this is all just practice of anatomy. What exactly you see when you go to illustrate this stuff, if you like certain elements of the body to stand out then, you might show more of that in your design, unless of course you're working from a photo then obviously the photo is your guide and you want it to really stay true to that. But when you are working from the mind like this, you can tend to distort things and stylize them and that's okay. There's nothing wrong with that, it's just whatever you're after as an artist. There's our female from the side pose. Well, all right. That's going to complete this lesson. Next, we'll head over to our next lesson, which will be foreshortening. I'm going to show you how to take some of these body poses and elements and draw them in a foreshortened perspective, which should give you even a better idea of how to make these characters come alive. Let's head on over there. 8. Foreshortening Part 1: Welcome back everyone. I'm Roberta Marzullo from RAM Studio Comics and I'm your instructor in this course, How to Improve Your Figure Drawing. Let's go ahead and deal with the very complex topic of foreshortening. This one can be tricky for all of us, lets jump on in. Now that we've broken down these forms in various ways, the tricky part about drawing any of these forms is foreshortening. There's lot of tricky parts, but this is one that really boggles a lot of minds. I'm going to try to illustrate that in a pretty simplistic manner. I'm going skip a couple steps by now. Hopefully you've got an understanding of where I'm going with stuff I construct it with the previous steps that I've shown you. But what I want to do is, for instance, solve, construct a basic almost comic book but just an arm. It won't be entirely correct but I just want you to see how would try to turn this form in my mind and some steps I would take to foreshortening. Like I said, I'll skip a few steps and just draw it in. After you practice long enough, this comes naturally in the process. Again, it's not a perfect arm, but we'll have something that we can use as a starting point. Now one of the things I want to make special mention of is that when you're trying to draw this stuff, and you do run into an area that may seem a little bit complex or you can't visualize it. It's okay to draw something straight off to the side in a very basic form and then try to bring it over here and then foreshorten that form. I Recommend doing that, it always helped me visualize. I can almost use this as a guide even though it's just flat and straight off to the side there, it still gives me a visual cue to work from. Try that if you find this stuff complex. Now, the thing that I want to show you is that, this is what I'm envisioning when I look over at this, if we were to tilt this arm in the forearm, it is now heading towards camera, that's what this opening is right there. That's this, Okay. We've got the shoulder coming down to the elbow, coming up towards camera bit. Not directly at camera, but we'll get there. I just want to show you some incremental steps basically. Now if we were to overlay our cylinder method, it's a lot easier to get this in place because cylinders can be turned prospectively pretty easy. That's what you want to do and that's why up until this point, I've shown you all these breakdowns of basic shapes, because it's easier to turn those shapes visually in your mind and draw them in perspective. Then now with those in place, we can go back and add a little bit of the anatomy that we're aware of. This curvature here, it goes in front of the bicep, the lower part of the forearm, that would now be here. You just have to look over here and then bring it over here and visualize. Okay, this curvature for the bicep would be here, so now it would be here. You see this is pretty simple. This isn't a very complex tilt that requires a whole lot of thinking. You should be able to do this one relatively easy. Let's go ahead and softer aces down a bit. I'll just refine this line work a little bit more so you can see the perspective a bit more. You just have to get used to condensing objects down. Essentially, if this form was tilted outward, it would be more elongated and now that it's coming out towards camera, it has to be shorter a bit squatter and the curvature of the form here has to be more pronounced than it is here. Just things like that to take note of. Again, you have to remember that even though we're trying to draw in what appears to be a three-dimensional space, it's a flat 2D image, it's a screen or a piece of paper or whatever, so we have to do little tricks and that means shifting the lines, the line weight and making things appear that they're coming out in two dimensional space when they're actually not. Let's go ahead and move this one over. We'll do something more directly at camera now. Something else I want to show you is that you can also measure in perspective, so that helps for constructing a lot of this as well. Let me show you what I mean by that. Let's do a quick downward shot. Again, we don't want that arm to be completely straight, so I'll give it just a little bit of tilt. I'll start with some very basic shapes as always. The tricep comes out a little bit, the elbow tips right here from an angle like this. You'll get the shoulder will block some of the bicep. This muscle should come out forward, something like this. I'm going to make sure to taper pretty heavily at the wrist. I think the tricep pose arm like this more. There's our basic arm pose that we'll use as reference, again as a starting point. I guess I could softer rays set down a little bit and refine that just here. What I want to get you in habit of realizing is that all the same perspective tricks you might have learned along the way can also learn with foreshortening with bodies. Let's say that this is the arm we want like this, slightly muscular like that. That shoulder looks a bit weird in shape. Let's say that's what we want. Now, what I want to illustrate is that if you take this forearm and you go like this, you say okay, there's the squared off form, if you wanted to get your halfway mark, you can actually, let's go ahead and illustrate. Show you here how you would find center on something like this, you can actually go like this with a ruler, like this, this works with anything buildings, just any shapes to find center. Then you would go from outward here and that would actually give you a perfect center of this distance. You can repeat that process. You can go from corner to corner here, mark center again really, you can just do it visually. It doesn't have to be perfect at this stage, you're just trying to give yourself more of a visual guide to where these things might fall in perspective. Now what you can do, is you can create a bit of a perspective with just drawing out a square or rectangle, I should say, something like this, I'll even make it a cube because the arm's going to fit inside that area. Then use a ruler if you want those lines nice and straight. Now we can start to do the same thing. We could criss-cross these two points if we want to find center. Essentially what you're doing is you're doing more of a perspective trick that you would do for buildings or whatever else. But it can still work for anatomy. This works really good for drawing a full character in this regard because you can really play some guides. You can go right here to find center and this same center point will now be this point right here. Essentially, you've just pinpointed a guide where this arm can go. I'll go ahead and try to illustrate that same arm now using the circle for the shoulder, a cylinder coming out. Again, we don't want to perfectly straight down, I'll put a bit of tilt in there. Then I'll have this forearm come out. It get larger in perspective because you see prospectively the box is getting larger. So the arm would as well. Then I will do the bend for the back here. We're taking visual cues from our starting point over here. I'll try and set up there, shoulder here.This would be a tricky shape from this angle, but probably go like that, you probably hide some of the bicep. That form muscle, again, we have got to make sure that this gets pretty large because it's coming out in perspective. Then the opening for the wrist would appear pretty large from this angle just because of, again the foreshortened perspective that we're getting. Then you just remember that if you were doing something like this, from this angle, that the hand would probably be pretty large at this point. You'll see a lot of photo reference where there's somebody pointing out towards camera and their hand just gets extremely large and it will be the focal point of the shot. You got to know when to do that, since we're working off as basic illustration of the shoulder opening for the rest for now. Now I'll go ahead and soft erase this down, again take in visual cues from the sketch we have to assign. The tricky part is getting the curvature of a lot of this right. This is where studying your anatomy and your pictures, your photos will again help you see this. But you have to give the effect that everything is rounding this way like we've illustrated before. You can do the same three-dimensional line work to give you some visual cues there and then you have to also make sure to foreshorten it and change the size of various parts of your anatomy. The forearm being, they say a lot larger in this perspective. Certain things will actually turn more from this angle, certain lines and musculature would have more of the pronounced curvature like the part of the forearm right there would almost look like a bit of a separation right there. You just keep maneuvering those curves around until you get it right. That's how I would take that arm with that unit of measurement. I could have kept going, I could have kept crisscrossing and finding center and it would've told me where maybe this line ended up or where the change in curvature here ended up. You can do that as many times as need be. I would probably make sure not to do it so much were became distracting but just keeping in mind that these same perspective tools will work with your foreshortening. Now let's go into a leg, but let's do it foreshortened upward. I want to show you how you can also take the perspective, first I'll draw a ground plane like this, to give our leg a base, and then I'll draw the perspective going, let's say like this. I'll just some basic perspective lines and a pretty extreme upward perspective. Again, I just want to illustrate for you how perspective and foreshortening worked together to create these effects. We'll start off with the foot will say that we have the toes right here. We'll do a wedge shape, we have a bit of the ankle and the foot, will do another wedge shape of these diamond shapes off to the side. We'll do the ankle, which starts off pretty thin, and this is the tricky part where we want to show that it changes form, but it has to get smaller as it goes up. We're used to leg getting skinnier as it goes down right here. This is how foreshortening can be tricky. Let's just go ahead and start with basic building blocks. A cylinder, another cylinder, we note this cylinder is going to be much larger than this one, so I'll just go ahead and illustrate that here. We also know that it's going to change shape or direction. We'll just go ahead and start doing that as well. But also keeping in mind that it is foreshortening upward into perspective. I'll say something about this. Now the other thing to keep in mind when something is pretty extreme into foreshortening, that basically objects will tend to overlap on this way going up and then appear to be shorter as well. Where maybe this pelvic connecting to the leg if I was to draw it off to the side, maybe it would look from front perspective, something like this. Again, like I said before, I think it's helpful to draw some of this stuff over to the side from