How to Draw Perspective for Beginners - Sketching 3D Objects & Environments | Ethan Nguyen | Skillshare

How to Draw Perspective for Beginners - Sketching 3D Objects & Environments

Ethan Nguyen, Art Instructor

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16 Lessons (3h 2m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:51
    • 2. What is Perspective?

      3:15
    • 3. Methods of Achieving Depth

      10:43
    • 4. Elements of Perspective

      10:53
    • 5. One Point Perspective

      11:17
    • 6. One Point Drawing Exercise

      17:27
    • 7. Two Point Perspective

      13:34
    • 8. Off Frame Vanishing Points

      8:08
    • 9. Two Point Drawing Exercise

      15:20
    • 10. Three Point Perspective

      8:08
    • 11. Three Point Drawing Exercise

      8:47
    • 12. Finding the Perspective Center

      4:45
    • 13. Cityscape Drawing Exercise

      46:11
    • 14. Dividing Space in One Point Perspective

      8:42
    • 15. Dividing Space in Two Point Perspective

      5:03
    • 16. Placing Objects in Space

      7:39
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About This Class

In this course on how to draw perspective for beginners, you're going to learn all the fundamentals things you'll need to know in order to get started with perspective drawing.

We'll begin by covering all the basic concepts. You'll learn about the horizon line, vanishing points, the picture plane, and various methods of achieving depths in a drawing.

Then we'll go though each of the three most common perspective schemes include one-point, two-point, and three-point perspective.

You'll not only learn how to draw each of the perspective types through easy to follow, step-by-step exercise… but we'll so go though diagrams that will explain exactly how these rules of perspective works.

All the concepts are explained in a straight forward and thorough manner that will allow you to gain a deep understanding of this subject.

Then we'll go through a detailed exercise where you'll learn how to draw a cityscape scene in three point perspective.

And finally, you'll learn a simple method for dividing space in both one and two point perspective. This will allow you to drawing all kinds of cool objects like environments and buildings.

This course was designed for the complete beginners who wants a pain free way to start started with perspective. By the end of this course, you'll learn things like:

  • How to use simple tricks like “overlap”, “object placement”, and “size variation” to create an illusion of depth in your drawings

  • What makes 1, 2, and 3 point perspective look different from each others

  • How to use off frame vanishing points to make your drawings look better

  • Step-by-step instructions on how to draw scenes in 1-point, 2-point, and 3-point perspective

  • And a whole lot more…

Material List For The Course

I buy a ton of art supply online and these links are the best prices I was able to find for these items & where I buy them myself.

Full disclosure, these are referral links so if you buy something through them, I may earn a small commission to help support my art supply hoarding addiction (at no extra cost to you!)

Mechanical Pencil 

.5 mm Lead (for your pencil)

Strathmore 300 Series Bristol Paper (Smooth)

Pencil Set

Also, be sure to check out the my courses so you don't miss out on any important skills:

