How to Draw 101: Shading Basics & Shadow Drawing Exercises With Pencil for Beginners | Tamas Benko | Skillshare

How to Draw 101: Shading Basics & Shadow Drawing Exercises With Pencil for Beginners

Tamas Benko

How to Draw 101: Shading Basics & Shadow Drawing Exercises With Pencil for Beginners

Tamas Benko

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8 Lessons (2h 53m)
    • 1. What's in This Class?

      2:20
    • 2. How to Use the Lessons?

      2:42
    • 3. Day 1 - Shading Basics: Light & Shadow

      37:58
    • 4. Day 2 - The Cast Shadow

      23:16
    • 5. Day 3 - Curved Volumes

      28:03
    • 6. Day 4 - Form Shadow & Light Side

      23:51
    • 7. Day 4 - Shading a Coffee Mug

      25:07
    • 8. Day 5 - Figure Shading Study

      29:41
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About This Class

Understand Light & Shadow - Make your drawings & sketches more believable by shading to the viewer.

In this beginner drawing class you can learn one of the most useful, rewarding and exciting drawing skills called shading or rendering. Understand how light & shadow work on different surfaces in order to create depth on you artworks. Whatever technique you prefer - sketching, drawing or painting - understanding how shadows are created is crucial for creating a believable illusion of reality (3D).

In this class I'll be showing you the basics, as well as some of the advanced techniques of shading which you can use to create both simplistic sketches and realistic drawings. We will go from simple to more complex forms step by step.

What previous drawing experience do you need?

Some basic drawing skills would be useful, but none of them is mandatory for this class. I designed the lessons in a way that you can also benefit from it with very little or zero previous drawing experience.

What drawing tools do you need?

You can start this beginner drawing class without any special drawing tools. I'll be using mostly a regular 2B graphite pencil on cheap office papers. For demonstration purpose I'll bel also using some other drawing tools which you can purchase along the way if you like them.

What can you expect by completing this class?

You will have the opportunity to understand how light and shadow work on simple forms. Complex objects are built from simple forms, so if you know how to deal with simple forms, it will be easier to work with compound 3-D shapes.

I'll explain the basic terms and concepts of shading which could help you make eye-catching, believable, well-shaded realistic drawings or sketches about simple subjects. There will be plenty of shading exercises after each lesson in the assignments. This is where you can practice the concept and develop your drawing skills. This class lays down a solid foundation for exploring more advanced shading techniques later.

Class Content

Day 1 - Light & Shadow

  • Value change equals form change

  • Pencil grades

  • The value scale

  • Some shading techniques

  • Light & Shadow

  • Direction of Light

  • The ideal lighting setup

  • The "1-2-3 read" concept

  • How to assign values to surfaces

  • Day 1 Assignment (shading exercise)

Day 2 - The Cast Shadow

  • What is cast shadow?

  • The cast shadow of a stick

  • Quick perspective drawing overview

  • The cast shadow of the cube

  • Sunlight & local light scenario

  • The line of termination

  • Cast shadow of a complex planar form

  • Day 2 Assignment (cast shadow construction drawing exercise)

Day 3 - Curved Volumes

  • The cast shadow of the cylinder

  • The occlusion shadow

  • The cast shadow of the cone

  • Soft shadow edges

  • The cast shadow of the sphere

  • Different lighting setups for the sphere (top light, back light, side light)

  • Day 3 Assignment (cast shadow construction and realistic shading exercise)

Day 4 - The Form Shadow & the Light Side

  • The core shadow

  • How to shade the light side

  • Shadow cast on other objects

  • How to shade concave surfaces

  • Shading a hollow brick shape

  • Shading a sphere with inward curve

  • Realistic shading of a coffee mug

  • Blending values

  • The background value

  • More shading techniques

  • Day 4 Assignment (all kinds of shading exercises)

Day 5 - Figure Shading Studies

  • Putting it all together

  • Plan your shadow pattern

  • Shading with graphite pencil

  • Shading with charcoal pencils on colored paper

  • Shading with dye inks (marker)

  • Shading with color pencils

  • Day 5 Assignment (create your own figure shading)

If you'd like to take your drawing skills to the next level, enroll in this class now!

See you in the first lesson!

Meet Your Teacher

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Tamas Benko

Teacher

Hi, I'm Tamas.

I love to teach new skills to students.

My classes focus on basic drawing skills including lots of drawing & sketching exercises. If you're a beginner at drawing, you can learn how to draw & sketch. You can also learn portrait drawing including all facial features (the eyes, the nose, the lips, the ears). There is a dedicated class for one of the most important drawing skills called shading. For these classes you just need a simple graphite pencil to start with.

I also like to use the Procreate 5X app on the iPad with the Apple Pencil for digital art. I have an extensive class on how to use Procreate for digital illustration (drawing & painting).

