How to Conduct a Needs Analysis: The Basics | Dr. Warren Chalklen | Skillshare

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How to Conduct a Needs Analysis: The Basics

teacher avatar Dr. Warren Chalklen, Education Innovator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 2m)
    • 1. NA Introduction

    • 2. NA Six points to remember

    • 3. Demo Conduct a Skills Audit copy

    • 4. NA Step 1 Identify Performance Needs and Gaps

    • 5. NA Step 1 Organize the data

    • 6. NA Step 1 Surveillance Overview

    • 7. NA Step 1 Write the memo

    • 8. NA Step 2 Data sources and methods

    • 9. NA Step 2 Interviews

    • 10. NA Step 2 Intro to demo lectures

    • 11. Na Step 3 Analysis

    • 12. NA Step 3 Design Training

    • 13. NA Step 4 Report

    • 14. Step 2 Investigation overview

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About This Class


** ACCORDING TO DYNAMIC WORKFORCE SOLUTIONS: "Conducting a needs analysis is a critical activity for the training and development of employees and/or clients. Whether you are a human resource generalist or a training specialist, you should be adept at performing a training needs analysis."

** SPECIAL FREE BONUS** NEEDS ANALYSIS WORKBOOK INCLUDED. In order to further improve the student experience, there is a free download of an Excel workbook packed with activities and ready to use models. This helps ensure everything is even easier to understand & even more fun and engaging! **

Are you ready to identify and remedy inefficiency gaps and improve the knowledge base in your organization?

In this course, you will learn a four step process to analyze an organization's personnel performance, test production efficiency, conduct a skills audit and execute a training program with razor sharp precision. This course covers important topics such as organizational surveillance, investigation, analysis and report writing. You will learn or remind yourself of these concepts that will help make you more successful!

The contents of this course are all based on my work experience as a Policy Analyst in The Office of the Presidency of South Africa, founder of Grow2Lead, a leadership and non-profit organization in South Africa and a Data Associate for a leading Education nonprofit in New York City. I received a PhD from Texas A&M University and a Master's degree in Public Administration from the Bush School of Government. This course ties together both my theoretical knowledge and practical experience in a dynamic, practical and applicable way.


Students of this course will enjoy learning from an instructor who is committed to practical application, passionate about supporting students through additional resources and continually updating this course with the latest tools. 

This course will result in you being able to conduct a Basic Needs Analysis by the end.

What are the requirements?

  • Come ready to learn :)

What am I going to get from this course?

  • Join a global community of students!

  • Superb reviews!

  • Identify and rectify your organizational inefficiencies!

  • Design a powerful training program to improve your organization's knowledge base!

Who is the target audience?

  • Managers or Program Evaluators interested in improving organizational performance.

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr. Warren Chalklen

Education Innovator


Dr. Warren Chalklen is an education innovator who has taught over 92,000+ students across 179 countries using online and face to face platforms. He is passionate about building individual and organizational capacity in the fields of diversity, policy analysis, and data driven performance with softwares such as Excel, Salesforce and Balanced Scorecard tools. In his spare time he loves to travel and recently returned from a vacation in Cuba!

