How to Bake Sourdough Bread | Grant Batty | Skillshare

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Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (39m)
    • 1. How to Bake Sourdough Bread - Course Trailer

    • 2. Key Baking Terms

    • 3. Preparing Your Dough

    • 4. Scoring & Baking

    • 5. Baking Equipment

    • 6. Starter Guide & Care

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About This Class

I’ve been baking Sourdough Bread now for years and I can't wait to share everything I've learnt with you in this course.

I’ve tried to break down the method and also cover the key terms used in the process. Every loaf is different and that’s what’s exciting. The different variables, the care and the patience, come together to make each loaf unique.

This course is about enjoying the bread-making journey and inspiring you to learn how to make incredible bread at home. All measurements are included in the course guide book.

Thanks for taking part in this course, I can’t wait to share it with you.

Meet Your Teacher

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Grant Batty

Creating great food from a home kitchen.


Hello, I'm Grant. I'm a home baker based in England. I love making Breads & Pizza. If you need anything feel free to comment or get in touch.

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1. How to Bake Sourdough Bread - Course Trailer: Sourdough bread is so important to me. I've been baking it now for four years and I absolutely love eating it, but more importantly, I loved baking in. People think it's quite hard to create, but I want to show you that it's not following the simple step-by-step course. I'll show you how to create an incredible life at home. I'll cover all the fundamentals from the basics of how to create your own starter, and then more importantly, putting it all together to create a lovely dough bread with incredible Cromb and very, very impressive life. Thanks so much for checking out this course. And I can't wait to bake the DC. 2. Key Baking Terms: So before we start baking, I wanted to talk you through some key Saturday baking terms. Stata. Stata is a mix of flour and water with naturally occurring bacteria. This allows the flower to ferment. The starter requires feeding with flour and water and stay alive. And the more you feed it, the more bubbly or gap. And that will create an incredible sourdough life. Use your starter, you feed it, and that creates the Levant. The Lavon provides you a day with yeast and bacteria. The starter should be fed prior to baking so it reaches its full potential, hence becoming the Levant. And we use a little van. We mix that in our dough and we used that to create our incredible Saturday. Gluten is the protein that gives you a DOE elasticity and it allows you bred to be stretchy. If you pick a flower with a high protein content or high gluten content, you can then have a really lovely DO. It allows the dough to rise and form a good gluten structure, and it holds onto all of the carbon dioxide gas it produces during the bulk fermentation. Bulk fermentation. This is the stage that happens after the dose mix, but before the loaf is shaped, it's the stage that allows for the dough to rise and it's a very important process. Crumb. This is the structure of the bread. The inside of the bread. Breads with lovely large air pockets are described as having an open Chrome. And that's what we're aiming for with our sourdough. Breads with small air bubbles that are packed tightly together are described as having a tight crumb turning. This is the process that we will use to help give our dough strength. Keeping the dough in the bowl means it's less messy for us, but also it's a really good way of seeing how your dough is coming along during the bulk fermentation process. Auto lease. This is the first step in our sourdough making process, and it involves mixing the flour and water together. This helps to draw out the sugars from the flour and also increases DO extensibility. This means that the dough is more stretchy, allowing the dough to filled with more gases produced from the process, resulting in a lovely airy life, and also giving you a lovely open ground. 3. Preparing Your Dough: Okay, so now it's time for the fun bit. We get to mix and create our dough. So here we've got our strong why organic flower. We've got our dark rye flour, and we've got our water, which is at room temperature. More importantly, we've got our starter that's been fed. It's now which its peak, it's become the Lavon and it's full of bubbles and it's ready to go. So we're gonna start this process very simply by getting our strong white flour and into our bow. So I've got 275 grams of white flower here, and I've got 50 grams of dark organic rye flour. And very simply, I'm sure I'll get my spatula. I'm just going to just mix it very like next. Just to combine the flowers. That's all it needs. So I've got my water here. I've got 240 grams of water and this at room temperature, so it's not too hot, not too cold. And this is perfect. So which can mix in. And all we're doing here is just making sure that all the water and the flour combine. So this is the auto lease process and like I said, it's very simple. We just mixing it together. And it's just important to make sure that there's no bits of dry flour left. So I'm gonna keep turning it, keep mixing it. And she's clean sites in the bowl down as ok. And basically the auto lease process helps to draw out the sugars from the flower. And it also allows us to create a lovely DO, which