Beyond art, I also love numbers. Thanks to my original profession I have 20+ years experi... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. What's in This Class?: Welcome to my how to draw 101 series shading basics episode. My name is Thomas. I love to teach new skills to students. I'll be your guide on this journey where you can learn the basics of one of the most important and exciting drawing skills called shading or rendering. Your drawings can come to life by shading. Shading, if the skillfully applied can turn your drawings from flat to three-dimensional. I'll be showing you quick shading methods that you can use in your sketches, as well as more sophisticated techniques that you can use to add realism to your drawings. The more you know about light and shadow, the more realistic drawings you will be able to make. More complex volumes become manageable if you know how to shade some simple forms to cube, cylinder, cone and the sphere. We'll be focusing on shading these basic forms in both simplistic and realistic size. Finally, we will make a drawing project where you can apply your new shading skills. This class is for you if you are a beginner at drawing and you'd like to add three-dimensionality to your art works. If you are not a beginner, but you feel uncertainty when you work with shadows and you'd like to understand better how light works on surfaces. You can also benefit from this class greatly. If you have a pencil and some of his papers, you can start destroying session right now. No previous drawing knowledge is necessary. My main goal is to help you to create higher quality and more believable drawings. To practice what you have learned will be doing plenty of exercises. So you will see how powerful destroying scales can be in your hand. Topic is very exciting, so don't hesitate, start learn, disvalue able drawing skill today. See you in the first lesson. 2. How to Use the Lessons?: Thank you for taking this class. I have to tell you that designing the lesson structure was exciting and challenging. At the same time. It was exciting because working with light and shadow, you saw interesting. It can really add a lot to your artworks. And it was challenging because this topic is so complex and diversified. And I wanted to make it as simple as possible for a beginner. I hope not only will you learn a lot, but you will also enjoy this journey. In each lesson, I will explain a certain part of the concept. During lesson, you usually don't need to draw with me. Please just listen to the principles and how I do things. However, if you want to feel free to pause the video at any point and make your trials. At the end of each lesson, there will be an assignment where you can practice what you have learned. I encourage you to make all these exercises because they will make the impact on your scares. Most of the lessons will be about 30 minutes long and each day's assignment will take about the same amount of time. So you can calculate with one hour per day and you will get to the end of this class in a week. This class is primarily focusing on shading. If you already had some basic drawing skills like being able to draw straight or curved lines, understanding the basics of perspective, and being able to think in 3D volumes, they all would be helpful, but they are not mandatory. I remember when I started to draw, I was impatient. Learn this shading stuff and I don't want to stop you're discovering it either. I designed this class in a way that you can take it and benefit from it with no previous drawing experience. Then may be some parts that we are not be clear. But you can fill in those gaps with my other classes after completing this one. Being able to draw convincing shapes in 2D or 3D is useful but not essential for getting started with shading. If you have a pencil or a pen and some office papers, you can jump right into this class. However, are we show you plenty of other tools as they move forward. There are all kinds of different shading techniques from simple to more sophisticated ones. And they may require some extra drawing tools. I'll show you the alternatives during the lessons so you can decide which tool you like and make your purchase accordingly. Now let's get into this exciting journey. 3. Day 1 - Shading Basics: Light & Shadow: Light and shadow. They walk hand-in-hand. Shadow exists because light is present. If we illuminate an object with a light source, there will be shadowed their shadows, especially cast shadows, play a huge role in how the human brain understands and interprets 3D objects. When we draw or paint, we tried to create the illusion of reality. The difficulty here is that the real world is infinitely complex. From experience, we know that artists can illustrate it on the canvas, but you probably have doubts about you can do that too. The good news is when shadows are created, light follows certain rules. And even if laws of physics and optics can be pretty complex, we can break the concept down to simple elements and you will understand it step-by-step. The more you learn about light and shadow, the more real, unbelievable he or drawings or paintings we are look to the viewer. So it's really worth the time and effort to master the skills. If you look at this cube, we can observe that bright and dark areas alternate on its surface. The reason is that each side of the cube makes a different angle with light rays. The more a surface faces the light, the brighter it will look. Some planes don't get direct client, so they will be pretty dark. Our brain has learned to interpret these brightness changes as surface orientation changes into 3D space. So we get the sense of a cube. In art, the level of brightness or darkness of a surface is often called the tonal value, or simply the value. Think of a scale where ride turns into black in small increments. You can see smooth transition with all shades of gray over here. We can observe these values on the cube. And its cast shadow. Values can be analyzed best on grayscale images. The word is obviously colorful, but the interesting thing is that our brain doesn't need coloring formation to perceive shadows. Now if you are familiar with any graphic software, you will know that the color consists of three properties, such as red, blue, green, orange, etc. Saturation, which refers to the vividness of color and brightness, such as light and dark or somewhere in between. And we convert a colour image to grayscale, we keep only the brightness property. As you can see, it's perfectly enough for analyzing how light and shadow work on surfaces. Actually, our brain works the same way. It uses only disgraced scaling formation to recognize volume in the 3D space. Our brain translate these value changes on surfaces as form changes. So where you change, egos, form change. That's why we will use value changes on our drawings to communicate form changes to the viewer. Let's see how we can create different values from light to dark using a pencil. If you take your pencil, you will notice marking at the end like 2B, 2H, H b, or something like that. Each pencil has a softness or hardness grade marked by these numbers and letters. Each Penzias consists of harder graphite. With a hard graphite pencil, it's easier to make lighter and thinner strokes. The higher the number is next to h, the lighter the strokes will be applying the same amount of pressure on the paper. You can test your pansies value arranged like this. Watch how I hold my pencil. This is called the overhand grip. The overhand grip ideal for shading because you can draw with the side of your pencil covering bigger area. I'm drawing strokes back and forth, starting with a very light pressure. As I'm moving sideways slowly, I increase the pressure on the paper with the specific hardness grade two h, That's the darkest value I can get. Let's see another grade. These 2B pencil. B stands for baldness. By Penzias consist of soft graphite. The higher the V number is the software the graphite will be the soft graphite pencil. You can make darker strokes. And HB pencil is somewhere in the middle between 2A and 2B. Now let me show you a pencil grade with a pretty high number. This is an 8B pencil. It's harder to make life stroke with this. But I can create much darker tones. Your drawings can have more contrast by using multiple pencil grades because you can work with a wider range of tones. Whatever pencil you have, that will be just fine for now. If you don't have one yet, purchase 2B pencil, which you can get in any store. Now let's get back to values. We can create a value scale from a certain number of distinct values. I'm going to create an 11 step value scale. Now, this scale will serve as a guide for the rest of the class. I'm using a simple 2B pencil because you probably have a grade like this. Now you don't have to draw with me because you will create this value scale at the end of this lesson. As part of the assignment. I number, each step from 0 to 100 will be the brightest value. In this case, it will be the paper white. And ten will be the darkest value I can make with my pencil. I start off with the darkest value. I control the darkness of my strokes by applying certain pressure on the paper. I can add an additional layer to make the step even darker. I use different direction with my stroke's. Now I switch to the tripod grip. This is how I can apply the biggest pressure on the paper without breaking the tip of my pencil. So this is value ten, and this is where you 0. Now I divide this range into half. And over here, at step five, I create a medieval gray tone. The stone should be halfway between 010 in brightness. It's a good practice to start with the lighter tone, then add additional layers as needed. It's always easier to add an extra layer than erase and start over. All right, so we have a middle tone or midtone. Now let's fill in the steps on the light side. I start with the very light value. My strokes are barely seen. Watched that my hand is not close to the tip of the pencil. It's easier to make lighter strokes holding the pencil like this. Actually, I can shade all the steps we dislike don't, and add additional layers one by one. Now I go back to step two and shade with a little bit higher pressure. As you can see, it's a little bit darker than step one. Value step should be evenly distributed between light and dark. Now let me make step three and step four. If the value increments are not even make corrections as needed. Now I do the same thing on the other side, we darker tones. This time my hand is close to the tip. This way, it's easier to make darker strokes. Being able to create these different shades of grey is an essential skill for shading. It's not a rocket science, but it needs some practice. This exercise helps you learn to control the pressure on the paper and in this way the darkness of your strokes. All right, so we have values from 0 to ten. From noun, we can refer to a specific tone with the simple number. Think of a certain number as the level of darkness. These numbers will help us to lay down guidelines in the shading process. We will use these values to create shadows. Now there are different shading techniques depending on the drawing to use. I use the so-called tunnel shading technique to create the scale. It works for graphite pencil. If you use a pen or ink, you can use a technique called hatching. This time I create the files that value scale. By controlling the spacing between your strokes, you can make darker values. Or you can use the cross hatching technique, making multiple layers with your strokes. I use thin marker this time. Each layer has a slightly different angle. A typical increment is somewhere between 1520 degrees. Another tool you can use is a water-based dying. This one has a brush tip. So it's like painting. Product designers often use this tool because it's quick and simple. You can even reduce the value scale to three values. Still, we can communicate 3D volumes to the viewer quiet well. Let me show you this on a cube. This shading technique is perfect for sketching because it's fast and simple. But you can also use a colored pencil or any other media. I encourage you to experiment. Good. Now let's talk about light. There are many aspects of flight we could talk about, but let's focus on the ones that are important from an artist point of view. Direct client is the one that