How to Create an Animated Series, from Concept to Pitch! | Jason Weight | Skillshare

How to Create an Animated Series, from Concept to Pitch!

Jason Weight, Television writer

How to Create an Animated Series, from Concept to Pitch!

Jason Weight, Television writer

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
10 Lessons (1h 34m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Worldbuilding

    • 3. Character & Premise

    • 4. Character & Personality

    • 5. Motivation & Agency

    • 6. Structure Theory

    • 7. Planning Your Structure

    • 8. Formatting

    • 9. Your Opening Scene

    • 10. Voice

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

At the end of this class you'll have a brand new TV show concept — a brainchild of your own, ready to be made, and easy to sum up in 2 minutes.

I've written for animated shows featured on Adult Swim, Crunchyroll, and Rooster Teeth, I've created and pitched multiple show concepts, selling multiple IPs to production companies, and in this class I'll show you how best to invent, build, and write a compelling show concept, including advice on a season arc and on writing a pilot. 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Weight

Television writer


Hello, I'm Jason. I write for television, specializing in comedy & animation, and I'm here to teach you how to break into the industry. 

I've written for Adult Swim's Gen:LOCK, starring Michael B. Jordan and Maisie Williams, as well as being sole writer for season 17 of Rooster Teeth’s Red vs. Blue, staff writer for Crunchyroll’s upcoming anime FreakAngels, and I've lent my voice as a voice actor to shows like VRV’s Cyanide & Happiness. I've also created and pitched multiple show concepts, selling multiple IPs, and have talked about writing and directing at conventions and festivals around the world. 

I write, direct, and voice my own series Starship Goldfish, which has a million views, 54k fans, >$90k
in K... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Your creative journey starts here.

  • Unlimited access to every class
  • Supportive online creative community
  • Learn offline with Skillshare’s app