Transcripts

1. Introduction: in this course in half draw perspective for beginners. You're going to learn all the fundamental things you need to know. In order to get started with perspective drawing, we'll begin by covering all the basic concepts you learn about the horizon line, Vanishing points, the picture plane and various method for achieving depths in the drawing. Now we'll go through each of the three most common perspective schemes, including one point perspective, two point and three point. You're not only learn how the draw each of the perspective types through easy to follow, step by step exercises, but we'll go through a bunch of diagrams that will explain exactly how those rules of perspective work all the concepts explained in a straightforward and thorough manner that will allow you to gain a deep understanding of the subject. Then we'll go through a detailed exercise where you learn how to draw a cityscape seen in three point perspective, and finally, you learn a simple method for dividing space in one and two point perspective. This will allow you to draw our kinds of cool things like environments and buildings. This course was designed for the complete beginner who wants a pain free way to get started with perspective. By the end of this course, you'll learn things like how to use simple tricks like overlap, object placement and size variation to create an illusion of depth in your drawing. What makes 12 and three point perspective look different from each other? How to use offering vanishing points to make your drawing look better, step by step instructions on how to draw scenes in 12 and three point perspective and a whole lot more. Well, I hope you found this video helpful, and I'll see you on the inside. 2. What is Perspective?: Hi. It's even here. And welcome to this course on how to draw perspective. First of all, I'd like to thank you for investing this course, and also I like to commend you for your dedication as an artist. I know that perspective can be a very intimidating subject that a lot of artists love to avoid. So the fact that you're watching this with me now shows that you're very hard working and dedicated to becoming a better artist. So congratulations. No work perspective does not have to be a difficult subject. And in this course we're going to break down the subject into very easy, understandable, step by step chokes so you can follow it and learn the topic and improve their drawing without any frustrations. So, first of all, let's talk about what is perspective and why you should learn it. Perspective is basically the art of making two dimensional drawings on a page look three dimensional. So as artists were, all were constantly trying to take three dimensional objects in the everyday world like trees or houses or landscapes, and transpose them onto a canvas or drawing paper. And perspective is just how we go about doing that and giving our drawing a deep, three dimensional, realistic look. So in that sense, perspective is really the most fundamental skill that you can learn is an artist. And if you don't know perspective, you'll never be complete as an artist, and your work never be as good as it can be. But if you do learn perspective, you'll gain a much deeper and richer understanding of the art, and you're drawing from then on will automatically improve and look more lifelike and realistic. So now that we're both on the same page about why perspective is important, let's talk a little bit about the overview of this course and what you're going to learn. So this course is divided into a series of many lessons, and each lesson will cover a concept, theory or exercise. We're going to begin with the most basic understanding of perspective. I'm going to explain to you the different elements of perspective, drawing how they work, how they apply to your drawing, how they all fit together so that there's no confusion and then, whenever possible, after each lesson, I'm going to assign you a practical drawing exercise to help you integrate what you just learned into your long term knowledge base. And it's really important that you you actually follow the exercises when they're signed before moving on to the next Western so that you have that knowledge going forward. And it will make everything that follow much easier to understand. So please do the exercises and follow the course as it's designed. And then once we covered all the basic theories and concepts, we're going to begin diving in to drawing actual perspective scenes so that by the time you're done with this course, you're going to have a complete perspective drawing that you could be proud off and hang out to your hang up on your walls and show off to your friends, and it's gonna look beautiful. So that's gonna be the goal. I'm really excited to get started, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. Methods of Achieving Depth: So in the last video we talked about how perspective is the art of making two dimensional drawings look three dimensional. So in this lesson, I want to give you a brief overview of the different principles of perspective so you can get a good overlay of what the subject is all about. So the first principle or method of achieving death in your drawing is called overlapping. So if you take a look at this picture here, the three shapes are very similar in size and the next to each other, not overlapping at all. And because of that, when you look at it, you can't really tell which one is closer to you and which one is further away. There's there's no depth in this picture, However, as soon as you start overlapping the different shapes, the draw, the picture begin to gain an immediate sense of death. You can tell right away, trying to further away from you which one is closer, and it makes a drawing much more interesting just by overlapping the objects. So how do you apply this to your drawing? Well, suppose you were drawing, say, a picture of a house we'll draw simple house here. Okay, Very basic. Obviously, this Ryan doesn't have any death. But if you want it to ASM Death, do it. You can simply create another object and overlap it on top of the house. So let's add in a quick mailbox here and what we race that male or left bad. Stay little bush in the corner. And just by doing thes two very simple things you can see that adds a lot of depth withdrawing and make it much more interesting to look at. So the next principle of achieving death is called placement of objects, and it basically says that when an object is placed Clower on a page, it will appear closer to us and then if the object is placed higher up on the page. So if you take a look at this drunk, even though it may not jump out at you immediately, if you just staring at if you just stare at it for a while, you'll begin to see that the lower role looks as if it's protruding out closer to you than the square on top. And that's just the way out, our brains air conditioned so you can use this fact to help you plan your composition when creating a drawing or painting. So I suppose I was just creating a simple scene here, and I have ah treat, and I wanted to add some death and draw another tree that looked as if it was further back from this tree. So I would just draw another tree and place it slightly higher and immediately to the viewer, it would look as if the street is further back now. I kept the two trees similar size to show that just by different placement of the object you can achieve, Jeff. But if you in your actual drawing, you would actually incorporate many, uh, principles in one. So the next principle of death has to do with manipulating the value and vividness off the color. And it says that the darker and more vivid and object is so like this square right here, the closer it will appear to us and the lighter and more faded and non detailed an object is the further away it looks in painting. This principle is called aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective, and, uh, you can actually see it at work in this photograph right here. So this mountain hero, just the closest to us, look very dark and vivid and clear where, as you go further and see this mountain, it's much more faded, the color honest, clear. And then, as you move for their way, the color becomes even lighter and faded. And the reason behind this effect is because off the impurities in the air, even though air looks like it's clear, there's actually tiny particles of impurity within it, and that prevents us from seeing an object fully. When the lights from an object tried to reach our eyes, he gets trapped by the impurity. And the more space is between us and that object, the more that light will get trapped by the impurity. So, for example, in this, with this mountain that is closest to us, the distance between us and the mountain is not as great, so the light is able to reach us. For the most part, most of the light is a pretty reaches, so we're able to see it very clearly and vividly with all the colors intact. But once you go further out, for instance, with this mountain here, now there's a lot more distance between us and healthy impurity is much thicker. So when the light try to reach our eyes, it gets absorbed by all those tiny particles in the air, like dust and water vapor and things like that, and so only a fraction of like only a fraction of that, like reach our eyes. So that's why we see as much more faded and less detail. So that's the theory behind this effect. And it's also the reason why is called atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective, because it's due to the impurity in the atmosphere of the air that's causing us to see things this way. And if you're a painter, you can use this principle to very good effect by manipulating the paint and the detail to make it lighter as you want to go further out. However, if you're ah, pencil artist, you can also use this principle as well. All you have to do is be a little bit more subtle with your shading when it comes to the lighter object. You know, lighten the the pressure in your pencil maker shading lighter, and you can also non draw in as much. Details just sort of put in tiny bits hand there, and that will give you the illusion of depth in your drawing. Now the next principal has to do with size variation, and it says that the bigger and object is the closer it appears to us. And the smaller an object is the further away it seems. So if you look at this drawing the biggest box by far, look as if, uh, it is closer to you. And as you go small and smaller, it looks for their way, and it creates an illusion that if these boxes were at the same distant than they would be the same size. And of course, you can see that at playing with this camera right here. As I move this pencil closer, it's big, and as I move it out, it become smaller and going back to the previous example. You can apply this by drawing a tree. Let's say the street here, placing at higher and at the same time making it smaller, so that looks like it's further back. And here you can see all of the different principles being applied at once. We have object placement, so the one that is closer to us is placed lower on the page. We have size variations, so as it moved back, the squares get smaller and also the color become faded unless vivid. And then, of course, we also have overlap where the top square overlaps the subsequent ones. So you can see how powerful these technique can be when you use them in combination with each other. And finally, we have another method of achieving death call linear perspective. And that's when instead of using manipulation of color or tone instead, we used strategically placed lines to create an illusion of death. So in this example we have a cube, and by strategically placing the slanted lines here that seems to converge toward a vanishing point, we create an illusion that this sphere is three dimensional. So we're going to talk more about Lena perspective in the rest of this course. And lastly, I just wanted to show you all of the principals working together in a real life example like this photograph. So here you can see the different principles at work. We have object placement, so the trees that is closer to us is placed lower in the page. and then, as you move further away, the different trees a place higher and higher in the page. And then we have AH size variation where the closest tree is the biggest, and as you get for their way, they become smaller and smaller. You have overlap where the closest tree is overlapping and covering most of the trees. For the back, you have aerial perspective or color variation where the foremost tree is the most vivid and dark, and then as you move back they become lighter and less detailed. And if you look at the furthest objects in this drawing, they look very pale and almost in perceivable, creating the illusion that they're gonna fry far away. And then, lastly, we also have many a perspective at work where you can see the lines of the street, even though in reality they are up straight and parallel to each other. In this drawing, they seem as if they're converging to a single vanishing point, hence creating an illusion of death. So that's pretty much how all the different principle work together. Linear perspective is by far the riches and most sophisticated and complicated area of all of them, and so that will be the subject of study and the rest of the course. I hope that gave you a good overview. And now let's go to next lesson and dive more into linear perspective. 4. Elements of Perspective: So in the last video, I mentioned that linear perspective is by far the most sophisticated branch of perspective and that it would be the subject of study in this course. So in this lesson, let's go through the different elements and components of a prospective drawing so you can have a full understanding of how it works. So the first thing you need to understand about linear perspective is that is always created from the point of view of an observer. The Observer determines everything about the drawing and how it's going to look. And when we look at a scene like this, we are essentially seeing it through the eyes of an observer. So if The Observer in this drawing, for instance, uh, the Observer is standing off the frame, we're not. We can't see him, but he's standing somewhere around here, and he's looking at the scene this way. If he were to stand a few feet to the right, or if he was to lower himself nearer to the ground, then that would change the vantage point of the off the photograph and would change how everything look. So in this illustration right here, you can see the Observer is standing right here and looking out onto a beach scene webs. When the Observer is looking out, he has what's called a cone of vision and that is shown by these green lines right here forming a cone that originate from his eyes. The cone of vision is defined as the scope of what the Observer can see from where he's standing, and you can actually find your own corner vision by holding your hands together and straighten them out in front of you like this. So here's your head at, Ah, a bird's eye view and birds. Eye view just means that you're looking down at an object from up in the sky as if you were a bird. So here we're seeing the top of your head with your shoulder, and you would just hold out your your arms together in front of you like this, and then slowly move your hands out. Okay, move your hands out so that they form an arc like that. And then, as you get towards, uh, the side of your face, you'll begin to notice that at a certain point you won't be able to see your hands anymore . And that's mean you've reached the outer edge of your Kona vision. So you're Kona Vision will look something like this. So everything in this area you can see and everything over on the other side you won't be able to most people is called Division is close to 180 degree. But, um so this is 180 degree. But as far as perspective is concerned, the Kona vision is really only about 60 degrees. And that's because once you go past the 60 degree mark, things starts to get blurry and we can't see it very well. So by definition, we can't draw it very well and also were limited by the space of the drug paper and the canvas. Most paper would need to be very big and wide in order to capture the entire panoramic view that our eyes can take in. So for the purpose off respected drawing, we just limit of the Kona vision to about 60 degrees. And just to give you another view of it here from the side, we see the Kona vision looking like this, and from here to here, from here to here, is around 60 degrees. And again. Here's the bird's eye view of the Kona vision. The next element is called the Center Line of Vision. So at the center of every corner vision, there's a straight line that points directly outward. Call the center line of vision, and it just basically represent the focal point of that person's gaze. And as that person look up or down, or left or right, that center line of sight will move along with the code division so that it stays perfectly in the center. Another property of the cone of vision is the eye level, and the eye level is simply defined as thehyperfix of the person's eye off of the ground. So in this particular example, the eye level of this person would not be very high. It would only if us say this person was six feet tall. The eye level would be around six foot if he was to bend down and lay on the ground. His eye level would then be very low towards the ground. And if we if he was to stand up on the ladder, his eye level would then be higher by additional few feet the next component we have is called the picture plane and picture plane is basically this flat, two dimensional square plane that stands between the observer and the scene he's looking at . So as a observer standing here, his Kona vision is going out, taking in all these images and as that images a za, all those images are going back towards the Observer. It gets projected onto this picture plane and forms an image on it so that all these three D objects and scenes get projected onto this two dimensional plane and becomes the perspective picture that we see. So essentially you could think of the picture plane as being one and the same as your drawing paper or the painting cameras that you're working with and the Picture Plane Act A Ziff. It's a film that captures all the images that the Observer sees. So here, the scene of the sea and the boat and the log is projected onto the picture plane and creates a smaller two D version of it. One fact about the picture point is that it's always perpendicular to the observer's center line of vision. So in this example here, the picture plane will cut the person's Kona vision straight down at a 90 degree, 90 degree angle to the center line off site. So here the picture plane would cut across like this, and it would be a 90 degree angle right there. All right, so that's pretty much all the components that lies outside of the perspective, drawing itself. I hope that wasn't too confusing. So now let's dive in to the picture plane and talk about all the different components within the perspective, drawing. So the next element we have is the horizon line, and the horizon line is defined as the line that is at the eye level of the observer. So in this photograph here, the horizon line will be this line right here. And that's because the Observer is standing at this particular height Now. If the Observer was to move down like sit down to the floor, then the horizon line would move along, adjust to his eye level and then, if he was to be very high up in the sky, for example, with a rise in line with then adjust to his eye level as well. Some artists like to define the horizon line as the line where the sky meets the ground, and that's a fine definition when you're working with prospective scenes in the outdoor. But it begins to fail when you have scenes that indoor when you can't see this guy in the ground for when you have something that's obstructing it. So I like the definition of the horizon line being synonymous with the eye level of the observer much better. And you just remember that eyes gonna make it much easier for you to look at a drawing and spot where the Horizon Line is. So the next element we have is called the Vanishing Point, and the reason vanishing points exists is due to an important principle perspective, which we already discussed earlier, which is as something move away from the Observer. They appear smaller and smaller, so everything in this photograph as they move away from the Observer get smaller and smaller until it seems as if it vanished into this point. Hence the name Vanishing Point and The Vanishing Point is really sort of like the star of a perspective drawing, because everything in the drawing yields to it and disappear into it, and it's sort of like the anchor or the focal point, or the reference point that we used to create our perspective drawing. And that can actually be motile vanishing point within a perspective drawing. But in this one particular photo, there's only one vanishing point, and it's right there. And so, as you can see, all the straight rolls off cabbages all converge into it. And another thing you should know about managing points is that they always lie on the horizon line. So, as I hinted earlier, one way of finding the Horizon line is finding the vanishing point. So if you can see where the lines converge to and find the vanishing point, then you know that that's where the horizon line is. We'll talk more about horizon lines and Vanishing Point further down the course, but for now, those are pretty much all the elements of linear perspective. Be sure that you understand the well and re watch this less than a few times that you have to, because we're going to be talking more about them in future lessons. 