comes directly from a well-defined light source. It can be the sun or a local light source like an electric lamp. Or candle. Lighting can be outdoor or indoor. But one thing is common. Light rays are emitted by the light source. We will handle these light rays as straight lines pointing to our subject. And we are sketching, we usually just use direct light. But if we'd like to achieve a higher level of realism, we also need to take in direct light into consideration. Some of the light rays coming from the main light source are bounced back from surfaces that are reflective To a certain degree. This can be the ground war painted white. A window made of glass, or the blue sky. So light rays are traveling all across the 3D space in every direction and bounced back and forth creating some ambient light. This is where situation gets more complex in terms of shadows. But no worries, we will break this complexity down to a manageable level. Shadow, by definition, is a dark area that is blocked from light by an object. Shadows are created. Because directional light is present, a shadow can be created on the ground cast by the object. It is called a cast shadow. But you can also see surfaces on the object itself that are blocked from light. This area is called the form shadow. Form shadow is created on a surface which turns the light source. Shadow has three key properties. Shape, value, and edge quality. When we shade form, first, we construct shadow shapes. Second, we assign correct value to each surface. Third, if we are going after realism, we'll be dealing with shadow edges. They can be soft or blurry, hard or crisp, and anything in between. The location and direction of light is key. It determines everything. In order to properly shade the surface, we need to know the angle of light rays relative to the surface. As we already discussed, the brain interprets 3D volumes by shadows, light and dark areas on surfaces. But not every lighting condition is equal. Some are better than others. Now obviously, we cannot change the location of the sun, but we can choose the right time when it shines in the right angle. Or we can choose our the viewers position to see the shadows in good shape. And if you set up the scene and the lighting yourself, or if you draw from imagination, it's definitely good to know how you can create an ideal lighting setup. An ideal lighting setup creates nice shadows on the scene, giving dimension and depth to the subject. The light source illuminates the scene from the front. It's on the side, located relatively high. This setup creates eye-catching shadows and consequently, well-defined forms for the viewer. By the way, you can observe this on many old paintings and drawings from great masters or on movie scenes designed by professionals. There is a concept called 1-2-3 read, which can have to find the optimal light direction relative to the subject. Let's take this cube as an example. When you are just sketching in order to communicate an idea, you probably draw the outline of the subject and it is part of your drawing. But if you observe in real life, there are no outlines. The only information that is available for the viewer to interpret these 3D object. Our value shifts between two sides. And because of these values depend on light direction, we need to choose the composition thoughtfully. An object can be read where to the viewer if it has clearly different values on each side. To illustrate this, I've created different lighting setups for this cube. Which one do you think describes the form the best? I would put my word on this one. Let's analyze what we see here. A strong shift in value between the three visible signs of an object is referred to as 1-2-3. Read. Let's mark the three sides on the cube as number one, number two, and number three surface. Number one surface is the brightest. This is usually on the top of the object. The light source facing almost the top of this subject will make the top surface the brightest. And object reads not too long. Cash shadow, which requires light source positioned relatively high. Outdoors, you can see cash shadows like that at late morning or early afternoon. So that's the best time to take reference photos. The number two surface has a mid value. Let's realize that it is also in direct client because light rays hit the surface directly. The number three surface is the darkest. It's in shadow, it doesn't get direct light, only ambient light. This is a good lighting setup because each side of the cube separates where from the others. Let's see what was wrong with the other not ideal lighting set-ups. This cube is toppled. It, its top surface is hardly different from the ground. The sides are pretty similar to each other. There is no cash shadow at all. This is not an ideal combination. This cube is frequently, there are really little difference in values on the sides. It's hard to identify the edges. The cache shadow is behind a cube. It's not ideal either. Now this cube is backlit. The light source is behind the cube. Sides merge. It's hard to interpret the cache shadow. We can state that our original cube reads the best for the viewer with this slide direction. Now this doesn't mean that you cannot use any of these setups for artistic reasons with the intent of creating a dramatic look or a certain mode. It just means that if your primary goal is to communicate a 3D form, this scenario is the best option in art. There's nothing set in stone anyway. When you set up your composition, feel free to experiment. Change your light source location and direction, and watch how your shadows change. Is you find a nice-looking setup, go with that one. All right, now let's see how we can get to a shaded cube from a simple line drawing. As a first step, we define our Lai direction. Now let's take our 11 step value scale. We will assign a specific value number to each surface on the cube, plus it's cast shadow. This way, we will have a guideline to follow in any shading process. But first, I need to introduce an important term, the local value or true value of a surface. This is the actual brightness of a surface. Local or true value refers to the essential value of surface without the inclusion of any lighting, shadow, pattern, or texture. For example, let's say that the color of our cube is a pure white, so its true value will be 0. Based on our value scale, we could place this cube into any lighting condition, seeing totally different shadow patterns, but its true value would remain the same 0. The reason why this is important, because we, we are calculate display surface values based on their true value. This way, the shading process gets under our control. We will not be just guessing. Now let's see how we can calculate these displayed values for this cube. We can get the shadow value if we take the true value of the object, which is 0, and divide the distance in half between the 0 and the darkest value on our value scale, which is ten, the result will be five. This is called halfway to Black Room. So in this case, the value of shadow side will be five, which is a microwave tone. Remember the shadow side, or in other words, the form shadow refers to those surfaces on the object which are not in direct light. On this cube, we have the side in shadow. So I create a value five tone over year. Watch that I'm using the overhand grip. I'm adding additional layers until I reach the value five. If you run through the edge by accident, free, free to use your eraser. Now what about the cast shadow? Calculate the cash shadow value. We need to take the true value of the ground plane. It is also 0. So halfway to black will be five, again. Something like this. So well you five surface value, five surface. Now what if we have a mid gray cube with the true value of five? How do we calculate shadow values? In this case, we split the distance in half between 510. And we get 7.5. This will be the value of the form shadow. So I tried to create a darkness value between 78. Now what about the cache header? Because of the true value of the ground plane hasn't changed, it's still 0. So the value of the cash shadow view B5 again, because halfway to Black between 010 is five, the cast shadow will be a value five surface. Now let's see, a pretty dark cube with the true value of eight. Halfway to black is nine. So this side will be a value nine. Let's say that the ground plane is a value three this time. What value will the cash Adobe 310, halfway to black is 6.5. So it will be something between 67. But remember, this halfway to black rule applies to matte surfaces where there is no or pretty low level of light reflection. Reflected light can outer surface values. I'd also like to note that the halfway to black rule is for the ID or daylight scenario where there is plenty of ambient light present originated from the clear blue sky. Now, let's see what needs to be changed in a local light situation. We can observe a so-called full of effect or light decay in local light. Watch how the environment becomes darker as it gets further away from the light source. As a consequence, on the shadow side of the object that we be less ambient light. So we need to shift shadow value slightly. Shadows will be a little bit darker compared to sunlight scenario. They will be shifting one or two values towards black. By the way, a fall of effect can increase visual interest on your drawing, creating a sense of mode. So it's worth to learn its application in shading. Now let's see the surfaces on the light side in ideal lighting condition. They will be between 05. As I already mentioned, the brightness of a surface depends on what angle it makes with light rays. Let's explore this in more detail. In optics, the orientation of a surface is described by a vector called the normal vector, is always perpendicular to the surface. You can see this notation in the center of each surface in many 3D software. Light rays make an angle with the normal. It's called the angle of incidence. If this angle is small, the surface will look bright. The angle of incidence gets greater, the surface gets less bright. You might have a question when we talked about the true value of a surface. How can we determine that value purely by observation? We need to find the area on the surface where light rays are perpendicular to it. That is where the surface looks the brightest, and that value will be the true value of that surface. We can check the true value of r cube if we put the light source directly above it, the top surface will be perpendicular to light rays. So we will see the true value there. Which is why we can make another observation. And light rays get more tangential to a surface. The value of that surface gets closer to the shadow value. But there is a rule of thumb. The darkest value on the light side can never be darker than the brightest value on the shadow side. Otherwise, your shading will create confusion in the viewer. Obviously, this is true only if we have on single light source. If we had another light source on the other side of the cube, that would be a completely different situation. I'd like to point out that the halfway to black rule is just a guideline. You always want to observe your scene and make your own estimations. Now the skill of using the proper values on your drawings doesn't develop overnight. You need to train your eyes and brain to consciously observe these values. Don't be disappointed if this sounds a bit overwhelming now and Yvonne can develop the skill. Let me show you a useful exercise. Take a color photo about anything you like, but make sure there are nice shadows on the picture. Convert the photo into grayscale image. Put both images next to each other. Now take your radius Care. Choose certain spots on the grayscale image and identify their value numbers, right, these numbers next to the sports on both the grayscale and the color image. This exercise can develop your value assessment scale. And with time, you'll be able to identify the value of not only any grayscale, but colored surface. Now let's get back to our cubes and make further observations. This cube has two different True or local values. How does this affect shadow values? Where we just need to apply the same rules on these different surfaces as if they were separated. Objects. Halfway to Black between 510 is 7.5. Halfway to Black between 010 is five. Cash shadow depends on the ground to value, which is 0. So it will be uniform if five is. Let's make the shading the darker true value of this portion. We do not have an impact on the cash shadow. Alright. Now let's sum up the most important items of this lesson. Our brain interprets value changes as form changes. You can create your own value scale by now. You've got an introduction to simple shading techniques. We have talked about light, shadow and ideal lighting setup. You know the 123 read concept. And you have learned how to assign values to surfaces using their true value and the halfway to black rule. Now I know there is a lot to remember. My general advice for the course is to revisit parts if you feel uncertainty at any point. Nevertheless, I hope this lesson was exciting and you've got the mood to learn more about shading. Now it's time to practice. You can download the exercise PDF phi from resources or pause the video and the next minute at each task and work from your screen. First, you will practice to control your pencil, creating your own value scale. Then you will shade surfaces on line drawings, creating a copy of the reference image. Values don't have to match perfectly with reference. Just make sure you are shaded cubes could read well for the viewer. I enjoyed drawing and see you tomorrow in the next lesson. 