means it's really extensible and very, very stretchy. So here we go. This is what it should look like. There's no dry bits here. And again, all the men do is I'm just going to clean down the sides of the bulb, makes sure that all of it together in one clump. And then I'm just going to cover it with tin foil. Or if you're going to kitchen foil or kitchen cloth, just cover up and then leave it for three hours. Okay, so now the auto least process is complete and the first thing we can do is just check the does't See how it's coming along. So I'll just grab my hands here and you can see if I just pull it, it's kinda makes it glass window pane affecting almost see through it and just see how stretches and how extensible the dough is. This is what we're aiming for. And this will allow the bread to just hold that lovelier in those pockets that we want to create. So once we've done this, we can now add a van. So we've fed our starter and see how bubbly is, it's reached its peak. So like I said, that's the Levant. And we can now add that to our flour and water mix. I've got my Lavon here. We've got 65 grams of already way to out. And you're going to put that on top of the flour and the water mix. This is just gonna go in here and all I'm gonna do is I'm just going to kind of smooth it over the top of the dough. And that kind of just helps with the distribution, makes sure that it will be even. So now the fans being added, it's really important to give the DO good mix. I'm going to mix it with my hand because it allows me to feel the dough so I get a really good understanding of how strong is and how much work it needs. And it's also a really good way, like I said, to develop that gluten. It just gets a gluten going which allows you to build a really, really strong dough, which will create a really lovely open crumb. So all I'm doing here is I'm bringing the dough to one side. Pulling it towards me and wrapping my hand round and then pulling it towards me, wrapping my head around. And what that does is it folds the DOE over itself and it helps to build strength. So you can see here that the more I go, the smoother the ball goes. And all I'm gonna do every so often isn't just going to make sure I clean run sides that the reason for that is the DOE we're creating is so important, so much time goes into it. So each one to make sure that you don't lose any. And then once that's done, I'm just going to cover and I'm going to leave it to rest for 30 minutes. 30 minutes you can see it's kind of relaxed a little bit in the bowl and quite simply emission and wet my hand again to make sure no flowers sticks my hand and I'm just gonna give it another mix, the same mixes before. And you should feel it's slightly different. It's very, it's more stretchy. And we kind of, again, it's another chance that we can use to build that strength and kind of see it folding over my hand here really well. So I've got my ground so head. And it's important to grind it just so it's a lot more finite, so it disperses more evenly in the dough. Personally, I like using sea salt, which comes in really, really large flakes. I just love the flavor of it. And all I do is I just crushed that little bit just before using it. So I'm going to ask myself now. And again, it's really important to mix it here. You can mix it in with using your hands and like upset. You're going to pull that together. I'm kind of folding it over itself. So I always find that once you have the Soul, it kind of feels very different. And this is why I always say mix by hand as much as you can because you get really good understanding of the dough. The dough kinda wants to come together now. And we've given it a great opportunity to build strength. And we're gonna give it another mix just to distribute the salt, that one final chance to build, build that strength through the mixing process here. And once you've done that for about five minutes, cover it and leave it to rest. Okay, so now we're at the bulk fermentation process. This is, like I said before, very, very important process. And it can vary in time. So the bolt fermentation for me takes six hours. You don't have to be by the dove six hours and watching it intently. I just set an alarm on my phone. I go away, do whatever I want, and I'll come back to a term, which again, it doesn't take long to perform ten. But the bulk fermentation process is really important and it will vary depending on the temperature of your kitchen. That'll be different to the temperature of my kitchen. My kitchens around about 19 degrees Celsius. But you could be in a different country, a lot hotter country, a lot colder country. I'm in England, so it's not too warm here. So that's why I take six hours. If you live in a country or your kitchen is maybe two or three degrees hotter than mine, that six hours is going to be around about five hours. It's going to be shorter. Or if your kitchens colder than mine, it's going to be a slightly longer process. But the concentration of the bulk fermentation process is a very, very important process. So now it's time to complete the turning process. Now, the turning process is a very, very easy process. Ultimately, what it is is I'm lifting my hand under the dough. I'm lifting it all the way up, which stretches the dough. And I'm going to fold it over itself. When I do it. In four stages, I just lift it up, fold it, and work myself around the dough. And during this bulk fermentation process, we're going to complete four tens. So here we go. I'm literally going to wet my hand again. I've got my trusty a bowl