the perspective that you're used to. I will help you illustrate it in something that you're not used to. We got to here for visual reference but now here, I think that you would see a lot less of the pelvic area right there. I already start to illustrate that by shortening that area, like that. Then you notice the curvature here that I naturally want to place in the way that it narrows down to the knee. If I was to separate this into shapes, it would be something like this. I want to take note of that when I come over to here. I've got the knee right about here. I've got the bend and the anatomy here, and the bend on the leg that tapers inwards to here. Then I want to widen back out like the curve two and then taper her back in and same thing here. I know that this muscle would be shorter than this side and that the bone comes inward like this and then we say they're not any shoes. We got some toes here, something like that. These all taper up pretty heavily because we're so foreshortened at this bottom stage here, it would almost distort what we perceive right here visually. These would actually just appear almost straight up at this point. Even though from the side they would appear a lot more like this and not quite straight up at all. There's my ugly foot from the side. Then we know the knee, so we just keep connecting the dots. Essentially, we know certain things about the anatomy, we have to change certain things to make the curvature look more pronounced from this angle. But certain things do still hold true or give us a visual guides to work from. I'll just keep maneuvering this around. My ankles would probably be a little bit higher. Given from this extreme perspective, I'll just keep adjusting those and in the inside of the leg, we know that it's not a straight right here, so we've got a bit of this muscle would curve, would actually go approximately right here and it would curve up. This one would look like it almost curves over, which from this angle, this muscle would probably just go right in front of this muscle. From a straight angle, It looks like this one would take precedence. But then coming from a visual upward angle, this one would now look to dominate that muscle. If to that defined where you would see this type of segment to the anatomy. But that's essentially how you want to look at it. Then again, this wouldn't be a straight line. If anything, it would be a curve going upward, maybe something like this, so on and so forth. You really just keep repeating this effect. The knee from the side would generally be something like this and you get a little bit of a pocket of tissue or something right there. Then the bone at the bottom of it like this and then the knee would round to the side somewhere, something like this. It's encompassed by the other elements of the leg right there. Which say this is overlay segmented, but I'm just trying to illustrate what goes around it. From this area, which would appear to be a slight downward bend to the kneecap or patella, I believe it's called, would now be an upward bend. It doesn't need to be this straight across or this dramatic. But it's just little things like that again, that you want to take note of to make those changes. That's essentially how would construct through building a leg and an upward perspective and the same pop process can be said to be used on any of the body parts and the body as a whole. In areas like this where it looks a little skewed, that's just where again, finding a photo, and if you can't find a photo taking your own and then really studying what the body does from this particular angle where these forearms go. But the same breakdown method with perspective drawing should help you to construct your scenes more easily. That'll complete this lesson, but we're going to do a lesson 2 on foreshortening, so I can give you a little bit more information about some other tips and tricks for completing this complex topic. Let's head over to part 2 of foreshortening. 9. Foreshortening Part 2: Welcome back everyone, I'm Robert marzullo from Ram Studio Comics, and this my course on how to improve your figure drawing. This lesson we're going to study foreshortening in another perspective, so to speak. Basically, I want to draw a character for you and do a little bit more of a complex foreshortening perception or angular or series of angles. Essentially, the body can obviously contort and all these different ways, and that makes for drawing some angles and series of angles of the body parts pretty tricky at times. So what I want to show you there is a couple of tricks and high would break that down. Again, with anything that you struggle with, you want to break them down into basic shapes like you see me doing here, cylinders for arms. You'd start off with the lines and circles again and for extreme foreshortening angles, I will bring this handout towards a camera like this and we want to show that the wrist opening would get larger as it comes towards camera for viewer, however you want describe it. The main trick here is when doing this, is remembering that the characters separate body parts can actually recede into space much like a vanishing point to a building a car or anything like that. So hopefully understand basic perspective drawing but essentially the way it works, is say the character is downward from the top viewer, which they are. That's why we're looking down, we can see part of their back and things like that. So if we draw a horizon line up high there ,it can be said that various parts of the body can recede into space to a vanishing point. You just do these little vanishing points, and you know you can use a ruler if you want nice straight line and you can get a guide as to how that limb could react receding into space to that horizon line to that vanishing point. That can happen separately for each component of the body. You would just have each one find its own vanishing point and then draw outward. It can give you a pretty consistent guide as to how these arms are foreshortened. Now once something goes parallel with the horizon line like this form here it wouldn't need to change in shape. So it would stay consistent because it's no longer receding or advancing through space or perception. That's really how you'd break it down. So you could take more complex forms like this and simplify the process by using these guides. Then you can think a little bit more about your anatomy and your clothing whatever it is you're drawing over top of this base structure. Again, if the like here will say here's the knee, the knee would be drawn as a block shape from this angle, and then you could say that the foot either goes downward this way and you could say that it recedes down into space at another vanishing point down this way much like a three point perspective. You can say this one coming towards camera and maybe it's a focal point. So you can have the larger hand, which you generally will start off with some kind of wedge shape for the hand and we'll be getting into that more in the next lesson on how to draw hand, how to break hands down, and simplify the process. Same thing there we'll just do first just to make it nice and easy or we could do a festival just one finger coming out, more of an expression. So just as simple as that. You can just break this down with larger bulk shapes, check the perspective based off the horizon line, and work through your art work that way. The other tricky part is just when to omit certain details. For instance, ff this leg, say you get a little bit of the pelvic right there and slay goes back here to meet to the body and it looks like it's just up a little bit too high for this type of angle to the rest of the body and then maybe this leg protrudes down back this way and maybe some of the foot or, you see the foot down here. So these are all just things that you have to work through when you're building the poles and building the way that all this is going. Then you just make small incremental changes like everything else we've talked about and just keep working through the design of the character. Also if you change this, move it down, tilt it. I'm really a big advocate for adjusting your work on the fly and not getting to set in one direction of your creation. So as you're working through it, make adjustments it' okay. More times than not when you make those adjustments you are going to get a little bit closer or you're going to learn something in the process and sometimes bad drawings can become good drawing. So it just really is a matter of working through it. Let's bring that up. You see it's a pretty awkward pause at this point but I can grab the arm here, Shrink that down a bit, tuck it behind the shoulder more. Maybe I need to grab the whole shoulder, tuck that behind the head more. Again, I'm really open to making those changes and if this leg looks funny which I think it does, it looks like it's kind of going in the wrong direction, then get it out of their early on and make that change so that you don't spend and absorbing an amount of time trying to fix something that's just fundamentally has a problem. So get it worked out in the beginning rough stage and it'll save lots of time there. You could even create a box with the perspective tools as well and figure out exactly what direction you want that to go and then fit it within that box is you're drawing. There's lots of ways to really work through something like this and get it just right. But I would say the biggest is just making those incremental changes and keep an open mind to what you're drawing. This is our base design of the character. I'll go on and soft-erase this down try to fix it up a bit and I'll try to reinforce the perspective that I'm seeing here. Again, I'll do a basic shapes still as we're trying to figure this out. I'm going to try to think of this part still as a mannequin then I'm just moving around in a dimensional space, trying to figure out the way that I want to pose them, things like that. I'm going to get a little bit of the chest here. The back would probably curve and change shape because you get some of the muscles on the back and connection to the shoulder here, tricep here, connection to the elbow. I just go right on down the line and try to add in whatever anatomy I'm aware of and what I'd like to see in the pose. That will just be the direction of the face and I won't get too much into illustrating that for now. The leg still look clunky and off to this positioning of the body, so what I'll do there is I'll go in and take what I think is somewhat correct, still reduce a little bit of work on this part as well, but I'll go ahead and remove this. I think that what's happening here is that this leaned over pose would cover more of the pelvic region and the leg. So let me try that and see if this fixes the problem. Like I spoke about before when doing foreshortening like this, and when doing more complex poses, a big part of it is when to hide certain objects, when to omit parts of your detail. Something about us immensely want to draw everything in the scene, and when you start doing foreshortening, a lot of things will get blocked based on the perspective of the objects in the scene. So that's probably the trickiest part I would say. At least for me anyways, is omitting certain details and when to draw and when not to. I want to just cover it up with another body part like this hand being overly large and towards camera, as small as a hand is from a certain angle, it can block half the body. So it's being aware of that and then not still trying to figure out a way to draw in the leg when it just won't be in the scene from the shot. So right back here. Another way that fixes this as well or it's a good thing to get in the habit of is drawing through. So if you have to draw through the arm just to get this leg into place, especially if you're like me and you do better at rope drawing method where all your lines are connected as