4. Day 2 - The Cast Shadow: Welcome back. I'm glad that you are taking the next step in this class. I hope you have made all the exercises because remember, understanding theory is one thing, but your skills will develop only if you practice. Today, we are starting to learn the construction of the cast shadow. Cast shadow is like low hanging fruit in shading. By simply adding cache those to your line drawings, they will start to look much better. So even if you are just sketching, this knowledge can add a lot to your drawings. Guess shadow is a shadow cast by an object. An object can cast a shadow on the ground, the wall, or other objects. A compound object can even cast a shadow on its own surface. Your cast shadow doesn't have to be of engineering accurate, but it should be good enough so the viewer can translate your drawing easily. That's why it's important to understand how cast Shadow works. Before we start to explore cashflow, let's talk about light direction because that's what Shadow construction is based on. So how can we illustrate lie direction on the paper? Light direction is a 3D vector in space. Imagine a traditional flashlight in your hand. You can point with it in any direction. Its orientation can be considered as a 3D vector or the direction of light itself. We can illustrate this by a 3d arrow. Now let's see this on a paper. I think of this line has a light ray that hits the ground plane at this point. Let's call this direction the direction of light. Using perspective drawing, we can draw a vertical plane over this arrow. This will be the light plane. This plane is perpendicular to the ground. Where it intersects the ground plane, we can draw another arrow. This arrow is laying on the ground. It is basically the vertical projection of our original 3D arrow. This arrow will also mark the direction of our cashflow. So let's call it the direction of shadow. We have the direction of flight which makes an angle with the ground. And we have a shadow direction, which is a straight line on the ground plane. Good. Now let's meet the cashflow. The simplest way to make friends with cash shadow and its construction is to observe a vertical stick standing on the ground plane, lead by a single light source. Let's say that this tick is our pencil. Pencil will cast a shadow, but in each direction. And how long will it be? When we have a local light source, we always projected down vertically to the ground plane, we will get a point called the shadow origin. Now we can connect this point with the base of our pencil. This line, we are marked the direction of shadow. Cast shadow will be located on this line. Now if we connect the light source with the tip of the pencil, think on this line as a light ray and extend it. We will get the end of the cast shadow at the intersection. Think of this point as the projection of the highest point of the stick to the ground plane using the light direction. So this will be the cast shadow of this pencil in this specific lighting condition. And notice that with this method, we can construct cache header not only for a stick but for any complex object. Because the top of the stick can be any point in the 3D space. For example, it can be a corner of this cube. And you can think of this edge has a stick. If you know how to construct cashflow of stick, you'll be able to create a cashflow for any object. Well, things are more complicated than that, but we will cope with them. And lets say that we have a central light source over a year. We have several sticks around it in different sizes and distances. Let's construct cashflow for each. First, I mark the shadow origin. Then I draw shadow direction lines from that point. Eventually, I connect the shadow origin with the bottom of the sticks. Now I draw light rays toward each stick. And we've got these intersections so we can draw cast shadows. The stick can be anywhere. I'm using the same method. All right. I hope you are curious to know how this will work for 3D objects. But before we get into that, I have to give a very basic overview on perspective drawing. For those of you who are not familiar with that, it will be quick, I promise. Perspective drawing is about how to translate the three-dimensional world into a two-dimensional media like paper, in a way that we create the illusion of three dimensionality. There are several different types of perspective with their own set of rules. When we draw in a certain type of perspective, the outline of our objects, the edges, the position of corners, follow these rules. The most popular perspective used by artists is the 2.3 perspectives. They provide good sense of reality. Let me show you these two types on a cube. First, there is always a horizon line. It is usually a horizontal line on your paper. Our objects on the scene are drawn relative to this horizon line in 2 perspective vertical lines, or in this case, the vertical edges of the cube are parallel to each other. So I draw three vertical lines, or the three visible edges of argue. They are parallel to each other. On the closest edge, IMR, the height of the cube. Now here comes the important part. In perspective. Lines that are parallel to the ground plane and with each other will converge to a single vanishing point located on the horizon line. So the horizontal edges of the cube on this side converge to a single point. But where we are this vanishing point b, it's up to you where you place it. It just has to be on the horizon line. Let me put it there. Now, I can draw projection guidelines from these two corners of the cube to the first vanishing point. The intersections with this vertical line will mark the corners and the edge on this side. Now, I can draw this side of the cube. Similarly, I create another vanishing point. On the other side. I draw the guidelines. We have these intersections. So I can draw this other side of the cube. My federal guideline from this corner to this vanishing point. And from this corner to this vanishing point, I will get the missing edges of the cube. So using the rules of perspective, we've got pretty good 3D representation of this object. Now we can improve this illusion by creating a third vanishing point for the vertical edges. So they will not be parallel to each other anymore, but converge to this third vanishing point. You can observe this type of perspective standing on the ground level next to a high building. It will look something like this. This building is now in 3 perspective. It's horizontal edges converge to a vanishing 0.12 and its radical edges converge to the third vanishing point. All right, as we are going to deal with 3D objects, I just wanted to make sure, you know why these forms we look a certain way. Although later and you start to target higher level of realism, perspective becomes important because its rules apply to cache CDO as well as you can see it over here. Now let's see how we can construct the cash flow for the cube. As always, the first step is to define the light direction. Let's go with this one. Something that is close to ideal. I also mark the shadow direction on the ground plane. It's really up to you which direction you choose, but gas shadows should follow. So this is direction of flight. This is the direction of shadow. We already know how to construct cashflow for a stick. As I mentioned, we can think of the vertical edges of the cube as individualist sticks. This edge closest to the light source is irrelevant because it's gas shadow would be inside the cube. So we just need to deal with these three edges. Let me mark the invisible edges with dashed lines. Let's say that our light source is the Sun. It is far away. So we can assume that light rays that reach the scene are parallel to each other. It also means that I can draw parallel lines to the shadow direction crossing the bottom of each edge or stick if you like. Knife, we took perspective drawing rules into consideration. These guidelines would converge to a single vanishing point somewhere in the distance. But because of the length of the cache shadow will be relatively short. We can keep things simple and work with parallel lines. It's an acceptable simplification in this case. So the cast shadow will be somewhere here. And let's take the direction of flight and draw parallel lines that are crossing the top of the edges. We have the cash shadow of each stick. Now we just need to connect these corners to get the shape of the cash flow for the skew. Finally, I apply the halfway to black rule. Let's say the ground plane is white. So halfway to black will be a value five as shade with the mid gray tone, something like this. This part of the cashflow is behind the cube, so we don't see that. This side doesn't get direct light, so it will also be a value five. Good. Now let me show you a local lights scenario. The cache shadow will be a bit different. This time, let's put our light source behind the cube. Let's say it's a table lamp. And we work with local light, be definitely need the location of the shadow origin. As you already know, it's the vertical projection of the light source position to the ground plane. Now, I can create guidelines for shadow direction, but this time they will not be parallel to each other. They go from the shadow region towards the bottom corners of these edges. As a second step, I draw light rays through all three top corners. Remember, corner closest to the light source is irrelevant in this case. As you can see, the intersections which mark the corners of the cast shadow pretty far from the cube. This is because the light source is located relatively low. Icon and the related corners. And we have the cash shadow shape. This time, I used the hatching technique for shading. The sides are in shadow, so I use spacing between strokes like this. You don't necessarily need a ruler to construct a cast shadow. I just wanted to make sure that the demonstration is pretty accurate. On the other hand, light source is usually not in the picture frame, so the viewer won't be able to sport minor mistakes. Feel free to use hand drawing. Now let me introduce you another shading term called the line of termination. I already talked about light side and the shadow side of an object. Just as a reminder, planes that get direct client are on the light side. By planes that get only ambient light are on the shadow side. Now the boundary between light and shadow side is called the line of termination or the terminator. Let me mark this terminator with a dashed line. This is where light and shadow begins on object surface, on planner forms, or in other words, on volumes with flat surfaces, the terminator always run through some of its edges. The terminator plays an important role in the construction of cash shadow. If you notice the key points that we project down to the ground plane are on the terminator. So the outline of the cache CDO is eventually the projection of the line of termination to the ground plane. This will be getting more important in case of curved surfaces, which we will deal with in the next lesson. For the