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Introduction: I have had ideas, thank you. Help. Applause, And I've taken those two drops to production, and I want to show you how I did that from the start. All things working properly, you'll at the end of this Siri's be able to write your own script from your idea that you'll have had, with the help of this, Siri's produce whatever's necessary and then take those into a successful pitch. My name's Jason. Wait, I write and direct Starship Goldfish, which I was a concept that became eventually a pitch over a number of years. I've also written the most recent season of Red versus Blue A wrote on some episodes of Gen . Lock, which is featuring a Maisie Williams and David Tennant and Michael B. Jordan. To begin, you're gonna need a why. Because you're going to go from point A to point B point days we're currently seeing, and Point B is in some far flung room, shaking her hand, and only your why will get you there. You'll refer back to it for strength. This reason for doing have to ask yourself, Why am I making a TV show? Is it Teoh? Get wealthy getting into the animation for the money is like planting a tree. Because you're hungry, you gotta do it for the love of the thing. You gotta do it because there's something in you that needs to be manifested. You want to tell your own story no matter how convoluted layers between your life and life of sub? Quite did. Amphibious Death Lord, you can tell your own story have, like, that's the wonder of this thing. You know, you're why will define your show and shows that I just made for money? You can tell what kept me for sure in one single idea for like, 10 entire adult years was something I didn't realize at the time. I wasn't confident of the fact that I was writing about myself. I was writing this goofy sci fi story that was 100% about life, and I had no idea. In my show I had this exuberant man child sees settling down is more of a risk to life and limb than his actual danger that he's constantly put himself in on whether or not that's an objectively worthwhile story To tell, it meant something to me that the otherwise I wouldn't. And your idea will have to mean something to you too. So make sure first before you start. The very first thing you have is why you know why you doing now? I'd like to re face this video and by extension, all of these videos by saying this is just how I've done things. So I have found some success with it, and I'm just gonna tell you how I did it. That's called disclaimer on it works ideas. Now you'll have ideas all the time. You already have ideas all the time. You're in transit, you're chatting to a friend, and then you start the conversation so you can write an idea down like a freak. So if you've got a smartphone, I use an app called Evernote. Save a series of documents in some kind of note taking app. So I have one for jokes. Want dialogue One for ideas, episodes, things that I wrote down his visual reference. It's just good to have a more categorized already, because at some point you gonna go back to them and be like, Oh, I need a dialogue idea. Oh, need a joke or what? I tend to do is before I start, I'll go through my ideas for their and list out all the things I think relevant to this story that I'm writing. And then I have them on hand. So it's like, OK, well, this event here or this joke Here we go quite well. They're like a band's first album. Your first album you put out was like 10 years worth of of ideas and riffs and poetry You're Show is your first album. Let those ideas accrue. If you haven't done that yet. What there's a good thing to do is think about all the in jokes you, your friends, and then give him some context and note them down because that stuff is usually pretty decent material. And if you're not an APP sort of person, well done, you you can have a tiny little notebook, which is like super cool. We were at your front pocket, and then you get shocked and it blocks ability like Oh my God, I was saved by the power of fiction, writes itself my computer. When it comes to drafting up on editing structural ideas and putting together a rough plan , I looked user app on Mac called Text at it. It's just really low fi and really simple, and I consider it to Korea Fund. So I feel more professional after that stage. You're gonna want a script writing program because doing this in myself. Words for the birds. I don't recommend it. Usually they're quite expensive. I bought final draft. I don't know why I did that. I didn't need to. His website called Writer Duet on that is, I think, $6.50 a month. You're a student in 12 99 if you know and it has all the same features and you can collaborate. But long distance I've lost so many scripts, the hard drive failure it makes me sad. So if you down or something like Dropbox, you can have a folder on your computer that is always auto updating. Next your motivation. Scratch that. You don't need motivation. You need discipline. Motivation is for your characters, right? You need discipline. Thing is for me personally, I have no discipline. I have none at all. I've never been disciplined. I've always found it very, very difficult to get work done. Sometimes I've been right for a few hours and then I'll be like, Oh, I've been to productive today. This feels wrong. I should stop. So I built a model. It's a perfect day of writing for me and it looks like this. 10 hours sleep the clarity. My God, if you can't sleep 10 hours, that's fine. I I'm working today on a You know, I start writing within on our breaking up. You know, the first chunk of the day because I need a black slave. No breakfast. Because for me, that interferes with the right, and for some reason, maybe it's essential. This bike, I don't know, works for me to know. What strong coffee, maybe like tea. Who cares? It gives a dedicated profile on my laptop for writing, so he's got no chrome or Firefox. Wherever I turn the WiFi off, it's just blank. Nothing on. It's just for work. I leave the house to do it, so because I have traveled to a place and then sat myself down in that place to work, I get like twice as much work done because I know that I have placed myself in a location to get a specific thing done. I like somewhere gently busy. So like the corner of a cafe. So everything is kind of like moving around me or like in a city library. Failing that just Anyway, you're not gonna be bothered. I'm adding to an existing bit of writing. I don't read it before I start because to start editing and it's using valuable look valuable brain glucose. That's really hard to say. Valuable brain Bukos family. Finally, if you're goal oriented like me, this will work. You have to remind yourself where you're doing it. For me, it's to have fun. I have to remind myself A I really enjoy writing. I might write something that I really enjoy today. My mood seems to carry to the page. Just remind yourself that you're gonna get something good out of it. Eventually, using this method, I'll always get at least an hour or two of right and if not awful day, which is an hour or two that I probably wouldn't have managed otherwise. NASA get keeping Bush If you're a writer on, you've never started writing before you guys are gonna stop you. You have, as they say, about a 1,000,000 bad words inside you. That's a quote by Raymond Chandler, but you can attribute it to me if you like. Chuck Jones said the same thing to hit artists about drawing. But if a picture's worth 1000 words, that's a 1,000,000,000 words. You got Gary System so it can begin. Either way. Let this horrifying title wave of effort be motivating. Let it keep you going despite your technical limitations. Because if the words aren't doing what you want, that means you're on the way to be incompetent. And not all the words will be crap, so it will be good. My show came about when I got so bored of writing my very first screenplay 22 that I had to remind myself why writing is fun. So I wrote the most fun thing I could think of, and that became the show I worked on for the best part decade. So now you're of the mind set that you want to have fun. You know why you're doing it. You have my tool kit. We can move on to the other video on the next video is well building. You're gonna make an entire world preloaded with tension and drama. 2. Worldbuilding: well building. Now this is running to the surface because I absolutely love this world. Building is the most important thing that you will do in this idea. Process. Well, the building is the act off building world for your show shocker. Well, building as a term has this sort of like fantasy connotations, and it really needed. It doesn't have to be like a lack. Ramos Old Warlock has taken rather shy into princesses. It shouldn't just be all well but slightly different. It's our world. Everyone's a character and they say, slightly clever things unusual, like every show or it's our world and yourself insert character is really hot. Why not? In my opinion, the world is the show. It's the set of rules that allow characters and friction to spontaneously arise. You marginalize an ethnic group. You arm the postal service, the skies full of floating on rocks. I don't know the rules and situations allow your characters to arise on the ideas of your seasons on episodes to spontaneously flourish. It has in a friction on drama, so two persons first up, you're going to need to know what you personally think is good on cool because your personal tastes will create the thing that you want to see most think about what entertains you. Ideally, it should be something that people aren't doing or saying yet the part of you liking and disliking things. You're not gonna be alone in it. That's the thing. So to use an example, Netflix has this algorithm and it places people into sets on where these people's interests overlap. They will green light shows in the overlap of that Venn diagram. For example, if you have a group of people who are really into scifi, but then a similar group of people who are really into political drama if you pitch them a show about governing a solar system if my well get agreement because thes two groups are saying feed is something that looks like this. The reason I say this is you are your own algorithm. Inside, the alchemy of your tastes is gonna be something interesting to other people. I think one of the most important takeaways from this is not to write a show based in a genre you don't like. You're gonna know what works if you don't like Westerns. Don't write westerns by it show you're not gonna know what's good about it. If you love fantasy, play free in the land of Elvis and government goblins because you like it. And to be honest, it's not even hardened. First, if you like a genre aside from one particular bit of it, like if you like horror but feel that everything is a bit too insubstantial and it's not enough slice of life. Add a family drama really compelling family drama, and then the horror can just frame it. The first pitch meeting that you will attend will be in front of a committee of your own tastes and best judgment. You have to ask yourself, Would I watch this and remind yourself of that throughout? You also have to ask yourself what we're asking yourself things. Would this show just be a kids show if I removed the sex Andi swearing and drug references ? However, if the answer is yes, don't panic. All it means is you need to add more adult themes. It doesn't have to be warning label additives. It could be just a simple as adding something that kid wouldn't necessarily wanna watch. Bojack Horseman has an episode called time's arrow on in it, a demented air s gets to see all of her life in montage with parts missing, parts replaced and it's moving very beautiful. The last thing a child would ever will know much. So I'm saying, is if it's not adult enough, don't panic. And some themes, some lessons, some things that make you sad and angry in your own life. And Bob's your uncle and another aside here while I'm using references. If I'm ever using his reference something that you don't personally like, that's good. You should hate things. They say you should be supportive and loving towards the things that you like, rather than just harping on about loathing, the things you hate and I try to live that way personally, but you've got to dislike you. Hate as much as the loving, the stuff you love, I think, because when you're looking at your own work and this is jumping ahead a little bit when you're looking at your own work, how are you going to judge it? How are you going to know if it's working or not? If you don't know what you don't like, purify the work with your hatred is what I'm saying. Living off another point to underlying is scope. This is a really big part. Will be looking for me At least I want your show toe have a nice high ceiling. Can explain what I mean by that in a second. So I was in a pitch recently and they asked me, How will this have 100 episodes? And that's what they're thinking about. You're gonna have to have an answer for that question. And it's something to be solved here in the world building stage. If you're pitching a miniseries, this does not play. And also I love you and well done. But if you're writing a longer show where the serialized or episodic, you're gonna need a nice high ceiling Now I'm gonna give you an example of a low ceiling. The last animated sitcom in the UK was called Warren United. Of course, everybody knows that. Why wouldn't you've heard of Warren United her. It died immediately unloved. Warren United was about a man and his wife and door and son living in a suburban house on Dad loves soccer slash football so much it's driving his family crazy. The first episode. He's super to football, and then it's bothering his family somehow. Second episode. We shoulders lovers football Wonder what family gonna think about that supercluster by low ceiling? That's not a show. It's an idea, you could say to me, surely shows our ideas, but no shows are a place in which ideas gonna happen if you're writing a longer so it should come preloaded with longevity, you look a show like family Go like The Simpsons. We'll see. The shows have a nice big high ceilings. They based themselves in a world like our own, like Warren United did. It's about family, like when United was. But the innate farcical elements in those shows lift this evening away high because we know that anything is possible. You look a show like sad part right South Park has all these farcical elements, and it compensates for the fact that every episode is about a fad or piece of news from that week. When we can re watch those episodes later on, because they have longevity is a nice high season. Now here it's important to differentiate between episodic show and serialized Jeff Episodic show is like Simpsons or family guy, where the beginning of the next episode Nobody