5. One Point Perspective: so it's faras. Linear perspective is concerned. There's actually three types of linear perspective. There's one point perspective. There's two point perspective, and there's three point perspective on In the next few lessons. We're going to go over what they are and have to draw them. So in this video, let's start by discussing one point perspective. So one point perspective is basically defined as a scenario where there's only one vanishing point in a perspective drawing. So here would be an example of what a one point perspective drawing looks like. Here we have a simple cube, and, as you can see, the lines that form the edges of this cube seem to converge towards one vanishing point right on the horizon line. One thing to note about one point perspective is that you can really only draw an object in one point perspective, if that object is either right on top or near the center of vision of the observer. So in this example, here is the center of vision of the observer. Right with this vanishing point is, and this square is around that vicinity, and in this example here, the cube is right smack in the center off the observers Senator Vision. If the object was to move too far away from the center of vision A. To that point, the object will begin to shift into two point perspective. We'll talk more about that in future lessons. For now. Just remember that in order for drawing to being one point perspective, it needs to be close to The Observer's center vision now. You might also notice that within this Q. Not all of the lines are effective by perspective. In fact, the vertical lines and the horizontal lines are drawn as perfectly horizontal and vertical and Onley. These lines here seemed to recede towards the vanishing point. So we have this line being perfectly shaped, this line being perfectly horizontal, perfectly straight, straight, straight and horizontal, horizontal or don't talk. So we're really only four lines are receiving toward the vanishing point. So why is that? Well, if you remember in the previous lesson, I stayed it that the reason straight line appear to converge toward a vanishing point is because as they move away from the Observer or the picture plane, things gradually appear smaller and smaller. So the distance between the two lines appear smaller and smaller as well as the line itself . So that's why they seem to disappear into a vanishing point. Now, if you take a look at the bird's eye view off the same diagram. Here we have the observer And here we have the Cube. Notice how the lines that consists of the front side of the cube as well as the backside of the Cube are not moving away from the picture plane. So here would be the picture plane. And these two sides are pretty much perfectly parallel to the picture plane. So the distance of this segment of the line to the picture plane is identical to the distance of this segment of the line to the picture plane. They're both the same distance from the picture plane. Therefore, they appear identical to the observer and the same goes for the backside here. However, with the left and right side of the cube, the lines are actually moving away from the picture plane. So this segment of this line is closer to the picture plane than this segment back here. Therefore, it as it moves away that that diminishing property of perspective caused the to line to look as if they are convergent towards each other. And of course, the same goes for the side over here. So that's why when you look at it from this view, the edges up here, George are moving away from the picture plane seem to converge, whereas all the other ones does not. So the point I'm trying to make is that when straight lines are moving away from the picture plane, they will appear to converge towards a vanishing point. And when straight lines are parallel to the picture plane, they will not. They will appear just as normal without any distortion by perspective. But notice that if we were to take this cube and turn it clockwise, even if slightly, this side here would no longer be perfectly parallel with the picture plane and instead would be at a slight angle to it like this. And so in that case, it will experience distortion, and the line will appear to converge towards a vanishing point. So I just wanted to make sure you understood why some line look like they're converging and some don't Okay, so now let's go through a few examples of one point perspective in different angles, and I'll explain to you how it worked. So here we have a cube that's right in the right, in the center of this observers line of vision. And so his Kona vision, which is shown in green here, is taking in just the front side of this cube and nothing else, and you can see that shown in yellow. So as the picture playing cuts through that and take in all those images, it form this image right here. So here is the foot side off the Q. He is the backside of the Cube because it is further because the backside is further from the observer in appear smaller than the front side, and the edges, because they're moving away, are converging towards it and towards the vanishing point. And, of course, since The Observer is right in the center, um, of the Q. And also his eye level is right in the middle of the cube. The horizon line is in the middle, and the vanishing point is writes back in the center. So in this example, the Observer is now slightly to the right of the cube, so it is no longer right in Hiss Center vision. And so when his Kona vision goes out, it is able to take in not only the front side but also a little bit of the side of the Q. And when the picture plane cuts across, it forms this image right here. So here's the front side. Here's the back side of the Cube, and then here's the edges converging towards the vanishing point. Notice how? Because the Cubans to the right were able to see this side, and the vanishing point is now, instead of being right in the center is in the previous example. It is a little bit to the right of the cube now, and because the observer is actually sitting down, the eye level is near towards the bottom of the queue. That's why, in this illustration, you see that the vanishing point is down here rather than being in the middle. And finally, in this example, we have a similar situation as the last one. Except this time the Observer is actually sitting on top of some stairs, and so his height is elevated, allowing him to see not just the front, not just a side, but also the top of the cube as well. So when the picture plane cuts across, it creates this image right here. Notice how? Because the eye level is higher now, the horizon line is above the cube. And since the Cube is to the right of the Observer, that is reflected in the drawing as well, with a Q being to the right of the vanishing point. So I hope that gave you a good idea of how one point perspective work and how the positioning of the observer can affect the look at the drawing. Now let's go through a few real life examples of one point perspective. Eso. You can see what they look like. So here's a great example of one point perspective. You can see that pretty much all the line in this photograph are converging towards a single vanishing point. So the thing about one point perspective is that it caused the viewer to really get their attention drawn to that one point since all the lines and the drawings appointing to it, it makes it for a very nice composition, especially if you're trying to emphasize something. You could put it right there in that general area, and you can be sure that the viewers I will get drawn to it. And another thing about one point is that it creates a very engaging feeling in the viewer , almost as if it's a one person point of view. And the viewer himself is the observer rather than to in two point perspective, it's more of a detached feeling where the audience is observing objects on the page. In one point perspective, the onions might feel as if Hey is a character in the drawing itself. So that's something to keep in mind when creating your composition. Here's another great example of a one point perspective. Notice how once again all the lines are converging towards this point in the drawing. Here's another example of one point perspective where the were taking almost a bird worm's eye view of this scene, where the eye level is extremely low and here's yet another example that you might be familiar with. Askew can see all the thes rows of cabbages that are receding away from the picture plane seem to converge toward a single point, whereas the horizontal row off trees over here, which are receiving from the picture plane appear similar to us throughout the picture. So this tree over here look pretty much the same in size as this tree. So there's not that converging effect going on. Lastly, here's yet another example off one point perspective. Even though this one is a little bit more subtle, Uh, we don't have as many lines pointing and converging is clearly towards the centre. But if you look at it a little bit more, you can see that this line here is converging. This line here is converging. The structures on the wall are also converging towards the same point, and everything else in the drawing, if it's not converging towards the vanishing point, are relatively parallel to the picture plane. So I hope that gave you a good idea of what one point perspective is. Now let's move on to next lesson, where we're actually learn how to draw it. 6. One Point Drawing Exercise: Okay, So now that you have a pretty good understanding of how one point perspective work, let's go through a very simple exercise so that you can familiarize yourself with how to dry. So in this video, we're going to be going over how to draw this basic illustration. Here, step by step on is basically just a simple cube in one point perspective, but drawn in various position. Okay, so to begin with, we're just going to start with a simple, blank piece of printer paper. This just a regular and and half by 11 inch paper, and I'm going to be using the's color pencil for drawing, although this is just for the sake of the video, so that all the lines will stay clear and is easy to follow. You can just use regular pencil when practicing at home and then, for the ruler is gonna be using this regular strayed as ruler. The first thing you do with any perspective drawing is to establish the horizon line, and we want the horizon line to be pretty much right in the middle of the paper. So I'm just gonna take my ruler. And if this is a 8.5 inch long than the horizon line should fall at about 34 and 1/4 mark. I'm just gonna mark that point right there and then draw the rise in line. Now, when you're drawing, the horizon line is important that you keep the line perfectly horizontal because even though you're ruler might look straight, it could be slightly crooked this way. Oh, crooked this way. And if that's the case, your picture What Look is good. So what I like to do is I look at this edge of the ruler here and I make sure that this edge is flush with the edge of the paper and that's gonna tell me that this line I'm gonna draw is perfectly shaped. But if it's like this or like this, then I know that the line won't be straight right now. I'm just gonna drawing, never rise in life. So now that we have the rise in line, it's time to establish the vanishing point. And we want the vanishing point to be right in the middle of the horizon line. So if this line here is 11 inches long than the vanishing point should lie right at the 5.5 inch mark. So that's gonna be right there. Just gonna put adopt that to market. By the way, I'm gonna be very precise with my measuring. Or at least I'll try to. When you're practicing at home, you don't have to. The reason I'm trying to be precise is because I want my drawing to fit nicely on this piece of paper. For the sake of the video, you don't have to be as rigid as me with the measurements, although it would be good practice to try to stick to it. It would just help you develop a habit of being precise. So now let's let's draw the first cube and we're going to make this cube two inches by two inches, and we're always going to draw the front side of the cube first, so I'm letting mark out where the horizontal line should be. And remember, I want that cube to sit eso that the vanishing point is right at its center, so I'm going to take my ruler and line it up so that, um, the inch mark is in line with the vanishing point so that I could mark out one inch on either side. So here's the one inch mark and here's the one inch marks and now I know where to put my verticals. Now I'm just gonna turn my rule sideway lining up So the inch mark is hitting the horizon line and draw in a line that is one inch this way at one inch Thea other way and do the same thing for this side. Now, when you drawing in those verticals, you noticed that the edge of the ruler that I was using to match up with the edge of the paper. That's not gonna work anymore. So this time you're gonna have to use the marking on the ruler horizontal markings to line it up with the paper. Okay, so now let's just connect these two horizontal edges and we have the first side completed. So this is going to be the front side of the cube, the side that's going to be closest to you. Now it's time to draw in the back side of the Cube and to figure out where we want to put it First. We're going to take each one of these four corners and draw a converging line towards the vanishing point. And we'll keep these lines light because they're just for guidelines for now and will darken them in once we have the final que are drawn up. So here comes the tricky part. Now you need to determine where, exactly on this line to start drawing the backside of the queue. Now, if you put the backside and the draught say like this very small and closer, the vanishing point is going to make it look like a very long rectangle. Where is it? You put it nearer to the edge right here is going to make a look very shallow. So this is where your artistic judgment come in to place that backside so that this looks like a cube and I usually like to put it right around this mark right here. So we're just draw a line straight down to confirm that. And now keeping the ruler perfectly horizontal will draw this bottom edge. And now for the front edge and the last edge. And now let's darken in thes guiding lines here to flush out the queue. Right? So that's it for the first Cube. It's a tricky little image and you might not see it right away. But if you look at it for a while, you see that this is the front edge to this the back edge. And here's the inner edge of the cube conversion towards the vanishing point. So I'm just gonna shade in the front side of the Q just to make it a little bit easier to interpret. All right, so now let's draw the same cubic sat positioned slightly to the left over here. Once again, we're going to start by drawing the front side of that cube, and I want the front side of that you to be about two inches from this edge. So I'm gonna take my ruler, and I'm going to measure two inches worth of distance and make a mark right there. And then I'm going to go two more inches and make another mark right there. And these two mark would tell me where to put the verticals for that second que And just as before, I'm gonna take the ruler, turn it side way, line it up at that point, and then draw a line that is two inches tall and then do the same for over here and now we just connect the two edges and conformed the complete front side. Remember to keep using the's marks on your ruler to line it up with the edge of the paper in order to keep your rule of perfectly horizontal. Because it's very easy for two. Be a little slanted, and even though it's not the end of the world, it's gonna make your picture not look as good as it could be. All right, So now that we have the front side of Cube, it's have to take each of these four corners and draw a converging line back to the vanishing point. And those lines are gonna help guide us to draw the back side of the huge. And we'll just keep these lines light for now and will darken them once we have the Cube all drawn in. All right, so now let's draw on the backs of the Cube, and once again, here's where your judgment comes in. Since this is a cube on, we have shifted to the laugh a little bit. We should we have to see a tiny bit of side of the cube eso I put it right here. You might have to go through a little bit Charlyne error. And sometimes you're gonna put your edge somewhere over here, and then once you're done, you decide that doesn't look like a que eso. You have to readjust and put it a little bit closer and just play with it until you get a sense for where to draw the line. But I think if you put that line right here, you're gonna do pretty well. So you want to make sure it could be a little confusing with all these guiding lines to know where to draw that straight line to. So the trick is to always look at the corner. So here's this corner, and that corner is connected to this line. So I want to draw the line from this point to this line here, which is connected to this corner. So you always want to keep it from corner to corner and not mixed. Matched the two. So this corner joins with this corner and this corner the lines that connects to it joins with this corner and the lines that connect to it. So we're going to go from here to here. All right, so now that you have that edge is time to take this point right here, Report that Intersect is to line and draw a straight line from here until you intersect with this line here. So this part is very important that you keep your, uh, ruler perfectly horizontal. Okay, so once you hit, that point is gonna form it into section. And now we're gonna take that point and draw a perfectly vertical line down until it hits this line right there. And now, lastly, it's time to connect this point with this point. And if you were diligent and keeping a ruler perfectly straight and horizontal, then the two lines should line up. If it doesn't, don't worry about it is not the end of the world. Just be more careful next time. And even if it doesn't perfectly lined up, keep will still look right. No one will really be able to tell the difference. All right, so now that we have the cube drawn in time to darken the line s so that it will pop out more and now we're just shade in the front side of the cube to give it some dimension. It's a shade in the side of the Cube, too, but we'll make it slightly lighter than the front side. All right, so now it's draw in a another cube right underneath here and for this one. Since we don't actually don't have, it's much space going this way on the paper, only going to make the distance between the two cube one inch long. So I'm just gonna line the ruler against this edge of the original Q. And this time I actually don't have to measure out where the vertical is gonna go. I already know that it's gonna be right here, So I'm just gonna line the rule of with that measure out one inch worth of distance and then begin from there and go down two inches and do the same thing on this side. Now we just connect the two edges. All right, then, Alice, do take these four corners and draw a line back to the vanishing point. All right, so now time to establish the backside with you. Now, remember when we drew this cube, it was two inches worth distance from the original, and so that allowed us to see this much off the side of the cube when drawn this cube. It's only one inch away from the original now. So theoretically, we should only see a little bit less off the top of the cube. So if we saw this much with two inch with the distance, then we should see a little less with only one inch of distance. I'm actually gonna put that edge for the backside of the Cube about right here, and that's not really any calculation that went into that. I was just basically guessing and estimating There is technically a way to determine where to put that line, but once again a last year, an architect or an engineer where you need to draw scientifically precise lines. There's no need for that. You would just drive yourself crazy. And part of drawing perspective is knowing how to balance the precision and the rules of perspective with the artistic side of it, and still keep it fun and playful. So now that you have that edge established this time to draw a line from this point here until it intersects with this line and now a draw a line from this point until connects with this line. Now we'll just connect these two lines together and we are done. So now it's just dark in the lines and will shade in the front edge of the cube. And just for the fun of it, I'm actually gonna leave the top side of the Cuban shaded so that it looks almost like an empty open box. And this just shows how you can create different effects, what you're drawing by deciding how to shade it. And finally, we're gonna draw in our last cube right in this area right here as if it was levitating above the ground on the right. So once again, I want it to be about two inches of distance from our original cube. So I'll just take my ruler and measure out two inches, make a mark right there and then we'll go another two inches and make another mark right there. So here is where my vertical is. It gonna go, and I just have it levitating two inches off the ground. So I'll just begin count out two inches and they will begin right here and draw a straight line two inches long. Do you the same for this side and then connect the edges. All right, so now I think you know what to do. Well, it just kind of connect the four corners back to the vanishing point. And now it's time to establish the backside of the Cube. So I'm just gonna pick this point right here, and I'm going to draw a line from here down to this line right here. So remember, it's this point and this point, therefore, it's from this line to this line, and I'm gonna connect this point to this line. Now, this point to this line and lastly, these two points together and then we'll just dark in the lines. And at this point, this might be a bit of ah, odd shaped you because depending on how your brain is interpreting the image, it could look as if this side here is closest to you. In which case it looks like a regular cube. Or it could look like this side here is closest you, in which case it looks like some sort of oddly shaped wedge. So to remove any ambiguity, I'm just gonna shade in the front side. And now I'm gonna shade in the bottom side of the cube really dark to assimilate the fact that light is in hitting the bottom edge. And now we just do a light shade for the side and that you have it. That should remove any ambiguity and give the cube a lot more dimensions so that you have it. That's the exercise. Hopefully, it gave you a good idea of have to draw one point perspective and also how shading can affect the look of an object. Now go ahead and practice this exercise several times if you have to, to get comfortable with it, and in the next lesson, we're going to move on to something a little bit more challenging. 