you draw, I combine that with the Conan cylinder method. So basically something like that. Then you just go back and erase the areas where you drew through your other part of the artwork. Let's clean this up a bit and see if it's a little bit closer. Then I'll get rid of my distracting perspective lines that I beat up there, and let's shrink it down and take a look from a distance. So, yeah. It's starting to get there. I think the arm and the back arm is still overly long. So what I'll do is I'll bring this back up. I like to look at everything from a distance and occasionally flip it and things like that. But I'm going grab this whole section right here and I'm going to shrink it down and tuck it even more. So I'm really trying to push the perspective of the arm here. I could even do that. I could grab this arm and maybe it's an extreme foreshortened perspective and I can increase the size of that. So there's really no right or wrong way because depending on how the camera is angled, types of lenses, things like that, you can see these really dramatic perspective shots. Oftentimes, they're a really good way to add intense drama to a scene that otherwise would be boring. So it's another thing to keep in mind if you're drawing storytelling and comics or whatever you might be doing with the art. Sometimes it's helpful to do stuff like this to tell a more dramatic story. So let's go ahead and shrink that over and move him to the side. So another thing I want to share with you for foreshortening is an approach where you draw the box stand perspective completely first. So what I'll do is just start off with a box like this. This can be helpful as well if you struggle with envisioning the perspective and the foreshortening. So we'll just do the box shape like this, and what I want to put in here since our next lesson will be hands anyways, is I want to do an overly foreshortened perspective of a hand. So it's going to reside in this space here like that, and what I want to do is start off zone a vision that the hand is in this box and maybe a little bit past it. But for the most part I want it to stay in this boxed off area. Which I think is important to do for your art anyways. Because it's very easy to not have any guidelines to your work and just draw whatever you feel like drawing. It's important to train yourself to be able to draw what you need to draw and not just what you want to draw. So let's take this area here and better yet we go ahead and I'm going to actually put this on a new layer. I want to move on a bit if I have to. So we'll do a little bit of cheating. So now we have the box in place, we'll start with the wedge shape for the hand, we'll have the hand pointing out towards camera a bit, a little bit up from camera, and I'll be showing you tips on how to draw these hands a little bit more effectively in the next lesson. But what I like to do with hands is like these ovals. So I want to look that the hand is coming out towards camera, slightly above, the thumb is generally a wedge shape off to the side. Feel free to look down at your own thumb if you have to. My hand has these two pads obviously, the thumb area and then the side, and we'll get into the roundness of the fingers a bit more as they come to the top. A good thing to keep in mind with hands too is not to have all the fingers going the same direction. It's really easy to want to do that and you'll get an unnatural look. So we've got our hand in this box, this 3D space. Let's go ahead and start to erase it down and see if we can enforce the look that we're going for. So basically, we know that the hands are pointing out towards camera, so again, we're going to use downward curves to overlap segments of the hand, areas of the hand that would look pointed from this angle are going to look rounded. So the shapes change because of the perspective of that the hand is coming out towards camera, the pads of the hands will now round downward. Look at this. If you notice, everything is becoming a downward curve like the base of the hand here. The thumb is actually a different angle than the fingers, so the curves will actually change here and point in a different direction. Give that a little bit of webbing almost like from the skin that connects to the thumb to the fingers. I just find that exercises like this are a good way to visualize you are in a 3D space. So I do recommend doing stuff like this. Then the way that the wrist would connect if we were to redraw the whole hand connected to the wrist, it would appear thinner from this side and it would actually taper inward as it got further away from the camera. I'd probably draw it as a bit of a shape like this so as it connected to the next part of the arm and the shoulder these would get smaller as they receded back into space. It's almost like that type of look. Then obviously I go back and make changes. This thumb looks really awkward. I'm looking at my own hand and try to see what shape I see and it looks like more of a rounded shape like this and the way it connects is more something like that. So probably another rounded shape here to illustrate the thumb changing angles or whatever. So something like that. If I get rid of the layer with the box and the character apparently, we can see that that's got a pretty decent perspective like it's coming out towards camera. So it's just a little test for yourself like that that I really recommend trying. Again, also doing it with reference. This is all just visually out of my mind. So if I had a picture of this, well, keep in mind, I was looking down at my own hand as much as possible and I still managed to not get it perfect, but that's where practice will eventually lead to perfection, I guess, or at least some resemblance of it. So that will conclude this second lesson on foreshortening, next we'll head over to our lesson on hands, so let's continue on. 10. Breaking Down Hands Part 1: Welcome back to how to improve your figure drawing. I'm your instructor, Robert Marzullo from Ram Studio Comics. Now we're going to approach hands, so let's go and get started. Hands can be pretty complex, but like anything else, if you break them down into more basic shapes, it gets a bit easier. We'll start off with a square. I'm just going to draw a palm, face up and we're going to do two boxes like this. One is going to represent the palm, and one will represent the fingers and the tapering that the fingers do in that area like this. The knuckles go up like this, and then the thumb comes off to the side. The knuckle from the thumb lines up to the knuckles of the finger slightly and then you get the segments of the thumb like this. Then it connects to the pad of the hand. If you separate things like this, like I've mentioned before in this course, it really just makes the process a lot easier to understand. You're breaking down the bigger chunks into smaller bite-sized pieces, if you will. Essentially by doing that, you take complex things that have a lot of stuff going on and you can itemize them and get a better feel for it. It's really important with the hand because there's just so much going on with hands. There's the three segments to the fingers, there is the various shapes that the hands can make. Proportion issues can be really tricky, especially in perspective. The more you can simplify the hand and make it easier to draw like this, the better I think. You'll see even here it's like a little awkward. I'll just slowly keep refining it and get it closer and closer. There's this secondary set of pads right here at the bottom of the finger and then there's the skin in the middle that bunches up as you fold the hand in different positions. Then you have the separation of the pads of the finger like this. If I had to split those off, it's pretty even except they start off a little bit larger. The middle one is about equal length and then the last one is shorter. It's little things like that, that you can take note of as you're drawing and get a better feel for how to draw a quicker and what steps to take. As we soft our races down, we can look into our sketch a bit more and go, okay, maybe the fingers are a bit thicker and maybe I need to show the direction of the tissue on the side a little bit more. Maybe they're a little bit too perfectly next to one another, maybe the middle finger needs to be a bit more pronounced, like it's famous four and all these things that you can take note of. Maybe this one needs to be a bit wider and adjust from this rough sketch process. Then really taking note of how the thumb is totally separated or different. It goes at a different angle, walks its own pace there in [inaudible] on its own path. If you'd show that in your illustration that you're aware that that's at a totally different, distinct angle, that looks a little more realistic. I've got the little skin here in the veins, all that fun stuff. Then the lines generally go up at an angle, then it goes straight across right here. There's a bunching up of skin in here, so you just keep elaborating as you go. This won't be a hyper-realistic hand or anything like that. We'll just get enough of it in there where we've got a good starting point. We can show that we know what we're doing when we're drawing a hand. It seems like that and we'll take it from there. That's our basic sketch to get us started. I'll raise some of these construction lines and move this off to the side. Again I always use this as a reference point, a starting point to work through other parts of the illustration, especially in more complex type renderings. I'll always give myself a bit of a warm-up sketch, if you will. Strike that down and bring it over. There you go, a digital high-five. Okay, now we're going to go ahead and do another pose of the hand. Just keep in mind when doing the hand, it's all about lots and lots of practice sketches. There's just so many different poses that the hands can take. It's one of the things that I'll oftentimes tell my students to work on the most. Because since it is such a complex area of the body, that'll teach you things about other areas of the body and how to draw them better. I feel that by studying hands that it'll help you with drawing legs and drawing other detailed aspects of the human form. There's just so much expression in the hands as well. One of the things that's really great for storytelling is when you can get some pretty dynamic hand poses in there to help tell the story. If you can't tell by now, I'm drawing a hand almost like pointing down on a piece of paper and pressing down on a table, something like that. It's good to try to emulate hand poses that you think would be fun to draw. Just think of an idea and then try to do it. If you can't nail it, then immediately go to reference and like I've said before, don't feel bad, if you need to look at reference. That's how we all get there. We have to start with reference, gain perspective and knowledge about our subject matter, and then press forward. Nobody just starts magically drawing without ever looking at something. As much as some artists would like you to believe that, it's just not true. Study a reference, practice your style and you'll get there over time. What I'm trying to illustrate here, you see that I started with the very basic shape, this wedge shape up here, some cylinders for the fingers. I'm skipping a few steps by this stage in the course because I want you to see that that's what will naturally occur as you practice more and more. That you won't lean on those same building blocks that I've tried to illustrate in this course for you. After a while, you don't have to force it, you'll organically and naturally just start to do that. Take your time, do your homework in your practice, in your due diligence, and all that stuff will come as you progress as an artist. You'll get certain comfort levels with certain things that you illustrate. There are things you'll maybe struggle with for some time, like hands, they are