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1. NA Introduction: Hello, Nama. Stay A Salema left home. Welcome to this course. My name is Dr Warren Leslie Chalk Lynn. And I'm incredibly passionate about program evaluation, data analysis, diversity equity and inclusion on and needs analysis. And so I put together this course a basic course about needs and Alice is to provide you with the skills and to challenge you to really apply some of these principles to your organization before we get started. One of the things that I went to let you know is that this workbook that you have please downloaded is a resource for you to go through some of the practical skills that you will learn. Also, please feel free to have a pen and paper ready and take notes as we go through and post any questions you have on the discussion board. Let's get started. A needs analysis is a set of activities that are designed to identify gaps and recommend solutions so that an organization can achieve its goals. What you have in front of you is the skills what you will know and do by the end off this course, we're going to go through four key steps. Surveillance investigation analysis and reporting surveillance is about being the detective in the organization. You're going to go in and just get a sense of the organization you're gonna walk in and be a fly on the wall. Your going to surveil the organization and what I'm gonna help you do in Step one is identify Cem needs and gaps. I'm gonna help you organize your data and think about what your data should look like. And then finally, write a member that will justify why and needs analysis should continue or should progress . And step two, we investigate Step one, where a fly on the wall Step two were an active participant in the process of investigation . In this process, we're looking at different data sources. I'm going to teach you how to go out and draw on specific pieces of data such as human resource documents, how to conduct interviews were going to be looking at those sort of pieces. We're gonna be observing work froze and conducting a skills audit. You get actually gonna go through this process and by the end of this you'll have the skills to do this. In the analysis piece, you will actually be cleaning meaningful data. And what that means is you've got all this data in front of you, and what you actually gonna be doing in this course is figuring out what's important, why it's important and how to communicate it. And then, if necessary, I'm going to show you the steps you need to actually design a training. Finally, we're going to look at a report. You actually going to talk about the outcomes and what kind of report you need to draft to convince those with money? In other words, the managers or the people who have hired you to conduct his name's Alice is to let you go through and actually execute that needs analysis. And finally, we're gonna put that together in a final report will be providing you with some samples and talking you through the intricacies that you will need to craft a powerful impactful report . I'm looking forward to going through this course with you and icon Wait to see there in the next lecture 2. NA Six points to remember: before conducting a needs analysis. It's critical that you know six key important points, and these important points actually come from a book by Met Girdle called Conducting A Needs Analysis. This is a critical re resource for you on, and I don't get any credit for this particular book or talking about it in this course. However, my job is to provide the students who take my courses with the best out there. And although this book was written in 1998 it is a fantastic resource and so I encourage you to look at it. Nevertheless, let's look at the six key points you need to know. Been conducting a needs analysis. The first thing is to include management early. The key thing about a needs analysis is that you can come up with the best report or you can identify the most critical gaps. But without managerial support, your role your suggestions will fall on deaf ears. And so your focus needs to be on management really, really early. And the question you need to be able to answer is what is the return on investment for your needs? And Addis is we have to keep that in mind as you go in. Secondly, it's important to understand that not every problem has to do with training. Training is a key element, but it may not be the cause of the problem, and you need to really think about what that problem might. So let's think about this. What is the difference between technical knowledge or skills? Okay, and you need to be able to think about the difference between the two, the nuanced differences between the two so that you can determine where the training will actually identify the problem, or whether it's a skills issue that needs to be addressed. We'll talk a little bit more about this throughout the course. Thirdly, let's think about the big picture. What is the purpose of the needs analysis? It's easy to identify gaps sometimes. But what is it about your intervention that will help this organization actually understand why these gaps are emerging and the impact of these gaps on the performance of the organization? So some key questions you could think about is why do people perform well or not perform well on what performances desired and something that I like to really throw in there as well is asking the question where the performance is discussed at all in the organization. Something for you to consider. Fourth, let's look at some of the influential factors of the organization. At first glance, it might be it might appear to be a fully functioning organization. However, your job as the person conducting a needs analysis is to look at the links between things and find the influential factors you're thinking about the environment. You're thinking about individuals, their skills, their knowledge, the attitudes towards the job and what how that results in certain outcomes, you are making those links between cause and effect. And so an important question, you need to ask is what is not obvious but important. A key thing to think through Number five training does not equal education. All right, there's a difference between education and training. Education is general knowledge, for example, understanding that the sky is blue or that the ocean is not actually blue. It's a reflection of the sky is education. However, training is job specific. A job specific example is how to turn on a machine that is a training or a requirement that is different to education. Education is general training is specific. And so a question you could ask his Would training be enough without education, for example, could the person still do their job? Or do they actually need some general knowledge to understand the way all of these pieces fit together in order to see where their skills fit in to the broader picture? If someone knows how to turn a screw or tightened a bolt, that's a skill. But if do they understand that tightening the screw actually results in the machine? Being able to produce these multiple functions right to these general functions? So thinking about broad and specific, really critical when you're thinking about training, finally, are they performance standards and criterion the organization? What would excellence look like really important for you to know and have asked some key questions here what are considered some baseline skills? What level of performance is expected from individuals from groups, for example, streams, departments, all the organization as a whole and stepping back a little bit? What key attitudes would be needed to be fostered in this organization, for it to achieve its goals really important. And the key question I'm asking here is one of the key performance indicators that KP eyes will talk a little bit more about these. But you need to get a really good handle on what the KP eyes are in this organization, so