7. Two Point Perspective: all right. So now that you learn about one point perspective, next we have two point perspective and two point perspective is basically defined as a situation where there are two vanishing points within a drawing. So here's an example what that might look like. As you can see this the lines of the cube on this side is converging towards the right managing point, and the lines of cube on this side is converging towards, uh, the vanishing point on the left. So in a cube, there's basically three types of line. We have the horizontal lines that are going across. We have the vertical lines that going up and down and then we have the angled line which basically goes back and forth. And you might notice that in this drawing right here, the vertical lines are unaffected by the perspective, only the horizontal and the angle lines are converging towards the vanishing point. So why is that? Well, if you remember in the one point perspective lesson I talked about how in one point perspective when the cube is orientated this way with the front side and the back side of the cube parallel to the picture plane. Those sides would not be affected by perspective, but the left and right side of the key, which are moving away from the picture plane, is then subjected to distortion and perspective. So what basically happens in two point perspective is you take this que here, and you rotate it slightly so that this side here, which used to be parallel to the picture plane, is no longer and so that those lines will now recede away from the picture plane and appears to converge towards a second vanishing point. So what happens is in one point, the horizontal lines are unaffected. The vertical lines are unaffected because it's parallel to the picture plane, and only the angled line, which are moving away, are affected and converge towards one vanishing point in two point perspective. The vertical lines are still parallel to the picture plane, so they're unaffected. However, the horizontal and the angled line are now both moving away from the picture plane, and so they converge towards these two points here. So that's pretty much the pattern you're going to see in one point perspective. One of the line will converge in two point perspective. Two of the lines will converge, and in three point perspective, all three will converge. Now, another property of two point perspective is that the orientation of the object can actually affect the positioning of the vanishing point. So, for example, if we take a look at this first example here, we have a classic one point perspective situation where if you were able to look behind this cube, you would see the other edges of the cube conversion towards a vanishing point, and that vanishing point is hidden behind the cube right at the center. But as you turn the cube clockwise slightly, it will start to look something like this. Here you can begin to see a little bit of the side of the Q, and we're beginning to see a little less off the front side of the Q. And you see that vanishing point that used to be behind the Cube is now shifted slightly to the right, and there's a new vanishing point emerging. Ah, here on the laugh, although you can't quite see on the page yet because it is still very far off frame, although it is because once we turn it, it is moving closer into the frame. So going from this to this from one point perspective to two point perspective, another way to think about it is that in this situation here, we we do have a vanishing point going this way. But because it's parallel to the picture plane, it's so far away off the picture that we can't see it. But once we start turning the cube, that vanishing point begin to move a little bit closer towards the frame on. So we we are able to now detect it. And then as we continue to turn the cubes of more, we're now able to Seymour off this side and less of this side. This vanishing point is now slowly moving closer to the frame, whereas this vanishing point is now moving a little bit further away and continuing with that Panin. Once again we see more of this side unless of this side. And that vanishing point is now almost on frame. Now is still off page. But we are right on the verge of being able to see it. And this vanishing point is now almost right on the verge of becoming off stage. And then lastly s U turn that keeps amore. We're now able to see basically an equal amount of each side, and the two vanishing points are now both on the page, and they are evenly spaced on each side of the cube. So I hope that gave you a good idea of how how an object is turned war effect, where the vanishing point lies in actual practice, you'll rarely find a situation where the Cube is perfectly parallel to the picture plane, or that it's turned at a perfect 45 degree angle to the picture plane. Most likely, it will be somewhere in this range here where one vanishing point is closer to the object than the other one. And also it would be very common for one of the vanishing point to be on page and the other one to be off page or even both vanishing points off page. We'll talk more about how to work with offering vanishing points in a future lesson. So another thing I wanted you to know about two point perspective is that within a two point perspective drawing that can actually be more than two vanishing points. And that might sound very confusing to you, especially since the beginning of video, I said. That two point perspective is defined as when you have to vanishing points. But really, that definition applies more to theon object within the drawing rather than the drawing itself. So, for example, if you take a look at this drawing here, we have three different objects. Three different houses and each one of them has to vanishing points associated with Um, OK, so here's worm. The other one is off screen for the greenhouse for the Blue House, the marriage opponents right here and the other vanish morning off screen. And same for the brown, right? So each one them has to vantage points. But because they are rotated differently from each other, they're all facing a different direction. They're vanishing, points don't line up. And so we actually end up with six different vanishing points for this one drawing. And so, um, even though it's still technically considered to be drawn in two point perspective, this drawing can have up to six vanishing points. And the more objects that you have in the drawing, the more vanishing point there can be. So I like one point perspective, where you're really limited to how you can position an object because even if you have multiple objects in the drawing, they all have to be facing in one direction and parallel to the picture plane. Because if they were orientated turn either one way or the other, it will no longer be in one point perspective and instead be in two point perspective. And because of that, it really creates a situation where that can really only be one vanishing point, and that vanishing point is right at the center of the observers field of vision. However, in two point perspective, you have a lot more freedom as to how to orientate the object. The object and me turn slightly, or it can be turned a lot. So all these different position give rise to a multitude of different vanishing points. So the basic point I'm trying to get it crosses that when you have different objects within a perspective drawing and they're facing in different directions, they each were seemed to converse towards a different vanishing points. Now the other side of the coin to that is that when objects are facing in the same direction or in other words when they're parallel to each other, then they will seem to converge to the same vanishing points. So even though each one of these houses conversion a different vanishing points, when you look at the individual lines within a single house, you can see that they all face the same direction. So this line here, this line here on this line here are pointing in the same direction, which by definition makes them parallel to each other. And so that's why you see them converging toward the same vanishing point. So if I was to draw a second house right over here and I made sure that it was pointing in the same direction as his greenhouse, then all the lines on that house would also converge toward this same vanishing point. So the basic rule is lines that are pointing in different direction will converge towards different vanishing points, and lines that are parallel to each other will converge towards the same vanishing point. Also, I want you to notice that the rule that the vanishing points always lie on the horizon line or the eye level still hold true for two point perspective, even though each one of these houses are at different elevations. Their vanishing points still remain on the horizon line. So in practice, if you were drawing a picture and you have a house sitting on top of a hill, for example, which would be represented by the brown house, the one house at eye level and the one house down in the valley make sure that you still have all their lines converging to the eye level. So that was a lot of information. Second, I hope it wasn't too overwhelming. I just wanted to be as thorough as possible. If you feel a little lost or confused, feel free to go back and watch this lesson multiple time to make sure you get it. So now let's go through a few different examples of two point perspective, and I walk you through them so that you can have a better understanding of how, uh, this works. So in this example, we have the observer standing right in front of the Cube, and that cube is turned s O that we can see an equal amount on this side as on this side. So in this image here we can see a smudge of this side as the site and because in the side view we can see that the eye level of the observer is right at the middle of the queue. In the image, we can see that the horizon line cuts right at the center of the Cube. In this example, we pretty much have the same situation except this time, the observers sitting on some steps. So the eye level is much higher. As you can see in the image, the Horizon line is now a lot higher than the object. And so, because of his elevated position, we can now see more the top of the cube as well. And lastly, in this example, the cube is skewed to the left of the observer. So in this image you can see that the key was much closer to this vanishing point than this vanishing point. And because it's elevated up in the air, we're now able to see the bottom of the cube as reflected here in the image. And because the eye level is much lower than the cube itself, you can see the horizon line being much lower than the cube in the image. So now Let's just run through some real life examples of two point perspective so you can see what they look like here. We have a normal bridge, and the reason you can tell is two point perspective. Is the rail of the bridge okay? Are pointing a converging towards a vanishing point somewhere over here, whereas the plank that forms the bridge itself a pointing in this direction and are converging towards the vanishing points somewhere off the page in this direction. And here's another classic example of an object. In two point perspective, you can see the lines on each side receding to their respective vanishing points. And lastly, here's a great example off a room with many different objects in it. All of them are orientated in a different direction and so they have forming different vanishing points in the drawing. So if you take a look at this cushion right here, you can see that the lines on it are converging to a different vanishing point than the cushion right here. And likewise, the vanishing points for the couch is different still, So I hope that gave you a good understanding of how two point perspective work. Hopefully I didn't overwhelm you with too much detail, but I just wanted to be as thorough as possible. Please feel free to re watch this lesson again until you have a good understanding, and then we'll go ahead and move on to the drawing exercise for two points. 8. Off Frame Vanishing Points: all right. So before we move on to the dry exercise, which point perspective, we need to address the topic off. How to deal with offering vanishing point because that's something you're going to be running into a lot, especially in two point and three point perspective. So first of all, what is an offering? Vanishing Point? Well, up until now, all the perspective drawing we've done has had on frame vanishing Point. So all the benefit point has been on the drawing paper and you can see them and offering Vanishing Point is basically when the vanishing point is off, the frame is our side of the paper and you can't see it, and that can be a few inches off of the paper. It could be a few feet, or the vanishing point can be way in the other room. So why would you ever want to have an offering? Vanishing point? Why don't you just always keep the vanishing point on the drone paper? Well, to ask that let's take a look at this drawing right here. So here we have a cube. And as you can see, the vanishing points are set at the two far end off the drawing paper and the Cube looks great. It's very normal. There's no distortion. Looks perfectly normal, but watch what happens with this drawing. So here all I did was I took the balancing point, and I moved it much closer together. And even though we still follow all the technical rules of perspective, so this drawing is technically correct. The Cube just doesn't look right. It's extremely distorted, and it just looks weird. So would two point and three point perspective. The vanishing point has to be a certain distance away in order for the drawing to look right, so usually you're going to want to put your vanishing point as far apart as possible. However, there are times when you can't just put your vantage points where you want them. For instance, if you're drawing on a regular piece of 8.5 by 11 inch paper, you're going to be confined by the space, so the furthest you can put your vantage point is on the too far edges. And that's fine when you want to draw a cube like this one. With this size that that that much space is enough to draw it and make it look normal. But if you want to draw a bigger object like, say, a house, then the two banishment will be too close together and your house will look very distorted . So what a way to deal with that and still keep your vanishing points on the paper is just to scale down your house. So instead of saying making the house look this big, you can just scale it down, draw much smaller so that the distance between the vanishing point is now much greater in relation to the house you're drawing. But of course, this is very limiting because you don't want everything you draw to be super tiny. And this presents a problem, because how do you keep your drawings accurate by reference sings and measuring against the vanishing point when you can't even see the vanishing point? So that's something that's been plaguing perspective artists for a long time, and in this lesson, I want to offer you a few different solution for how to deal with this problem. So the first Met that is suggest eyeball it, and this is probably the method that most prospective teacher and artist is going to give you and the way it works is you basically make a mental note of where you want the vanishing point to be eso basically somewhere around here, and you could even put like an object right there to market out. But then, as you're drawing, you just sort of eyeball out the slant of your line to make sure that it converge towards that advancing point. Now, obviously, with this method, you're not going to be 100% accurate. In fact, almost every time you will have some slight inaccuracies in your life is not all the lines are gonna line up. But the good thing is, the errors are so slight that your audience, your viewer, will never be able to tell the difference. So the pro of this method is that it is quick and easy. The audience will pretty much never be it to tell the difference as long as you get it right to some extent. But the Khan of it is that is not 100% accurate, and it does take some experience. If you're a beginner, you might find it very difficult to eyeball your lines and keep them all consistent and looking good. But as you draw him getting more experience, you'll be able to keep your lines much more accurate. But that will take time and his beginner. It might be discouraging Teoh struggle with it and have, or your drawings looking off. So it's not exactly a technique I would recommend to a beginner, but it is a good goal to strive for, to someday be able to just draw a perspective drawing. And I bought all your lines to the offering Vanishing Point. All right, so the second method is called the anchor method, and this is by far the most beginner friendly technique, and the way it works is to basically mark out physically the location of your vanishing point. So here I actually put down a piece of tape, and I use a Sharpie to put an X right there to mark where the vanishing point is. And when you draw, you just sort of take the ruler and measure against that bandaging point, just like you always do. So if you don't have a pizza tape, you can also use any small object laying around your table. Or you can use a pin tack like this one that you can actually pin into the table itself, Although it won't always work depending on the material of your drawing table, I find that a piece of tape with little bit a Sharpie. We'll work the best now some time. If you don't have a ruler that will reach your drawing, you can also use a piece of shrink and just take a piece of tape and tape it down to where you want your vanishing point to be. And then So here's my vantage point, and now you have this string that you could pivot all throughout your drawing so you can line it up with all your lines. And if you want to make a new mark or you have to do is lining up, take your pencil, make a mark here, make him work here. Using the string is a guide. Now you have two dots that you can now connect with your ruler to make a line in your drawing. So I actually really like this method whenever you can use it because you have the string and it will always day at this fixed point and we'll pivot very easily now. One key detail to remember is that if you're going to use this method or the previous method where you fix the position of vanishing point, you need to make sure that you're drawing paper is also taped down. So use a piece of tape and tape it down or hold it down, using some heavy objects. So that doesn't move around, because if it moves around, it will be off allying with the vanishing point. And it won't work anymore. All right, so that's pretty much. The ankle method is very beginner, friendly, extremely easy to use and work rate for pretty much any perspective drawing, especially the shrink technique. I had a lot of success with that technique, and one limitation to this method that you should be aware of is that it is confined by the size of the drawing table you're working on. So if you want to place a vanishing point outside further than the edge of your drawing table, you won't be able to because there won't be anywhere. Teoh tape down the vanishing point, But one quick fix of that would be to just move your workspace onto the floor and you know , clear out any clever you might have. And then you can just take the vanishing point as far away from your drawing paper as you want And, you know, just get a longer string to use as your measurement and that's it. You're you're set. So this is, ah, great method to help you as you're gaining experience and learning perspective so that you can one day work your way up to just eyeballing your drawings. 