of water on my right. And that just stops the dough sticking to my hand. And then all I'm gonna do is I'm just going to put my hand under the DOE, lifted up, stretch it, and then just fold it over itself. I'm going to repeat that three more times around the dough. Like said, it's a really good way to fill the dough, to understand the dough. And now, once that's complete, you can see DOE is trying to be together. So we're going to cover that, let it rest. And again, we'll complete three Morton's. And when we do that, you'll see every time you do it, the strength will be increased and the dough will become more tight together, and it will just want to stay together more. Peck said we're going to turn the bread four times across the six, our bulk fermentation. And it's straightforward. It's like I said, we're lifting it. We're putting a 100 under it were lifting up tall, stretching as much as we can, and we fold it over itself. And the more you do this, you'll feel that it doesn't want to stretch as much. That's great because it shows you building strength. So we're gonna do this four times. Look at the guide, look at the book. And so we're gonna do is four times. Look at the guide and follow the timings. I've mentioned before. Temperature, temperature is very, very important as it will affect you DO quite a bit. So refer to the guide and before you begin, just have a look and kind of work out the temperature of your room if he can, and then make your estimate from there to the temperature of my dose around about 22 degrees Celsius. So it means that my bulk fermentation will be six hours. But you know, sometimes if we're in the winter and it's cold in my kitchen and my bolt fermentation will have to go on a little bit longer, maybe seven hours. Or in the summer, I might have the window Open, the sun's coming in and it might be a lot hotter in kitchens and bulk fermentation will decrease quite a bit. Be more around about five hours. So like I said, this is a recipe, it's there for you to follow. And with the variables that you have with your different flower and different water, the different start strengths at different temperatures. It's all a learning experience and it will make your, your bread individually to you. So now it's time to reshape our dough and perform a bench rest. And this is the first time we're going to remove our dough from the bowl and put it on the worked up. I've got my bread scraper here. It's fantastic. I use a plastic one just so I don't scratch the workshop. You can get metal ones. If you've got a workshop that will allow it, then great. I like a plastic one. I can bend it. And it's just, it's very affordable, but also it's great to use. And all I'm gonna do is I'm gonna get my spatula and I'm just going to loosen the edge of the DOE from the ball. And all I'm gonna do now is just turn it upside down. And as I've listened it around the side that DO just wants to fall out. And here I've got my bread scraper again. I'm just going to kind of push the doorway for me, spin my bread, scrape around, and then bring it back towards me. And what that's doing is it's creating a lot of tension on the surface of the dough. So again, it's building strength. But the more you do it, the title gap, you don't want to overdo it because you don't want to take. But like I said, you just pushing it away from me. And in the same movement, you turn your scraper in, bringing it back towards you. And now create a nice tight surface, right? So now we've done the appreciate which is going to leave out there on the web top. This is called the bench rest. You're going to see it's going to be together as a nice, nice bowl and I have a half an hour is just going to slowly released. Again. This is a chance that we can build, strengthen the dose is very, very important. And then we're gonna come back after half an hour and we're gonna shape it. So we're going to now see this is Flour, Water ISTE. Oh, that's trying to expand. We're going to see it come together nicely as a nice life. So again, leave half now and we'll come back. So now it's time to shape our dough. And I absolutely love this part of the process, so I find it very therapeutic and I really enjoy it. And it's very straightforward. Don't be put off by it because you might, the first time you watch you think, oh, that looks a bit difficult to do. It's really not. So first of all, we're gonna get a flower and we're gonna tip off flour over the life. All that does is it means that I can be fairly accurate with a flower and not going to be point all worked up. And then all I'm gonna do is I'm just going to get my bench scraper and I'm going to flip it over. So once I've flipped it, I can now shape the dough. So all I'm gonna do here is going to pull out very gently from the bottom and just folder over itself. And then from the left and then from the right. So what we're doing here is very gently pushing down just to see that. But again, I'm being very careful not to lose any gas. It's not gonna take it from the top left over and fall down. And you can see here my fingers, I'm sure gonna pull each side IVR and Folder over each finger. And the first time you do this, it's going to feel very, very strange, but it always does. So I'm just going to work down. And you can see I'm keeping finger down, folding over, pushing down, folding over, pushing down. And I love this process every day. It's very fun and said Please, please don't worry about it because it won't go wrong because you can kind of just push it down and it'll stick. And what we can do to, again