just tricky. Now I can look at this and go, okay, this isn't a perfect hand where labor is, and that thumb's a little bit bent back and almost looks like the thumb is against the ground plane as well. Which isn't a bad thing, but it probably wouldn't be tilted up like that so it probably more. If we're going to go ahead and go with that, we could probably tilt this back like this because the thumb isn't going to be totally parallel with the finger because it's shorter. Even on a parallel plain, like we'll say, this is our table, for instance, or whatever it is. The thumb would be shorter to even connect to the same surface. It does make sense that it would be up higher and still be able to connect prospectively to that flat plain object. Again, if we take this and soft our races down, try to refine it a bit more. Remember that when you do this part, when you're soft erasing, whether you're working with digital methods like I am or needed to eraser on paper or Bristol board or whatever you're working with. This is the part where your construction works out the way and now you can focus on rendering. You still can make changes like I've mentioned before throughout this course, but you can be a little bit more forgiving of yourself right now and bring out the artwork and do the rendering part, which I've always considered the more rewarding part. Like I feel like the construction lines are more of the work, the preliminary building blocks and then when I get to this part, I can enjoy myself and have fun with it. If you feel that way, then do that, just get that essential building block stuff out of the way. Then when you get to this part, just relax and really enjoy the artwork and try to figure out where you can fine tune your line work and bring out the best parts of your illustration. The more I draw, the more I feel that's the process that I take to create my art work. It doesn't all have to be in one stage or two stages. We are all very different the way that we make art. It could take you multiple stages. Who knows? You might be able to sketch and draw it all down in one motion and get to something that looks great. But I oftentimes have to work up to my forms this way and I'm able to look into the design process a bit more by doing it this way. This actually splits off right here, you get these two little veins. If you flex your thumb, you can see those. You can do a little bit of shading there and then have them taper off or fade off into the hand. It looks unnatural if you draw that rolled distinct V in there all the time. You've got to know when to soften that up. You've probably got a little bit of a vein from this hand and over, stuff like that and the wrinkles from the knuckles and you just keep going. There's so much detail in the hands you can really spend a long time shading and doing the finish work to your hands and [inaudible] of the back of fingers like that a little bit. There is another hand pose. All right, so that'll complete this lesson, but we'll head on to a part two of hands so I can explain a few more hand poses for you. Let's move forward. 11. Breaking Down Hands Part 2: Welcome back to how to improve your figure drawing. I'm your instructor, Robert Marzullo. Let's go and do part two of hands now. I'll do a couple more hand illustrations to give you a better understanding of how you might draw some of these complex forms on your own. Let's go and take the hand palms and point it down and slightly away. Again, we'll start with the cube there to give us the main part of the hand. We'll do the direction of the fingers. We'll illustrate those with cylinders, the taper and word. Let's go ahead and position the thumb, so the knuckle of the thumb would probably be back here. Part of the hand will be right about here. Let's go ahead and draw that. We've got one knuckle, the other knuckle here and the tip of the thumb. We'll illustrate that with cylinders as well. Hand probably wrinkle right about here and connect to the palm. So keeping in mind that you're not really worried about getting these perfectly in place or correct, the very first part of your sketch, just blocking it in essentially. So I will get thumb in there, part of the hand. Then from this angle you'd see the bottom of the hand a bit like this. Probably a good part of it over to here depending on the position of the rest of the hand, and this part probably come back to the separation of the pads and the wrinkles under the wrist, things like that. So we'll just draw a cylinder shape for the rest. Now we'll figure out where the rest of these fingers are going to go. So one of the things we could do is say that, since this point of fingers are like this, maybe the middle finger is somewhat following suit, but a little bit further down, and then just repeat that. Remember that the back of the hand tends to curve independently from these front two fingers. So just practice making different hand shapes and you'll see what I mean there. There's a set of tendons that makes the other fingers react differently. I think it's one of the reasons why some people can train themselves and do better with instruments versus other ones that struggle with that because they never really train that part of their hand. So if you clench your hand up, you'll see what I'm talking about, and we want to illustrate that. You'll see a lot of hand illustrations where all the fingers are pointing in the same direction and in the same way and that's just not how the hand works. The fingers maneuver quite differently from one another. The back two maneuver very differently from the front two. So let's go ahead and try to show that. Those are rough form and place and then here we can get in the thumbnail here, the wrinkles in the thumb. Now one of the things that looks funny about this thumb is I didn't have it widen out enough. So the thumb will generally taper off towards the front, but it will be larger towards the base. So I need to show that, show that knuckle right there. Let me go and softer raise this down and try to refine it a little bit. You can see there's a lot of construction lines that go into even a simple hand poles like this. There's just a lot going on when it comes to the hands. The reason why I'm incorporating that into the course here just to let you know is that, this is Mainland figure drawing, so you might be wondering why we focused on hands. But hands are so important to the way the rest of the body works, the expressiveness of the hands. Like I mentioned before, you learnt so much by drawing hands that in turn, I think it will improve your figure drawing. So there's just a lot of neat details and the way that the hands are construction, the way they work. Now I'm just trying to refine this and get a few more organic looking shapes in there with my line work. I can get in there and try to define the wrinkles on the knuckle but more how it looks like I made that thumbnail but small, so I'll make a incremental change to that. The pads to the fingers keep in mind that they actually have a small, modest separation between them. So it's good to draw that in as well. You should see a bit from this angle right there, maybe we're going to touch that one. You can also illustrate the direction of the fingers are going based on the positioning of the fingernail. Fingernail is actually a really good placeholder for drawing fingers. Right here's what I was mentioning that you actually get a tiny bit of separation from these pads here. So let's go to draw that. Also remember that there's a good amount of separation in between your fingers to draw that as well. So I'll get those pads they'll generally point just a little bit in the opposite way. Like that you'll get that [inaudible] flush or skinny. I'd fill awkward gone it flushed. But for lack of a better term, pleasure, skin, wrinkles or folds, whatever you prefer. Get that in there. Show that separation from the pads of the hand, the wrinkles that you get here and, slight hint to the veins. Or if there's somebody that hands were strong, hands I made, you see more of that. Okay, that's another hand illustration. Try to get some more perspective on how you could to draw hands. Obviously, you keep going from there and detailing it even further and further. Okay, so now let's go ahead and create one more hand poles. Let's go into a fist. So we've got a variation here. Fist can be started off as more of a wedge shape and a block. We'll start off with a block shape like this. That'll be the side of the fist. The knuckles rotate down. One common mistake to drawing fingers when they're in a fist position is to make more straight across. It's really easy to do so, we want to keep in mind that the fingers rotate from this perspective, they twist at a couple of different angles. So you have the knuckles here, and they fan downward little bit like that. So the thumb would meet over here and get the skin folds right about there. Then you could do another cylinder shape or wedge pointing inward. The roundedness of the knuckle there. The pad of the hand here. A little bit larger and then the other one here, I'm looking down at my hand as I do this because it's right there and it's good reference. So why not? The wrinkles go towards a knuckles and you get a double wrinkle here, so points back towards the knuckle but short of it, because of the pad from the finger takes precedence right there, I think. The main thing to get in this part right is the thickness. In a lot of any of this drawing is the way that things are in proportion to one another. Remember that if something's not looking right, it could be a proportion issue from one part of the hand to another. Get the other knuckle right here and this tends to flatten off a little bit, you can almost shade downward like this and illustrate that because it tends to get just a little bit flat right there before it rounds down through this area. The knuckle generally sits up like this and then this is a rounded shape here, and it connects to the rest. We'll get these knuckles in here, these fingers this way and then again, it's still looking a bit too straight right here. The way that I usually try to fix it, is I'll point off the knuckles in a little bit of their own direction. I'll turn each one of these just a little bit, then internal fan the lines down with the fingers come back, like this and then they round again before the next segment goes inwards, like that. Even right here, instead of doing this as a completely straight line, I'll put just a little bit of curvature to that line because nothing on the body is straight. If you see a straight line, even these lines right here, put a tiny little bend in there. It will generally look a bit better. Remember here we can direct the thumb really easily by putting in the thumbnail and it helps to give a little bit more depth to that part of the drawing. It's going to be tiny little wrinkles and bends, [inaudible] all throught here. Now this part of the finger, and this is what I meant by proportionate scale. This part of the finger looks a bit large, so we got to fix that to make the hand look a bit more correct. The rest to here. I'm trying to analyze this and see why it looks so, how to place a big part of it is because you would get for this part of the finger, that segment there wouldn't be up here. I say it fills some of that gap that looked a little bit strange. Still looks a bit large for the fingers, so I'll try to scale that back just a little bit. You see what those basic shapes were able to get the majority of this in place and construct our first pose pretty quickly. I'm going to try to refine this, and I also want to analyze it a bit further and go. I think the top part of the fingers are just too large in comparison to the thumb and the rest of the hand. Let me try something like this side from racing it all out of there. I'll just try to scale that back a little bit and maneuver it and see if I can fix that. When I go to do my next