9. Two Point Drawing Exercise: All right. Now, let's move on to the basic drawing exercise for two point perspective. So in this lesson, we're going to be drawing this illustration right here. We drawing three different houses, all at three different elevation, and each one of them are going tohave. One vanishing point that's on paper and the other vanishing point being off frame. And also to illustrate the fact that different objects within the same drawing can have different vanishing points. Each of these houses will be orientated slightly differently so that they each will have their own vanishing point so that we a total of six different managing points for this drawing. So, for this lesson, we're going to be using, in addition to all the regular supplies will be using this string and also a little bit of this roll of tape. All right, so let's get started. All right, so we're going to start out with this blank piece of paper, and in order to use a string method to deal with the off page ration coins effectively, we're going to need to secure this piece of paper down so that it doesn't move around. So I'm gonna take my painter's tape here. This is just a roll off painter's tape that I got at my local supply store. You can usually find them at places like Walmart or Target, and I find that it's strong enough to secure the paper down. But it's gentle enough so that it doesn't rip the paper when you pull it off. But that's gonna depend on exactly what type of paper using you might want to experiment around to find a tape that will come off without ripping off your paper. And also, when you pull it off, you're gonna want to be very careful. So I'm just gonna take four short pieces of tape and take down each one of these four corners here, right? So now that we have the paper securely take down, we're going to establish the horizon line, and we're just gonna put it right around the middle of the paper. All right, so let's start by drawing this blue house right here and with this house, the bottom of the house is going to be perfectly in line with the eye level. But the top of the house will be converting towards managing points, and when drawing in two point perspective. I always like to draw in this corner of the object. First the corner that's closest to us. And then once you establish that corner, we will draw our construction lines to the vanishing points. Which would that help us draw in the rest of the house on DFA? This corner here, I'm gonna make it half an inch tall. All right, so now that we have that corner establishes time to place the vanishing points, so the placement of the vanishing point will be determined by the orientation of the object . So you remember in the previous lesson we talked about how much object is turning will determine where the vanishing point goes. So if the object is turned slightly like this so that you can see a little bit of this side here, the right managing port will be closer to the object and left. Vanishing point will be very far away. But as that object turns more s so that you can see more of this side, this vanishing point moves further out and this move for the end. So as one vanishing point moves for the out, the other one moved closer inward. So the first thing you need to determine is how you want your object to look, how you want it to be orientated. And for this house here, I'm gonna go with an orientation of somewhere around here. Okay, so this vanishing point, we closer, and this world will be very far away at off the frame. So we'll start with the right vanishing point, since that's going to be easier to work with. And I'm just gonna eyeball it and put it somewhere around here. It's not an exact science which is gonna draw in this finishing point first and then uses a reference for the second vanishing point. So I'm gonna connect this fashion point to the top of this line right here. And since the bottom of the house is perfectly in line with the horizon, the line will be perfectly in line with the red horizon line anyway, so we don't mean to draw that. So now let's determine where to put the second vanishing point. All right, so now I'm just gonna take my string and always make sure that is in line with the horizon Line to that. Wherever you put that vanishing point, it's going to be in line with Horizon, and then I'm just gonna take one corner of it and attach it to the corner of the line and then just play around with the different distance of the advantage in court and see which one looks right again. This is more eyeballing, and you might have to go through a few trial and error before you get this part down on. So this point looks about right to me. I'm gonna put the vanishing point right here. And now just make a mental note of that spot. Take a piece of tape and tape it down right there. All right, so I have my pizza tape here and now I'm gonna place it on the string right on the edge of the vanishing point so that when I pivot the string, it will pivot right at that point, that's going to give you the most accuracy in your drawing. So right there is the managing for him. When you move the shrink, it will pivot right at that point. Okay. So just now, I noticed that the string is a little bit low compared to a rise in line So I lift up my tape and readjusted it. So don't be afraid to make little tweaks. And to you, you get it right. All right, So now that we have the second vanishing point established, let's draw in the construction life for the other side. I'm gonna take my sharing here, and I'm gonna use my mechanical pencil for more precision. So I'm gonna just take my string here, line it up, and then take my mechanical pencil and mark it out somewhere along this line, just so I have a two point connection. And then I used my ruler and connect the two dots. All right, so now let's establish the other size of this object. And for this one, I want it to be sort of a slim rectangular shape. So I'm gonna put the edge right here for this side and for the other one. I'll put it right here and then just confirm that with a ruler. All right, Now let's draw on the roof. So I'm just gonna draw a little triangle shape right up here, which is gonna eyeball for now in future lessons, I'm gonna show you a more accurate way to determine the center so that your roof is exactly right in the middle of the object. But for now, we're just gonna eyeball it. So now when I take this point here, right at the peak, off the roof and connect it to the second vanishing point using my strength. Just make a mark right there. All right? And now we're just gonna draw a slap right here just to close it up and we're done. Try to keep this land similar in angle to this land right here, so that almost parallel, they're not perfectly parallel. In fact, these two line here will be converging towards yet another vanishing point. But we're not gonna worry about that right now on. We're just going to keep them somewhat similar. All right, so now shaded in a little bit to give it some dimension. And we're gonna assume that the light source is coming from this direction here and shining this way so that all this is lit up and this side of the house is going to be dark. I'm gonna put a dark shade for this area and alighted shade for this area, and I'm actually gonna make this side here a little bit darker to simulate the fact that the light is coming from up on top. So the roof is going to be more lit up than the side of the house. But this I was still delighted in the side. All right, so that looks a lot better. So we're done with our first house. Let's move on to the 2nd 1 Right? So for the second house, we're going to be drawing it in this area here, high up from the horizon to assimilate as if they were sitting on top of the hill. So once again, we're going to start by establishing the corner of the house. That's closest to us first. All right, $10 determine where to put the first vantage import. And for this one, I actually want to draw it so that we see a little less off this side over here. So I'm gonna put the vanishing point closer to the object. Let's just mark it right here. Analysis. Draw some construction lines connecting the vanishing point to these two. All right, so now let's determine the second fall off. Vanishing point. All right. So since this right vanishing point is closer to the object. Now, the last vanishing point is going to be a little bit further out. So I lifted up the string that we had take down, and I'm just gonna play around with the location of the vanishing point to see which one looks good. And that looks pretty good to me right there. So I'm just gonna So I'm just gonna tape it down right in this new location, making sure that the tape is right at the edge. So that pivots right at the vanishing point. Sure, it's nice and secure. All right, so now back to the drawing. I'm just gonna take this string here to help me measure out the new guiding lines. We'll make a mark right there, right there and then just connect the dots and you can see how the lines that would draw perfectly matches up with the string. Sometimes yours might not match up perfectly, but that's OK. Hello. Inaccuracy is not the end of the world. All right, so now let's establish the edge of the box. And for this one, I want to make it a little bit shorter, so I'm just gonna put that edge right there and for the other side. I'll put it right here. So it's gonna be shorter than the last square since we're seeing less of this side here and I'm gonna connect these two dots back to this vanishing point and I'll connect this point here back to the offering Vanishing Point. We use our shrinking work it out. All right, so now we're gonna draw in our roof and will connect the peak of that roof back to the offering. Vanishing Point. Okay. And then we'll close off the loop with this slant, and that's it. So now it's shade it in. So once again, the light source is coming up on top. So this side will be really dark, and the same goes for this side as well. In fact, it's probably going to be even darker than this side. So I'm going to make this the darkest tone of the house, and we use a lighter tone for this side and the lightest tone for this top part. You can actually leave it blank. If you wanted Teoh. What? It's gonna shaded in slightly. Okay, so we don't with second house. Let's move on to the third, right? So for the third house, we're gonna draw in this area right here, right below eye level. So let's first establish that nearest corner. So for this one, I'm actually just gonna draw the house kind a bit bigger than all the rest, Almost as if it's closer to us. And so I'm just gonna make it about 3/4 of an inch talk. All right, so now that we have this side established, let's connect them back to this vanishing point. And for this one, I'm gonna make it so that we see a lot more of this front side of the house. So we're gonna put the vanishing point pretty close. Maybe right around here. And now, let's just connected Vanishing points to this two points. And now for the second vanishing point for this what? I'm actually not going to use the string. I'm going to demonstrate the eyeballing method and also because the vanishing for it's gonna be pretty far out that it might not work anyway. So since I know that this brunching corn is very close to the object, the other one must be very far away. And so the slats of the lion must be not very steep, so it's gonna be very gradually. So here, this is a straight line that I'm just gonna move up a little bit on that looks about right . And now for the second line, the second line, this line and this line are not quite parallel, but because the slant, it's so slight that you would be able to make a parallel and no one would even know the difference. But I'm just gonna try toe eyeball it. That looks about right. All right, So now menace established this side of the box and also this side here. Since this, this is the longest night. Now I'm gonna connect this point to this vanishing point, and I'll connect this point to the off stage managing point once again will be eyeballing it, and I'm basically eye balling it, but I'm trying to make sure that the lion looks like they would be conversion towards the same point. So here it's slanting slightly upward here, slanting slightly upward, but a little bit less. And here slanting upwards. Well, what lesser? Still so right there looks good. All right now would draw in the roof and will connect the peak of that roof to this vanishing point. And we'll close this edge here. All right, so now it's time to shade it in once again. Since the light source is coming from the left, this whole side will be dark shade in this area, and this I will be the second darkest tone. And this here will be the lightest side. But it's still be pretty dark because none other side that is visible of this house. It's really getting that much like you can go back and dark in these dark area as well. We want to just give it more contrast. All right, that's it. We're done. So go ahead and draw this exercise a few time until you're comfortable and we're good to go . Just remember to be very careful when you remove these tapes so that you don't damage your drawing paper. 10. Three Point Perspective: Now it's time to enter the realm of three point perspective. And once again, three point perspective is defined as when you have three vanishing points. And here's what that looks like. So as you can see, this is a drawing of a skyscraper that I scaled down, and the horizontal and ankle lines are converging to the two sides, vanishing point as usual. But in addition to that, the vertical lines Now, instead of being perfectly straight now converging towards 1/3 vanishing point and you'll notice that three point perspective is actually the first instance where we have a departure from the rule that says that the vanishing points should be on the horizon line. So once you get to three point perspective, it's okay to put a vanishing point outside the horizon line. And this third matching point will usually be vertically aligned with the observers center vision. So here, in the bird's eye view, you can see that the Here's the Observer, his center line of vision is hitting the building right at this nearest corner, and so in the image, that's where that they're vanishing. Point is all right, so now let's talk about why three point perspective appear the way it does what exactly happened when you go from two point perspective to three point perspective that caused the vertical lines to all of a sudden converge to a new vanishing point? Well, the key difference can actually be seen in the side of you. So here we have the side view off a two point perspective scenario, and here we have a side view of a three point perspective, and the key difference is that in the two point, the picture plane and the vertical lines are perfectly parallel, whereas in the three point example, because the building is so tall, the observer has to look up in order to take it in, and that causes his picture plane. And remember how I said the picture plane always remained perpendicular to the center line of vision. So because the picture playing shift along with the centerline a vision, it is now no longer parallel with the vertical lines. And so this segment of the line here eyes close to the picture plane. But as you move up the line, it gets further and further away from the picture plane, and so this vertical line now appear to converge towards at their vanishing point and also noticed how, even though the observer is looking up, his eye level still remains right here at the building. So his eye level is still right here. That's why in the image you see the horizon line cutting across this lower part of the building and in this example here, the observer is very high up in the sky, looking down on the building. So his center line of sight is hitting the building at an angle and therefore the picture plane would be orientated this way. So that is not parallel with the vertical lines so that this segment here is close to the picture plane. But as you go down the line, it gets further for the way. And so the vertical line seems to converge towards this vanishing point down here. So another key detail to notice is that when the observer is high up in the sky and looking down at the object, the third vanishing point will be below. And when the observer is down low looking up an object, the vanishing point will be about. And in this drawing here, I actually scale down this huge skyscraper to a very small size so that I can actually fit all through Vanishing Point on the paper. When you're looking at real life examples of three point perspective, very rarely will you actually see the vanishing points on paper. You sometime might see these two side vanishing points on the frame, but almost always you will never see this dirt vanishing point on frame. It will be somewhere off the page. And that's because when you're dealing with very tall objects like this, the third matching point will be very high above the horizon life. So just keep that in mind. We're looking at different pictures, so you don't drive yourself crazy trying to look for the vanishing points and not be able to find it. Well, at this point, you might be asking yourself. Well, I look at different objects all day, every day. Why is it that I don't seem or three point perspective? Why is it that most things I look at our usually in either one point or two point perspective? Well, the answer to that question is, you actually see three point perspective all the time in your everyday life. You just don't realize it. And that's because in our everyday life we're dealing with objects that are normal size, and so we don't have those extremely tall vertical lines to show the convergence. So, for example, you might be looking at an object in your house like a TV from a high angle. And even though you're seeing in three point perspective, the vertical lines of the TV are so short that its convergence are hardly noticeable. You can't perceive it. But when you go to a place like New York City and you look at all the tall skyscrapers now you have a bunch of very long vertical lines so that the convergence toward that third vanishing point become much more apparent. So hopefully that resolve any confusion you might have had in that matter. So now let's take a look at a cup of real life examples of three point perspective. Here we have a skyscraper, and The Observer is pretty much standing atop the base of the skyscraper, pretty close to it and looking up and you can see some obvious three point perspective convergence here. This edge of the building here is converging toward a vanishing point up here. Off the page as well is this line here? But because it is vertically allying with the observer, this line here is relatively straight and you can see the other side of the building. But if you could, it would also converge to the third vanishing point. And then this side of the building here is converging toward advancing point on the left as well as this line here. So we know that the vanishing point somewhere down here. Okay, that's where right around the eye level of the observer. And the same goes for this side is converging towards the vanishing point on the right as well. Is this line down here? So even though you can't see all of it, there is indeed three vanishing points to this drawing. Next, we have a photograph off this church on, even though it's not as extreme as the previous example, you can still see the vertical lines of this building like this line here converging towards the advantage point These lines here, these lines here, here, here and here. And they all converge to the third vanishing point on top. And then we have the usual two point perspective lines. This line here, this lying here and there. The's learnings here they are converged to a left vanishing point. And then lastly, we have these lines here, here and here, and they all converge to 1/3 venturing court. But it's much closer to the building, So I hope that gave you a good understanding of what three point perspective is and how it works. 