that you can begin to think about what the organization envisages and what it's actually achieving. So these air six things that are really important for you to think about as you go through , and I hope you writing them down, typing them out, thinking about them, because as we go through the course, we hope to answer some of these questions I'm looking forward to seeing in the next lecture . I hope you're enjoying this course so far. 3. Demo Conduct a Skills Audit copy: I put together this resource to help you conduct what is called a skills audit. A skills ordered is a tool that helps you assess the existing skill level in your organization. This tool basically follows six steps. The 1st 1 is to list the roles in your organization, and I've put a description as well as a resource here that you can update and that will actually change for you when you're listing the roles in your organization. You can do this by bracketing the roles generally or by specifics, so you could have I t roles and those good that's example of a back. It'd role. But you could have specific software and hardware roles in your organization, and those could be very specific to make a list of those. Then let's the skills needed for those organizations those specific role. Excuse me and think about what the roads look like. Specifically, how do these skills help us reach our organizational goals? So in the example of the software person, ah, how does their role actually relate in the skills that they have relates to the outcomes that we're trying to achieve right and don't necessarily think about what is but think about what is needed and obviously, later on, we're going to try and compare the two. So create a survey and survey monkey dot com is a great resource to survey staff, and so you would create a survey that essentially lists out the skills that you require for each role, and then you would put it in a survey. And once you've done that, you would check this box, and if something is you haven't done it, you could update this. And as you update this, it will change color as well as, um, and as we go through and you actually do it, you can put a one, and they and this will change color again and just shows your progress. Nevertheless, your next step step for which be which would be to survey your work for us, and that would really be an important thing to to consider is, too, to prepare your workforce to receive the survey. In other words, it's important to give them a context to talk through. Why you running the survey, what the implications of the survey are and the like, and that helps them sort of not feel anxiety about the survey. Next compared the results of the survey to your existing performance data. In other words, you should be thinking about high organization is already performing. And then come try and compare that data to what people actually saying about the work that they do right. That's really important. And then finally interpret the results and ask yourself, What does the day to mean? And how could it inform the work that I do? Are they huge gaps that have emerged? And how can those gaps be plugged and what training or other resource is can be accessed to plug these gaps and as me do these, we can check them off, and we can see how far we have taken to complete our skills audit. 4. NA Step 1 Identify Performance Needs and Gaps: Let's look at how toe identify performance gaps and needs. The two key questions you always asking yourself when you're thinking about performance, needs and gaps is what is happening and what should be happening. What is happening on what should be happening right? So between those two questions are the gaps that we need to focus on. So what I have on your screen is not only the two questions which I in these columns right over here, but also the areas in which you need to be thinking about Let's talk about them a little bit more. And these are drawn from a framework called the Balanced Scorecard, which will be discussing in Step two. Right, So we have the mission, the mission of the organization, the custom of focus, the internal processes, the learning and knowledge and the financial systems and each of these perspectives or lenses on the organization, then have areas that you need to think about as you're going through. So when we think about our mission and objectives, we need to think about what is happening right now and what is the envisioned mission and objectives of the organization. Next, we need to think about what performance standards have been laid out on. What is the current status are whether those performance standards are being met or not. Would we think about customers? We have specific evaluative criteria that we used to think about these gaps in a more nuanced way. We think about lead time. The question you can ask is, How long does it take between order and delivery? What is the defect level of incoming products? How many times do you deliver on time? What is your customer relationship management system look like? And what do your act, what your delivery forecasts and how accurate of those forecasts? How are they calculated when we think about internal processes were thinking about units produced per given period of time? Right. We thinking about absentee, um, absenteeism. So when you're thinking about internal processes, you're not just thinking about the product, and the process is that you need to produce the product or the service, but also your internal processes when it comes to stuff. So let's think about things like absenteeism or accidents. Those are stuff related internal processes. What do your outputs and outcomes per unit off time? A lot of money. How accurate are the job descriptions? So when jobs were advertised, for example, it might be helpful to look at what those jobs look like and what they actually look like on paper compared toward the people who were employed in those jobs are actually performing the job functions. Compared to the job descriptions, we can look at the emphasis on diversity, equity and inclusion, a very critical thing that I'd like to take a moment to talk about. No organisation is a neutral space. All organizations are big or small, embedded with power and those power. That power is very, very important to talk about. Let me let me provide some examples. Male dominated organisations may be very difficult for female employees to operate with them. Those who have different sexual orientations may feel incredibly silenced in an organization. And so when we think about diversity, equity and inclusion, what we need to think about is how difference and differences are leveraged as strengths. And so when we thinking about internal processes, I like to ask questions about how people from marginalized communities, those who perhaps come from low social economic status is women in the organization those from different sexual orientations, different races, different religions, how they experience the organization and how they experienced the organization is often a result of internal processes such as pay such as respecting space and cultural differences in the organization. And powerful organizations are able to really address and be sensitive to the differences in their organizations. And so this is a really critical thing to think about, Ah further, that links very closely to the learning and knowledge an organization that doesn't learn will never survive. And so when we're thinking about the needs off the organization, we need to think about the formal and informal skills. Do people have the formal skills that the job description skills and the informal skills, the interpersonal skills that they may need to affect their job performance? I also want to bring back once again the importance of diversity, equity and inclusion, training, sensitivity, training, equity training. Diversity training is very, very important for organizations to have in the end, their organization into invest. Resource is to a to really become