part of the sketch, I think that helps a little bit. The thumb looks a bit strange in shape, this is all studying and making incremental changes to really fine tune the work. Let me go and softer races down, see if that's enough for base construction of the hand to its look. Try not to draw in straight lines, even though it's real easy to think of this particular part of a hand as straight. I can almost do these lines first so that I'm forced to make sure I shift the knuckles. Again, I want to show that they [inaudible] out a bit, and I go completely straight down, and in this part, I put a nice curved line right there and the knuckle and there. Here I would think a little bit of the skin fold. You see it's just a little bit of tweaking as I go. Few things I'll change if I can, if I see something that is really awkward and I can fix it at the time then I'll do so. It's all about making those little changes and recognizing parts of your artwork that could be better and that never stops. There's times when you're going to look back at your drawings and go, what was I think and there should be this should have did that? You just have to do the best that you can today and press forward and always try to tell people when they're constantly critiquing their work and never wanting to put something out there. You have to remember that at the end of the day, a product that is done and in production or in use, is better than a product that you labor over that never makes it to plan or whatever your end result is, digital upload or whatever you might be doing. You have to at times except and get things done, because it doesn't mean much if it doesn't get out there, so you got to do it. That's tough for some artists, some artist want to perfect everything they do and there's nothing wrong with that, but at the same time, you do have to produce work, especially if you're going to be a professional working artist, you have to turn out product. Imagine that. I could just keep sitting here and adjusting it, maneuvering things around and hopefully each time I'll get a little bit closer, if I move this fold back and change the shape of those, changes shape of that, and just nips and tucks until I get it all write or a little closer anyway, so there's that one. That'll complete this lesson. Next we'll head over to the next lesson, which is The Body in Action. Let's continue on. 12. The Body in Action Part 1: Hey, what's up, everybody. Rob Marzullo here. We're in studio comics, and welcome back to my course, how to improve your figure drawing. Now, we've broken down enough forms into basic shapes. We can now start to elaborate a little bit further, and really start to figure out how figure drawing can be a lot simpler to accomplish. That's really the purpose of everything that I've shown you thus far. I feel like one of the things that's helped me dramatically improve my figure drawing is understanding all of these basic shapes, and then being able to manipulate them further by breaking them down. One of the things to keep in mind when drawing characters in figure drawing is obviously login lots of a variety of sketches so you understand the poses, but then also, just certain roles, like one is counter posing. I'd rather say it here. Essentially, it's just one arm is forward and the opposite leg is forward. The same side would be back. It basically is balanced. You need to counterpose the body to show direction, balance, weight, things like that. It's understanding things like that a lot of your drawings to come through a little bit more accurately and go okay. How would the body work like this? would the character be able to stand and create motion, or how would their posture be? Where would their head be in relationship to their shoulders? For instance, I will start a little bit high with the head, but then in a pose like this, I start to analyzing going all the head, probably lower and even tilted from an angle like this. The more you start to do things like this, you'll start to work through these forms a little bit faster and be able to again place your anatomy in there a bit quicker, and you'll start to make adjustments on things like how far the hand would block the form from this angle, would you see the thumb? Will the thumb be pointed out? All these little minute things that at first you take for granted when trying to draw it, over time will start to make more and more sense. Again, that comes from just sheer volume and repetition of drawing a variety of poses. But it's breaking down those poses into basic shapes that in my mind makes it easier to reconnect and reconstruct these characters at the job over time. That's essentially what you're trying to get passed. When you study figure drawing, when you study drawing from life, storytelling, whatever it is you're after, one of the things that you have to start to do is be able to construct your own designs. It happens over time naturally, but the reason it's so important is because you're not always going to have reference. You're not always going to be able to pull from a reference. You can always study from a pose and reconstruct a new pose, but there's going to be times when you'll merely have to try to create your own, and that's where this type of figure drawing and breakdown will over time allow you to accomplish that and feel more confident with drawing from your mind. I'm going to work through a few action poses with you, poses and movement and explain that process, and hopefully by the end of this, you'll be able to really see what I'm talking about and construct your own dynamic poses. There's our first and we won't get too much into facial features, it's a whole other ballgame, but I do have course content on that as well. We'll just get things in place and then, like I've shown you previously in the videos here, I'll always move things around and resize as I go, just to really fine-tune the pose. Maybe I want this hand to come in front of the leg just a little bit to push the depth of the polls a bit further, things like that. Resize this one down. Another tip I want to show you for drawing characters in motion like this and studying the poses is to keep in mind that when drawing them, I have to blacken your initial stage. Let's get that in. Let's say the character is jumping up in the air. One arm is up. If you notice, I'll blacken as much of this all at once as possible, especially with the pose that I'm trying to really work out my mind. I'll get all these different reference points in place and then I can step back and look at it and make some changes to proportion and angles pretty quickly from this basic loose sketch. This is again where adjusting your drawing is so important with your illustrations because you start to get a feel for early on what your pose is doing. Like how this one the shoulders already look a bit stiff. The legs, I don't think they're too bad for a jumping and squatting pose or something more animated. But the shoulders just look a bit two plain and straight across. It's easy when you're working with something very loose like this to erase it and shift it or if you're working digitally, just move it around like I did there and make those adjustments. Destroy it rather quickly and really see into your work a little bit further at this stage. Then from here refining it. Again, getting in there with a little bit more structured forms leading up to the anatomy stage. I want to show a little bit of foreshortening with the arm here so you're going to do a shorter, more squattier shape, the fist kind of overlapping. You could do the same thing down here with maybe the hand starting to come out towards the camera. Another mistake that a lot of artists make is drawing everything straight up and down. I want to show even the slightest bit of change in direction out towards camera and with this hand, may be a more significant change in direction, so that it's not to make it look like I just drew an arm straight down, which would obviously be easier to accomplish, but tends to make your artwork look a lot more boring. Just be aware that. If you want to spruce up your figure drawing, really fight the urge to do this straight up and down limbs, really change direction. Each time a limb connects, whether it be the hip joint, the knee, the ankle, there's are all small interval and sometimes not so small interval, possibilities for changing the direction of those limbs and in turn making your illustrations look more dynamic in the process. Let's go ahead and soft-erase this one down real quick, give it a bit more structure, and then, again, you can come back in with more of your anatomy thoughts at this stage and start to fill that in with more of a rope drawing method where you just go round the shape of your initial structure and just fine-tune it a bit. Again, feel comfortable doing this as many times as necessary. You don't have to jump right to this method. You can keep restructuring, keep cleaning up your work, rather than necessary part of speed. Training yourself when you're doing 5-10 minute gesture drawings, and figure drawings from life, and things like that. Is so that you get a better understanding of the motion of the body, and the feeling that's exuded from the pose. Don't feel like you have to do all your sketches that fast. Some poses, if I want a really well thought out piece, I might restructure it, and redraw it for hours to really get it just right, especially if it's a solo piece where that character is the main premise of the piece. Speed is definitely subjective to what the end result of the piece is, and what you're trying to accomplish. The other thing that I think that you gain by timing yourself, and working on speed is it lets you know professionally, what you're going to be able to deliver to a client. It is important in a lot of regards to still time yourself, and still know where you stand with all that. Actually, I'm noticing these legs are way too up high on the connecting point of the body. Yes, when timing yourself, it is very important because then when you go to price a job or whatever you're doing or commission, you know where you stand on that, if you never time yourself, and you always just create pieces. I mean, you might know, this one took me a day, this one took me a week, but sometimes you're going to need to know in some production environments what you can do per hour, what you can do per 20 minutes. Timing yourself is very important for that, it's not always the most fun thing to do to realize that something might take you a lot longer than you hoped. But it does it's an eye opening experience, and allows you to grow from that experience. They don't all have to be perfect poses. Some of these are studies, and some are work in progress, and some will make it to finish renditions, but all of them are teaching you. That's the main thing. There's that one, let's size it down, and move it over, and let's work on another. Now, I'm going to go speed this next one up a little bit, and narrate over top just so we can get a few more of these poses in here in a reasonable amount of time. Essentially, this one, I want to do the upshot a little bit more, and show you the different angles that you can place into each element of the 1,2,3 pose. The head, the upper torso on the pelvic, by putting these angles in pretty early on, you can stretch the pose a little bit more, and get a little bit more of their motion or movement into the structure pose, just as not to make everything look so straight up, and down all the time. It's really easy to do that, and you want to fight that as much as possible, and again, you're logging that time with your figure drawing. Studies will help you see that the body is, everything but straight up, and down, and has a lot of curvature to it, a lot of changes in direction, and in the pose. Basically I like to do studies like this where I'm not looking any reference on this particular one, but I'm trying to think of some