knows what happened last week. It doesn't matter if the world nearly ended the beginning of this next step ever. So everything is OK. Varying serialized in every episode is its own sub idea, leading up to the grand idea of the season, and the season itself is a collection of of ideas. But you still need a nice high ceiling after the world makes your ideas possible. It can just be the energy made between a group of friends, like in Friends. It could be our world, but more corny and awful and cruel, like in Peepshow. Or it could be a whole world, a whole universe in the most total and absolute sense, like Star Trek. And that is my personal sort of poison. Your world should prompt you to immediately think of what ifs. Scooby Doo had the same episode every episode. Maybe it's not hard and fast rule, but for me personally, I prefer a nice icy don't maroon yourself on on island of your own design. Unless you're show was about marooning someone on an island you designed, in which case we'll don't like adventure time. Okay, Adventure time is like Disneyland. There's a syriza zones and you can just go into all the zones and all kinds of wacky things will happen. And so long as you're not bored of the characters, it has this longevity in friends eyes so much drama to drawn. Because the tangle of people's lives is so nuanced, every character type is a different kind of person that some of us could relate to. So especially if you're making it an episodic sitcom, let your show have a high ceiling. Let it be a fractal pattern that can be anything asleep configurable. Just grow in every direction forever. Start in a universe that's compelling, a compelling world. You would have a world that compels people something that people don't know anything about . So why so much? Uh, television and film time attributed to the Mafia. Everything is about gotta Matthew. And the reason is it's a violent, sexy, money drenched world that we know nothing about. Aside from in form, right with curious about. It's a compelling an unknown universe to us. Consider these subs, right? A Mafia hitman decides that he loves acting and goes to shoot a team off out of work, Hollywood actresses decides to create a wrestling show in the eighties. A nihilist detective in the Deep South is assigned to a satanic murder case. We don't know anything about those worlds, and it fascinates audiences. It will lower them towards your show before they've seen anything about. The compelling World advertises your show to, in a sense, because if you hear those concepts, you know it's about Mafia. Hitman decides he wants to be enacted immediately. We think, God, that's cool, that there's so much possible. There's so much levity contrasted with so much dark. What need to ask yourself is what unknown and compelling worlds and my privy to what have I read about what I lived through your super into lightsaber fighting styles? Maybe you're into the SCP Foundation. Creepy pastor fiction stuff, anything. If you are privy to a world that most well don't know about, you know why it works. The creator of Barry is an actor that two women who wrote Glow had a strong interest in the every woman's take on the aftermath of the 19 seventies women's liberation movement. And then glow came about your viewer wants to peep. They need a peephole. You are your views, BB Hole. So pick a compelling a 19 world and just have a concept in Okay, So, like, uh, it's after the world's ended in the world is flooded and now some kids from Atlantis or exploring the New World A world to that or Mary Magdalene is piecing together on account of Jesus's life long after he's dead and everyone was lost interest. These are words we don't know anything about, and you have total freedom to say anything you want. And if you're saying the right things, people watch to sum up world building, you don't need to build entire world just a set of rules that govern more. Follow what you love and hate. You have to be your own Netflix algorithm. High ceiling that the work have longevity. Let your audience people. It should be a public look into a private world 3. Character & Premise: protagonists, you can have one of them. You have two of them. Three gun care. Think about Agnes is they're very, very important. Why they very, very important is because they're compelling a bit, I guess, because they're in perfect an infection. If you're in perfect, you have to be destroyed or redeemed on, as in perfect people ourselves. We are watching to find out whether we're destined for the scrap heap or salvation. I know my therapist grating premise with character We've established a World is a set of rules that gives rise to the situations of drum. Why add to that? Now is when we add a character to that place with a little thought were delivered back. A tidy premise. Simple cause and effect. If it's a world of twigs and characters of match, you do the rest of the arithmetic in your head. Premise carries an unspoken promise Off potential Boy adopts fugitive alien on the run from the authorities, a forest nymph gets a job at an aggressive logging company. An old man in a nursing home decides to relive his life backwards in Order d Age himself to reverse the aging process. Premise carries an unspoken story. So, for example, in that last one, we know that aging doesn't work like that. We know that you can't just relive events backwards and expected de age, and we assume that the people who live in that fictional would also know that. So expecting friction, bass and just maybe the secret of eternal youth stories, my point is the premises and outright state what's going to happen? It just carries the seeds, the potential of the show. And while worlds and characters and sensibilities are what keep the show going, what sells it is a juicy premise. Personally, I think it's unfair the premises work. It's a show going because so many great shows don't have an interesting premise. Really. It's just the accuracy in which those stories are told that the humanity of them, But what I know next story doesn't equal character plus world. If you already have thought of a premise and you've got the world in mind, you can calculate character from that. Likewise, If you've got premised and you've got a character in mind, you can just about extrapolating what world you're gonna need to have. And in that situation, I would say, OK, I've got world and I've got Premise who best to throw into that situation withdraw its potential in its impurities. But these in my experience tend to lead to weak characters and weak worlds because once premises achieved, it's very easy to look at things and think, really, and it's in space or oh, yeah, it's a plucky FBI agent. We tend to draw straight lines when they're starting. I'm really starting with character on world can lead to a week Promise. It's just that we have such a wider frame of reference for world in character than we do promise. So we live in a world. We have a long history. We are surrounded by characters and interesting people who live with us, who Entertainers premises just a bit more removed, a premise that has the potential for a story that can outpace the modern viewer and gorged on centuries of fiction on with an outrageously overdeveloped sense of foreshadowing, it's more difficult for go over this theoretical project of yours. We're starting with world, where adding character, and then we're taking premise from the tooth. So to recap, world gives location on a place that ideas spring from character. Catalyze is those ideas and gives us actions in order to move through the world. And plot is the natural sequence of events that follow from placing that character in that world straightforward. Nothing you don't know already. Probably last video I touched on the notion that showed can be character driven. This doesn't mean that the show's best element is its character. More that this shows growth. His character group, That's the vector. This story followed shows that necessarily driven by one element in any case. But here are some examples. World driven shows a rare because world and universe seldom Dr Story. But we do see it kind of in Tolkien's Middle Earth. Premise driven shows include procedural dramas like cop shows or hospital drums on Monster of the Week concepts. Style driven shows are largely driven by the sensibility that style with which they are made. You'll find it in the works of Bill Wirtz, Joe Pera of Don Herzfeld. Andi sketch shows often fall into the categories work. In my opinion, the best show is a mix of all the above. Okay, so take it. Rick and Morty. What Rick and more driven by Is that the world? Yeah, is the characters? Yes, also is a style is a sensibility. Yeah, absolutely. Rick Amoy is a very style sensibility and directorial e driven show. Okay, so consider their dialogue is so tight together, there's no gaps between lines off dialogue, and so it's really fast pace. You get really high amount of jokes per minute on. Do you feel spoiled as a viewer? And as a result of that, any gap you leave after someone's bit of dialogue. That isn't a transition between things. Any gap that you leave after somebody said something has emotional weight, and it doesn't really matter how much of a gap you put in there. There's still gonna be read his emotional weight because we unconsciously absorb the fact that there's never gaps between the dialogue is very, very clever, very efficient, very effective. Also, Rick Amoy has a semi improvised style of dialogue. When you see a show like Whose line is it anyway? We glean that it's a lot funnier than it actually is because we know the circumstances of it. That they have just full of it's just come out ahead is a miraculous element on when you make show with semi improvised dialogue. It carries a bit of that miracle. And I were talking about Rick. Amaury. Look, I'm gonna keep talking about Rick. Amaury Look does love things, right? It gets lost can. No, it's really good. It's in terms of how I actually do things. I like to start with personality before anything else. And then I go through my ideas and I pulled out world, and I'll pull out a premise that I've thought that might fit. Usually, as I'm thinking of these things, they will become connected to one another. Oh yeah, that would fit there that would fit there. And the skill, I suppose, from Glasgow, is in picking what worlds go with what character, what premise goes, what worlds etcetera. My final point as regards characters and premise and I'll go into this in later videos is that stories are symmetrical. You start in the light, your in the dark, and then you come back to the light, having brought something back from the dark. This is true of characters. Also, it's good practice for them to contain hard coded into their personality. The seeds of their own downfall or redemption in the M breakable Kimmy Schmidt, Kimmy Schmitz, Irrepressible Pettiness kept her sane for 15 years in the Bunker of a Maniac show poses the question. Can the high stakes dramas of modern New York offer any new stresses? For Kimmy, the answer is no. In fact, she happens to New York. Every person she meets, she has moral lessons, for she is a font of wisdom, wisdom through suffering. It's a really dark show, actually. James T. Kirk of the original Star Trek as a child was on a colony presided over by this person who was watching his people start They would you? A delivery of supplies. It wasn't gonna come until much later. You saw its population starving and decided to kill 1/2 of the population. Just then, the supplies arrived early, and as a result, we can. A character who, despite any hopeless situation, never gives up on that initial hard coding carries the seeds of future Salvation. Boldak Horseman was denied a happy childhood, now in his fifties, having tragically internalized that is not worthy of love and also, ironically, being adored by pop culture. You mindlessly seeks to fix the past with the present. Tragically, the primary obstacle between the love he craves on the healing that he needs is time. He's trying to feed a closed mouth. The chance for a beloved, cherished childhood is over. His child has gone, his mother's dead. He's entitled, so we'll keep trying. You'll get more desperate, more volatile until inevitably, the depths of his Brokenness will become exposed. And as a result, inevitably he'll be rejected from the place that's enabling him Hollywood, which is why he needs to heal. He carries the seeds of his salvation with him. We aren't necessarily predicting everything the protagonist gonna do with this stage. Well, Bill protagonist, like a well built world, should have drama organically arising from them. And it's not necessarily obvious specifically what kind of drama that will be just yet. There's a whole other stage for that when we look at the logical steps your character will take through the world when confronted by it. So to recap when starting out that your world in character or characters lead to your premise, the premises an unspoken promise of potential let your show be driven by many aspects, not just character. That personality will be hard coded with seed of their downfall or salvation 4. Character & Personality: Okay, so you've built your world. You've got a nice high ceiling over regions and explored now toe Add the brains, the guts, the anima of your new make believe friends. First up contrast. One easy way to make characters. Here's why do a list the characteristics of a setting And then I make the character opposite it juxtaposed them against a place of their If the world is grim and dark. Maketh, um, irrepressible. If it's peaceful, make them chaotic. If it's chaotic, make them an oasis of calm and discipline. This friction electrifies scenes. It's fresh fruit. To the viewer, there was a first exercise. Consider laying your world to a bit of the heavy lifting. How do they suffer? If your character is at odds with world they inhabit, you have the seeds off conflict. This conflict, in turn, is part of their characterization. People are best defined by what they do, after all, and the most compelling recurring theme in drama is specific suffering. Here are some examples Lisa Simpson is an academic in a world that is an academic, and the praise seeking she takes part in is completely odds with their surroundings. Everyone's to done so. Intellectual desperation is a recurring theme in Vermin, which is a French animated series, and it's amazing. Please go find it. Man Toes is an idealistic, praying Mantis who joins the police department of a failed city. His naivety in this barely functioning place means brutal wake up calls. Every corner he is forever in shock. So what kind of suffering a you all about specifically because you know something about for myself? I'm a bit of a cultural Often I feel like I had a bit of an interesting childhood, and so I cast adrift