inclusive spaces, given the legacy off inequity, inequality in the world around us, when organizations really focused on leveraging and bringing in people and their strengths and their differences. We find that organizations perform exponentially well compared to those organizations who don't. And the difference is the training and the emphasis on those needs. Finally, financial systems. When we think about economic predictions, their budget targets and their accounting systems, what should be happening compared to what is happening is a critical way for you to think about this. So to sum up this lecture, uh, feel free to go through this workbook and actually with your team with your colleagues or even with you as yourself go through this workbook and actually jot down some of these gaps . And that's a critical way to collect some of the important data for you to think about and focus on in the next lecture will actually be organizing the state now that you've captured it, will then go to organizing it on preparing it for a member and then finally, for Step two, which is the analysis 5. NA Step 1 Organize the data: we have gone through a process off beginning to think about the questions that we need to ask and the potential gaps that might be emerging. We might have some hunches at the stage in our surveillance process. Now what we need to do is actually organize the data so that we begin can begin to tell our story. So in this particular lecture will actually be going through the process to help you organize your data. Now how can we make meaning from this data? You have all this information? Perhaps, you've said in the lunch room and written down some notes. Perhaps you've walked through the organization and begun to keep a journal of things and conversations that have been happening, and you've answered the questions from the previous lecture. No, you need to organize it and make sense of it. So let's walk through some steps you can take right, So the first step is sorting. The second step is sense making, and the third step is actually meeting with management to confirm some of your thought processes and some conclusions that you've come to when we think about data sorting. We need to firstly, sort the data into categories. Right? So we have all this data, we bring it together, and we start to put it into spaces together. Right? So we we think about Okay, this seems to be a common theme. And so we put that data together. Perhaps a conversation is is something similar to something you found somewhere else. And so you bring them together and you create themes. And what I really recommend you do is you print out the documents you cut and paste them, for example, and you actually physically put them together so that there's piles of the data and you begin to really think about themes that are emerging, and categories remember, categories create theme. So you have pieces of data, pieces of data together create a category, and those categories create themes. So that's the process you're going through your coming up with categorizing the data, making sense of it. Right? Step two is to separate the training from the non training issues. Okay, not everything is about training. So you're thinking about how the data is Now it's in these categories. What are training specific issues. And when I'm not training specific issues that that's really important. Now we only look at the training issues and Step three. Let's look at the training issue specifically in Step three. We talk about and think about what the training issues are and forth and step for. We actually determine what skills were. Training skills are needed. Okay, great. Now we have those training needs. We put them aside. Our next step is to go through the non training data and let's make sense of that. OK, so Step one, this is distinguished. And forgive me for my type of right there. I'm going to fix that. Right now. I hold myself to a high standard, and I apologize for that type of now. The first step is to distinguish between the macro problems and the micro needs. And what's important to think about in this process is one of the big issues. And what are the micro issues and and differentiating between those two things. Someone's individual and happiness in the organization is not necessarily a macro need unless they're a person of great influence in the organization, right, so that's step one. Step two is to begin to think about priorities to prioritize these issues to think about what are the main issues you need to focus on, And I recommend whittling them down to three key priorities. So threating about that Andi having a sense of it, least three priorities that you think I would help you make sense of this. And in order to do that in step three, what you gotta do is meet with someone in the organization and say, Hey, help me prioritize these issues. This is the issues that I have located that I found. And I would love for you to help me prioritize these. These issues and that back and forth could really help you solidify and crystallize and makes sense off some of these issues in stepped forward. I'd like you to think through some of these pieces when? Now that you have these priorities, firstly, is time. How much time do you think it would take to address? Um, these priority issues? What is the need? Which, which one do you think, um, is the greatest need? What needs to be tackled now, Right yesterday, in fact, thirdly, the timeline How long and when do you think this needs to happen? Doesn't need to happen this fiscal year is their budget for it. What is it something that needs to be budgeted for next year and then the cause and effect . Think about whether you able to actually demonstrate cause and effect between what has happened and the effect it's having. And those are critical things for you to think about. Um, as you're going through and making sense of these you've identified, you've prioritised these issues and now you're thinking about how you can actually make some recommendations about them, and this is really critical for your member. But let's go to the next step, which is actually meeting with management. So let's just really step back for a moment and think about what we've done. We've collected all this data. The first thing we did was separated into two camps. We re categorized it, and then what we did is we said training needs and non training needs the training needs. We broke down to the specific skills that were required, and then we broke down to non training needs, and we were able to prioritize some of the issues that have come out, and we thought about them in terms of time frames in terms of needs in terms of cause and effect and in terms of the time that these gaps may take to actually eradicate, we no need to communicate that to a manager. And so we sit down with the manager and we define the tasks. We actually define what we found. We agree on the needs. Perhaps the manager does not see these is pressing issues. Perhaps they want to re prioritize your list. Then you they state the desired outcomes in writing. So this is where you come in. And you actually say These are the things that I found and these are the outcomes that we could realistically achieve and step for you establish shared responsibility. A key phrase is to say this is what I can. Actually, these are the services I can provide. But what is it that you and your organization can contribute to this process? Step five is to identify a contact person for the report. So you say to yourself, Okay, I'm going to conduct this needs analysis. I'm going to explore these issues further. Who is my point of call? And most importantly, in your mind, you're thinking who has power How much influence does this person have? A really important point for you to think about? And most importantly, Step six actually record the management's commitment to proceed. That's really important, because needs analyses are things that managers don't often support in practice, they often support in theory. Okay, so these are the steps you need to take to prepare the ground for the needs analysis. In the next lecture, I'm going to be talking about actually writing a member. Um, that will be signed off by the manager outlining what you've spoken about, and once you've said in the commitments that they have to the needs analysis process. 