of the reference studies that I've done, and what shapes I might see. Another thing that's good to take note of when you're having difficulty drawing, say an arm, and a shoulder, and a head, you can actually study the inner negative shape that you see. It's a bit of a triangular shape from the center of the elbow area to the side of the head, and the shoulder. Sometimes, by drawing the negative area in most spaces, you can actually pinpoint an error in your drawing a little bit easier. Remember to try that as well, and some people do better with more structure, underlying structure to their drawings, and others do better by tracing around the perimeter. Which I'll often refer to as rope drawing, and I'll use that method to draw the anatomy. After I get enough underlying structure, and place, I'll go back through, and do a rope drawing method where I draw around the structure, and fill in the anatomy, and the overall shape. It's really, I think a combination of all those things that you try, and certain things worked better maybe in certain areas or maybe, use one method for your anatomy, and another method for your structuring. It's just a variety of things that the forms can be so complex, even the hand pauses here. It's like you've got lots of different shapes with the hands can take. I think that you have to have a few tools in your toolbox to really accomplish these series of tasks. Here just trying to refine the work a bit more to get a little bit more of that anatomy, and place. I also do little things like if you see in the face there, I'll do an upturned nose. I'll place the ear lower, and position on the head. All those things help push the perspective that you're looking up at the face. I'll go, and soft erase this down now, and try to refine it a bit more, and now, there's a decent amount of structure put down. I can think more in terms of rope drawing or drawing the silhouette of the character, and another good practice method for this type of figure drawing is when you're studying your character as your reference or whatever. Doing your studies, really look, and focus on the shape of the silhouette. Get used to recognizing silhouette shapes, and you'll make certain things in your drawing a lot easier as well. With painters, a lot of painters will actually do major blocked in shapes, and they're able to recognize a lot of good silhouettes, and their shapes, and even the shapes of their colors, and things like that. It's, it's a useful tactic for constructing your artwork. Here just trying to refine it a bit more, making small incremental changes like I've spoke about previous in this course, everything I do is always centered around making small little adjustments. Now, one of the things I try to be aware of when I'm drawing a character that I'm looking upward, is that all those shapes need to have slight upward tilt to the anatomy, and things that would particularly be downward tilted like the chest, is now an upward tilt or bend to the linework. Things like that, and then also the other thing to take note of is when you're drawing the form, and a downward perspective. Same chest area is going to look a lot more elongated, and larger in height, but in up tilt like this, the chest is going to appear to be very squatty, and smaller shape. It's really taking note of all those little things, and trying to recreate them in this way that really makes your drawings start to stand out. Again, I tried to draw the up tilt of the face a bit more, tilted the nose, the lower positioning of the ear. [inaudible] head appears to be really short from this angle just little things like that. This will complete this one, and now we'll head over to the next lesson, part two of drawing the body in action. 13. The Body in Action Part 2: Welcome back everyone. My name is Robert Marzullo from Ram studio comics, and this is my course on how to improve your figure drawing. This is part 2 of the body in action. Let's go and work through another pose or two. Another thing I want to show you is, another unique way or fun way to stretch the pose, is to separate the three elements that we talked about: the head, the torso, and the pelvic. By doing this, by really moving these components away from each other a bit further, you can really start to stretch a pose and try to really make it more dynamic. You do want to be careful not to go too far and make it into the realm of something that's not believable. Unless of course that's what you're after, then by all means go for that. There's a fine line in there, but it's good to take note that you can basically, again pivot each one of these, individually from each other, so you can have a very distinct change in the direction of each of these components, like this. The body can contort to some pretty amazing positions there. Then when you add the limbs, obviously you'll follow suit with what you've described in your underlying structure, these parts. Something like this, and maybe this arm and shoulder up here, may alt, and we'll try something like this. Again, just roughing this end with really basic shapes just to get an idea down. Those series of circles, just to get a visual foreshortening in that form. Let's go and size it down just a little bit. The knee right about there, it's going back. Maybe this is a weight-bearing position or leg, so we could do something like that and give it some foundation. One of the things I recommend studying quite a bit for even poses like this, even though this is a fictitious example, all of this comes from somewhere, something I have studied previously and something that I've drawn previously and done. One of the things that I really enjoy studying more and more is, gymnastics and dancing, things like that. You get just some really neat dynamics to the way that they can move and contort the body in motion. I suggest studying all of that, finding reference when you can and drawing from that form of life. Fighting, boxing, kick boxing and things like that is, really unique as well. Then just even certain sports. Certain moves in sports are just very impressive and dynamic to draw from and you'll in turn get a better idea of how the body works and your poses will start to reflect that. Study the ones that are more limber if you want to loosen up your style, and then if you're trying to tighten up your style because it appears a little too soft in areas, then maybe you'd study more bodybuilding poses of things like that. Your art will go with what you study, with what you feed yourself, that's what your output will be. This probably goes without saying, but just keep that in mind. If you feel that your art is lacking in a certain area, then you go to that particular part of your studies and you can change that, pretty quickly. Here's our character. Looks a little bit more of a comic book pose, but like I've mentioned in these videos, that's predominantly what I've studied and what I do, so that's probably why it looks that way. I would almost picture this character, like some form of energy blast or something like that coming off his hands. Maybe some more back here as well and he's just lunging up into the effect of emanating that power. Something like that. There's that one. I want to get a few more poses out because it does take a little bit of time to create each one of these, so I want to make sure that we get a few of them done before the end of the video series here. Like I mentioned before about studying dancers, is a really great one to not have your characters look so overly stiff, and just the poses that they train their bodies to be able to do is just so amazing. One of the things that you can do is really study your gesture drawing from there, and just keep in mind that gesture drawing is just going to be the various sped-up version where you're just trying to capture the flow of the body in motion. Instead of doing as much of the structure work, gesture drawings can sometimes be as simple as just a few quick lines, a few quick shapes. I find that when I do my really quick studies, it's better if I use a larger brush and just give in the quick forms in a very short amount of time. With that, I'm just really forcing myself to only see just a basic movement in the design and not so much on detail and refining the work. That can definitely come later and that has its own set of rewards in doing that. But sometimes you really just want to quickly get down the expressiveness of that movement. That can be said for the entire body, the flowingness of the hair, the clothing that they might be wearing. All of that, you just want to capture the movement more. These are very helpful to do and they're just, I would say required. If you really want to get better at figure drawing, then gesture drawing is highly important. Again, back to the whole timing yourself and being aware of what your strengths and your weaknesses are, that all goes in with that entire process. Sometimes it can be something just as rough as that. It's like, do I want to keep refining it? Well, of course. You know I want all my drawings to look as impressive as I can, but do I need to capture that movement or that idea? Not really. I can get enough of that information just after that and I can go back later and add to that. Let's try another quick gesture of another dance pose. Spring the torso back here. Really elongate this midsection to show the stretch. Again, I'm going to do this pretty messy just to really focus on just the underlying structure or the movement of the pose, or the fluid effect of the pose. Sometimes by drawing really quickly too, you can avoid a certain stiffness that you get by trying to refine your work too early on. That's another thing that I want to make mention of. Just really allow yourself the time to structure work, whether it be gesture drawing, whether it be the underlying shapes, any of that, just really let that take form before trying to detail your work. A lot of times as artists, we want to quickly get to the detail, the front stuff, the part that we think makes us better as an artist. Really, it's often the reverse where if you go too fast, you'll forego certain elements that require to be done preliminary to all that detail work and that rendition work. So a rendering worth. So just take your time and really focus on again, the movement, your shapes, getting them in the right place, proportions, things like that, and then come back and do all that tightening up of your work, and you should feel a bit more accomplished by doing that. The other thing too is just move things around. So let's get like this gesture in place, let's say that this is the movement and the flow that I want to see what this particular kind of dance pose. This is back leg, looks a bit stiff, because some of these dancers have the ability to really raise that back leg and a pause like this. But then this arm looks very basic over here. I mean, it could just be an arm for balance. But practice moving that around. Practice saying, well, let's raise that up, let's have it recede into space, and let's see if we can make that more interesting. Give a little bit more expression to the hand. So it's little things like that as well where, you know, just don't be so quick to settle on the first thing that you draw, move things around, experiment. A lot of times what all do is well is actually save intervals of what I'm drawing just by making another copy and moving the X1 off to the side and adjusting it, it allows me to see if I'm heading in the right direction with something. If I could go back a step and go, I was a little bit better here, I think it's just a neat way to work and kind of gauge what you're doing. Really, bring this foot back up. Again, not a pretty sketch, but it gets some information down, an idea and a bit of movement. For this last sketch, I'll go ahead and time-lapse it and we'll just talk about some of the main takeaways from this course. Hopefully, by now you've got a lot better understanding