11. Three Point Drawing Exercise: this lesson. We're going to go through a simple drawing exercise for three point perspective, and we're going to be drawing thes two illustrations here. It's gonna be the same building except viewed from two different vantage point. One is going to be viewed as if you are flying from helicopters. So you're seeing it from above. And the other one is as if you are pedestrian standing on the sidewalk. So let's get to it. We'll start with this illustration over here first. So once again, with these basic exercise, I'm just gonna use a regular and 1/2 by 11 piece of paper. Now, first thing we're gonna do is establish the horizon line. And since we're seeing the building from very high up, that means that the eye level was going to be high. And so the horizon line will be high. And so I'm just gonna put the rising Linus high up on the pages I can so that I have a lot of room down here to draw my building. All right, so here's my arrival light. Now, I'm just gonna mark out my to vanishing points. I'm gonna put the vanishing points. Aziz, close to the edge of the papers. I can tow that. They have a zoo much distance between them as possible. Ideally, I would want to be working on a bigger piece of paper. But since this is what we have to work with, I'm just kind of make the best of it and put the vantage point as far as I can, and then we're going to establish the third managing point, and that's gonna be way down at the bottom of this paper, almost touching the edge. And I'm gonna just put it right about the center. So here's the middle. I'm gonna go down and then mark out that third Vanishing Court. All right, so now that we have all that establishes time to draw in the nearest corner off the building, this one right here and for this one, I'm not going to put it right smack in the center. And when a align it to the right a little bit and I think that's gonna make for a little bit more interesting drawing. So I'm going to line up my this end of the corner with my third vanishing point, and I'm gonna angle it to the right slightly, and I'll measure about one inch of distance from the horizon line. So I'll go down one inch right there and I'll make that first corner about three inches long. You can make your building as big as you want. But because of the size of the paper and the location of the vanishing point, there is a limit to how big you can draw your your building before it begins to look really distorted. So I measured it out, and I found that three inches for the building works just fine, so we're just gonna keep it at that. So here's three inches and I just go ahead and converge that straight to the third vanishing point so you can see it. And now the next step is, you know, is to connect this point and this point fact, this vanishing point and also this vanishing point. All right, so now it's time to mark out how thick you want your building to be. I'm just gonna mark out about one inch of space on this side and also one inch of space on this side. All right, so that's one inch. There's one inch now I'm gonna take this point and connect it back to the third vanishing point That's off camera right now and do the same thing for this point here. Okay, so that's what that looks like. And now the last step is to take this point and connect back to the right vanishing point and take this point and connect it back to the left. Vanishing point. All right, so that's pretty much how building now. I'm just going dark in the final lines so you can see it better. All right, So now to give our building a little bit more dimensionality, let's shade it in. And for this, I'm just going to imagine that the light source is coming from this side over here, and it's hitting the building this way. So this side is going to be very dark, so I'm gonna just shade it in a darker tone, all right? And I imagine that the light is gonna light up this side of the building a little bit more , so I'll use us a lighter tone for this side. Okay? And since the life sources are high up, it's gonna light up Top emotional will use the lightest tone for that, and that's it. That's our building in three point perspective. Now it's pretty easy. So let's move on to the next one. Okay, so for this one, we're going to draw the building as if we are looking at it from a pedestrian point of view standing on the street. So the I love was going to be much lower this time, so I'm just gonna draw on my horizon line down here on the page and next hour established my vanishing point. So once again, we'll put one right here, one right here, and we'll put the 3rd 1 way up here as far as we can. Okay, so the next step is to draw the nearest corner of the building right here, and we'll go to draw it to the right slightly just to give the building a little bit of an interesting look. So once again, I'm going to make the height of the building about three inches tall and also extend it past the horizon line. I about I would say, half a niche, so we're going to go 2.5 inches above the horizon line and half an inch below the horizon line just because the pedestrian standing on the sidewalk will have some height to him. He's not completely flat on the ground, and so the eye level will have a little bit of high. Tow it. So I'll take my ruler here, line it up, measure out half a inch below the horizon line and about 2.5 inch above the horizon line dark in that and extend it to their advantage. So, as you know, by now, the next step is to connect this point at this point back to the two vanishing points on the sides. All right, so now it's time to determine the thickness of the building. So once again, I'm just going to mark out about one inch on the side and about one inch on this side. All right, so that we have our marquee now will connect it back to the third vanishing point. Okay, so now it's dark in our building, so I show up better. And now, lastly, let's give out building some shading. Once again, the life source will be coming from this direction and hitting the building like that. So this side is going to be dark, and this side is going to be lighter. And now for the lightest side and that's it. We have our building. By the way. One thing interesting to note about thes perspective drawing is that once you're done drawing them, you can play around with them to see how different three point perspective scenarios will look like. So, for example, with this one right here, uh, we drew it as if we were seeing it from high above. So your helicopter and we're seeing the building from this vantage point. But if you took this drawing and you flip it upside down now, suddenly the eye level becomes much lower and the building looks a Ziff. It's levitating off the ground so that we can see the bottom of it right here. And as for this one here, it looks as if we're standing on the sidewalk looking at building boom. But if you turn it upside down now, it looks like we're much higher up, say, standing from a nearby skyscraper and looking across at this building. And so I love what was cutting very high up on the building. So that's something fun. You could do to get more out of the drawings you just made. All right, So that's the report. Perspective is pretty simple, pretty straightforward. Hope you have a lot of fun with it. 11 thing. One common mistake to look out for when drawing is the placement of the vanishing point. If you place the vanishing points to close together and draw your object to big is going to look very distorted. So 99% of the time, when you're drawing and you just think that you're built, you're you're drawing. Looks were for some reason, try moving the vanishing point further out, or drawing your objects smaller, and that, in most cases will fix the problem. So that's just something to watch out for in case you feel like you're drawing. Looks weird. All right, have fun and I'll see you in the next lesson. 12. Finding the Perspective Center: So before we go on to the drawing exercise for two point perspective, I wanted to go over with you a technique that you can use to find the center of any object . So if you take a look at this square right here and you want it to find its center, obviously one technique would be to just take a ruler and measure out the halfway mark going horizontally and the halfway mark going vertically and you would get your center. However, that technique will actually work when the square is viewed in perspective, because now the true center off the square is shifted by perspective and won't actually land at the halfway mark. So I want to show you a better and we'll comprehensive technique for finding the center. And that is to draw diagonals going from corner to corner of the square and at the point whether that agonal intersect will be the center. So here's what I mean. We're just gonna take this Green Cola pencil and draw one diagonal from this corner to this corner. Now would do the same for the other quarter and the point where the two diagonals into SEC will be the true center of the square. And as you can see, this method matches up with the measuring technique as well. Right here is the halfway mark and then going on this side, that intersection also fall right where the halfway mark is. So the two methods yield Theo exact same answer. And also, the cool thing about this diagonal method is that even when the square is viewed in perspective, it will still work to find the absolute center. So if we just draw diagonals from this corner to this corner and another diagonal from this corner to this corner, we find that the true center of the square, when seen in perspective, is actually right here. Notice that this center of point is actually different from the point you would get if you were to measure it using a ruler. So if I were to measure the midpoint using a ruler, I would find that the midpoint going horizontally would be somewhere around here in the mid point vertically would be somewhere right here. No, just market in red. So notice that if you were to use a ruler to try to find the center of this square you would come up with the wrong answer, so always stick with the agonal method to help you find the center. Now there are many different ways that the diagonal method can be useful in perspective drawing. But just to show you a few example, suppose you were drawing a Christmas present and this would be the box where the Christmas present sits in, and you wanted to draw a little bowl right on top, and you wanted to put it right at the center off the present, so normally you wouldn't know what it put it. But by using the diagonal method, you can draw a line from corner to corner this way and another line from corner to corner this way. So by doing so, you're able to find the perspective center of the queue to be right here. And that's where you could put your ball. So another example would be suppose you were drawing a door and you wanted to put a knocker right at the middle of the door, but not necessarily at the Dead Center. While you could still use the diagonal method by placing the Agnos from corner to corner, and once you found the absolute center of the door. You could draw a straight line going straight up and down. And remember in one point and two point perspective. Straight lines are unaffected by any perspective distortion, so you can just draw a straight line up now and not have to worry about whether or not it's appearing correctly in perspective. So once you draw the line straight up and down, you now know where the middle of the door lies, and you can just pick where you want to put that knocker. So let's say I want to put it right here. I can just simply mark that point and started drawing in the knocker so that just a few simple ways how you can apply the diagonal method. This is a great technique that you're going to be using over and over again and your perspective drawing. Go ahead and practice with a few times just to make sure you get it. And in the next lesson, we're going to apply this technique to draw our two point perspective, drawing 13. Cityscape Drawing Exercise: All right, So now let's move on to more advanced exercise for three point perspective. And in this lesson, I'm going to show you how to draw this cityscape scene right here, step by step. And don't worry, it might look a little intimidating, but it's very simple, and we're just going to employ all the techniques that we've learned so far. All right, so for this lesson, since it is three point perspective, we're going to need more space. So we'll be working with a larger size piece of paper, and we'll be using the shrapnel. Bristol, Smooth and mentioned for this papers will be 11 inches by 14 inches. If you want to use the regular 8.5 by 11 size paper, you can is perfectly fine. You'll just have to either draw your picture smaller. Who'd I don't recommend, since it's already small as it is, all the details, Or you could put your vanishing points are frame and just use the shrink method to help guide you. All right, so we're going to start out with a blank piece of paper, and the first thing I'm gonna do is established a horizon line for this one. We're going to want to put the horizon line pretty high up in the paper, and I'll put it about two inches down from the top of the papers. All measure two inches 12 and I'll make a mark right there. And that's where I'm gonna put my rise in life also for this lesson, because we're going to be using so many construction lines because there's so much details in this drawing, I'm going to be using my regular mechanical pencils to create the construction life rather than the blue color pencils that I was using for the previous lesson. So I hope you don't mind that, and hopefully it will still be easy to follow along. All right now I'm going to establish the left and right vanishing point. So he is the right vanishing point. And here's the left vanishing point, and lastly, our established the third vanishing point, which is going to be way down here on the paper. I just put it right here. And just in case you're curious, the distance between the left and right managing points are about 11 inches, and the third managing point is about 12 inches below from the horizon line. So that's going to be the distance if you want to replicate this dry. So the first thing we're gonna draw is this foremost building right here is the one closest to us, and I'm just going to establish the corner that's closest to us. I'm going to make this corner about three inches tall, and it's going to be about one inch from the horizon line. So we're gonna go down one inch from the horizon line and begin to draw. All right, So I'm gonna take my ruler and line it up with this third vanishing point I want we have to show this their vanishing point on camera throughout the lesson. But just take my word for it that it is in line with this managed to put right there when I Whenever I do my measurement for any vertical lines. So So here's the center, and I'm actually gonna veer to the right of tiny bit. And, uh, then I'll measure down one inch. So that's one inch and I'll draw a three inch tall line. So that's my first corner. Now I'm gonna connect the top and bottom of this line back to both of these vanishing points. All right, so now that we have these guiding lines to help us, it's time to establish the width of the building. And I'm basically going to make this building one inch thick going both ways. So I'm going to start at this point here on the top corner and then measure out one inch, going this way and then another one inch going this way, and I'll put a mark where those places are. All right. So I have with my building marked out here and here next, I'm going to draw a straight line going from each one of these points and connect it back to the third banishment point I have way down there. So remember, that's the critical detail between two point and three point perspective. In two point, we were simply draw a straight line up and down. But in three point we have to make thes line yield to that. They're advancing point there. So all any lines that going vertical well must yield to that. They're advancing point. Okay. And now I'm going to connect this point back to that vanishing point and this point back to the right vanishing point. All right, so that's all building Now let's start adding in the other buildings so that we have a rough idea of what the cityscapes come to look like before we start adding the smaller details to each other buildings. So next let's put in this building right here is going to be a tall rectangular shape, much limited than this one. So the first thing we're going to do is established again the nearest corner of the building. And for this one, I can either make this the nearest corner, this line right here, and just extend it up so that the two building looked like they are standing right next to each other. But for this one, I'm going to make it to that. It looks as if they are standing a tiny bit further apart. So So I'm going to go to this line and just adjust it to the right a tiny bit. Once again, I'm keeping my ruler in line with that third vanishing point, and now I'm just going to draw a straight line to establish the nearest corner of that building, and now I'll take this point and connect it back to the two vanishing points. Okay, so this I was only connected to this vanishing point via this construction line, so I didn't have to draw anything. They're all right. So now I'm going to establish health, think I want it, and I'm just gonna market off right here, so it's gonna be a slimmer building, and I'll connect this point back to the third vanishing point down to the bottom. And I would also want to make the thickness about right here for this other side. And I went ahead and dark in the top edge so you can see it better. So the last happens is just take this corner and bring it back to the right Vanishing point and this corner to the left, vanishing points. And then we just close out this bottom end here, and that's it. We're done with that building. All right, So next let's drawing this shorter building right here. So for this one, I'm just going to have the building sitting right next to this taller left building here. So therefore, I don't need to establish a new front corner. I just need to decide how tall that building I want to be. So I'm just gonna market right here as the height. And now I'll connect this point back to this vanishing point right here. Okay, Now I will pick out the with so I'll decide that it will be this wide, and I'll connect this point to the advancing point and then lastly will connect this back to the left vanishing point. Of course, when I did that, I make sure not to go over all this building. I simply line it up so that it is in line with the left vanishing point and drew a short line go from here to here. That's it. And Alice, close out the bottom edge and we're done. So since a lot of this building is covered up by this total building over here, we didn't really have to draw much, so it's very simple. And next let's put in this building right here for this one. I decided to make it look a little bit more interesting, so I had it go up and then cross over on, then joined with a taller structure right behind it. It's pretty simple. We're just going to draw two rectangles one in front of the other. All right, so for this one, I'm gonna go ahead and space it a little bit for their away from the left building. So we're going to establish that closest corner. All right, so I went ahead and stop the line right there. So that's just gonna be the height of my building. Now I'm going to connect this point to this vanishing point and this point back to the Spanish. Okay, so now I'm gonna pick the, uh, with off the building so I'll have it be this wide going this way and about this thick over here, and then I'll connect these two points to the third vanishing point. All right? And now I'm just gonna connect this to this vanishing point and this point to the left vanishing point. And then I'll close out the bottom edge, and then one small details. We have to connect this point back to this vanishing point, and it's just gonna create this very short line. You can eyeball it if you want, in fact, but we need to draw that into that. It looks really and I actually forgot to do that for this building right here. So let's just do that right now. It's a small detail, but you can't forget about small details in perspective. Drawings. Okay, so now that we have the front part of this building drawn in less draw in the back and taller part of the building and it's pretty simple, we're just gonna draw another square right behind it. So I'm gonna take this corner right here. That's where the taller backside is going to start picking, picking up. So I'm gonna take this back corner and connected to the third vanishing point. Okay, so I decided that is gonna be that much higher, and I went ahead and ended the line right where there's a construction lines so that we can just use that to work with without having to draw a new one. So now I'm just going to make a note of that construction line, and then I'm going to go over on this corner here and draw a line going from there to my third vanishing point, and it's gonna end right at that same construction line. Okay, So basically, I know this is going to be the top edge of that second part of the building. So I'm gonna dark in it. And now we'll take this point at this point and connect it back to the left vanishing point . And I'm gonna pick that to be my, uh, how thick I want the building. And I'll connect that point to this, right? Vanishing point. Okay, so now I'm just gonna take this corner and connect it to their advantage point to close out my building, and that's it would go with that building. So now we'll start working on this side over here. So for this side, we're gonna do something a little bit different. We're going to draw in a little house here, but first to construct it, which is going to draw a simple box on the bottom and then a smaller box on the top. So since I'm going to have this box sitting right next to this building here, we won't have to establish that nearest corner. But I'm going to pick out how thick I want that box to be. Eso marker off this point right there. And then I'll connect that point to the vanishing point. And I went ahead and stopped it right where I want the height to be. And now I'm going to connect this point to the left and right. Vanishing points. And now let's close it out. All right, so now let's draw in the top box, and we're pretty much gonna go through the same exact process as the bottom box. Except, you know, just make it a little bit tomorrow. So I'm just gonna mark right here. That's how big I want it. And I'm connected to the vantage point and go through all the steps that I did for this one . All right, so there's the second box, as you can see this a little bit off line from that first block we drew. That sort of makes the picture look off, because the first, the top box is supposed be covering that. So I'm just gonna take my eraser and erase this segment and this segment here. Okay, so that looks a lot better now. We're gonna go over it once more. Time to dock in all the lines. All right, So now let's put in that roof. And we want the peak of that roof to be centered on this top box here. So to do that. We're going to use our diagonal method to find the perspective center. Keep these lions fight so we can erase it later. Okay, so they asked the perspective center. Now we're gonna take the perspective center and connected to the third vanishing point to give us a vertical guiding lines that will tell us where that the peak of the roof will be . Okay, So this vertical line here tells us that the peak of the roof will be somewhere along here . Now, we just got to decide how tone we wanted to be, and I'm just gonna pick that point right there. That looks good. And I'll connect that point to this corner and also this corner. And now we'll take the peak of that roof and connect it back to the right Vanishing point. All right, so now let's just erase this unnecessary line right here, Okay? So that looks a lot better, since the top of the roof is supposed be covering those line. And now I'm just going dark in the spaces that we accidentally erase and we're done. Okay. So next I'm gonna put in this building right over here and for this building. We're just gonna be using the exact same process as all these other buildings over here. That's nothing special about it. So I'm just gonna go ahead and draw it without explaining it too much, because I don't want to bore you to death. All right, so that's it. Nothing special about it. I just made it a little bit longer than the rest. So they extend all the way back here just for variety steak. So now I'm just gonna add in this back building and also this back building right here just to fill it up a little bit. All