sake of fun, let's see how we can construct cast shadow for this compound form. Creating cashflows for planar objects is relatively simple. The method is pretty much the same that I've already showed you. We just need to project more corners to the ground. In this case. Let's go with this shadow direction and the slide direction. But in order to find the key points that really a project, we need to locate the line of termination first. High mark the Terminator with the dashed line. Again. These planes are in light. This one is in shadow. And these will be the key corners we need to project down to the ground. I know this requires some level of 3D thinking. If you don't have that yet, don't worry, it will develop over time. If you struggle with identifying the light and shadow sides on an object, Take a simple planar form into your hand and illuminated in a darkroom. Imagine that photons or small particles are traveling from the light source straight towards the object. Where will these particles land? The size that receives photons directly will be enlight. Others. The tiering cover will being shadow. I hope this makes sense. In this example, I use sunlight scenario so we can work with parallel light rays. I draw parallels to the shadow directions that are crossing the base corners. We also need these points on the ground plane. So I project them down. I'm using the direction of flight. And I draw parallels that are causing the P corners on the top. We have these intersections. So we just need to connect them logically to get the outline of the cache. This time, I am shading with the dye ink. Now, once you practiced enough, you won't need to draw all these guidelines. You just imagine them in your head and draw a good estimate of the cash pretty quickly. Alright, let's sum up this lesson. We have discussed what casts shadow is. You know, by now that the direction of light is key to construct believable shadows. You have learned how to construct cashflows for sticks. I provide a quick overview on 2.3 perspectives. We have constructed cache headers for cubes in both local and sunlight conditions. And as a bonus, I showed you how to deal with the more complex planner volume. I hope you found this lesson interesting. Now it's time to practice. You can download the exercise PDF from resources or pause the video at each task and work from your screen. You will practice deconstruction of cash shadow four sticks, and cubes. The primary goal of today's exercise is to be able to create believable cash shadow shapes based on certain object orientations and lighting conditions. For shading the cast shadow, you can use any technique you like. My enjoyed drawing and see you in the next lesson tomorrow. 5. Day 3 - Curved Volumes: Congratulations for being so determined in this class. I'm sure you will learn the stuff. I hope you didn't skip the exercise. After creating cash shadow for the cube, it's time to move on to more challenging forms with curved surfaces. In this lesson, we are going to deal with the cylinder, cone and the sphere. We are also going to refine our cash shadow to make it more real. Let's start off with the cylinder. The method of cash shadow construction will be similar to the cube when you do projections, but we will need to adjust it to discourage surface. So we have the outline of the cylinder. Let's define our light source. Maybe work with sunlight. Here is the light direction. And the shadow direction. At the first step would be to draw parallel lines to the shadow direction. But two, where cylinder doesn't have any corners. What we need to do is to draw tangent lines to the base circle. In this perspective, the circle is actually an ellipse. Anyway, we can draw tangents to this ellipse on both sides. Remember, we use the direction of shadow for these tangents. They will be all parallel to each other because we work with sunlight. By light rays are parallel to each other and we ignore the rules of perspective for the sake of simplicity. These two lines mark the orientation of our cast shadow. So it will be somewhere here. We don't know yet where it ends. But that's okay. These tangent lines marked not only the size of the cache shadow, but the location of the terminator as well, which will be important in case of the cylinder. The Terminator on the cylinder, no matter in what position the cylinder is, is always perpendicular to the base plane. So I can draw it over here. And similarly, on the other side, they will also mark two key points on the top plane. Remember, the line of termination is where light and shadow begins. Actually, this top curved edge is also part of the terminator. Now we know that this area and the shadow side, we can think of these two vertical lines as two sticks. And we already know how to construct their cashflows, right? So I'm using the light direction and I'm drawing parallels to that through these key points. We got two intersections over here. Actually, these are the points grad a cashflow restart its curve. Because the cast shadow of the stop Kurt edge will be a curved line as well. To get the curve. Shadow. We need to take some extra points on this edge. Remember, the shape of the cast shadow is essentially the projection of the terminator to the ground plane. Let's take these three points. I think that will do. First, I project them down vertically to the base ellipse. Second, hydro shadow direction Guidelines through them. And third, I draw by direct projection lines. Intersections will mark the curve. It will be something like this. A nice smooth curve. You can project down as many points as you like. More projections will bring more accurate curve on the ground. Finally, I made the shading. Remember the halfway to black room, we have a y ground plane. So it will be a value five cash shadow. Our cylinder is also wide. So the foam shadow will be a value five as well. Now let me do this again quickly on another cylinder. Let's go with this backlight. Once you understand the logic, you don't need to draw every construction lines. You can just make estimates and you will still end up with a believable cash flow. You can also make shortcuts. If you look at the curve of the cached over here, notice that it's pretty similar to the edge of the cylinder. They are not exactly the same, but if I copy its curve, I won't make a big mistake. The viewer probably won't realize that. The shorter the cast shadow is, the higher the similarity will be. If we had a great angle of incidence, the cache would be pronged. So as the curve. All right. At the beginning of this lesson, I mentioned that we are going to refine our shading technique. Now is the time. Let's observe the cast shadow on this image. We can notice that it's not uniformly dark. To adjacent areas where the cylinder touches the ground are the darkest. This area inside the cache shadow is called the occlusion shadow. It should be the darkest area on your drawing. It's almost black because it gets the least ambient light from the environment. Occlusion shadow appears where surfaces with different orientation join are the occlusion shadow doesn't really have a clear shape because the value transition to the other part of the cash flow is pretty smooth. But a curve of this transition follows the shape of the object. So there should be some kind of Philips curve in this transition to let me illustrate this on my drawing. This time, I don't speed up the video because I'd like you to see the whole process in real time. It will take about three minutes to work out a fairly realistic shadow pattern. I'm not in a hurry. I develop the shadow layer by layer. I apply very light pressure on the paper. Very few graphite at the time. So the chance of going to D2 soon is using the eraser is not an option in this case because it will drain the shadow pattern. I am trying to feel the transition and left my hand do the rest. This seems to be a time consuming desk, but I find it relaxing at the same time. It drives me into a calm state of mind. Good. Illustrating occlusion shadows on your drawings enhances realism and creates visual complexity. Now let's move on to a slightly different form, the cone. As usual, I defined the light direction. The cone has the exact same base shape as the cylinder. So we should take the shadow direction and draw tangents to the ellipse to get the terminator, right? Well, in case of the cone, that would be incorrect. Let me show you why. This is a cone. In top view. The tangents to the beige shape would suggest the placement of the terminator over here. But it is actually over here. We need a slightly different approach. What we need to do is to draw a center line for the cashflow. So I take the shadow direction and draw a parallel line that is going through the center of the base circle. I project down the tip of the cone using the light direction. Intersection will mark the tip of the cast shadow. I draw tangents from this point to the base ellipse. The tangent points will mark the terminator. Good. Now before we start shading, let's observe the edge of the cache header on this image. The edge soft tones as it gets further away from the object. The edge over here is pretty sharp and clean. Then it gets moved her in the middle. And quite blurry by the end. So by now, you know all three important properties of the cast shadow, shape, value and h quality. On sketches usually deal with only the shadow shape and a constant value. But if you target a certain level of realism on your drawing, you need to work out the edges and create a smooth transition between values. Let me shade this cast shadows somewhat realistic. I start shading with the middle pressure on the paper. I leave some space for the soft boundaries as I move away from the object. By the way, it's a good practice to use very light construction lines. So they will just fade away as you shade. But you can use your eraser to for the occlusion shadow over here, I apply bigger pressure on the paper to make this darker value. I'd like to note that if you need short accurate strokes, the tripod grip works better than the overhand grip. As I move away from the object, I apply less and less pressure. Creating a smooth transition takes some time and you need to practice the skill. I speed up the video now because I used the same method as for the cylinder a few minutes ago. And we're gentle over here at the end. And I'm making the edge or dominant over here. Good. I'd like you to remember that the Terminator on the corn is shifted. So let me draw something that will help you memorize it. I draw a cylinder with the cone at the top. This may seem odd. Platforms shadows will look like this. This is because the cone surface tapers towards the top. To be complete hydro the cast shadow as well. Very good. Now let's see the most challenging form, the sphere. It's a tricky object because it has no edges, corners, and even abate shaped. Constructing a perfectly accurate cash shadow for a sphere is a pretty complex technical drawing task. I'm just going to show you a simplified version. As an artist, you don't need to follow the steps. But I think it's important to understand the logic. The concept will be pretty advanced. But please bear with me. The sphere is an important 3D form. It's everywhere in nature and man-made objects as well. If you understand how to shade a sphere, you will make a huge step at drawing. Now let's start off with a sphere in top sunlight. From observation, we know that it looks something like this. The Terminator which separates light and shadow sides is an ellipse in perspective. This is true for any sphere with analy direction. The terminator will be an ellipse shape. We can also notice that the cash flow, There's also some kind of Phillips. In the stoplight scenario. It has the exact same shape as the terminator. Depending on the light direction, this shape will be more or less distorted. The cast shadow of the sphere usually forms an X shape, which is often pretty close to an ellipse. Alright? So we know what we're looking for. Now let's go with the typical light direction. It will be a sunlight scenario with parallel light rays. To begin with, it's useful to draw some guidelines for the sphere. First, I draw its equator. The shape of this ellipse depends on the perspective. We look at the sphere. If the viewer is close to the ground level, the ellipse will be narrower. As the viewer moves