6. NA Step 1 Surveillance Overview: step one in the needs analysis process is surveillance. When we think about surveillance, we think about some key questions. Remember, we're going to be a fly on the wall when ran Step one. We're going to be sort of thinking about and deconstructing the organization we're walking in. We're looking, making notes and we asking ourselves who who is performing specific functions, What what is going on, what is happening. What are people saying? What are people not saying Why? Why are things occurring the way they're occurring? Why do people say certain things? Why do people behave in certain ways? Where where is performance? Definitely apparent. And where could it be improved? And when are the specific times of the day, times of the month, times of the week, that illicit certain things that could be explored further when we're in surveillance? We're thinking about the current situation where we're almost drawing a picture of what the organization looks like, what it feels like, Um, and we're sort of thinking about in anticipating areas of focus in this section. In the surveillance section will be talking about how toe identify performance needs and gaps. I'll also be talking you through how we organize data, how we organize the way in which you are thinking about the data that you need to remember when we think about gaps were also thinking about how to prove or how to think about what those gaps looked like. And then I'm going to talk to about how to write a memo. And what that memo is is actually to the manager, who will then decide whether this needs analysis is actually important or not. When we're thinking about surveillance we're also thinking about at this point, we are not necessarily tasked with conducting the needs analysis fully. That's in Step two, where we actually go in and do an analysis. Right now, I want you to think about yourself as someone who is sort of, in a way, a spy, someone who's feeling their way through the organization, collecting data, being very sensitive to nuances and trying to get a really good feel of the organization. They may sit at the lunch in the lunch room and just listen quietly. They may sit in at the back of meetings and just think about it and observe the way things are occurring and all of this is to collect data and really come to some conclusions about the gaps in the organization. So that's what this section is gonna be about in our next lecture. We're gonna be identifying some performance gaps and needs. 7. NA Step 1 Write the memo: you've conducted your surveillance, you've organized your data, you've even met with management and they've given you a commitment. And now you need to write a memo to reinforce this process. When I have here is a suggested structure for the memo, and I hope this can provide something useful for you. Often. After your meeting, you will actually summarize the memo. The function or the purpose of the member is to summarize the agreements to summarize your process that you have gone through, too set up the foundation for the next step, which is actually going in and conducting the needs analysis. Right now, your surveillance has been very superficial. It's sort of seen the smoke in step two. You will actually go to the fire and actually find out the real issues. But here you actually have to set the foundation of the agreement between yourself and the management to actually be able to go in and actually effect the find out more process. So this is an example, um, of a memorandum structure that you have so you have to the client from the train or facilitator often needs analysis are very closely linked training and facilitation you had the date. The analysis subject is the needs analysis meeting that you've had here. You would write a clear statement off the problem that you had, right? So here, you could actually write out very clearly that these were the training needs, for example, that you identify it and these are the outcomes that you hope to achieve. You would talk about the description of the tasks that need to happen. He would summarize your analysis that you have just created you would put together proposed plan, including budget. So in the meeting, you would have to have a discussion about how much money this is gonna all cost. And then you would have to have a written request for a commitment from management to going forward to the analysis part of this process. So you've identified these needs in the abstract, and now you actually have to go in and really, really holding them down to specific pieces that link to the organization's needs. And that's really the point of writing this name of getting written agreement and getting everything down in writing. The so called gentleman's handshake or the nod is no longer acceptable. We need to get details, and that's what the memo is all about. 8. NA Step 2 Data sources and methods: when thinking through our data sources, I've divided this Elektra into two key parts in the first part. Will think about the data sources, and then the other part will actually look at the methods that we would use in this process . I wanted to continue to be thinking about how this could relate to your practice when we think you might. Data sources. The source of data is quite a loose definition. Data is not only numbers, but also instances, circumstances on events that you can capture in your journal as you walking around the organization. Let's look at some places that you could perhaps investigate further as you go through. So when we're thinking about our our sources, we could look at human resource records. We could think about, for example, retention. How many people have left the organization? We could look a on boarding documents. We could look at strategic plans when we thinking through the lens off diversity equity and inclusion. We could also talk about how many people have come into the organization that represent cultural, ethnic, racial, religious and gender differences. We could look at accident and safety records. We could look at the number of reported incidents, and that could give us some clues as to how, um, what a priority safety is in the organization you could look at production statistics. How often Andi how frequently production is disrupted, for example, is a good indicator of what's happening in the organization. We could then took a look at grievance filings and turnover rates. As I mentioned earlier, we could see whether there are any patterns or things that emerge that could help us really look into the organization with a more critical lens. We could look at performance evaluation and Merrick ratings. So this is really critical as we think about the organization, how performance evaluation is done and the process that that is involved in this is really good to look at, and in particular thinking about the framework of the organization. Do they use the balanced scorecard logic model, a theory of change? These are important things for you to think about as you're sourcing your data and really getting someone to explain each of these frameworks, and for you to get a sense of whether they actually understand the frameworks or not is very helpful. Often, people adopt frameworks without fully understanding them, and this could be the cause of many gaps in the organization. Now let's look at some of the methods, the questions that you could ask you could ask who way, what, how and when questions. That's what we did earlier in our surveillance process. You could ask him again. You could develop a clear and concise problem statement, and this problem statement could