my characters and dramatizing on a regular exploring characters who were made of you. Is there a piece of American Frag menting yourself? I put myself into my characters. Even when I actively trying to do that, I think it's kind of inevitable. So if you divide yourself up, put yourself in this the wrong parts as the right parts as the parts of function, the parts that don't give them to individual characters, combine them in one character, vomit your guts out into the waiting beak of your work, build him up, make it authentic. One of my characters is my well meaning introspective functioning site. Another is my drunk, so no obnoxious, detectable, needy. Another is my need to seek what's over the horizon. Never satisfied. This one is my compulsion to destroy all technology and reclaim the sanctity of organics Indians in a pitch. You will be asked why you the one us tell this story and it's a very easy answer to say, because all these characters of me you say this shows characters are a cast of myself, my sides on. Nobody knows me like I do. It's a satisfying answer to them because they want to rely on you to be the one to deliver this thing. I use this example a lot, but Bojack Horseman is a great example of a compelling character, his gross broken and riel. He's got you money. He's abrasive. He's got these unpopular Larry David opinions. We don't want to necessarily like him, but we do relate to him anymore. Relate to is a fragment of ourselves. We are not as unique as we would like to think we are. There are a 1,000,000 more use out there, and they want desperately to connect, and they will love it when you're honest about yourself through your characters because they will then learn about themselves through your boils. It's well known that foil or straight man prompts jokes on action from other characters. They'll have lines of dialogue like why or where we're going or What's that over there? We'll deliver lines that tell us nothing about them as people but everything about what the writer wants to achieve next. I once had characters act like this, and I dont anymore. Forget foils give oil characters juicy dialogue. Every character with interesting, compelling dialogue is one more person for the audience to relating. Really? Okay, So let's look at who usually becomes a forwards. The introspective, quiet, observing characters right? Who is gonna have better material in the people who were observing everything? Two of my favorite movies is a team where Donnie Darko and Igby goes down in both the teenage boys, saying clever, biting things to the boring people around them. I was I was a little party was inaccurate for me as a kid, but what I'm saying is I love that it pressed all the buttons that Calvin and Hobbes did for me when I was a kid I personally love. Anyone who happily isolates themselves were being overly judgmental and critical. I relate to them because I'm awful. What I'm getting at is this. If you have many personality types, many kinds of people, shapes and sizes in general, and you're giving them all sharp dialogue, people are gonna feel not only represented but personally lifted up. Support your supporting characters, Flesh them out. Express yourself through them. You necessarily need to be a wild or bombastic person to write a chaotic character. You just have to feel that way sometimes. Speaking of wild and bombastic characters you want to be around. We all remember non protagonist characters who make off faces light up when they're on the screen. Genie in Aladdin, Cramer in Seinfeld, Lemon grab in adventure time scene stealers. Why did these people tickle? Owes its because they're chaotic, They have energy. They have salt and pepper. We would like liberally apply to our own lives. We want to be friends with the chaotic person, even if we kind of know it will be able to keep up. And really, while it's fun to write a character entirely composed of nervous, chaotic energy it's enough to just give them one trait. One single, chaotic or unpredictable trained, it delivers a lot of character. One way to go about this is adding a floor or quote something that it's a marker somewhere on the levels of that person's consciousness, right? So we're seeing what's at the very top. But you're showing somebody, if certain criteria on their this weird thing pops out of them, and you get to see how distant this weird thing is from who they are at the top and it implies multitudes implies depth. So your young chef is super focused on a pastry contest. They're disciplined. They're focused for every time they fail a local pastry meat. They feel the need to instigate a conflict between two local gangs. Your adventurer character is a picture of heroism and valor, but they stutter when they talk to their dad, and for reasons we can only guess at any time they see a sloppy middle aged drunk in public , they need to fistfight. Your 12 foot tall robot wolf is stalking the lunar surface, pulling apart bits of installations, making the nationals tell each other fairy tales to keep themselves up for the Nice Watch. But any time this robot looks at the ground, they're looking at the moon and they feel compelled to howl, and it's never stops. Being embarrassing. Floor is warm. When you give characters floor, it lets people in. You'll do a lot of work as a writer making people like characters, but it's the floors that really make them real gains a level of depth. When you had an undesirable traits, we think how they function so well. Orel, with these impurities trapped in the internal conflict and facade. Earlier, I talked about juxtaposing characters against their surroundings. In my opinion. Also, a character is juxtaposed against themselves if there will rip if they're worth their salt . Subtext is the portion of your show that takes place in the viewer's mind. Subtext in character is called facade. People are like firmest flasks here. Me out. Don't drop on the outside. We're seeing famous last. Then there's an air gap, and then there's the freezing or boiling in a liquid. In people, there is an air gap to keep are thoughts from directly translate toe our actions to keep our facial expressions and body language, check out of a desire to be perceived in a certain way. That's a facade. We want people to think that we are friendly or car. Sometimes we don't feel friendly or calm, but we need to still be perceived is that it's human. And we like human cursory glance of literature as a whole tells you that the Holy Grail you're seeking is characterization humanization, a riel person. We take our word for person from persona, which is Latin for mosque. And I think it's wonderful that the English language did that. It's true. We're all just facades walking around masks in the most interesting part of any mask is the reason that it's being worn. Let's take a character who always says what he feels like saying does the actions he feels like doing and seemingly has no social floors. Spike Spiegel from the enemy cowboy bebop. For those who don't know, Speicher's a bounty hunter and he had a past affiliated with gangs. That's really all you need to know this point, despite on the surface of it, it seeming like uses the cool character without floors. Actually, Spike has a core subtext. He is all facade that keeps him safe mix and feel safe in him. We have this duality is impulsive, his carefree. He's reckless but also pensive, professional and skilled, A diametric split. He just wants to live freely and survive on the fringes, running from his shady past. But that's a protective facade to convince him that he has no past family enough. It manifests in the outward story as his past literally pursues him. Others are drawn into spikes. Gravity well, as he tries to be free. Onda avenges passed and the rest of the cast. I wanted to give up his parts, but it's sucking a minute. He feels he has no choice. The friction in him is so acute envelopes, the show and all its characters by the syriza spikes, carefree facade is hindering his true inner self. The spike Who cares? And so his overriding, dutiful self dominates his reckless, carefree side that's protecting him from his past on both harbors turned towards his enemy and in doing so synthesized in him a new, selfless form. The Hero's Journey, a narrative template, has been used in television and film since the seventies would call his final stage of the martyr. We don't really go in for a stroll hand, and I think we're gonna talk about structure later in this series. I'll just leave that for now. Now this is fun. There's an animate called samurai champloo, made by the same director same team immediately after cowboy bebop. There are three protagonists for this show. Two of them Mugen and Jim. Now remember what I said about Spike Lee's impulsive, carefree, reckless but also pensive professional? Skilled Mugen is impulsive, carefree and reckless, while Gin is pensive, professional and skilled. That's how rich spikes internal drama waas he could be split into two gestalt characters. One last, an important concept. I'm bolting on here, which my every point so far has touched on, is what the screenwriter havi agree show Mars Wack calls an operational theme, Mr Size. Whether your serialized show is successful, strictly speaking on operational theme is the internal force driving. This shows protagonist different to their motivation, which is situational. This is the raw spirit behind their proverbial steering wheel. This emotional dictate decides how your character interacts with the world the way you piece together. This operational thing will decide if your characters, compelling on basically you. Us, Them. Why, Like a toddler? Until your protagonist breaks down crying. Excuse me. Why are you an adventurer? I'm adventure, so I'm mostly adventuring, rating them even. Why? It's a strange question to be asking high, too. But, you know, I'm in Noble. No noble man. Yeah, but But seriously, that Why do you What do you do it? I mean, cards on the table, the noise. Suppose I'm chronically bored. You know, I need more stimulation. You, But, like, why then wait. Uh, I suppose, um, reality does not always meet up the makes big patient. I read a look, you know, the job. So why? Because Because, you know, we lived when we lived nowhere. And I read a lot, um, is the kids and, uh, you know, it was quite lonely. How come you will only further removed this out there for my family? I did not want him to, but we ended up in the middle of nowhere. No excuse. No. No friends around. Why does they suppose he did not care very much whether or not there was happy, Uh uh. Anyway, uh, So what do you do it? Well, like, Yeah, I suppose Now I I look for validation and I look for people to find about ill in what they do when I am, because I need to validate May myself. There's, Ah, there's a hole inside of me. Here's our audience. So to recap, your characters are at odds with their world containing bits of your soul suffering in a specific way. Given juicy, meaningful dialogue, showing some traits at odds with their wider character. Radha's hell, Why not a little fractured internally? 5. Motivation & Agency: So we've invented the ground who invented people to be on the ground. Now we're gonna decide which direction they walk in, usually towards what they want. You protagonists go. A goal is found, discovered. And incidentally, if the pilot begins after your protagonist or protagonists have discovered their goal, the audience will fully expect them to drop it. You always gotta keep moving. McGuffin Hitchcock popularized, calling the thingamabob be the object of desire and McGuffin. It's the Ark of the Covenant. It's a scholarship to Harvard. It's princess. It's a sword. It's Jewell. It's backstage passes for kiss. It's the object of desire. Now any old fucker can make a McGuffin an object of desire. What you're gonna do is have to McGuffin a good McGuffin and a bad McGuffin multiple McMuffins Prince Zuko in Avatar. His McGuffin ostensibly is to win the respect and admiration of his father, the fire king. He plans to do this by capturing or killing the last airbender. Hence the title he has defeated over and over. In his rage, he sees his enemy as personifying his struggle that he has to kill this boy to become a man . Over time, he comes to respect the avatar to believe in his caused commiserates, and then they can work together towards a shared, larger goal to bring peace to the world on fire. The good McGuffin bad McGuffin killed the avatar. Good McGuffin help the avatar characters change. So the goggles. So to invent some examples, it's an advertisement on the back. McGuffin is a chocolate bar, and the good McGuffin is sharing the chocolate bar with a friend. You know, goodness wins out in a movie. Bad McGuffin Get somebody to like you by stealing them a very famous ruby. And then the good McGuffin is discovering that love isn't earned way is live on, but either way, you discover a lot of theft. In the 20th century, bad McGuffin invade Russia and winter good McGuffin defeat yourself instead, and you can confine this process two story structure of the first episode, if you like, you kind of get out the way. But it's quite it's a nice bit of structural shorthand. Toe have a good McGuffin, a bad McGuffin in an episode now and then, just, you know, pepper them in because it's interesting to watch a character change their mind. to grow to develop. Moreover, the good McGuffin should almost always come at the expense of the bad McGuffin. You have to trade. You can't have both, you know, in the first version of my show, Starship Goldfish Sam, the main character Time was traumatized by the loss of his memories on afraid that if he takes life seriously, he'll only lose it again. And so it's just creating ties for no reason. So his aim was to be chaotic on reckless and never stay in one place long enough to remember his pain. Bat McGuffin like Zico's fire legs because ambition and then his long abandoned desire of getting his memory's back rears its head is a possibility. The option to restore his mind and self respect is on the table again. Good McGuffin. And he can't have both, because you can't have despair and hope at the same time, because despair is by definition in lack of hope. Now we're on a noble path, so the view of places their point of view inside the head of your protagonist. So your protagonist always has to make some amount of sense grow. You gonna have a character people dislike is the main character because because they're all playing. And so now our protagonist is on a noble path. We feel like we are getting better, even though we're actually not actually getting actively worse as we sit around at home Vegetative. But we feel like we're getting better at story. Resolution is therapeutic, and really, it's not that the good McGuffin would necessarily redeem them. The rial redemption is that