upwards, the ellipse is getting wider. Anyway, we are going to use this perspective. I also mark a vertical axis of the sphere, as well as the top and the bottom. This is where the sphere touches the ground plane. As a first step, let's project the equator to the ground. With the vertical isotope light. This would be the cast shadow. It has the same size as the equator. Now, I draw parallel line to the shadow direction through the center point. I draw two other parallels that are tangent to the base ellipse. The cache shadow will be located somewhere here inside these boundaries. Now let's use the light direction and draw tangent to the sphere outline. The intersection on the center line will mark the start and the end of the cache. The next challenge is to find the line of termination or the terminator. We know that it will be an ellipse. Notice that these tangent points mark its orientation. These are the points where light turns into shadow, at least on these locations. But how wide we are determinate or ellipse b? It depends on the shadow direction relative to the viewer. The trick is to take these tangent points on the base Eclipse. Remember this ellipse is originated from the equator. So if we project these points back, we will get these key points. This is where light turns into shadow on the equator. Similarly on the other side. But we don't see that. Now we know the shape of the Terminator is an ellipse. We have four key points. So we can draw a good approximation. This part is on the other side of the sphere. The next step is to project these points down to the ground plane using the light direction. And these intersections will mark the locations where the cast shadow will be the widest. Using these four points, we can draw a pretty good elliptical shape for our cash at all. It's not perfect ellipse, but it's close to it. So this is how you can get the cash shadow for the sphere. Now let's see some other lighting set-ups. But if the sun is behind the shadow direction, the shape of the form shadow will look something like this. We have the shadow direction. I take the top of the terminator, projected down. So the cast shadow will end somewhere here. The width of the cache shadow will be something like this. And I draw this shape. Occlusion shadow. You change. Soft edges. They all apply and just like for any other object. Good. Now what if we have a point type light source right above the sphere? If you draw tangents, you can see that the terminator will be shifted towards the light source. So the phone shadow will be bigger than in sunlight scenario. And the cast shadow will be bigger as well. The closer the local lightest to the object, the larger the cash flow will be. Let's lower the camera close to the ground level. If light shines from the right. We can illustrate shadow simply like this. Once you made enough observation from real life, you can start skipping construction lines. And you'll be able to draw cast shadows pretty quickly. They will come instinctively. Alright, let's sum up this lesson. We have discovered the construction of the cache shadow for the cylinder, the cone, and the sphere. I have introduced a new term, the occlusion shadow, which plays an important part in shadow quality. You have also learned about two other important shadow properties beyond the shape, the edge, and value. I know some parts of today's lesson might sound a bit overwhelming. But remember, if you draw from a reference, shadows will be just there and you won't have to construct their shapes by our staff. And if you draw from imagination, choose a lighting setup that you can deal with. It is that simple? You will have time to make things more complex as you evolve. Now it's time to practice. You can download the exercise PDF from resources or pause the video at each task and work from your screen. Focus in this exercise should still be on the construction of cash shapes. But you can also start working on the quality of your shadows. So you can draw the dark occlusion shadow creates some transition in values and reply softness at the edges. If you're not sure how to handle a form much the related part in the lesson again, I enjoyed drawing and see you in the next lesson tomorrow. 6. Day 4 - Form Shadow & Light Side: Well done. Some people give up learning, but not you. You already know how to construct the cashflow for the most important basic forms. In today's lesson, we are going to add another puzzle to the whole picture. You are going to learn about form, shadow, and light side. On a single sketch, you may just illustrate shadows like this. But in order to create the illusion of realism, you need a more sophisticated shading technique. All elements of light and shadow can be observed on a sphere. So let's analyze one. Lets summarize what you already know. Terminator separates light and shadow side on object surface. The shadow side on the object surface is also called the form shadow. The object casts a shadow. It's called the cast shadow. The area where surfaces with different orientation meet is called the occlusion shadow. This is the darkest part of your drawing. The cast shadow edge is sharp where it's close to the object and it gets blurry by the end. Good. Now let's explore the missing pieces. We can notice that just like the cast shadow, the form shadow is not uniformly dark either. We can observe this dark area around the terminator, which is called the core shadow. This is the darkest part of the form shadow apart from the occlusion shadow, the core shadow only appears and curved surfaces. We can observe the core shadow on the cylinder. And on the corner as well. The core shadow has diffused edge on both sides. We can also notice that the form shadow gets brighter as it gets closer to the ground. This may seem a little bit odd, but there is a reason for that. The ground plane reflex ambient light and some will land on the object surface right here on the shadow side. Remember, the more perpendicular surface is to the light rays, the brighter it will be. This area turns away from the crown, so it will be darker. Whatever surface you shade, it's always a good practice to think about light triangles. Asked these questions. Where do light rays come from? What angle do they make with the surface? Reflected light softens out shadows. Tiny details like this can bring your shadows to life and your form gets a better sense of reality. Let's see how the form shadow looks on a flat surface. We won't see any core shadow because we have a sudden form change over here. This area close to the ground gets less light because cash shadow has a dark value next to it. As we move upwards, surface starts to get reflected light from the ground over here. So it gets a little bit brighter. Good. Now let's see what's happening on the light side of a curved object. Remember, the Light Side is the surface that is in direct light. We can divide surface on the light side into three main areas. Close to the Terminator, we can see a half tone which gradually turns into the true value of the object. As we have already discussed, those area will be the brightest where light rays are perpendicular to the surface. In this lighting setup, it will be somewhere here. This area is called the passive highlight. The position of this area is fixed on the object in a certain lighting condition. I've made the surface of the sphere slightly reflective so we can see the small white circle over here. This is called the active highlight. You won't see this on a matte surface. This is the area which is in an angle where it reflects the most light from the light source towards the viewer. Think of this area as the mirror image of the light source on the surface of the sphere. The location of this area depends not only the light source, but the viewers position relative to the object. Let me illustrate this in top view. Here is the sphere, here is the light source. The viewer stands over here. Ply tray goes on this path. So the active highlight will be here. There is another viewer standing over there. The active highlight will be on a different spot for him. So basically, the active highlight moves with the viewer. But of course, you won't see it on the shadow side. Shooting a sphere is an excellent exercise because you really need to understand all the elements of light and shadow, and it also needs a perfect control over your pencil. It's a complicated process. So don't get discouraged. If it doesn't look right for the first trial, you will get better over time. We can observe the same elements on the cylinder. The reflected light on the form shadow, the diffused edge of the core shadow, the smooth transition to the true value, and the highlight area, which takes a longitudinal shape. You can ignore this dark value over here is just some kind of glitch from the 3D software I used. I'd like to show you what happens if an object casts a shadow, not just on the ground, but the neighboring wall surface. Constructing cast shadows in this scenario is all about geometry and projection in 3D. Where shadow direction intersects the base edge of the other object. In this case, the Wall, IQ changes direction. In other words, if the surface changes direction, the cashflow will also do. And you can get the corners of the cast shadow by projecting the top corners of the cube using the light direction. As you probably notice, the light rays are not parallel to each other. They converge. This is because of perspective. Remember the provide the illusion of reality. You need to know perspective drawing principles. Now, real-life situation can be much more complex than this. Look at the cast shadow of the cube on this cone. The cone has a curved surface, plus it's not perpendicular to the ground plane. This can result a pretty complex cashflow. Constructing cash shadow like this accurately is way beyond the basics. It's called section drawing. In geometry. You take this vertical plane which cuts through the surface of the cone and find this curve. If you plan to be an architect or a product designer, you will need to learn this stuff. But as an artist, I think you can live without it. The best thing you can do is to make as many observations as you can on real-life compositions. Remember, an artist always makes simplifications. If your shadows are believable, even if they're not accurate, they will just work. All right? Until now, we have been dealing with convex shapes. One possible definition of this term is whichever two points of the shape outline you connect. Section line will stay inside the Shape. The opposite term is the concave. These shapes are hollowed out or around the world. In these shapes, you can find section lines that will be outside. It's easy to remember the difference by the word cave in the concave term. Your skillset should definitely include the ability to share these kinds of forms too. So let's explore some. This is a concave object because it's hollow. You can shade most of its surfaces based on what you already know. I construct the cast shadow just as we have learned. Shadow direction. By direction. I project this corner down. This time, I'm using some shortcuts. This shadow edge will be parallel with this top edge. I project this corner down. And this shadow edge will be parallel to this top edge. We got the shape according to the halfway to Black who, let's make the cast shadow with value five. I erase the construction lines. This plane is in shadow. So it will be value five as well. By the way, feel free to rotate your paper when you shade. Sometimes the surface is in an angle which is outside of the convenient hand position range where you can make nice pencil strokes. I made this edge darker to mark the occlusion shadow. On the light side based on the light angle, the top plane will be the brightest. Let's remember the 123 read concept. This will be our number one surface. So I'll go with something between 12. And this front plane will be our number two surface. So I shade it with the slightly darker tone, let's say value three over four. Before I forget, this is the number three surface. Okay, that was easy. Now what about these remaining surfaces? Notice that they have the same orientation as are already shaded surfaces. So let's bear them. This will be a number one surface. Just like the top plane. This will be a number two surface. Just like this front plane. This plane will