help you think about where to look and the kind of challenges that the organization is facing. You could document causes of the problem so you could look at, for example, root cause analysis, which asks you to ask why five times, at the very least, to get to the core of the issue, not the symptoms but the actual core of the issue, he could document feelings about the problem. How people are feeling is a very good indicator off possible reasons about why the problem is is coming out, and often people's feelings are far more valuable than the numbers that you could produce. In the survey, for example, you could determine who is involved and why they're involved. Often people are influences that shape outcomes, but I'm not necessarily responsible for those outcomes. So that's important for you to think about. And the most important responsibility that you have is to separate the facts from the opinions to think about what is factual, what is actually happening compared to what people think is happening and why people think it's happening. And you need to be careful about being co opted into the needs analysis process by people who may want to influence you in a certain direction. And so you need to think about and be able to check your own biases, check the biases of others and come to a more synthesized analysis off the organization through various points of data. At this point, it's important to also talk about triangulation, which is to come to conclusions based on three independent sources of data. So, for example, you could hear something from someone that could be one piece. You could observe something that same occurrence happening, and then you could perhaps find it written in a document, perhaps in a strategic plan. And so that's those three sources of evidence. Triangulate and help you come to a solid conclusion and helps you reduce your bias. So in conclusion, this lecture spoken about data sources, and it has also spoken about data methods and combined. These can help you really sort through and really investigate this organization in detail and very thorough whilst reducing your bias and coming to some solid conclusions. 9. NA Step 2 Interviews: interviews are perhaps one of the most powerful methods that you can use to find the results and to find the nuances of those results in your toolbox. In this lecture, I'm going to be talking through four key types of interviews that could be useful for you. The most important thing to think about when choosing the kind off interviews that you conduct is to think about the purpose of these interviews. What do you want to achieve based on what you want to achieve? You can then choose the kind of interviews you would like to conduct. Important to think importantly, to know about interviews is that there is no right way to do interviews. Often, situation and contexts are as complex as the people involved in the interviews. What you would like to do is to really think about what you would like to achieve from the interview before going in and being very prepared for whatever outcome may come out of the interview. With that being said, let's get started with the types of interviews that we have. Firstly, we have unstructured interviews, instructed interviews are interviews that literally don't follow a specific procedure. You sit down with the person and you let them talk as much as possible. Sigmund Freud was a great exemplar of an instructed interview. He just literally sat down with people and allow them to free flow and talk. The pros of that is that you may really find valuable information because people feel open enough to talk about whatever they feel like with you. The cons is that you may not actually get useful information because they may be talking about things that apply to them but don't apply to your purpose. Partially structured interviews are those where you have general topics where you talk about general areas, but you don't necessarily follow a said structure. Most importantly, you have open ended questions. What do you tell me how you feel about this? Um, questions that could listen multiple and circular responses rather than one word answers, for example. The price of this is that you could understand the topic from the respondents perspective, but respondents sometimes often feel frustrated because they feel like they they're not necessarily coming to any conclusions there, just sort of talking, and they don't really feel like the interview has a new direction. So that's something for you to consider. Semi structured interviews have a protocol that uses open endedness but is also flexible and probing in its approach. So it has a structure that it goes through that structures also flexible and can sometimes go where the interviewee is going. But it definitely follows some kind of probing approach. Tell me more about this, Can I? I heard this. Could you please expand on this? And so what's happening is that the interviewer, namely you, is driving the direction but is allowing the interview. We, the person being interviewed to sort of respond and feel very almost is at this point, there's a structure to this, but it's semi structured because it's not. Just answer and ask and answer asking answer, which is what we find when we get to structured interviews. Structured and interviews are inflexible use. You follow a set procedure. You get through the questions that you ask, which are often close ended on day by the end. The interview. We, the person asking the questions, gets every single answer that they set out to ask. That could be very limiting because the often the questions that the interviewer asks are not the questions that need to be asked often asses the case and semi structured. You actually realize that you are asking the wrong questions, and the respondents will often say to you that you should be asking questions about certain things because they have more insight than you do. It's Ah, that's the difference between the semi structured on the structured interview process. The end result is that you will have transcripts that you have recorded on typed up, and that data becomes very valuable when you go into the analysis phase, when you actually thinking about how to sort this data and make it more meaningful and pull out some quotes that could help you design whatever training that you may be required to do . 10. NA Step 2 Intro to demo lectures: to make your learning far more practical. I've included three demo lectures in this section. These dem electors outlined key frameworks that are very popular within organisations and organizations used these frameworks to achieve their goals. The first framework is the balanced scorecard tool. This particular lecture that outlines the balanced scorecard describes how the mission of the organization it translates to the customer focus, the internal processes, the learning and knowledge and the financials and how those linked together when conducting a needs analysis. It's really important for you to know if the organization is using a balanced scorecard so that you could ask questions into those four or five perspectives that the organization is using. The Second Dem Electra describes a logic model. A logic model is a process that organizations, particularly a nonprofit in the nonprofit world, are using to demonstrate how the inputs translate to the output sentence. And it's a very detailed process in between. Didn't for you to know if the organization is using a logic model so that you can begin it to really ask pointed questions in relation to inputs and outputs. Finally, the third Dem Electra is actually what's called the theory of change. The theory of change describes how a organization aligned and strategies to achieve its results. And what it does is almost is, in the sense, a flow diagram that demonstrates how certain strategies linked together or interlocked to achieve a specific outcome for the organization. For you walking into an organization and understanding