in their new path, they're energized. It's making our character feel whole again. The act of seeking which brings me to the next point lack motivation is not as simple as casting out a rod with something your character desires. And like dangling in front of the faces, they pursue it. As a writer, you need to establish what the problem is inside them and how this parachute heels them, put him on the path to healing, helps them not fail, or even if they do fail, set how that failure sets them upon. A larger part of the act of seeking makes them complete that there is a hole in your character. Always there's a tree. Not that they have just had to grow around, and it's made a little bit weird looking writer and script editor John York cause this lack L a c k black, I have a lack of biscuits. I black conviction, something missing and the cure for their lack Is this new journey. Now that you shown them, they're McGuffin xyz this new vitality, they feel they have direction. It's exciting. Not only do we get to meet cool new person, but we get to meet them at a really important junction in their life where they find a renewed sense of purpose. In killing Eve Ive Palast re is obsessed with killers with murderers or serial killers. And when she comes in contact with a real killer in real life, the assassin villain l she means to feel complete and also horny. Ban ive cashews, villain l loses her job. Well, that was a bad McGuffin and gains the good MacGuffin of doing what she loves, which is chase killers around and get morning. She has put on the altar of desire, her old life. Her lack is gone, and she starts a new journey with gusto. Phoebe Waller Bridge, who wrote Killing Eve and also writes fleabag, would ask herself when she was writing. What would I do if I weren't scared? And it's a really cool question to ask yourself when you're writing because you want a toe , have unpredictable and admirable actions, right? What would I do if I weren't scared? We make interesting choices when they're feeling brave. The act of seeking itself must make your character complete, so they need to approach every new event with this, this clarity of intent but generally your characters and a prompt to do that they need what we in the biz call Spicy meter bars the academic term obviously inciting incidents some people call it, But I think, you know, in terms of like when you go to university, say spicy meatballs and telling Jason sending So you've got the world and its events lighting a fire under your characters Bum. Your character is interesting on their bums on fire, and you having them let go of what they think they need. Stability or security or whatever in favor of what they now need now realize they need new pants. They're about to realize their lack with your inciting instance, and so you are going to spice things up. It's time for an exciting event that insights events. Usually it's out of the protagonist control its volcanic eruption that wakes up the transformers. It's the opening credits, the original para ranges. Andrea Repulsive pulls a lid off of her moon. Prison says, Ah, after 1000 years, I'm free. It's time to conquer God. Wouldn't it be so easy to write everything like that? You know, after teaching chemistry, I'm dying. It's time to sell some meth. Just fucked them up. Smash normality, kill their dad, burned their crops, have them fail. This belly killed, add baby evil young farm hand goes to visit his nice old friend Ben and then comes home for a nice home cooked meal to find his parents have been burned to death. Kid in L. A. Goes on a reckless adventure with his nice Austrian robot friend and then calls home to find out his parents been butchered. The little boy goes to see Zorro with his parents. Bang, bang, bang! How you have to be Batman Now. Now the inciting event can force the main character do something, but it's better to have them make it a decision. You know, they decide they have to do something they're inspired by that really feels to the viewer like Okay, cool with this person has a well of energy inside them, and that's going to keep on driving story. I'm gonna watch the next episode. You want your of your character to be the event that happens to the story that proactive. So after this great big event, they choose to walk in your path, look back to your world building and characterizations. And at the paths arising naturally from the story, you've set up a team gang member seize their childhood best friend killed by their own gang's leader. Drama Queen is removed from power by public vote. Where she gonna go? Who's she going to see? What's gonna happen? OK, Captain America joined the military. A bunch of stuff happened beyond his control. Bam! He's Captain America, you know. I mean, you could argue that who he was deep down was kind of that was he was always going to turn out to be a really nice guy. And then it's just a serum made his inner strength out of strength. And you could argue that that's beautiful. But he was a passenger it could be as dumb, exactly and sighing. Incident is only a prompt, given your hard work in world building and character building. By placing those two things together, your character should only be able to react in a certain way. And that is with the inner energy motivation vitality that you have given the characters need. Agency. Inciting events prompt a reaction from your character, right? So how your character, Rector them is a pivotal moment in their characterization, and as a viewer, we tend to a like decisiveness in the character. One thing you'll hear about when it comes to good characterization is agency that the character should be an agent off their own free Will they perform their own acts? The story isn't just happening to them. Moreover, they should be proactive driving events rather than simply reacting to events in real time . If that's not the case, it tends to be a defining aspect of the film that the character is on a sort of Willy Wonka ride that they haven't chosen to be unnecessarily like Jesse and Chester in Dude, Where's My Car? Or the dude in Big Lebowski? Why do people say that agency is important will step one. The viewer is the protagonist, kind of. They put their prv and that viewers head. So by limiting that characters agency, you limit the overall experience of your viewer. And that is actually partly why agency comes up in good representation of media. Because if your protagonist is reacting to events beyond their control, it's difficult to see yourself through them. Honestly, I just think the agency is indicative. Overwhelm a world in a well built character because if your character is making decisions that feel weighty, if that they feel significant, it means that you laid a lot of groundwork to get your viewer to react. That way agency is earned. In my opinion, your character should lose something to get agency, and that should be time and effort. In my opinion, it shouldn't be free freedom power. Anything of that sort should come from equivalent loss. Not only that, but the decision to have agency should create further obstacles, more decisions your character makes. The more ramifications for those decisions exist, and now plot has arisen from those actions. That's agency. Not only did the character happened to this story like a enforcing nature. We understand that decision. It's logical to us. Story was kind of neutral. It didn't necessarily force them to react one way or another. And now the story itself is forcing new direction and must react itself to the characters. Agency, agency and motivation are twinned. Agency cannot exist without motivation. It means nothing to catch a ball thrown in your face. Why wouldn't you? If your settings and elite country club and you are the ball boy and a long standing tradition of being abused by the elite at that club, If you've accepted begrudgingly years of mental and physical abuse and now this impoverished board, by its daring capture balls from that their head, a simple action has significance. Instead of throw, catch face a ble, it becomes like a political cartoon. The throw is ignorance of the wealthy. The ball is their cruelty, the faces, the dignity of the working class that catches the token active resistance placed in the context of los effort and lack your characters. Active agency becomes an explosive plot point in the Ball boy example. It could contribute to the original inciting incident, and then the ball boy goes on to become a professional tennis player or it could set up the final stages of the story. If the main story is about how cruel it is at this country club in cites a revolution of ball boys taken back their balls. I don't know how ball boys work, do they? They on the balls and it's not just protagonists. All of your characters should have agency, especially villains. Effect villains. Unbridled agency often drives the story events, you know, they drive what's happening in the plot. The hero disaster. Salt follow along so side characters should have a rich backstory, and that's always gonna include a story out on a story. I complies a goal and goes imply in siding events. They gotta have agency. It doesn't cost you anything to add that kind of depth living. So to sum up plan for your bad McGuffin to be sacrificed at the altar of a good McGuffin theatrics of seeking makes your character hole and inciting event happens to your character . Your character, in turn, happens to the story. They make a decision that changes its course. They're active agency should have significance cost on a ramifications. Once your motivation is set, your journey can begin after some planning, which is why the next video is about structure 6. Structure Theory: It's become very fashionable these past 3000 years or so to develop your story with a certain structure. OK, so originally you had Aristotle with this reacts and you had Horace with five and in Hollywood knocked back to three again. You could argue that anybody who tries to criticize existing theory on structure is doing themselves a disservice, because films and television use these structures and thrive. But your structural style is unique to you. It's not obvious is your visual style your choice of characters, your choice of genre. But if you pick a writer for a new Siri's, one of the things that you'll notice as a viewer is the stranger structure. They'll set events in a different order. They prioritize information differently. My aim is to teach you what structure your story should innate Lee take next video. This video is just about theory, and I'm just gonna work on for ages about books. Do some theories you might have heard about this story circle or the story diamond or a bomb vest your story is meant to take. They relate to the hero's journey, which you may have heard off. So in the first half of the 20th century. Famed anthropologist Joseph Campbell, Right, about the Monem. If you are a book called the Here with 1000 faces that traced or human or ALS toyed own traditions. They said they will have this thing in common states that every culture tells a story in the same general way. And then this monument or protagonists follow the structure off ordinary world call to adventure. Refusal of the call. Meeting the mentor crossing the threshold tests, allies and enemies approach to the in most cave ordeal. Reward season a sort. The Road back Resurrection and Return with Alexa. If you look at the film Avatar, for example, your orphan wonder a warrior martyr Orphan. I'm a soldier garden killed some backgrounds. Wonder truly been we feel bad killed his back Warrior. Oh, well, time has become one of the bad guys. And then, Marta, I'm gonna sack fast myself. Make everything OK again. So many books question the safety of the Monmouth concept and have found it's supposedly universal psychosocial journey, kind of male specific. A variation. The heroine's journey was then defined as having its own gestalt path, proving the stories for everyone not necessarily for everyone. The problem with both of these journeys is oppressive. Position that there is a monument that it exists for Campbell's monuments toe work. It has to preoccupy itself with similarities and then explains differences. Aways is just variations in the monomer. It's the 19 seventies, and George Lucas just made Star Wars, arguably the most beloved film franchise of all time. Everybody looked at what he did. They were like how to do it. How did you make it so successful? They looked at the monument that he was following were like, Great. Let's set all films along that path for decades. What they should have done was look at what George Lucas had done with Genre. He had looked at these genres that people really understood already. The swashbuckler, the romance, the World War Two, Bombing, Run on dogfight. These were tense. They were, They were. They were full of drama. George Lucas looked at what the audience already knew and understood. Put aside if I spit on them. And then that was the source of his success. People looked at the Monmouth and we're like, Okay, well, let's just follow this instead. So the Monmouth gold Rush came about on. One person selling shovels in the Gold Rush was Christopher Vogeler, who in the 19 seventies was a script doctor. He looked at the Monmouth and how it was anthropological in nature. And so he workbook that was still making nature. So he took the Monmouth and applied it to fill his book. The Writers Journey charts 17 stages in a filmic hero's journey. I think it's useful and it's not. I think you should follow this and you shouldn't It's good of first. It's not Layer Dan Arm and the creator of Rick and Morty, which we mentioned every episode because it's the most successful Western adult animated series. He created the story Circle, which added two new variations to the concept. It defined the first and last quarters of the stories order being spent in the original setting on the second and third quarters as chaos forming the journey. Dan doesn't a deer Teoh his story religiously, and neither should you. In 2013 John York published a book called Into the Woods Why Stories Work on Why We Tell Them which I think is a masterwork, and I urge you to read it into the woods, states that the five acts story of storytelling favored by the Greeks and Romans mirrors the human way of sorting information from chaos into order. It says that stories arranged in this way tend to survive makes extremely memorable for people to remember. In a time before written storytelling tradition, the five stage thought process goes human and neutral mindset. Human is confronted by the unknown, mysterious and chaos Human uses brainpower to understand. Unknown, unknown thing is defeated, understood, categorized Human has corrected its ignorance and can inform of the humans of new information. It's not that these stories Aaron eight Lee compelling. No, Campbell