right, so for this back road and right here, once again, we're going to start by establishing the front corner, and I'll just make it that tall right there. Now connect this back to to vanishing point, and you should know the stuff right now, okay? And I'm just gonna pick, uh, this point right here to be how wide it is. And now I'm gonna connect this back to the left vanishing point. And since this side of the building, this corner of the building is obscured by this building right here. I'm just gonna pick some point, some imaginary appoint and draw that back to the right. Vanishing points. Okay, so here's what that looks like. A pretty simple. But sometimes when drawing perspective, you kind of have to use your imagination and see through an object so that you can draw it . All right, So now let's draw in our last fill a building right over here, and we're just gonna use the exact same process. I'm gonna go ahead and just draw it in. All right, So there's the last building right there. This one is probably the tallest building we have. And so it's much closer to the horizon line than all the other one. A za result. You can't see much of the top of the building. And so when you draw it, it might feel a little odd because the lines that sort of slanted in a weird angle. But don't worry. As long as you obey all the rules of perspective is going to look right. So there's out rough drawing of our cityscapes seen. Now, let's go ahead and start filling in all the details. Okay? So once again, we're gonna be working on the foremost building first, and it's just gonna be really simple details that we're going to add to it. But they're gonna make a big difference in how you're drawing looks. So just to give you an idea of what we're about to do first we're going to add a little rail that goes around the top of the building. And then we'll add in some windows that look like this and then at the bottom will draw in like, four little doors, and that's about it. So let's go over to our drawing. So first, let's add in the rail. Okay, so I just zoomed into the very top of the building right here. And so the first thing we're gonna do to add the rail is take your ruler, go up against this edge of the building and just add a little bit of actual height to it. So that's gonna be how tall our trail is gonna be. And we're gonna do the same thing for all the four corners. Make sure that the vertical line you put in is in line with the third vanishing point. So it should just be a continuation of the lines that we already drawn. All right, so now I'm just gonna take this point and connected to the right vanishing point. Okay, so it looks like it cuts off this, uh, vertical corner right here by a tiny bit. So that's gonna be the height of our rail. Now, I'm gonna take that intersection point and connected to the left managing point to draw this edge of the rail right here. All right, so that's what that looks like. So basically, when I first estimated the height of the rail with these four vertical lines, I try to keep them his uniform. It's possible. But I wasn't. It wasn't perfect. And so, by connecting it back to the vanishing point, it help me flush out how tall is going to be so that it looks right in perspective. So now I'm just gonna connect this with this point by drawing a line from this point back to the right vanishing point and then doing the same thing for this point and this point. Okay, so now, in order to make our rail it really realistic, we need to erase some of these actual lines here. So So, technically speaking, this rail should be covering up this mind. So we're gonna erase that will also race this line here and also thes lines from the building in the background should be covered up by this rail. So we're also gonna erase those and this one. All right, So when you're racing, just be careful not to erase too much of the lines that you do want to keep. And also, when I'm drawing this, I'm making the lines very dark so that it will show up clearly on camera. But when you're doing your drawing, you can keep your lines very light until you're know exactly what line you want to keep, so that when you go to erase it won't be so messy. So all right, now I'm just gonna re dark in some of the lines that I accidentally race and we'll see what that looks like. OK, so that's our rail. And to make it pop a little bit more, we can actually shade in the inner side of this rail here, and that's gonna make it pop out a little bit more. Okay, so now let's draw on the window to begin. I'm going to Let's work on this side of the building first, and I'm gonna take my ruler, and I'm going to divide this line into eight equal segments. So I'm just gonna take my ruling, mark out. That's one. So these are 1/8 of an inch, so there's two three. Okay, so we have eight segments here. Now, I'm going to make these two segment right there, the with of one of my window. And so we'll have 1/8 of an inch of space to eighth off worth of window, and then we'll have to eighth of space and then we know again and then 1/8 of an inch of space right there. So I'm just gonna take this point and this point and this point and this point and drawback to the third vanishing point, So just it's so that's a little confusing, but just bear with me and you'll see what that looks like. All right, so that's what those look like. And these lines are going to help me position my window so that its center on the building now next, I need to determine how tall I want my window to be, and also how far to space them along the vertical access. So I'm going to take my ruler and lining up against this edge right here. And this time I'm going to break it up into segments off 1/4 inch. So I'm gonna measure out 1/4 of an inch and make a mark there and then keep doing that for this entire height. And remember, we made this line about three inches tall, so if you follow that measurement, this should be a very nice division. If not, don't worry about it. It's okay if you all not all your segments are perfectly uniform. Okay, so now that I have my lines marked out, I'm just going to take each one of these dots here and connect them back to the left. Vanishing point. Okay, so after I did that, this is what we get a little grid on. If you actually think this looks good, you can leave it right here. I think that looks pretty good. One thing to note, though, is that when we're dividing and creating this grid, we're dividing this line and this line into equal segments. Technically, that is not correct. Since, as you move from here towards this direction, you are moving away from the picture plane, so these segments should be smaller than thes segments. And also, when you're moving from here down here, you're moving once again, away further away from the eye level. Therefore, the segments at the bottom should be smaller than the specs segments at the top. However, because of the size of the drawing, your difference in size will hardly ever be noticeable. So you're going to make yourself a whole lot happier by using this method. There is a technique that you can use to divide this space in a way that is perspectively correct on. We will learn in a future lesson, but in this situation, that technique will be more trouble than it's worth. So that's why it's OK to just stick with dividing things into equal segments. All right, so what? That said, Now let's outline the windows that we want. So basically, I want my window. I want my first window to be here and then my second window to be here, and then my third would know to be here and so on. So I'm just gonna darken out the windows that I want, and I'm gonna leave the bottom two rows untouched because I want to put doors in there. All right, so that's what the windows looked like once that darker. Now, I think that looks pretty good right there. So if you want to leave it at this point, I think that's perfectly fine. But I'm gonna go ahead and add some details to it once again. All this thing, all these patterns and details them adding to the buildings that just sort of off the top of my head. So if you wanted to be creative about it, you can add your own patterns and, uh, make these buildings your own, and that would be perfectly fine. Okay, So I'm gonna go ahead and add some crosses to these windows so they look like that and you want to make sure that the vertical line up the cross is in line with the third vanishing point and that the horizontal line of the cross is in line with the left managing point. So I'm just gonna centred in the window as best I can, then draw vertical line like that, keeping my ruling in line with the vanishing point and then line up with the left managing point and then sent her it as best I can and draw in a line like that. Okay, so that's what that looks like. And I'm gonna do it for all these windows right here. All right, so that looks pretty good. Now, let's add a little bit of dimensionality to these window. So let's zoom in to this window right here. All right? So now we're going to add a little border around this window, just like we did with the window in the two point perspective drawing exercise. And because the building has turned this way to the laugh, we're going to be able to see through the right side of the window. So we're gonna be drawn the border on this side, and it's gonna be like, way too small for you to be using a ruler. So I'm just gonna freehand it with my hand on even if you make a mistake is not gonna be that big a deal, because it's so small. So So I started by just drawing a little diagonal line from this corner and this corner and then connecting the two and then drawing another dag in her life in this corner and then connecting it horizontally this way, and then I'm just gonna shade it in. And that's what that looks like. So now let's just do that with all the rest of these windows. All right? So that's what that looks like. So now let's draw in the door down here, okay? So the door is pretty much just like the window s. So I'm gonna just outline this box right here, except now said drawing crosses right in the middle. I'm just gonna put a thin little border around it like that. And then I'm just gonna give it that same shading I did with the window to give it a little bit more. All right, so now let's just do the same thing for this side over here. Okay? So our doors have done so now let's work on drawing the windows for this other side of the building were pretty much it's gonna draw the exact same thing, so you should already know what to do. However, there's one detail that when I point out, and that is, you want to make sure that the height of each one of these windows is going to be identical on this side as well. So the way you make sure that happens is that you take the the construction line that guided U in drawing this window and you find the point where it intersects this corner right here and you draw a construction life from that point back to the right hand vanishing point. So now you have this construction line that is perspectively in line with the height of this, these windows, and that's gonna help guide you to make sure that all these windows are properly aligned. Otherwise they'll look weird on the building. So go ahead and drawing the windows for this side of the building and then we'll see what that looks like. All right, so I pretty much drew everything in here, except I did not shade the side of the windows yet, and I wanted to point out to you one detail and that is because the window on this out of the building is now turned to the right. You're going to be able to see the left side of the frame. Therefore, appreciating will be on this side, unlike this side over here, so make sure that you shaved your window on the opposite side like this. All right, so go ahead and do that for the rest of the windows and doors. Okay, so we're pretty much done with our first building, so that was quite labor intensive. Don't worry. For the rest of our building, the pattern won't be quite as complex. So now let's work on this building right over here. All right, So for this building right here, we're gonna be using this diagonal pattern right here. So to achieve this look, we're actually going to be using the diagonal method that we used to find the perspective center. So first, I'm going to get by drawing a diagonal from this point to this point. And also from this point to this point, all right, so there's the perspective center. Now, we're just gonna connect this point back to the third vanishing point in order to split this building in half vertically. And now we'll connect that perspective Senate to the vanishing point to the right in order to split it horizontally. All right, so now we pretty much have this side of the building divided into four equal portions. Now we're going to go into each one and then draw a diagonal across it in order to find perspective center of each one of these segments. So I'll start with the 1st 1 We don't have to draw this diagonal because it's already in there. I'm just gonna connect this corner to this quarter. And so there's our perspective center right there. Now, we're just gonna do the same thing for these other three. All right, so now I'm gonna pick this one perspective center right here, and I'm going to connect that to the right hand vanishing point. And that should also cut right through the perspective center of this right portion. Okay, so now I'm also gonna do that for the segment down here arcs out. Patton is pretty much complete. Now, let's just draw into on this side over here, and you can just estimate because most of it is already covered up. So I'm just gonna draw a vertical line downward like that. It's a tiny line, and then, oh, draw in the first diagonal like that, and I'll estimate where that corner visualized that corner, and it's probably gonna be right there, so I'm just gonna connect that point to this corner and draw in the other diagonal. And now we're going to connect these each one of these points right here on the corner of the building, back to the vanishing point on the left in order to matched the pattern. And now, at this point, if you wanted to, you could also draw another straight line down between these perspective center right here just to add a little bit more intricacy to the pattern. Or you can leave it alone. If you want to, I'll just draw too light lines down the building. Okay, so this building, it's pretty much done. All right, so now let's move on to this building right over here. All right, So for this building, we're just gonna use a very simple pattern of little squares to represent windows, and we'll just create a grid of that across this side of the building. All right, so for this one, I'm not even gonna bother measuring it. I just eyeball and divided this segment into seven equal segments. And now I'm going to take each one of these points and connect it back to the third vanishing points. All right. So now I took this line, and once again, I bought it, and I divided into nine equal segments. So basically, I put eight marks in here that are equally spaced. And now I'm going to take each one of these mark and connect them to the right hand vanishing point. Okay, so that gave us this grid. And now I'm just gonna go in here and outline out my windows. I want my first window to be right here so that it has one row of space going here and one grow of space in this direction. And I was gonna go out and outlined my window, making sure to keep a uniform space between each one. All right, so that's pretty much out building were pretty much done. You can erase the construction lines if you want to, but I think it actually adds to the aesthetic of the building, so I'm gonna leave it in. So next let's work on this building right over here. Okay, So for this building, once again, we're going to stick with a very simple design, and we're basically just gonna draw rows of window. Except this time, the window is going to be a lot bigger. Okay? So once again, I'm just gonna have all this. I'm gonna make this marking right here to, uh, leave a little space on the edge of the building. And also, I'm gonna create the same amount of space on the side and now going to measure out how why I want my window to be so it's gonna be about this wide and also on this side. I want my window to be this wide, and then we'll leave a little gap right in the middle between the two rows of window. So now I'm just gonna take each one of these markings and connect them back to their vanishing point. All right, so next we're gonna go to this edge right here, and we're going to mark out where we want. Ah, window to be placed. So here I marked this to mark out the space on top here is going to be the with my window from here to here. Here's a gap of space. Here's another window. Here's another gap. Here's another window is in the gap, and then we, lastly, will have ah, window right at the bottom floor. Now, you might have to play around with this several time marking things out, erasing it, marking things out, racing it until you get the spacing that you like. Boy, you could also take a ruler and measure out. And that would also make your job a lot easier. All right, so now I'm gonna take all these marking that I made and connect him back to the right hand vanishing point. Okay, so now I'm just gonna outline the windows that I want. So he is my first window. OK, and now let's just do it for the rest of the grid. All right? So I actually ended up with four rolls of window, which is different from the three roles in the original drawing. But that's okay. So that's why I say Don't fuss too much. If you're drawing, doesn't turn out exactly quite like mine, because that's the whole point of perspective, drawing as you can be creative and make the buildings your own. So now let's go ahead and put in windows on the side of the building and also on this face of building as well. So I'll start with side now I want to keep my windows align. So I'm going to take this point here that intersect with this construction point, and I want to connect that back to left hand vanishing point. And also, I want to do it for the bottom edge of the window as well. So he is that point right there and connect that as well. All right, so now when I draw in this window right here, they're not only at the same height as thes window, but they will also be at the same size. So now I just need to estimate the width of this and transferred over here. So I think here and here looks about right. Let's connect these point to the third vanishing point. And that's what I window looks like. So now let's draw in these two winners up here and for these, I'm just gonna eyeball it because even if they are slightly different in size, that's okay because it's technically part of different building now, so we can break away from the pattern. All right, so I made these marking right here to space out my window, and I'm just gonna connect him back to the ranching, okay? And since it's only one role window, I'm just gonna I ball it right there and connect that to the right hand side. Vanishing point. Okay, so now we just add these things were nose to the side of the building using the exact same process used before. So I'm just gonna go ahead and do that, and we'll see what the final result looks like. All right, so we are done. Okay. So next let's work on this house right over here. So just to give you a rough idea of what we're gonna do, we're gonna add a little border around the roof here, some rough windows and doors and then also little we know right here, up in the attic with a cross right in the middle. Okay, so let's start by drawing in the border for the roof. To do that, I'm just gonna create a vertical line, a short vertical line going down from the peak of the roof, and then I'm going to draw a straight line going this way, and then one going this way and next. Let's put in that window in the attic, so I'll just mark this point as the base of the window. And I'm gonna draw a guiding line from that point to the left hand vanishing point. And I just work out how why I want that we know. So this point and this point. And now I'm just gonna draw a rough half the lips or an ark connecting the two points. And now let's put a border around this shape here and now it's put in that cross. Make sure to keep the vertical and horizontal line of the cross in line with the vanishing points. All right, so it's gonna be a rough drawn Don't worry. It is not 1%. Perfect. Now, to make a look a little bit better, we can shade in the cross right here and also a little bit of this frame around it. And we can also give it some of that dark size shadow just like these windows right here. All right, so that looks pretty good. Now, let's work on putting in windows on this side of the building here. And as you can see, this side of the building has already been divided in half. So I'm just gonna go ahead and put into squares about that size right here and here. And remember to make them respect the perspective of the left hand vanishing point. Okay, so those are the window. Don't worry if this would know it's a tad bit smaller than this window. That's how it's supposed to look in perspective, since this windows little further away. So now, instead of adding a border around the outside the window, let's just add one in on the inside so that it looks like the window is flush with the wall . All right, so that's what that looks like. So let's shade them in to give them a little bit of three. Deena's perfect. So now let's work on the lower part of this building. All right, so for this one, I'm gonna put a door right in the middle and then two small windows on both side of it. So I'm just gonna mark this point as the height of that door and also the windows and draw a construction line from that to the left hand vanishing point. All right, so now mark out where you want your doors and window to be and use your best judgment to try to keep them as evenly space is possible. All right, So