the framework that this organization is using to achieve its results will equip you an arm you with the tools and the questions necessary to find out more about the extent to which this organization is achieving its mission, which is the point of a needs analysis. And so I have included those here. I hope you enjoy them. Please feel free to ask any questions, and I hope you're enjoying the court so far. 11. Na Step 3 Analysis: I'm glad you're with me, because we're at Step three analysis in Step three. What we try and think about is what the data is telling us about our next steps, right? So what I would like you to think about and to do is to begin to divide the data up and think about them through three key questions. Firstly, goal analysis. What is the performance like in relation to the organizational goals and behavioral indicators? Secondly, organizational analysis. Always solving problems, um, or performance outcomes caused by structural issues. What I mean by structural issues simple things such as policies or locations of the organization or locations of specific things. A good example of this is the water cooler often is. If the water cooler is an in reach, very close by staff members, they will drink a lot of water, which will force them to go to the bathroom. Often. That time in the bathroom leads to lower productivity, right? So it's a structural thing. It's something that's there that's causing certain things, and then finally, job analysis. Now, the key thing to think about in relation to analysis is the training needs. Your role is most likely to be in a training facilitation kind of position. And so you need to think about these three key questions in relation to the kind of training that you could put on. Let's think about how you could train in relation to goals, organizations and jobs. Right? And the key thing to do is once you have located your data through these three questions So you've looked at all of these questions. You've conducted the interviews and you've divided them into these three categories. You can in present your findings in a charter line graph or a table. OK, So whether then does is show numerically visually. Ah, what the data is actually telling you, which is really important. So think about this. You've just come from interviews, you now dividing it into golden anuses, organizational genesis and job analysis. Your then presenting those findings in terms of how you gonna design, execute and evaluate your trainings. Based on those three things, you're gonna help them achieve their goals. You're gonna help them address any organisational barriers, and you're gonna help them improve their skills in relation to their jobs. And you can present that information numerically in these tables, um, through a charter table or a Landgraf. Okay, 12. NA Step 3 Design Training: Once you've gone through this process and identify the training needs, it's now important for you to design the training. These are some key steps you can take to help you formulate and put this training together . The first thing to do is to clarify the training objectives. What is it that you need to achieve and remember? These objectives come from your analysis, and that analysis comes from the data that you collected. So this Israel the steps come together. Secondly, designed the training and course module. Andi, remember to think about the post evaluation tool you will need to be able to demonstrate how your training has resulted in outcomes, or put in another way how you intervention has alleviated the problems that you outlined to begin with. Secondly, choose trainers very important to choose trainers. We have very specific skill sets and who understand the data on the overview that you have provided for them. It is important to brief the trainers on the context and the process that you've gone through and possibly include some personalities. Andi things that they should look out for, in other words, red flags as they go about thinking about the training process include useful trainers early on, helped build help. Use their expertise to help you build something fantastic. Next, execute the training. Think about how long it will take for people to actually be able to demonstrate those outcomes and use various methodologies to achieve that. For example, ensure that your training works with adult learning theory. Um, that uses kinesthetic, a aesthetic aural visual learning methods that bring out people's learning and helps really allow them to tap into the learning process and apply it to their jobs. Finally, evaluate, evaluate, evaluate. It is critical for you to be able to demonstrate that the investment on the money that they have put into you has actually achieved outcomes. And so you would need a pre survey and a post survey, and you'll be able to demonstrate that your intervention in the middle of that has resulted in specific outcomes very, very critical. If you affect an important and critical training process, um, you will. And if you follow these steps, you will be in a good position to be able to demonstrate that your needs analysis was effective. Your training was effective on. Perhaps they could keep you on even longer to help them actually achieve that their strategies and the emissions, or that you are worthwhile, ah, worthy of their time to tackle some of the other issues that may have come out in your analysis. 13. NA Step 4 Report: I hope you are excited because we are at step for the report. All the steps you've taken, you surveilled the organization. And remember, you were like a fly on the wall. Step two is when you investigated, you went in with a bird's eye and looked at the macro. And then you went with a fine tooth comb and looked at the micro. Step three is you conducted the analysis, you thought about interviews and you collected data and you even designed a training program that you executed and evaluate. Now we have to write the report. We have to capture this process. And most importantly, we have to think about how what we have done actually relates back to the purpose of what we laid out to achieve. To begin with. When we write a report, there are two types of reports. The 1st 1 is a training design report. Now, remember, this course is a general course. It doesn't necessarily go to the heart of what you may be facing in your organization. And so I've created two types of reports to help you think about what could be most applicable to you in the training design report the components is that you need to think about what the purpose of your report is. If their purpose of your report is actually to justify a training program, then this is the report for you. If you've already executed the training program than the final report is exactly what you need. So I've put it in this section so that you could use it depending on your context. Nevertheless, let's assume that your writing at this stage to justify a training program, the first thing you would need to do is talk about the purpose of the proposed course. This is where you link it back to the issues that you're facing. You could talk about how those issues emerged. You could talk about how they were organizational, job specific or goal specific issues, and how training could really be the difference between going from the traditional they're on right now to the trajectory that they could be on. This is what you outline in the summary of your analysis. You break down very concisely what the problem is and how training is the best remedy to achieve that art or to remedy those problems. You then took about the scope in the scope. You talk about what you will address and what you will not address. For example, in this course, I talk specifically about a needs analysis. While I mentioned logic models theory of change in balance scorecards, this course doesn't. The scope of this course does not include a depth, um, explanation on those three components, and so those could be covered in other courses. And so you