implied correlation with causation. He looked all these surviving stories and thought, I wonder what connects these things? Could it be that they all survived? They were memorable. The brain really wants to correct floored information for our survival, right? The brain files it under surprise, and then we get a little hit of endorphins in the form of laughter. The brain really wants to correct floor information. This explanation for the monument is necessarily cancel out. It's just an audience century explanation for a hero centric concept. It doesn't tell you anything about what humans find innate Lee. Courageous? Not really. When Great Britain and the other European superpowers were off ruining everything colonizing, you would find that if there was a salt deposit or pepper trees, you would have local cultures using them in their cuisine. And in the same way that stories that are memorable survived of the aural history stage and got to the written history stage cultures that were using an anti bacterial, anti malarial food stuff. Send it to survive the tendency toe walk off into the dark and bring back useful information is useful to the group. If you found that courageous, if we lionize that kind of person, it would tend to give rise to new heroes who would go off and do that. Cultures who had stories about heroes tended to survive, and at the heart of it, hero centric stories talk about the power of the human spirit. A human love of understanding is that that's of course. Even science follows the structure Mary Curie exposing herself to dangerous radiation or the rewarding of once risky behavior, like holding a grain store in order to plant the next season. It seems crazy at the time but pays off later on. It's why will eventually colonize other planets. This need to venture into the dark and bring something back. Guidelines and monuments are rules that asked to be broken. They want you to study them in order to find exceptions, and you can bend all their hard and fast writing rules until you get something that you need. So in short, five X structure is prevalent because it's both in lately memorable and a group survival aid. Now that you're free from the confines of back bay structure, do whatever the hell you like. Now that you know why we structure stories, you can go on to knowing how. 7. Planning Your Structure: right. So you have your world, you have the characters. You know why they're doing it. You know why you're doing it. And you have some idea of what human beings tell stories Was that necessary? Get started. No, you've got to plan Glossary time His some terminology for the video ahead story beats These are points of action plotting the shape of your story. You give him in a document and they're about a line each synopsis. This is a brief summary of whatever created document You're working, too. So whether it's a script or whether it's treatment, treatment, treatment is a beat for beat document laying out everything that's going to happen in your creative work. Whether or not that's a script or it's a season or it's a multi season up treatment described what's gonna happen. Unlike a synopsis, which is one or two pages, a treatment can be upto 40 or lower is like four or five, typically very light on dialogue preparation. I like to go into a new project with light structural notes. I know what direction we're going in and what the motivations are. I know who's gonna be involved. I don't know every little bit of fun. This is one of, I think, two ways to go into this. The first method is the architect method. Is it called the architect? Massive? No, on my naming things year, my labs do that. Absolutely. Look at a toll building measured, designed to support its own weight to the I. The building is its outside, its sleek. It's angular, It's rugged, its rustic. All of that is the liberal from the insider. The result is indivisible from the internal structure. There's no remained in the mathematics of it. I'm sure you can see what that metaphor gets at home. If you're making something where you can't see the Kochs turning under its skin, it takes a lot of planning. Now your work doesn't necessarily have to be meticulously planned. Doesn't have to be a mathematical. Each plot points story be vector of motivation, character mix, setting, whatever. Sometimes even the dialogue objectives in your synopsis or your treatment gets created at this stage. Using the architect method, you you you measure twice and cut. Once some writers make whole books of pre prepared material. That's more common infection, but I don't use the architect method myself, and it bothers me because architecture is such a clean metaphor, asked me, complimenting myself, cause I've been. But I do think it's a direct analog of a metaphor to the active of writing. You want the outside to seem effortless. You don't want to believe that inside of it is this being heart affection. I instead opt for the find a parachute on the way to the ground method tells us everything with oh, no knowledge of what's just ahead. You make your scenes on the fly in animation. If you animate, you might notice there are two forms off to de hand drawn animation. There is post oppose and straight ahead post oppose You mark out that poses the character gonna happen. Then you animate between them straight ahead. You have some notion of what's gonna happen Then you allow the character to move fluidly to that point. This is writing straight ahead. This does not mean you know, perfectionists in your head. You still know the timings. You know what you want toe happen. You know every bit of inflection For every word of every line of dialogue. You can still be a perfectionist and being lazy, slacker, You can know the size of every set piece in your fictional work down to the millimeter, but only after you've written them. I don't know if I can recommend this to everyone, but here's why I do it right on TV For me is a race on What you're racing is three audiences expectations. We know everything about movies and TV as a viewer as a casual view. OK, any time that there's a camera shot that excludes a certain part of the room, we expect the camera to turn there and there to be something any time a child's going out for a walk alone, and they also established that little Timmy is innocent. They call that pathos, evoking pity. Then we expect some awful thing to happen, Kid says in a show where every line is weighed and calculated. Oh, I'm gonna go out for a walk. There's an audience is just like you see it to me and it's that expectation that you're trying to stay ahead, offers a writer. You have to throw the viewer off the scent. Luckily, it's not very hard. It's just a matter of technique when you're laying story in the same way that Gromit from Wallace and Gromit is laying train tracks. You're staying ahead of the audience because you don't know what's happening next. You don't know what's up ahead. You see what's coming next and you react. But then it's impossible for you to lay these self indulgent little bits of foreshadowing because you literally didn't know what was gonna happen next. Surprising yourself. If you're surprising yourself, your surprising the audience surprise is a big, important word in all this. If you're not confident in all this, then plan meticulously and you'll find that you veer away from those notes anyway. In Red versus Blue Season 17 I wrote a treatment. It took weeks. Then I wrote a good treatment, which took weeks more. And then when it came to writing the scripts, I ignore the treatment, which is not a time saver but did add Teoh. I feel the element of surprise Downsides keep on eye on dialogue length. It's so easy to just write off into the dark into a corner just fucking self indulgently wanking off because you really wanted to characters toe build on the work. One of the things that we try and get away with is dressing up procrastination and idling as fleshing out characters, having two characters just chapped for a bit about things like, Oh, yeah, we're learning so much about them. It's just like you don't have long. You've got 20 minutes. If you're making one of the modern and I don't swim star shows, you got 11 minutes. If you're making a short in order to sell your larger concept, you've probably got about two or three minutes you can't afford toe have people waste time . So I'm saying is, by not planning too much, we tend to waffle human center. Lawful. Just keeping on the clock Planning your episode. Is that any different to structural prep? Yes, absolutely. Is God. How, when and where each character is gonna be introduced. Roughly how long you'll spend on each story beat You got your A B storyline, the storylines that will intertwine by the episodes and you can have multiples of a Maybe you're gonna have C D. E F in the starship goldfish pilot. We just had a but I think when you're just introducing a single set of characters than you have a and B one A and B to when new characters are paid in. So in your pilot, because we spend so much time introducing people, you don't necessarily need a B block because you haven't established any characters yet once you've established characters and you can have a B C D E f started goldfish, we have a couple of scenes Rebel er before she shows up into the main storyline plot, a Bo jak steals the D from the Hollywood sign to impress Stay, plot be Todd is in prison, and he's trying to impress some gangs play and poppy intertwined by the end, where celebrate early fireworks from Bojack end up causing a downed helicopter to free all the inmates from prison. That episode is called Are a Story is a D Story, and it just seemed fitting to use it as a reference. So what impact? The intertwining of those two separate plotlines was necessary for the show. Nothing, really. It was a day of sex makina. You had the helicopter free top came out in the way, So when people try and argue that you need in a in a B plus, you can argue back Actually, it's sometimes just needless box ticking. If your characters a compelling enough, you can shine a spotlight on them all the time. If your hero and your villain of both speaking characters, you'll want to shine a spotlight on them both all the time. If you've done your job right, they'll both be fascinating people. So we went mind. Depending on the size of your show, you can have a plus. People at sea plots deep. What's you take a show like Mr Pickles that will have, sometimes for even five plotlines really like touches and all of them. They will lead into an intertwined with one another like a Rube Goldberg machine of Gore and suffering the Venture brothers, one of my all time favorite animated, Siri's and get into it. It's seven seasons of it. It's such type writing. Amazing. They have plotlines going from a through toe after G. The A line is Doc Venture, and then the B plot will be Hankin Dean together, see plot will be. Braca will have their own little story lines. But wait, there's more because you go up. Teoh D and E. That's the monarch slash doctor girlfriend. Their stories usually get paired together, and then Gary, his henchman, right and above all, that in a plot. If you have the days X Mac in a role played by the OS I or the Guild of Kilometers intent, we tend to swoop in in the final act after everyone else's plot lines of intertwine to either ruin or save the situation. Five. Act structure Still Reigns for now, so here's how you can lay on episode in Shoreham long. By the end of this, your protagonist or protagonists should be poised to wander into the unknown Part two. They do this Apple mentioned wander into the unknown, driven on by one of your inciting incidents. Perhaps they pursue short term solutions to a long term problems based on your experience. Act three. They make some headway that the crisis makes them feel they want to give up act for things have gotten so irrevocably bad. You've done know how the story can recover, and it's crucial that your viewer feels that way. I have no idea how this is gonna fix itself at five. With the full acts so far under their belt or belts, they feel they have the tools necessary to resolve the situation. They face a final issue or foe, somehow made of their own floors or reflecting them and against the odds they succeed. Where they succeeded, something good or bad, life or death is down. Whether or not this is a comedy or a tragedy, sometimes the floor they overcome is their good heart. Sometimes the thing that they offer up at the martyr stage is their own humanity. I don't necessarily seek balance and symmetry in a story for should. By day I'm gradually getting better. A symmetry is in the macro and the micro, if you have symmetry across an episode of person, is in the light and dark and light in a scene that should be true as well. Episodes should really be fractal that you have ALS, these five stages inside of a scene, and then those scenes will build up. That's the way you keep suspense. It's way you keep people motivated to keep watching. Like weak side characters toe have slack, easygoing scenes. I, like strong characters, have a really tight short scenes. I think if you're super aware of the backbone of your show, if you're super aware of all of the really necessary information getting imparted. Then keep that shit of stores possible because you're very rarely having fun with your your connecting dots. The above is all up to you. I feel the viewer will always recognize any pattern you can't lay down G codes. Here is a little fast travel solution to mid season episode planning. Pick some tent pole moments, some snapshots and postcard scenes to work towards and what those should be. Our situations you cannot ever see happening for your characters, right? Ask yourself what is the least likely thing toe happen this episode based on the characters who inhabit what your character is least likely to do or see or have happened to. Because the show should have a high ceiling, anything should be possible. And if each moment is deliciously ironic, based on what we know of characters, all the better. My Pepys. What Aviv ball of fun type character. How about they are trying to kill themselves as fast as possible, like there's a time limit? Have a Is that going to happen? Not only would that be fun, but we have perfect snippet for a trailer or my shows about the Coast Guard on How about my Coast Guardsman? Addressed his pirates and robbing Jeff Bezos is yacht. How do I somehow make that happen? Or a horse head is crammed through the letter box of my protagonist as they watch from the kitchen in horror. Nightmarish. Lots of fun. How do we make it happen? We reverse engineer the moment we think. What elements do we need to put in place in order to make that thing occur? Let's use the horsehead one. Write what's funny about it. What's funny about it is the reaction of the main character. Also