of how you could break down a variety of poses by simplifying the forms and just making it a lot easier to process the information. Just keep in mind that it really boils down to lots and lots of practice and filling up sketchbooks and digital files and it just really drawing hundreds and hundreds of a variety of poses. From that process, you're just going to gain so much, you're going to learn so much about how the body moves and how shapes change from different angles, and all of that can only be done by sheer volume of practice and working hard through it. Certain things you're going to latch on to immediately and you're going to recognize and other parts of the body and poses are just going to continue to be a struggle. Remember not to shy away from that. If you find yourself struggling with a certain pose, I would say approach that first in the most dramatically, or really attack it. To me, that's where you learn. Those are the things that you're basically telling yourself that you haven't experienced that enough yet and you're still unsure about what to do in that area of your work, so to me, those are the areas you want to attack head on. You have to remember that as a working professional, you're going to be asked to draw things at any given time and it won't be based upon what you think you're good at and what you don't feel good at. You're always able to turn down jobs, but as a professional, you want to work as much as possible. To me, if you gain more vision and more knowledge based on your pursuits of trying to get better at things you're not totally comfortable with, that makes you a better overall working professional. That's just been my experience while very different in the way that we create, so it's not necessarily the way that you're going to work best. If you're fortunate enough to where you just get to draw what you want, then maybe that's not an issue for you. But a more times than not, what I've seen is the opposite where that you have to be ready at any given time to draw what the client needs. So I hope basically this course has really helped you to see through some of your design process and make this much easier for you to accomplish. Keep in mind that all the art files that you've seen created here will also be available to you through this course, so feel free to thumb through them and really check them out, break them down and redraw your own way and hopefully, that'll help you as well. I very much appreciate you stopping in and watching this course, it's been my pleasure to teach it to you and I hope you'll stick with me for future courses because there will be more on the way. So thanks very much for watching, keep drawing, keep having fun, and bye for now. 14. Drawing Female Arms Part 1: When drawing the female arms, it's not that they're any different as far as overall lengths, the bone structure is pretty much the same. I guess you could say that the bones are generally a bit thinner, but I think the major differences is to look out for aren't so much if the anatomy's so far different than male to female, as much as it's more different from person to person. Obviously, we know that people vary greatly in the amount of proportions and structure of definition of anatomy, musculature, things like that. But overall, the proportions are about the same, or I should say the lengths are about the same, the proportions vary greatly. What happens is say, a basic structure like this, you can see that at this stage, you can really make the distinction of male to female. In fact, in most regards you won't be able to detail it. But the things to look out for is it generally the arm is going to be more slender and the lines are going to be a bit more fluid, the curvatures are going to be a bit more fluid. This is just generally because there are definitely males that have very thin arms. There's definitely females that have very well-defined and well structured musculature. The main thing is that the forms are a bit more elongated, so there are going to appear more stretched out. The same rules apply where if you were to take the risks, actually have it a little bit too low, you'll see it all comes down to the top of the bicep here and generally the wrist is going to come all the way up to about middle, if not in some cases, to the end of the shoulder, but generally it's about the middle for the most part. What we can do there is just extend this knowing that will just increase the overall proportion here. I think the other thing that's pretty helpful to notice about the female anatomy as it pertains to the arms, is that the hand looks very large by comparison. Not that they have larger hands, inf act, a lot of times it's known that males have larger hands by comparison to females. But at the same time, the hands look comparatively larger to the wrist. So the definition in the change of proportion from the wrist opening to the hand is going to be a bit more evident on a female that there's a big difference there. Only scale back, some of those musculature like that. Likewise, I think the shoulders to me, always look a bit more pronounced if the female is in good shape, in relationship from the shoulder to the arm. Especially like the size difference. Males obviously can have very large shoulders, especially people that work out and things like that but at the same time, I think that woman's shoulders look very large by comparison to the upper part. If you were to pay attention to the distance across here, there's going to be this big sloping change to the shoulder and the way it connects there's going to be a lot larger by comparison. I think that's a general rule, even if the female is fit or isn't fit, is generally noticeable. The other thing you'll see and we'll do another representation where the arm is down flat, but what the shoulders of the female, if they're not fit though, slope into the arm and it'll take this whole singular shape almost. Where in a more defined arm you're going to get segmentation and more angles as you shift from shoulder to the triceps to the back of the arm, things like that. We'll talk about that in a downward view. So this is basically depicting a more physically fit female character. I tend to draw a little bit less definition when I'm drawing the female characters even if they're in good shape. So what happens here is you could make the argument that the woman is in really great shape and she's going to have all the same definition that a male has. But I tend to show a little bit of variation from male to female in my drawings by making the female characters look a little bit less defined. Generally because I think that the more defined you typically make the anatomy look and the muscle structure, you're typically going to start to give a more masculine feel to the artwork. So for me, one of the ways to show that comparison is to have more central shapes, flowing shapes organic shapes versus angular shapes. When I draw the male characters, I'm going to use more angular structures, appropriateness, bicep up more like this. I'm going to use more curvatures and more flowing lines for the female anatomy. It's just again, that comparison that you can do even with the line structure that you're using. Obviously that also pertains to style. For instance, you could have a very stylized approach to the way that you draw and you could use more angles regardless male or female, but it's just one of the things I look for. As we draw this out, the thumb here, make sure with the fingers, like for instance, if you've got the middle knuckle right here, that you don't just get in the habit of drawing them all straight down like this, tensile look very flattened, joints just doesn't look as realistic as it could. What happens is the fingers a fan across now this is male or female. I'm not going to say that this happens more with female characters, it's actually male or female, but they do fan around, they don't just go straight. I always noticed that with a bit more of an amateur artist, they'll tend to small mistakes like that in the very beginning. We'll have the thumb coming out this way and you get the pads of the hand. As far as the hands go on the structure of that, that's about the same male-to-female, I'd say typically it looks like females by comparison have a little bit larger knuckles. But again, that could be in comparison to a lesser amount of mass surrounding the bone structure. The bones are probably a little bit thinner by comparison, but it's probably, more noticeable based on the amount of tissue and musculature surrounding everything. Then again, it also makes the knuckles look a bit larger by comparison. I always just try to pay special attention to how thin the wrist gets as it meets the hand especially with a female character. I think it's very important to take note of that. I also try to pay attention to the way the muscles come down and attach against the bone. Sometimes you'll get parts of the arm where you're actually seeing the bone poking through a little bit or appearing through and then other parts where it's just some definition to the muscles. Try to make the distinction with that and also try to pay attention to the way the curve shifts. Sometimes it's really easy to just draw a curved line here and say, okay, that represents the bicep, good enough, I don't really need to worry too much about it, it looks like a bicep. But then as you start to pay closer attention, you realize that it's not just a straight line that maybe it comes up and curve back down, just something small as little as that. It's not always the case like sometimes a nice straight line or a curved line works just fine. But a lot of times more often than not and anatomy, you're going to notice that there's small adjustments that you can make that the line actually may go down, be a bit thicker and then taper off just a little bit in the other direction. Little things like that can actually give a bit more realistic feel to what you're doing versus just putting these curved lines everywhere because they're easy to do and they get the job done quickly. That'll give us our first pose. I'm not going to refine this too much because I actually want this to be more about the structure, I'm paying attention to the differences. But notice here too, I've got the form of bit large, we could just scale that down. As you start to redraw this, I'll just redo this part just to illustrate what I'm talking about is you could just come in and say, it looks a bit too bulky let me just slowly edge those lines in. You'd be quite amazed at what you can do just by nudging lines around. Sometimes we see something wrong with our artwork and we maneuver, we make big changes and then it really just skews it way out of proportion and it looks more incorrect than when we originally started. Just remember, sometimes you can just nudge the lines around and get the most out of your current sketch, because this is all about learning. So you can see another thing when I scale this down dramatically you can see that the hand looks a bit large now where maybe you can say it before based on your screen size, I couldn't. Then I'll just grab this and just scale it down just a little bit more and again, try to get a little bit closer to what I'm looking for. A lot of times they'll do a slight rotate, things like that. I'm always just trying to manipulate it as much as possible and get the most out of it before I say I'm done with that particular part. It has been to the wrist here. Now what we'll do is we'll do another pose and we're going to go straight up and down with this one. So just to get a little bit of range basically, and what we're trying to accomplish. 