I went ahead and marked out the locations of the doors and windows, and I'm just gonna connect these markings to the third match point. And now we're just gonna draw a horizontal line to the second vanishing point to determine the height of the window. All right, so now let's just dark and everything out, all right? So now let's put a little opening right in the middle of the door, and we'll put two door knobs here on either side. I noticed that one of the door knob is lower than the other. That's because if you use a construction line to connect them back to the left hand vanishing point, uh, that's going to be the correct positioning so that they appear in perspective. All right, so now let's just put a border around all the windows and door, okay? And once again, let's just give it that side shadow on this night over here so that they have some dimensionality and that's it. We're done. Okay, so now let's work on this building right over here. And for this one, we're just gonna use a very simple grid design. All right, so this one is pretty simple, but I'm just gonna go through it real quick. So first, I'm just gonna split this side of the building and half by making this mark here, and I'm gonna draw a line from that to the third vanishing point. And now I'm just gonna go along this line here and trying to divide it into segments that are as equal to this thickness as I can. All right. So I went ahead and divided up this building into equal segments. We have a little bit of, ah, small piece right over here, but that's okay. So now I'm just gonna connect each one of these dots back to their vanishing point. All right, to now that we have our vertical line drawn in, it's time to do the horizontal. And here I'm gonna go back to this nearest corner of the building, and I'm going to divide it into equal segments. So just to make that job easier, you can use your ruler, and I'm just gonna go ahead and make thes Let's see, about 1/4 inch that each. Okay, so now I'm gonna draw a line from each one of these point back to the left hand vanishing point, and then we'll connect the same points to the right hand vanishing points. Okay, so that's it. We're done with that building. Okay, so we're almost there. Everything started to really come together. And now all that's left is to add in some tiny little window to fill up this back building right here. So for this one, 14. Dividing Space in One Point Perspective: So in our advanced three point perspective drawing exercise, we had a situation where we were drawing a sidewalk and we had to divide the sidewalk into even segments and make them appear in perspective. Now. In that exercise, I said that we can simply eyeball the distance and make them gradually smaller as you recede into the distance. And that was just fine because the drawing was so small. Any mistake or inaccuracy in our spacing will not be noticeable. However, if you're drawing was much bigger, you need to be more accurate because any inaccuracy there would be much more visible. So in this lesson, we're going to learn a method that you can use to divide space in perspective and make it look accurate. So, for example, suppose that you were drawing something that require you to create ah uniformly sized object in perspective, and it could be a chess board or a tire floor in the house. Or it could be a roll of telephone poles that are uniformly space. And the problem that we face when we draw something like that is that we know that the size of this time here will get gradually smaller as you go into the distance so that this tile is smaller than this one. However, we don't know how much smaller is going to get, so we don't know how much smaller we should draw this tile relative to this one. So now I'm gonna show you a method that you can use to divide space in perspective. So let's say you want to draw this illustration here, so we'll start with a blank piece of paper, and the first thing we do is establish the horizon line and we just put our vanishing point right here. And this drawing will be in one point perspective. However, this method was still work for two point and three point perspective. All right, so now the first thing you need to do is establish your first tile. Now, this is going to be the master tile that you're going to use as a reference to create all the other replica tiles. So for this, I'm just going to make my tile about one inch in with, and I'm actually gonna put the tile slightly to the right of the vanishing point. So it's gonna be somewhere it right here of course, you can place the tile perfectly in line with the vanishing point. However, I think it will make for more interesting drawing to put the tyre slightly to the right at all. So I want to show you that this method will work even if your initial tile isn't perfectly in line with the vanishing point. So just gonna put my first tile right here. All right, so now I'm gonna draw a construction live from each end of this line back to the vanishing point. And now the next thing I need to do is determine where that other edge of the tower is going to be. Now, I want this to be a square tire, so it's gonna take a little bit of judgment on my part to figure out where that line is gonna land in order to make it look right. And it's gonna take some trial and error on your end. If you're new to this, or don't be afraid to erase and redraw to make your first how look right. But it should be pretty easy. Why should draw a few of these? You're gonna develop percents for how they're supposed to look So I'm just gonna take my ruler and play around with it to see where the sweet spot is. And I think right there looks good. Okay, so we have our first time now. Of course, the challenge is to figure out where to put the subsequent times. So to figure that out, the first thing we need to do is find the center line of this tile. In other words, we want to find the line that will split this tile perfectly in half. So to do that, we're going to use our diagonal method to figure out the perspective center. All right, so there's our perspective center right here. Now I'm just gonna connect this point back to the vanishing point to find the center line. All right, so there's our center line, and that's all we really wanted. Eso At this point, you can actually erase these diagonal here just so things won't get too messy. All right, so now that we have to send a line to figure out where thou second title should be, all we need to do is take the point where that center line intersect with this side of our first Heil So this point right here and connect it to this corner off the first tile right here. All right, so this line, I just drew the point where it intersect with this line here. That is where our second tower is going to end. So now I'm just gonna draw a perfectly horizontal line right through this point, and that's gonna mark off my second tile, and that's it. I have my second tile, and that's the whole method. So just in case you're curious, here's why this method works. So we know that if we have a shape like this one here and we draw diagonals from corner to corner, we will be able to find the perspective center of that shape. Now logically, if you knew the location of the prospective center and you knew the location of this corner and this corner, then you would be able to find the location of this corner and this corner even if they were missing. So, for example, if I gave you on Lee half of this shape and I told you to find the missing half, okay, if you knew that the perspective center of that larger shape was right here. Then you can simply you locate the missing corner by drawing a line from this corner through the perspective center, and this line will guide you right to that missing corner. And once you have that missing corner, now you can simply fill out the rest of the shape and you're done. And that's exactly what we're doing in this situation here. So, for example, if I want to find the third tile I all have to do is visualize that the second and the third tile form a larger rectangular shape. And since I know that this point here is the perspective center of that shape, since the Santa Lion splits the tile perfectly in half, and I know that the second and the third tile are the exact same size. So this point here must be a perspective center. Then I can locate the missing corner of that third tile by drawing a line from this corner through the perspective center. All right, so this intersection point marks the corner of the third tile so we can just close it out and we're done. So go ahead and use this method to find the fourth tile by yourself. All right, So now that we divided up this space now, if you want to add in the other roles of tile or you have to do is go down to the first original tile. And since this is one point the horizontal, I won't be affected by perspective, so we can simply measure the length out evenly. So since it's one inch, I'm just gonna create one inches of space. So I marked out one inches of space here, and I would just connect each of these points back to the vanishing point. And now all we have to do next is extend these horizontal lines in order to divide up the segments. And that's it. We have our evenly divided space in perspective. Now, of course, once again, you can use this method to draw a whole host of things. These tower could be towels on the floor on a chess board. They could be windows in a skyscraper. They could be blocks on a sidewalk for every turned. The drawing sideway. These vertical lines could be evenly spaced telephone poles. So if you use your imagination, this is an extremely versatile technique that you can use for many different situation. All right, So to wrap up this drawing, let's just shade in some some of these tiles in order to make them look more dimensional. All right, so try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 15. Dividing Space in Two Point Perspective: So in this lesson, I want to walk you through a quick drawing exercise to show you how to use that space dividing method that we learned in the previous lesson. Except this time in two point perspective. So we're just gonna be drawing this tile floor right here. But in two point perspective, So it's begin with I simply established my horizon line and put in my two vanishing point here and here, and I went ahead and put in my first initial tile. And this is the tire that we're going to use as a reference to create all these subsequent tiles. So the first thing I'm going to do is find that center line that was split this tile perfectly in half. And to do that, we're gonna use out I gonna method to find the perspective center. So there's our perspective center. Now, this is gonna connect a line from this center back to the right vanishing point. So now that we have the center line, I'm just gonna erase these diagonals. All right, so now let's find that second tile. Now, remember, we're just going to imagine that the first higher on the second tower forms a larger rectangular shape. And this point here is the perspective center of that shape. So to find our missing corner, which is going to draw a line from this corner connected to this prospective center and that will lead his right to the missing corner off our shape. So here's the point where those two lines intersect and that is going to be the missing corner of our second tile. So now to draw out the second time, I'm just gonna connect a line from this point back to the left hand vanishing point. So there we have our second tile, and there's a line connecting it back to the left hand side. Vanishing Point. So now, to find the third tile, I'm just gonna draw a line from this corner here through this point here, and that's gonna find the missing corner of the third tile. All right, so here's the corner where they intersect. Now let's draw a line from this point back to the left hand vanishing point. Now I just replicate this same process to find the fourth and the fifth tile. All right, so now let's just erase these guiding diagonal lines so that our dry What? Look so messy. Okay, so I went ahead and erase out the center line as well. So now that we have this raw tile, what happens if you want to add a second roll right over here? Where do we put that dividing line? So to figure that out, which is gonna imagine that these 1st 2 tile right here, combined with these two missing tiles, are going too far in one large square shape. And since we know that this point right here is the perspective center of that square, then we can find the missing corner by drawing a line from here through here. And that line will lead us to the mission Missing corner. All right, so here's the intersection point and we know that that's where the missing corner is. So now I'm just going to draw a line from this point back to the right hand vanishing point , and that's it. We just drew in our second roll of tiles. So now if you wanted to add 1/3 role or we have to do is read, repeat the process. So once again, I would imagine these two tile combined with these two missing tiles form a largest square and this is the prospective center of that shape. And then I'll draw a line from this point through this point to find the missing corner. So there it ISS, and we're gonna draw in line from here back to the right hand, vanishing points. And that's it. It's pretty simple. And now, if you wanted to add another roll right on this out of here, all you have to do is extend this line. Why a little bit. And now Thies to tile once again combined with two missing tile forms of larger shape, there's their perspective center. Draw a line from this point through this point and that will give us the missing corner on this end. So that's the missing corner. Now, just draw a line from here back to the vanishing point. And now we'll just extend each one of these line up here to divide up this segment, and now we can clean up our drawing by erasing all these construction lines. And now let's add some thickness to the shape right here. So I'm just gonna go to this corner right here and closest to us and draw a small straight line up and down and then connect this point back to the two vanishing points. And now we're just close off the ship by drawing straight lines from each one of these points right here on both sides of the shape. And now we can clean up our drawing by erasing all the construction lines, said Alice Shade and now drawing using a checker dot pattern. All right, so that's what our final drawing looks like. So that's how you divide space in two point perspective. If you wanted to do this in three point perspective, the process is exactly the same. Except you would just make these vertical lines here converge towards 1/3 vanishing point. 16. Placing Objects in Space: lesson. We're going to learn how to place object in space in a way that will make them appear perspectively correct. So, for example, if you wanted to draw a crowd of people like this here, but you just randomly placed the figures in your drawing without any regard to how they're supposed to look in perspective, then you're drawing just not gonna look right, and there won't be any adapt to it. So let's go ahead and learn the proper way to do this. So this technique I'm about to show you is going to work for any shape or object with B trees or houses or whatever, but in this particular example, we're going to be working with very simple stick figures. So let's say I wanted to draw a crowd of people in my drawing. The first thing we need to do is establish the horizon line, and that's this red line right here. Next, I'm going to draw on my first figure, and this figure is going to be the reference that I'm going to use to draw all the subsequent figures in the drawing. So I'm going to make this first figure the same height as the observer off the drawing. Now, in case you forgot, the observer is basically the person whose eyes were seeing the drawing through. So the observer is usually off the frame and looking at the scene. Now, remember, I said that the horizon line is always at the eye level of the observer. So if we were to make this first figure the same height as the Observer, then his eyes will also be right where the horizon line is. So when I draw in the head of the figure, I'm going to place it so that his eyes lineup with horizon. So we're just gonna use a simple oval shape to draw in the head. All right, So his eyes that right there and now we just put in the rest of its body and you can use whatever proportion you want for the body. Okay, so now that we have our first figure next we're basically going to draw a row off the same size figure, standing in a straight line and going back into the distance Now with each subsequent figures that we draw because each one is now further away from the observer, each one is going to be smaller and smaller, so to figure out how exactly we should size them, we're going to take a point right at the top, off the head of figure and another point right at the bottom where the feet ends and we're going to connect each one of these points with a straight line back to a vanishing point. Now, of course, we haven't established a vanishing point yet, so we're gonna go ahead and do that now. And I'm just going to pick this point right here to be the vanishing point. All right, so there's the vanishing point, and now we'll just draw straight lines from it to these two top and bottom points. So now these blue guiding lines here are going to tell us how tall our figure are supposed to be as they move further back and space. So the more to the right they go, the further back in space they will appear. So if you were to place your figure a little further back, like right here, then his head would stop right there in his feet, which stop right there. And as you move further back, more than the smaller, the figure will become. So now you can begin to start drawing in all the other figures If you wanted to. However, we still want to keep the head and the torso in the legs in proportion as well. So we're gonna go ahead and draw a straight line from this point here for the head. This point here for the arm and this point here for the crotch and connect them back to this vanishing point. All right, so these green lines here is going to help guide us asst to where to put the different parts of the body. So now let's draw in the second figure. Now, the one thing to remember is that since the second figure is still the same size is this 1st 1 just for the back in space. His eyes were still fall right on the horizon line. So you want to place his head so that his eyes is going to match up with the rise in line. So this is head notice how it's a tiny bit smaller than the 1st 1 And so now let's draw in the rest of his body. So we're gonna use these green guiding lines here to help us. So we're just gonna draw a straight line down, and this point here is going to be where the arm starts. And this point here is going to be where the crotch starts. And this point here is going to be where the legs are going to end. Okay, so now, using the same method, let's add about four or three more figures in this line here, going back into the distance. All right, so there we have our row of people. And when you draw this, remember to keep the length of the arm proportional to the body. So as you move back into the distance, Romek sure to draw your arms shorter. So now we can use this roller figure here as the guideline to help us place more figures into our drawing. So, for example, um, if I wanted to draw another figure that is at the same distance as this third figure right here, except I want to place it slightly to the right over here. I can simply take my ruler and measure the height of the figure. Remember to keep your ruler perfectly horizontal so that you have an accurate measurement. And I'm gonna mark the height of this figure and transpose it over here where I want to place, uh, the other figure. So I just make that mark right there, and this is going to be where the top of my head is. And now I'll go to the bottom of the feet and transpose that distance over here so this will mark the bottom of the feet. And if you wanted to, you can also measure out all the other landmarks of the body. So here we have the chin here we have the arms, and here we have crotch. So not using these Dodgers guidelines are you drawing the figure? So that's what that looks like. And you can use the same method to place figure wherever you want in the drawing. So let's put another figure right somewhere over here, except will have him appear as if he is standing at this distance away. So once again, I'm just gonna take my ruler and transpose the height of this figure over on this side. So here I have all the important landmarks of the body marked out, and I'm gonna use it to guide me in drawing the figure, and that's what that looks like. And now let's use the same method to add a few more figures to the drawing. All right, so there we have our crowd and notice how every figure in this drawing have their eyes right at the horizon line. Now contrast this drawing with the earlier drawing, where we didn't pay any attention to the perspective and notice how cohesive and good this drawing looks as compared to the chaotic nous and unstructured of this drawing. Now, the fact that every figure in this drawing here have the same height is a little bit unrealistic, because in real life everyone has a slightly different body type, height and proportion. However, now that we have these figures, all laid out we can use them is guidelines to create our more realistic drawing. So you can simply go over the figure and make this one say, a little bit taller. You can make this one a little bit shorter and change the height around that it's more realistic. All right, so that's how you place object in space. Once again, this technique will work for anything from trees, toe houses, two human figures, have fun with it, and I'll see you in the next lesson.