because it seems like an ill Intention act because it has these Mafia connotations. The person doing it needs toe have good intentions for the context, for irony, because that enhances the gag. Maybe the protagonists new wealthy French neighbor was chatting to them over the fence about the benefits of consuming horsemeat and a protagonist like Sounds interesting. So being wealthy and French, this person butchers an entire horse was like, Great, I'll just give it to them as a gift. So they've got entire butchered horse as a gift, and they call over the neighborhood kids. They say, Hey, kids, I can't deliver this myself. My backs of the week Would you do it? And so they say 10 bucks for whoever delivers it. So the kids carrying the horse bits over there fighting over who's gonna get 10 bucks. So they all start pushing at the same time to cram the head to the letter box. And then finally, the payoff, as we have the protagonists, look of unutterable horror. Whether or not that's a worthwhile scene is irrelevant. Plan your fund scenes and then reverse engineer them. Work backwards to they should be markers on the path of your episode endings. Hey, trying endings. Here's how I do think about what happens in the episode end, right? And then you think of all the components necessary for that to come to fruition. Then you take those components apart and then you place them into the different storylines that you have on. When I say part, I don't necessarily mean an object. It's the perfect conditions for kite flying. It's an active acceptance. It's love. Then all episode long. I create an itch person, a dozen appreciate person B person. One is totally unaware of something Somebody wants cheap plastic surgery. Anything something that the audience knows needs to be resolved, and it's bothering them all. Episode long. You want a solution that can be hoped for by the viewer on because we're advertisers were creating a need than satisfying storylines, herringbone together and fix one another like Sam at the end of New Ghost Worth. Okay, so for three episodes, we've been building him up as an assault. Finally, there's some small shred that partially redeems him. It's like, Oh, my God, actually, that is how I learned about this. I worked out what people like that moment so much. Oh, maybe it's because my main character was totally unlikable. Three episodes and they needed anything. And if you really lazy, you can just write the ending and then it not work, and then you take part its components, and then you threaten them backwards on the reverse Engineer. The show itself does that sometimes make for a week episode and weak scenes a week story lies. Yes, this is sometimes make a much better ending. Yes, you wear calculated. It can make a week ending into a strong one because he literally had no idea the episode was gonna end that way. And also, I realized I put a lot of emphasis on surprising and keeping ahead of the viewer. But if you spend all your time actively doing that, you're gonna make things that feel convoluted. So we adopt methods of writing and techniques are innate Lee unpredictable. We're getting ahead of ourselves in order to get ahead of the view. So to recap, you can either really, really plan your episode or not really plan it very much. All decide how maney plot threads you're going tohave. Depending on where in your season you are, consider having your scenes and episode be symmetrical. If you're having trouble planning, pick some 10 poll moments. Some really unlikely situations, reverse engineer them and then use them as markers in the episode. If you're struggling to make unending a cohesive part of your entire episode, disassemble it and put the components in different plot threats. Adopt methods of writing and planning, but I immediately unpredictable. So you got your plot threads. Next, you're gonna need some script formatting and to know how to write the thing so that it looks professional, really fun that will be dry at all 8. Formatting: formatting was one of those things that people are afraid to ask about. And so they just write their scripts and wrong. Of course, you're afraid to ask me, how dare you enter a professional field without knowing every little, esoteric detail of how to get the job done. So let's break this down. Interior inside a 100 foot tall Russians are bowels. Here's an example scene. So the scene heading is what starts off a scene we start with interior I NT stands for interior sometimes will be E x t, which is exterior. Let me have the location, which is inside of a 100 foot tall Russians are. And then we had these sub location, which is bowels you're gonna have day after or night or morning or evening. If you putting scenes in space. I can tell you from experience that you don't need day or night because space his night. Then you have some exposition. Risperdal boys male board with longer sits hunched over a small table, shuffling cards. Okay, so we're capitalizing the first appearance of the character because we wanted to be eye catching one memorable. We also capitalize the most important part of the sex position in terms of description in this case, the playing cards. We want that I focus on the plan cause and same with the mind's eye in the reader that allows you a story border to focus on. What is important on as visual communication is 9/10 of their job. We want to help them. So we capitalized. Not everybody does this scripts just like this. Some people just capitalize sounds, which I did until recently. But lately I have moved into her in caps in for descriptors. A voice emanates from deep within the royal guts. Same again, voice eyes, a new instance of a character, even though we haven't introduced that character yet. So what this is telling the reader is that we haven't visually seen the person that speaking Ondas voices. Main action is also its form. There's no additional capitalized main action, so we could capitalized emanates. But I really think it's just gonna model the reader at this point Now. This is our entire scene setting bit of action, two sentences. Why do we use so little? Because exposition slows scripts down. The things got flow. So really, typically you don't really want to go past four sentences in a block of exposition. Ideally, it's just one or two sentences. You want the thing to flood? How do we use a little? Well, we only say things that are necessary to the story. We're gonna have a slow truck in on the size heinous start with built intention, but absolutely not necessary. Plus will be put in a story. Border half work, echoing drips of renal fluid echoing through the bowels would add another dimension. But then we're putting the sound designer work. If you want to make the reader feel gross and clammy, then you can add details like that if you like. If that's not your primary aim, it's better to just communicate directly what's happening, really. A director and an actor, I want to read these scripts and put all of their own thoughts in them, so it should just be a skeleton for them to then add muscle to next up dialogue. Satan offscreen ready to lose Rasputin. This character has not been introduced yet and has not been seen, so we're half introducing them in the dialogue. If you I really want to commit to keeping the reader in the dark about who this person is. Given that Satan hasn't actually introduced themselves yet, you can just continue using voice until they actually introduce themselves a Satan. But the thing is kind of piss off. The professional who's reading it is like going into a pitch and then them being like right . So how does the season end, then you being like, Oh, it's a secret. They need to know it could handle the truth. Anybody who's reading this, who is intelligent can extrapolate from incomplete data. They understand that we're engaged in a little micro suspense, given that Satan has actually introduced himself yet because Satan is not present yet. We add O s, which is the out of shot signifying. Sometimes it will be vo, which is voiceover, and that's remuneration for when a character isn't actually present. Sometimes you'll get video if they're present, but on a screen, maybe it'll say phone wherever the device that they're coming through spray of cards. As Rasputin flinches, it gets view through the eyes of the story border right here. We're telling our story border to open the shot with the card spray probably obscuring our character on what's the kind of cards forced to the ground? A flinched risp, Houston is revealed. Rasputin Stutter. Show yourself demon. So here in dialogue, you'll notice that we've added what's called a parenthetical, not parent. Te Tickle is a modify its on acting tip. It's how the thing is to be delivered. It's usually only ever used. If the attitude of the line is different to the delivery of the line, show yourself Demon reads like this booming, demanding Gandalf thing right. In this case, it's like a worried stuttering thing, which the actor isn't necessarily gonna glean from the script. If it's not there, you need to let the actor No, the line isn't played as its red, so we add this modify apparent political. If we go back to the first line of dialogue ready to lose Rasputin, we don't need cocky or smuggled there because it's implied, and if they act, want to deliver it like an 18th century dandy, you could let them. That's why they're being paid well to use their experience, how they see fit, light touches in scripts all the time. In dialogue, you can use a function called Jewell dialogue. This is where you put two sets off speaking roles aside one another, and it's assumed that they're happening at the same time. There, speaking over each other. One person is in one part of the room muted, but it depends on the show in animation because we got so little facial data to go off, it can be confusing when two people are speaking at the same time. The last thing to explain is transitions. Transitions moves between scenes like this. They're aligned to the far right in the script. And when you're eyeballing sheets of paper, if you got like an editor or producer or director, it really helps them when they're leaving through scenes so we can cut to fade to faked of black. We can really do whatever we want, And I'm a big fan of smash cut smash Cut To is good in comedy because it implies we're not expecting the scene toe end or were moving from a quiet scene toe hectic one or vice versa . Writing for yourself versus writing to a director, I picture a shot in a certain way. I hear a line a certain way. I every syllables, inflection certain way on my insistence that everything ends up sounding like that in the end, Product may get me killed by an editing team one day, so I write for myself. First. I write very long document that is just turgid. It's so full of these descriptors and suggestions. Then I put that to one side. My right, a skeleton version of it. You can hope in the future you'll be working with a multilayered team where you can trust to every step of the creative process to get all of your intentions, if not the same way you wanted better. But until then, you write for yourself first and then a director after. Because if you've got the direct for yourself, version first. If you end up directing your own work, then that's gonna be really useful. And if you've got a director's version of somebody else's directing, it could be really useful. Just about the handover, something and be like, Okay, look at this one. Don't look at my messy. One thing is to explode shot descriptions like Dolly or worm's eye view or pet in or truck in things like that, unless again that looks super super important somehow to the story, which they very rarely are stating what expressions people have when irrelevant to the plot . Because again, that's the actors domain or the director's domain in general. Let your actors make decisions. It's really, really tempting to put italics for all. The emphasis in bits of dialogue will put bold text in dialogue. Leave everything open to interpretation unless their details are crucial to the actor. If you yourself are directing actors, you will almost certainly, if you're just starting out, be directing amateurs. So leave those bits of your script in because they're gonna be really helpful later. Honestly, the disconnect between writer, actor and director I think it really impairs scripts. It's a liability because any one person really knows how this thing is meant toe work. And it's the creator, especially when you're just starting out. It's really, really frustrating toe. Have your work go up and be changed by somebody, and then them not realize it in the way that you were intending. It's worth having a frank discussion with any director that you work with and just say, Look, this is what I was thinking when the thing was made you can have a quick chat. Just be like, Look, this business with this book, I don't know if that fits with your impression of how this thing is gonna go, however, use it as you like. These details are there to be used if you want them. Limitations of formatting with scripts being linear and stop Start, this person goes here. This person says this. It's all turned basis, like a battle in final fantasy. Everything is rigidly turn based viewers, especially viewers of comedy gasping for air because of the limitations of the script. Okay, in the format of the script is built in limitation. We crave simultaneous dialogue and action. We crave dialogue that describes what a person is doing as they do it. Televisions limited animation is limited. Scripts are really limited. One day, maybe will have double columned scripts where you have the dialogue on one side and actually other until that glorious and difficult to read Quantum shift, we're stuck, hoping for directors that really appreciate the art of the over lack. One last thing I touch on his montages. I'm crazy about montages. Before you have a montage, generally have a piece of music. So you write that in caps that will be music, coal on the name of the song, the name of the person who form a song and then you have a heading montage so long, and then you will have a bullet pointed lines. Okay, so so long as the setting isn't changing, you can have just individual lines that describe what's going on. If the setting does change inside of the montage, you can just put inside of those lines the descriptive Where is going to go. That's kind of the wonder of montages, because the shots are so short, you don't need to go into too much detail anyhow. There's most off your formatting. It varies from theater to radio, radio, TV, TV to film. So get your hands on scripts. Google it, they're out there, and they really, really help next up. Breaking down a scene. I was starting with the opening scene, which is my favorite, judging by the amount unfinished scripts I have in my possession 9. Your