15. Drawing Female Arms Part 2: For this next one, we're going to do a more stretched out, elongated arm pose at a bit of a tilt. But again, I want to start with primitive shapes, So just a tilted oval for a shoulder, the upper part of the arm, a cylindrical shape for that. Then the lower part of the arm. Now one thing that you can do for any arms is this lightning bolt effects. You're basically illustrating the front of the arm going back up to the side of the arm and coming down. This works with male or female, but just a technique that you'll see artists employ to reinforced that bend, that you're going to see there and that you don't just get in the habit of going cylinder, which can tend to look a little bit flat, but if he uses guide to remember that the form comes out right here and then back down, obviously tapers and very thin and you can get a small cylinder here. A lot of times artists will even do this where there's a small cylinder here and a bigger oval here. It's just lots of different little base techniques to get to where you're trying to go. Just remember what the shoulder and the reason why I like to do a tilted oval right there is that it reinforces the idea that it's just not a big circle or something like that, or even just an oval. You have to still take from this oval and go, I've got a bit of a slant right here. If I was to incorporate some angles as I do this, a curve that goes here and remember, like I said before the curves will sometimes change ever so slightly to the end of them that they're not just one big smooth curve. We get some of the tricep here, slope inward. Then pick back up at the forum here and come down into the rest. For the hand will just attach this with a couple primitive shapes like this and then get some fingers in there. Again, I tend to draw these with two segments at first and then elaborate and draw in third segments and things like that/just some basic shapes just to get that going. Then from the inside, I think it's important to note the way that the bicep comes down and passes in front of the other part of the forum. That's the tricky thing about drawing any part of the body is really paying attention to the connection points. The way that things slide over and connect to the next mass is a lot of times what will make it appear to be drawn a little bit more correctly than just getting the proportions right, than just getting the right muscle groups in place. It's the relationship that they have to one another and the way that they just slightly pass in front of and tucked behind other areas of the body, things like that. Again, if we were to get too overly critical and too overly anatomical about this we tend to separate all these different muscles and really detail this and start to see all the little details into the muscle. But at the same time, it's going to look a lot less feminine and a lot less, fluid I guess. If you start to really show all these separations and divide, you're going to get a very structured and overly, again, anatomical approach that you're trying to do a medical illustration or something like that. What I tend to do is get it to about, a level like this, and think more about hinting to the muscles. If I want to showcase a little bit more of this bicep, just going to put a little bit of a line there, if I want to. I usually detail more in areas like the wrist. Generally, a lot of women you'll see the detail from the wrist up here, but then as it goes into this larger form in this area, the details will become less apparent and you'll just get more of the perimeter shape or the silhouette. Just little things like that. It's really up to you as far as how much detail you want to incorporate into your rendition, but that's just things that I look for in my own art style. At a part like this, I would start working in more line weight and working on that silhouette, like I just said and given here and figure out what shapes I really want to see in there. But again, I do fight the urge to overlay detail every muscle group so that it doesn't look too tense and too structured and seems to give a little bit less of that feminine quality when you tend to do that. Again, as I add in the fingers, I'll start to think about the third segment, so I'll work and show the divide and the separation of the fingers. I try to make sure they don't all go in the same direction keeping in mind that the middle two fingers a lot of times will collapse together. The index finger, go on its own direction. Just little things like that. I should have got this pointer finger a bit too large by comparison. A quick tip for the hands. If I haven't already talked about in this course, is basically the fingers are about the length of the rest of the hand. We can look down at your own hand as a guide obviously, and little things like that go a long way, so as you're starting to draw this, you will see this hand actually looks too plain, and probably a big part of that is a fact that it's so straight up and down with the wrist. So just a slight tilt and move it over, can sometimes I don't know if that made it much better, but sometimes it can fix areas like that where basically it's because something's too aligned. We're very used to looking at the body and realizing that things aren't perfectly straight up and down and they're not perfectly aligned in symmetrical with everything else. It's also why this arm by itself standing straight up and down looks a bit odd because you don't really see arms even that are very straight up and down. The other thing that I would change about this just ever so slightly is probably the difference and that arrows are, I was trying to actually make a selection there. I would actually condense this down a little bit more. The other thing that I like to see or that I tend to see in my studies and things like that is that the fore arm area looks taller. Now I don't think it is based on the divide and like we talked about the positioning of the wrist. If you were to do a circle and find out the angle or the radius I guess, or pivot. But it looks longer, especially from a perspective like this because we're getting this muscle group that's higher on this side of the arm and the side looks lower based on the position of the bicep. Generally, this particular angle, especially the fore arm is going to appear larger. In most cases I think the fore arm appears larger on the females especially because again, the shoulder is so much larger. If you were to just map this distance here, it's going to generally appear a bit more shallow in height by comparison to things like the fore arm. 16. Drawing Female Arms Part 3: Now let's go ahead and move this over and create another one and let's go ahead and do this from a bit of a back angle. Again, we'll start with the basic primitive shape, and I'll just go ahead and get the primary forms in place. It's nice to do turnarounds like this with something else already on the page, because you could really just use some of this as a guide and reference and get some alignment going like that. But what I want to see here is get a better view of the back arm and the triceps here. This is a tricky one because I think what happens here as the arm comes down, you get the meeting point of the elbow and everything sprawls out different ways, but it goes out this way. Again, I don't want to get to overly segmented with the work here, but sometimes it does take that to really pay attention to the direction of the muscle groups. Something like that, and then the wrist and we'll just put the hand as a wedge shape for now and those are supposed to be fingers right there. As the shoulder comes out, slants down, and back, it's a couple component curves to really make that and the connection point, is a little bit higher as it comes over and the shoulder slants down like this. Here we've the tricep, and if she's very defined, very well-built, then you're going to see more of the shape there, you're just going to come down straight. It depends on obviously the definition of the character that you're trying to create and the elbow is generally going to be more pronounced than the rest of the information. Sometimes you'll get the little bone right here that you see, I would say most of the time and then it's going to come down. Again, you've got to figure out how much of the information you're going to see as far as the detail of the wrist, something like that. You'll see based on the way that I've drawn this already made this arm look thinner by comparison, actually more pronounced in the anatomy, but thinner overall by comparison, especially as it comes up to meet the shoulder. If this was to be the same arm, I'll have to make some adjustments and I think I just have it too thin right in this area here. Remember what I said about small incremental changes to home the artwork and get it a little bit closer. I think the nice thing about thinking that way as you start to draw is that you don't immediately pitch everything and start over. It's very much a habit to say, "Things aren't going well, I'm just going to do a complete redraw." But I think what it taught me not to do as much was tight deadlines. I'd work on jobs and I would feel like I didn't have as much time to start over, so I would just make adjustments. I'm not sure that applies to every artist and every particular style, but that's something I felt in my own work that it has just taught me to solely tweak the work and not worry too much about all the lines being in the particular right place. Then some of it, what occurs too, is you realize that the body does have so many variations that you don't really have to hold yourself as accountable as you'd think for some particular clarity and perfection. I always tell people to just really get rid of the idea of perfection, that there's really no such thing in art and probably in life in general and all, but definitely not in art. You take a little bit of relief in that knowing that. So put a little bit of curl to the fingers just so it looks more natural than the fingers being too tensely straight up and down. I won't overly detail the hand, but I will tell you a neat little trick is that you just have these lines converge until the bones react from the knuckles. I'll draw those in, it's an easy little way to get the detail and then soft erase and just draw little bits of it, you don't want to have straight lines going over there, but it's a nice way to start. Again, figure out how much detail you want to see in the wrist and how much detail on segmentation you want to see from the shoulders. The shoulder muscles go up and they attach and pull in this direction. But again, if you start to draw too much of that, it looks a bit strange so I would just hint to those areas like that. Just as quickly as that we have a more defined arm, I would still probably soft erase some of these lines back and try to fight the urge to have connections basically. If I was to overly illustrate this muscle group, it would look something like that and then these ones would go from there and spin outward, but that looks very unnatural, so what I want to do is just hint to that area. Pick the area that's got probably the deepest ammonia shadow, maybe a couple of line breaks and just hint to that area, it seems to be more effective and relay the information that I'm looking to. Then after that you would soft erase bits, like I said, with the back of the hand here and these knuckles, you don't want those to be so evident. So softly reset back to where you could still see him and then think about some of the veins that go in the opposite direction and then shade in-between them or just lightly illustrate in between them and then make the most pronounced areas, probably the knuckles from a shot like this, stand out and then work back from there. Just like that, now we've got another perspective on that similar type arm. It really just boils down to creating lots of studies and lots of different poses like this and then seeing what consistencies you can find, what things make sense no matter which way you turn it and like anything else, repetition is key or start to really commit more of it to memory. That'll complete these lessons, we'll now move on to the next.