be in shadow. So it will be a number three surface. Now let me make them quickly. And there is only one thing missing the cashflow of this block. We can think of this short edges as tics again. And we can consider this plane as the ground plane. So I'm using the shadow and light direction to project these corners down. I can connect these intersections. This part of the cash flow will be invisible. This part will be a value five. And because of the shadow cannot be inside the object. We just need to connect these points. To get the shadow shape on the side plane. It seems that I've gone a little bit dark over here, but actually it will create more contrast, which will be good after all. But I need to bring the other number three surfaces in sync with this area. And we have this concave form shaded. Now let's see a curved surface. Here. We have a sphere with a bit on its surface. If you are not sure how to approach a surface like this, you can always draw some cross contour lines to get a better sense of the volume. This is called volumetric drawing, and it helps to understand 3D forms. You can think of these individual tiles as flat planes. Now, imagine what angle light rays make with each time. It is also used. Draw this bit inside you. This is the light angle. In this view. We can see that this side will be in shadow because it doesn't get direct Clyde. Because this edge has a curve, the shadow shape will also have a curve, something like this. Now this area will not be uniformly dark because we have ambient light. Sunlight will hit this shadow area. If we are looking at the angle of incidence of the ambient light, we could say that this part close to the edge will be the darkest. And as we are going downwards, it will be getting lighter. But the thing is that the opposite side also gets ambient light. And it's in the position that it reflects that light. Towards this darker surface. So in reality, this area close to the edge will be brighter than this one below. It's quite complex, but this is how it works. If we had less ambient light, for example, in a local lights scenario, these brightening effect would be recur. Now what about this side? It gets direct light. The light angle is almost perpendicular to the surface. So it will be very light. At least over here. On the sides, the surface starts to make a bigger angle, the light rays, so it will become less bright. Watch how I hold the pencil. I control it with my hand. What I don't apply any pressure. I let it almost just float over the paper. We need very light strokes over here. And I use my kneaded eraser to remove graphite from this side. Now we can shade the rest of the sphere independently from the pit. We have already discussed these elements. Now let me implement them. This time. I won't use construction lines. Let's say I worked from observation. I lightly Mark The Terminator. Now any shade, a curved surface, you don't proceed element-by-element. You'd rather build up your drawing layer by layer, keeping the light and shadow elements in mind. Now I speed up the video because the individual strokes are naturally important here. I tried to make a proper distribution of values on the surface. I work on the farm shadow, the core shadow, the light side. I take reflected light into consideration closer to the ground. I create the cash shadow. I'm adding the occlusion shadow. And I'm working on edge quality. Let's start in the form shadow as well. The realistic shading of a sphere is a time-consuming process, but it really improves your shading skills. It forces you to learn the control over your pencil. And it also teaches you find balance between values. I encourage you not to skip this exercise at the end of this lesson. The transition between values will be smooth all over the place because it's occurred surface in every direction. Shooting a surface like this is kind of an advanced topic, but it will come very handy when you start shading organic forms, which are the shadow is building up layer by layer, keeping in mind what value certain bars should have. But in the meantime, I'm paying attention to the whole picture in order to create a consistent value back down. On a realistic drawing, we don't want to see any outline. Only value changes. So I erase when it's necessary. Oh right. I consider the sphere done. 7. Day 4 - Shading a Coffee Mug: Now let me show you another shading technique. I'll be drawing a fairly realistic coffee mug. First, I draw the outline of the mug with light strokes. Let's work with this shadow direction. Let's say that light rays make an angle like this with the table. So the cast shadow shape will be something like this. In the meantime, I raise the unnecessarily construction lines. I draw the outline here and there so we can better see it. I start to shade the light value. I'm going to build up lights and shadows layer by layer. A coffee mug is usually made of ceramics, so it has a reflective surface, which means that we will have an active highlights somewhere here. Let's give a base down to the cash shadow as well. I use my kneaded eraser to maintain the Con tool over here. And I make corrections forever. I feel it's needed. Switching between your pencil and eraser is perfectly normal. I start to work on the details. The core shadow will be here, waveform shadow and cast shadows start. This upper left side, we repeat it. But here close to the table, maybe you have some reflected light, so this area will be brighter. I enlighten the core shadow as well, had dislocation. We know that the core shadow has a diffused edge. We also know that the occlusion shadow will be the darkest area on the drawing. I switched to the tripod grip because I need precision over here. Drawing gets better as I'm adding these darker values to the cast shadow. Let's add an additional layer to the cast shadow. A sharp edge over here. And it gets softer along the way. As dark and the form shadow as well. You probably have a question in your mind. Is there an ideal speed in moving your bands here backend for when you do the shading. Not really. I suggest you start with a slow motion. Speed it up only if you can keep accuracy, meaning that you can stay inside the intended area. Drawing is not about time management anyway. Actually, you have the right state of mind if you forget the sands of time. So don't worry about speed. We will have an occlusion shadow on the light side as well, because the Mark has a curved button, which will result a thin occlusion shadow over here, but it will be less dark. Then on the other side. Let's say that our mug has a darker true value than white. So we can go darker than value five on the shadow side. And we can make the light side darker as well. As you can see, I don't worry too much about transitions between values. This is because I will use a special drawing tool in a minute. But first, let's create the shadow pattern on the inside surface. The light comes from the right. So this part will be in shadow. I'm on the line of termination on the other side. So I know where shallow turns into light on the inside surface. This left part, we reflect light towards the viewer due to its orientation. I make a smooth transition over here. Now let's see what's happening on the top Burj. I magnified over here, these are tiny details, but they are very important on a realistic drawing. I draw some cross contour lines to better understand the surface. As light is coming from here. These smaller dies, we face the light, so they will be bright. As they turn away from light rays, they become darker. On the other side, they will be in shadow. However, let's not forget the terminator. It is somewhere here because this is basically a cylinder right? On the outer surface of the mug, we have the core shadow. This is where dark turns into light. This will affect the values on the verge as well. The tiles, as their position change relative to the light direction, start to turn into dark over year inside and outside, they are started to turn into light. So the dark edge will transform like this. We can also illustrate the sonar drawing around the terminator. This line is more like a midtone value five, something less noticeable. And it starts to become dominant again on this side. But on the inside surface, the edge has become two dominant on the left. So let me take some graphite away. It might need to do is I'm adding some transition here and there. And I'm fixing this left edge. The drawing doesn't look engaging at this stage, but I intentionally didn't work out the details. Let me show you why. If you want to enhance the level of realism on your drawing by creating smoother gradients. Here comes the trick. I use a blending stump to create smooth transition between dark and less dark areas. The blending stump is a very simple but effective drawing two, it is just a tightly rolled up paper which can smudge the graphite on the drawing surface. There are several ways you can smudge the graphite on the paper. You can use the blending stump the same way as your pencil. As you can see, the individual Penzias strokes disappear. Using this tool, you can also fix transitions that are not quite smooth. I use the other cleaner deep for the light side. I can nicely made the sophisticated gradient on the urge. You can also make circle or movements to blend values. Look, I can make a pretty soft edge over here. If you need to, you can add more rarefied and continuum blending. I adjust the pressure on the paper to control the value. You probably don't have a tool like this at hand, but you can achieve a similar effect with an ear swab, paper tissue, or a paper towel hardware it is dead. Talented artists can create super realistic drawings using this technique. The better you can reflect value changes on a surface, the closer you are drawing, we'll be doing realism. But you don't necessarily have to use a blending two. I just wanted to show you as an option. Final touches here and there. I clean the area around the MOG. Finally, I'm using the needed to add active highlight on the side. It the blending stump, I ensure smooth mess around. Similarly, I do dishonor to urge for better precision. I can also use this electric eraser over here. And I think this area with the reflected light should be less dark. All right, there is always you can do more, but I stop here. Otherwise this lesson never ends. The background is often overlooked, but we can use it to make our drawings look even better. On a realistic drawing, we don't really use outlines, but we can use a dark background around the object to pop it's light surface value. Let's say here is the edge of our table. And I shade the background. It will be brighter on the left and darker and the right side. But you don't want to make it too dark, otherwise the focus will shift from the object to the background. Now, let's blend it. I repeat two steps. I add some graphite to the paper and I blend. You may notice that I didn't shade the surface of Mars evenly. Actually, a reflective surface looks more realistic if there are differences on it. The reason is that the environment probably contains all kinds of objects reflecting light on different levels. And if you illustrate this on you're enjoying, it will improve the overall look. I encourage you to make the study. Or finally, I like to show you some additional shading techniques that you can use in today's assignment. The range of possibilities, how you can illustrate light and shadow on surfaces is endless. You can quickly shade a bowl like this. You can use straight strokes. You can follow the volume of the form video strokes using cross hatching. You can make the bow fluffy. You can use the stippling technique. You can also use a mechanical pencil. Thin strokes, which can give a very nice professional arranged Luke to your drawing. Oh right. I encourage you to experiment with these techniques or with others. Let's recap what you have learned in this lesson. We have added the missing puzzles to light and shadow elements. The core shadow, the reflected light. The passive and active highlight. We have discovered the cast shadow on the wall and on the surface of a cone. We have also looked into how Shadow works on concave forms. You have seen how to shade the coffee mug somewhat realistic with the blending. To. Finally, I showed you some additional shading techniques. I know this lesson was a bit long, but I hope it was worth the time. All the skills you have learned so far start to make sense. Now it's time to practice. You can download the exercise PDF from resources or pause the video at each task and work from your screen. In this assignment, you will have the opportunity to practice all the skills you have learned. Your task will be to shade different forms in their entirety using reference images. You can choose any shading technique you like. If you are interested in getting more realistic outcome, spend some time with sophisticated shading. If you prefer to create simple sketches, that's fine to the primary goal is to enjoy what you are doing. See you in the final lesson tomorrow. 