Opening Scene: other openings. There is something about dropping a bunch of people into the unknown that really appeals. Also starting projects that I'm not under any obligation to finish. That's also appealing to do a good opening to do a good open to write, to pen, to wordsmith yourself a good opening. The opening scene has three primary objectives. Firstly, introduced the main character by name by full name. Do it within the first line of dialogue, the first few lines of dialogue you have to, but you should introduce him. Sterling Archer. Morning. Yeah, come on. Is that hard and fast? Do I know what the old man's name is in up? No. Did I cry? Yeah. Secondly, we illustrate that this is what the show is like in its lowest gear. It's why so many Siri's open up with somebody waking up in the show's neutral state. We're telling people this is what you should expect, which is the act of putting a rug underneath them to pull it out. Because Step three we show the audience that they were complete fools to trust us by subverting their expectations and showing them that we understand our concept backwards. Well, enough to inverted. Let's look at some pilots that have that neutral state, followed by modern twist. Sterling Archer is being interrogated by Russians. Maltese Asleep in bed, we open our sleepy morning scene from the fictional sitcom forcing around China. Illinois opens on an ordinary high school class. It Cute Picnic and Mr Pickles and equally Que Border collie arrives and death moments later , Arches. Interrogation is a simulation we introduces overbearing mother Slash boss, and he's not taking it seriously. All so, No, this isn't cool. James Bond show This is a dickhead there has been established on the concept that they first laid out in the scene has been supported. Morty is dragged out of bed by his drunk, rambling grandpa. He's taken upon to a spaceship, and then he's left with a bomb that will destroy the Earth. Dynamic established sums the whole show up perfectly, but Bojack sitcom that we're seeing is actually a clip during an interview, and you've got Bojack angrily defending his tacky sitcom work. It sums up both Jack's character to be so precious about his reputation while standing on such shaky ground. He wants more credit than his Jew and That's the That's about it. That's it. China, Illinois is Steve will be pulled aside by government agents, and then Hulk Hogan makes it rain. The whole point of China Illinois is that nothing's ever normal. That's the maxim. Nothing ever gets normal, Mr Pickles tears. Boys guts out and leaves him to die in a river. And then we're gently played out with death metal. Comedic effect is about surprise. Surprise is about subversion of expectations. Within the first minute, the audience sees that we understand our core concept well enough that we can inverted. They see that we can make them love. They trust us, given what you stand up special on, get about halfway through it and you find that you just laughing. Everything they say it's because they have stripped away your defenses. You're not expecting to ever really not love. And so establishing trust early on is crucial toe having the reaction that you want from the audience. You want your jokes to land. A good chunk of viewers will turn after in the 1st 5 to 10 seconds, especially on where, so this is a really crucial time to get everything right. The opening scene is called a cold, open or eighties, a sequence. It's called a cold open because you go into it cold. You don't necessarily know anything about the show. It should be its own mini sewed. It's a micro of an entire episode structure. You start off in a neutral state. Something comes along, complicates it. You get to a crisis, and then you end with some sort of resolution. And sometimes a resolution could just be a joke about how completely irresolvable the situations. Ordinarily, it doesn't have too many narrative elements. We don't want to confuse people too much because we apply significance to the first people that we see you want core cast only if there's a tertiary character or even just a background character. The view, if they're watching the pilot will assume that that is a main character. We don't introduce too much drama before people can realistically expected to give us because they don't know the characters. You to use the earlier example up. It took nine minutes now to break down opening scene. I'm gonna use a scene from the updated version of the Starship Goldfish pilot interior, the stash of goldfish storage morning start of the day scenes with people waking up our cliches. How I'm doing anyway, it's onerous. Hum. The word dream breathes in and out klaxon as wake up flashes and splits, revealing an aerial view of a storage room. The robotic body of Ghost with planets from his ceiling mounted sleeping pod lights flicker on and pulse in time to the voice off ship. More than a couple of sentences here, let's break it down. We open teasing very small amounts of information. We want the reader and so the viewer, to be in a state off gentle suspense. And then we break that open we established setting when we say Ariel Ariel shop and suddenly we have a notion of our location. We're spending a lot of exposition here, but that's because it's a complex concept. We wanna establish character through the elements of the scene. We have another character present ship ship. Good morning goes with you, Miss the mishandle. Thank you ship. In this bundle off exposition and dialogue, we've established ghost with situation. All of the exposition there Waas weighed and measured. We want to establish that goes with his machinery that he's in thrall to complex process outside of his control. He lives in a bowl on the ceiling and has dropped out of it. And a lot of time. Then we have the exchanges in Ghost Worth and ship Ghost Worth is informal. Ship is formal. We establish that goes with maybe a robot utility. But he is different to other utilities. Ship points out a ghost with. He was meant to grab the ceiling handle before falling. It's expected, even before he's woken up, that he does a Herculean amount of effort so further we established that goes with it is not quite utility like ship in that he can't do an automatic task like that, but also has the same expectations of utility. He's enthralled external processes, and maybe he's unhappy. We've established that barely having any available on the fact that goes with pain was preventable was a little punch line to illustrate is a bit more. We're gonna go back to the beginning of the opening scene. A summer's hum, the word dream breathes in and out klaxon as wake up flashes and splits, revealing an aerial view of the storage room. I think it's important to mislead the viewer at the beginning. Like I say, you want to know inside out. So if you can Savile it, it makes them feel safe and taken care off. And they're gonna trust you to deliver more on episode. The question is, what else could we have done? Their on depends on what effect that we want so we could open on the sleeping face of ghost works from above right on. Then we would assume, because he's sleeping because it were me slowly drawing back. There were just above him that he's asleep on a bed that's on the ground, and then we see him fall towards us. But that works better in live action because an animation, if you see a face and that's when it comes towards you don't necessarily think that that person was on the scene in there's not enough information to draw to you. Where that is live action. You can actually see the the meat in that geek second towards the camera. Or maybe we show him in full and then was suppose slowly cracks open, is dry ice and reestablishing is being much more impressive and actually is a force to the ground. So depending on the effect that you want, there's lots of ways to shoot the same seat. That scene actually carries on for a good five minutes, because I like a cold open toe last a while. But we're gonna hop off from that now and go over to the world of the trailer. Trailers are basically like opening scenes in that you want to establish everything about your show, everything that's good about it. So we're gonna go to the Starship Goldfish trailer that we released in 2018. So he deleted his memories. What, when? A year ago. He doesn't know. So that's why he's adventuring to find his lost memories? No. So we set the trainer up. Is this a lonely thing? It's like Moon or the Martian Keep underlying this, but it's important to show that you understand your concept. Inside of that, you can have a miniature version of an episode fit inside of a scene. It means that if you can deliver a scene, there gives an audience everything that would exist. In an episode, it stops neutral that becomes complex. It resolves itself. It's funny. It means that if you can do that inside of three minutes, you can do it a ton more times inside of a 22 minute episode, we open with strong material like a comedian, so they trust us. We end our opening scene, having explained what's good about this show, effective and direct communication will get you so far in this business. It's all about explaining the value of your idea, which you'll find yourself having to do over and over again. So, to recap, the first scene could be a cold open. Many sewed, introducing the protagonist often containing information that fits with the show's main plot. We introduce our protagonist by name. We tend to either introduce the shows most neutral, lower scarce state, or we start with a situation that misleads the audience in some way. We put the view on a rug and then pull it out from under them. We end the scene. Having demonstrated what is worthwhile about the show, the audience now has enough data to decide whether they want to keep watching 10. Voice: the biggest turning point in my writing was realizing that people didn't want to. Just right for pre amazed is cool toe. Have a turn of phrase that makes people stop and think, or a joke that elicits a belly laugh set piece that's so huge that it makes the mind seeing us? I don't know all equally. It's cool to make buildings cry or doubt that belief. So I'm arises. Useful fact. You can write memorable sing along or catchphrase that kids repeat to each other. You can play gesture to the court, Miss. Plenty of jobs exist in that space, but I don't think it's art. I don't think that's our job. We're watching something well crafted, a solid object, something that is well put together. I really appreciate it. Sturdiness. There's an art to it. I'm appreciating, admiring the professionals, properly formulated, its logical. It's functioning. Its creators have earned their stripes, and they're up front about what it's about, what it intends to do, even abouts imitations. Or conversely, it could be so trite and insipid the it's flavorless nous that its reliance from saying things they easy to say corniness cliche becomes a kind of camp that it's sort of zone of suspended disbelief where the audience gets used to it a hot bath for 20 minutes of weird. It could bring something truly remarkable to the table that nobody's ever seen before. But I don't think that's our job. The job isn't to make something nobody's ever seen before. It's not to pull something from the void and have people admire is the job is to tell the truth, to record, interpret and adapt moments of what it is to be you somewhere between given experience in your reaction to it is the effortless, pristine You you get the half emotions that trigger feelings that don't ever reach your face, thoughts that never became act. The mind is truly in constellations in sequence. It's an electrical pattern, and it's so alone. It spends its whole life alone and it dies. And I think before that pattern stops before it becomes in their meat and object immediately as old as the universe, I would like to put some of it down to have it, make somebody else feel less alone. That's the job. To be honest, tell the truth, to be accurate. Looking at the president like that just what's currently happening. Honestly, it's really therapeutic at the moment because the future is very unclear. There's a lot of books on degrees out there that will tell you what an artist's duty is. It's to induce a feeling of unease or discomfort or piece. It's to entertain on event. It's how quickly it can stir a particular feeling and move onto the next one. It's not about concepts or designs or method. The artist's responsibility is to themselves. Ultimately, if you cut away the structure and the gimmicks, if you cut away the setting on the characters who to admire and what's cool and colorful and pretty bad, if you cut away that shit away, all that's left is you to the human. It's you, your what's valuable about your work. This is different to my other guys because I can't really tell you how to be you. All I can really say without reservation is that categorically you'll never make worse work than when you're trying impressively. There's no work more deserving of indifference than something that's been made to suit purpose, its audience demanded. That's pornography. That's satisfying. One thing you're you're documenting yourself. And the thing is, you don't have to try to be you, right. It's just instinctual. So why is it so fucking difficult? And it's a process. You get there eventually, you just have to keep it in mind. I feel if you have integrity, if you have this fully and comprehensive Eunice and you can take any criticism, the work will weather. If you're whether it I feel like your confidence improves by degrees when you're being yourself. And so we recall the little things of what it is to be US feelings that we can all agree on because there instinctive you haven't had to be pulled out from anywhere or justify the fact that it's great to have good water pressure in a new apartment. The fact that the place between sleeping and being awake is full of weird music. Bruce Lee honestly recording all the peaks and the troughs in mundane That's the way to go . Let yourself savings. It's a little joke if you have one, recorded the whole thing, missing nothing impressing the body. And if you fail doing that, you won't feel bad. That's all anyone wants to see because we are alos electric pants, and we all want to feel less alone. It's really, truly, I believe that it's all anybody wants to see. And if you get it right, it's just one more thing that you'll have in common with your artistic heroes. If you're making workers honest, if you're working hard, that's better than talent. That's better than finding collaborators. That's that's better than a great idea because those things follow. So to recap bloom into a writer honestly documenting their experience and you'll find not only your confidence grow, you'll reduce the impact of criticism. Write what you like, not what others might like.