will need to outline at that stage the scope of your work. Then you need to outline the learning objectives. The learning objectives for this course were to walk you through a step by step process that helps you outline the basic needs that are required for a needs analysis, right, really important to align those objectives with the objectives of the organization. In my research, I found that many people know what it needs. Analysis is generally, but what they really need is a step by step process. And so this course has been about linking those objectives to the needs of the students in the same way your report needs to do the exact same thing and used to lengthy objectives to their needs. Then you would need to talk about the test items strategy. So these are the things that you're gonna test to show or to demonstrate your effectiveness . Another way to think about this. A swell could be a pilot. There is a pilot that you could possibly outline to test some of your assumptions. You will then outline very briefly the course and module design. The delivery strategy maybe you'll be using online resource is perhaps you would be using in person for facilitation. Apprenticeship models on the lack and then, most importantly, your evaluation and measurement tools. How you will demonstrate both, um, anecdotally and through data through numbers, numerical data, the effectiveness of your intervention. Let's look at what a final report would be. It's similar, but different. You have an executive summary where you outline your process, you'll step by step process. You then took about the objectives of the needs analysis. So you talk about why they brought you in in the first place. A brief summary of your findings, what it is that you did and what it is that you found through investigation. Through your surveillance, you talk about a proposed change or training project that you could use. And remember that training project must meet the needs that you identify it. Talk about your data collection methods. Remember, you have sources, and then you have methods. So in this case, you could talk about interviews. You could talk about human resource documents. You could to expand a little bit on the discussion that you had onda thoughts that you that you drawn. This would be a perfect section to talk, for example, that you when you observe the workflow, that there was some great things that came out. But these are some areas that you could explore if they gave you more time or more resource is, or some other issues that you could explore. That's what you could expand on. These. It's important also to talk about the implications of what you found. So it's not only, for example, that the water cooler was close to the close to where people are working, so they, um, drank water a lot and went to the restroom. But you would have to make the link to say them going to the restroom three times in two hours actually diminishes their productivity. And so the implications of moving the waters, that you would actually increase the pro activities. You have to be able to make those jumps. You have to be able to make those links. That may not necessarily be obvious. Right. And that's just an example of that. Then recommendations. You have to be in a position to say this is what I found. This is what I see these the links and these are the recommendations that I recommend on. Then you would attached in appendices with supporting data. The appendices could be the questionnaire that you provided could be a result of the skills order that you conducted Could be results of the training pilot that you perhaps could have done. Maybe some transcripts of some data that you collected, um summaries, reflective nodes, um, things that could help justify what the assertions that you've made remember, the triangulation is very, really critical. The appendices could triangulate the evidence that you found the three different sources you could use to justify why you've come to this conclusion, which sits at the middle of the triangle. Eso given that report, that would be the end of the needs analysis, but a really, really good report sets up the discussion for what happens next, and that is where you begin to talk about how you could provide services to tackle other issues in the organization. And that's where the relationship begins to be formed. And so your role is not to just, um, do an intervention and leave but to cultivate relationships that could help you, um, support the organization, meet the next bit of challenges that it has. And that's what a good report does. It shows how it's addressed one challenge and then links those challenges and links the work that you do to the next challenge that you could go on and do this again and again and again. And at the end of the day, the organization will benefit immensely from your perspective. And so will you. I hope you've enjoyed these steps, Andi. I hope you've enjoyed this course. I've really loved putting it together. And I hope to see you in some of my other courses on and to go forward. Please feel free to reach out to me and engage with me around. Needs analysis. I loved putting this course together. I hope you enjoyed it, and I'll connect with you soon. All the best 14. Step 2 Investigation overview: step two of this course is packed with, um, helpful resource is on important questions for you to think about as you go through your needs. Analysis. When we're thinking about the investigation, we have to ask ourselves in the back of our minds, where the training is an appropriate response to the gaps and needs that we identified in our surveillance steps with this lecture will do is we'll talk about how to think about your data sources, how to conduct interviews, how to observe work flows, conductor skills ordered. And it also includes three dem electors that talk about the logic model, the balanced scorecard and the theory of change. Helpful frameworks were you to know as you conduct your investigation. Now, when we're thinking about the investigation, we have some key questions that we need to ask ourselves and there on your screen right now , and I encourage you to write them down and think about them as you go through. Firstly, what results does the organization seek? These can be found often in the logic model, the theory of change of the balanced scorecard. Or, if the organization doesn't have these frameworks, it can often be found in the mission or the key performance indicators. Occasionally, organizations will have verbal performance indicators, and these are very important for you to know down and to write down because verbal indicators are not a good, good best practice. And so that might be a recommendation that you could insert early on for your report later on. Second, he How did the results compare with the organization's key objectives? So what is the organization actually achieving compared to its objectives? Right? Great. 30. What comfort contribution does the training department need to make to meet the organization's key objectives? What trainings are currently underway and what trainings could be included to possibly help the organization achieve its mission? Fourth, what methods are currently in used to set priorities and justify training targets? Is this a systematic process? Where is this is a process that goes on the hunch off the leader off the organization after hunches are good to a point, but systematic, data driven targets are often the most sustainable over time. Finally, how are training results measured? These are critical components to think about as a lot of money is often spent in training, but there isn't often a very good evaluative framework to determine the effectiveness and the return on investment in the time of training. This overall section will deal with these questions and think, How do you think them through further? I hope you you're excited specifically, and particularly for the dem electors that are coming on later on in the section.