8. Day 5 - Figure Shading Study: By now, you know the fundamentals of light and shadow, and you have learned how to shade basic forms. In today's lesson, I'd like to put it all together and make an interesting shading study. I'm going to show you how to shade the compound form viewed from simple 3D shapes. You already have the scarce. We just need to confirm it and make some refinements. You can find this line drawing as a downloadable PDF file in resources. We are going to use the 123 read concept explained in lesson one. So before I touch my line drawing on the right, I planned what I am going to do with it. First, I am taking the light direction and identify number one surfaces. These planes will be the brightest Because they faced lie the most. They are almost perpendicular to the light direction. I'm going to go from the top to the bottom. I'm looking for planes that phase the light just as the top of the head. This sphere shaped joint will have a terminator like this. That will be the shadow side. And this part will be a number one surface. All sphere shapes will have the same shadow pattern. These planes do not have the exact same orientation, but they are pretty close to each other. The second step, I am taking the shadow direction, looking for numbers, three surfaces. These planes will be in shadow. They will be the darkest. Side of the head will definitely be in shadow. And the head will cast a shadow on the neck. Now, I'm looking for planes with a similar orientation and the side of the head. The form Shadow of the sphere will be a number three surface. And as I mentioned, all the others will follow. I forgot this lower on plane. It will be definitely a number one surface. And this side of the hand, to the most part of this top surface will have a cash alone. So I mark it with number three and we will work out the details later. I think I marked all obvious number three surfaces. Let see the number two surfaces. This side of the face will be my reference. And number two surface gets direct light or the angle of incidence is greater than four a number one surface. So consequently, it will be less bright than a number one surface. This plane will be somewhere between 12. And this one as well. This plane will be basically in shadow, but it will get some reflected light from here. I forgot this number three surface. It will be dark because it's facing downwards. Just as this one. This one will be something between 12 and this one will be something between 23. And another surface with something between 12. I think we have a very detailed plan on values. But remember, these are not value numbers. These are just categories. Number one surfaces will be wide. Number three surfaces will be dark. And number two surfaces will be something in between. Here you can see the outline of the cache Shadow of the figure. It may seem a little bit odd, but trust me, this is how it looks. If you take the y direction, we can project down each body part. The top of the head, the shoulder, the knees, the hip, and the palm over there. So it all makes sense. I start off the shading with the dark Number three surfaces. I'd like to note that there are several different approaches to how to build up your values on a subject. Another approach I like is to start with a midtone and proceed in each direction, lighten dark, step-by-step. This is especially useful on curved surfaces. But now we have well-defined separated plains. So I decided to go from dark to light. I will speed up the video from time to time. I think this will be my number three surface value. Let's check it and you scale. It is something around seven. That's OK. My value ten is not exactly black anyway. And the viewer won't see my value scale. So you don't need to stick to that. It's just a guideline. Use any values that look right all together. It's kind of easy from now on, I'm just following my surface map on the left. I'm using mostly the triple grip. This is because we have small planes and I need precision to stay inside the outlines. I don't finish this plane because this sphere will reflect some light to this area. I will work on that later. This plane of the lower leg is in a position which reflect some light from the ground. So I make it a little bit brighter than the other number three surfaces. Good. We have finished with the number three surfaces. There is nothing special with the cast shadow. It has a nice even value. Edges are sharp close to the subject. And getting glory by the end. We'll be blurry as well because it's relatively thin and light. Let's say embrace it. Okay, I think the cast shadow is fine. Let me mark the terminated on each sphere using the light direction. And I make the form shadow along with the core shadow. Using the diffused edge on the light side. It's kind of easy to shade the sphere in small size like this. Now let us continue with number two surfaces. I use a tone which ensures that the subject reads we have for the viewer. I think we can make it a little bit darker. Iqr Q3. I will use this font face value as a reference. I forgot displaying on the upper on. Let's make it something between 23. Similar to this plane. Let's make these glide planes going with the value one. I think this surface will also be something like that. And I think we have a good general shadow pattern. Let's say we are on 80%. Now let's start work on the details because that 20% will make the difference on our drawing. I refine the light side of the spheres, creating some transition. Now let's think about the cash flow. The head over here. Light rays are coming in this direction. The neck is a cylinder shape, so the cast shadow will have a curved line, something like this. The straight edge of the face will create straight shadow outline on this shorter plane. Something like this. You can acquire the skill in two different ways, either by observations or by descending into the rabbit hole of technical drawing and geometry. Anyway, cast shadows will be numbered three surfaces. Now let's see the deflection by this sphere. It will create a less dark area. Over here. It's stealing shadow. So it won't be a number two surface, but it will be something between 23. The upper arm will cast a shadow on the sphere. Similarly, the lower arm on the elbow joint. The hand casts shadow over here. Actually, the shoulder casts a shadow on the sphere. The sphere casts a shadow on this plane. It will be a small elites shape. The chest, we probably cast a shadow on the arm over here. This bottom facing plane is in shadow, but it gets reflected light from here. So I am trying to display this. And the chest casts a shadow on the Paris. I'm projecting these corners down. The cast shadow will look something like this. A downward facing plane. It will be dark, but reflecting some ambient light coming from the ground. This plane will be mainly in shadow. I forgot this plane of the hand. It's in shadow as well. So what's happening on this plane is basically in shadow, but over here, the hand, we reflect some light, so I make it less dark. Now let's think about the top plane of the leg. The pelvis will cast a shadow on it, but not just the pelvis. The hand will also have a cast shadow over here. Something like this. What else? This is an almost white surface. Similarly, the lower leg. Let's create the cashflow for the sphere. And on the other side to a little bit of correction on the surface. A tiny plane in shadow over here. Cash shadow by the lower leg. The darker side planes over here. And guess shadow by the other lower leg. I ran through the outline so I erase a little bit here and there. I forgot the cashflow by the pad is on the legs. The upper leg, hostile casts a shadow on the sphere. And the tiny shadow on the other side. Somewhere you adjustments here and there. But I think we are basically done. What I'd like you to keep in mind is that a drawing like this may seem very complex, but it's just a series of well-defined simple steps. If you can break down the complex subject into the simple elements, the task starts to become something doable. Very good. For the sake of fun. I took my other drawing tools and made some other versions of this study. Let me show you them quickly. On this colored paper, I used a dark charcoal pencil for the darks, a 2B graphite pencil for the mid tones, and the white charcoal for the highlights. With a charcoal pencil, you can create very dark tones, but it requires a special paper with a certain level of roughness. Working with charcoal is challenging because it smudges easily. You cannot erase it. So as I'm right-handed person, I was proceeding from the top left to the bottom right, switching my Penzias. In this way, I was able to make sure that my hand didn't touch the already shaded areas. As you can see, the color paper ensures that my white really pops out. At the accuracy of a charcoal drawing cannot be compared to a pencil drawing. But if you use it well, actually, it can support the artistic quality of your drawing. And on the other hand, you can compensate the lack of accuracy with a large paper format. You have more space. Another benefit of a larger format is that you can draw without touching the paper video a bomb using the overhand grip. In a small size like this, it would be pretty hard to use that technique. Now let's see the whole process. It will be completed in a minute. If you plan to preserve your artwork after you finished with your charcoal drawing, you need to use a so-called fixative spray to stabilize your drawing. It's kind of a varnish stray you can purchase in any art show. This is how the funniest triangular. I made another study with my dying. I like to work with this brush tips. It's like painting. I understand why children like to use these kinds of drawing tools. It's quite relaxing. Now I switch to speed drawing. It will take about two minutes. As I mentioned, product designers and architects like to use this tool in their sketches because it's simple and easy to make shadows with them. You can find all kinds of color markers too, if you prefer colored join. Let's stop for a second. At this point. I have used only one single tone until now, but if shadows on the right spots, the redescribe the form perfectly. Let's move on with the MIT dome. And this is how the figure looks made by dying. Finally, I wanted to test out the colored pencil. I'm going to use this orange color. And for making it more interesting, I'm going to use light blue for the background. This BY drawing, retake less than three minutes. Even if you are not familiar with color theory, I encourage you to start using colors in your drawings. First, start off with one or two colors. Complimentary colors. For example, this orange and the light blue that you will see in a minute. Together. Adobe has a great online to a color wheel. You can discover your favorite color. Feel free to experiment. Now let's create the background VDS, complimentary light blue. And here we have the figure study with color pencils. Now it's time to practice. This is your last assignment in this class. You can find a line drawing of disfigure in resources. I encourage you to download it, print it out, and try to shade it on your own with whatever technique you like. Once you are confident enough, you can try to draw your own figure and use a different lighting setup. I'd love to see your own unique interpretation of shadows. Now it's time for me to say goodbye. I hope you enjoyed every minute of this journey and manage to improve your drawing skills. Please don't forget to rate my class because you're feedback is valuable for me. Let me know if you're drawing skills have improved and which was your favorite part. See you on the next one.