create more tension and more strength. I can fold the top-down again and then I can repeat the process. So what you want to try and make sure is the DOE is very straight, so you haven't got a thin bed, the top and the bottom. You want to be very, very similar in length. And then again, I'm sure keep falling over. And then when I'm happy, I can get my dough and I'm just going to tidy up there a little bit. And then I can just roll over itself. So I'm not, I'm not pushing into the dough. I'm not releasing any of the gas. I'm just kinda pulling it. And then with my thumbs I'm just like bringing in Tibet. So that just keeps it nice time round. And then all I do is at the sides. I just fold the sides over. I just pinch them together. Quite how pinches just make sure it seals him. She gonna pinch the righthand side. I'm just going to very, very slightly rounded off. Just make sure it's not stuck to the workshop. And I'm going to put a bit more flour on top. Now flower in my prep basket as well, because assembling fat flour as well, which is very coarse. So what's great about that is if you use a very, very fine flour like your bread flour, all this can happen is when you put your life in, all the moisture will absorb the flower. Flower will go into the low, so then it will end up sticking so well. Here's some semblance of that flower is very, very coarse. And I'll put that in the basket and put on top of the dome long days, just loosen it and then lift it up. I'm gonna turn it over and put it in. So the side that is looking up at me is now facing down in the basket. And then just a little bit of flour on top of it, just to make sure that when we're baking it, it, it's got a nice slip flowery crust. It's got a nice flurry bottom. And also it means that when I cover it, when if it rises in the fridge or in its next prove, it's not going to stick to my foil or Microsoft or anything like that, right? So that's it. We've shaped our dough, it's proving basket. And I'm just now going to leave it for half an hour before putting it in the fridge. Now, when we put it in the fridge, it goes very cold, the temperature drops and it means it slows down the fermentation process. This part of the stage allows it to really love to really develop flavor. And that's important for me. It just gives it that lovely sour taste. And we've done it. I just wanna say well done, that is the biggest step of the process done. I hope you've enjoyed it. And now, the hardest days waiting, haley, It's weighting 12 to 18 hours of c. Hopefully, there's some sleep go into that. I usually finish my braid around about 89 o'clock in the evening. And then it means that by the time I wake up in the morning is 89 o'clock in the morning. If I want to wait a little bit longer to 18 hours, I can do at lunchtime. But it means I can bring out my life. I can bake it, I can score it, and then I've just got a lovely, lovely life. So yeah, put it in the fridge. Please have a drink. You should be really proud of yourself because it's a hard process to, to first get your head around. But hopefully now you've understood it more and you can be creating some lovely Saudi lives at home. So let's now move on to scoring and baking the left. 4. Scoring & Baking: So now it's time to score and bake the life. We've done all the hard work yesterday. We've created something that's really, really lovely. And we've now got out of the fridge and we can now get out of the Proving basket and go it's go time really. I've got my other than it's set to the highest setting icon, which is 250 degrees. And my cast-iron Dutch oven pan is in there that's roaring hot as well. That allows me to emulate a wheel bakers oven. And all I'm gonna do now is I'm going to tip the dough at the Peruvian basket and I'm going to score it. So I'm going to get my life. And this has been proven now for 12 hours, you can prove it in a fridge and a coal prove between 12 to 18 hours. And it looks great. So all I'm gonna do is I'm a sheet of Greece proof paper on top by chopping board here. I'm going to flip it. And that's just a really easy and safe way to get it out of the breadbasket without either knocking any gas out. And then because of flowered AT ready, well, I can just lift it straight off. And the next stage is to score it. So I've got my really sharp lame hand. And I'm sure do Wonka Head Start With one really quick up. Now, I think the worst thing you can do any cutting is doing a slow cat. So I wanna make sure it's really, really quick. So it's a clean cut. And I've got my Dutch oven where I'm just going to pull this out, put bread on side. And this is broader in hops 250 degrees. Someone put the bread in. The crisp paper allows me to pull him really, really quickly. I've got my port gun hair, so I'm just going to really quickly spray and gets much steam in. He can see as dean is, I'm just going to get that straight in the oven now. So the loaf is in the oven now and it's very tempting to lifted lead. Have a look, see how it's getting on, but please don't just leave it in there. I leave mine in for 23 minutes. And when that alarm goes to say you can take out a lift the lid off, turn the up and down, and then just try and have a peak food, See how it's doing and you should see that it's opened up, this is lifted up as risen. And yeah, it's an exciting part. So set that timer and we'll come back and chat. Okay, so now it's been 23 minutes, so I've taken it out. And you can see here, I'm going to lift it up and look at that. It's reason is expanded is it's trying to get at the top where we've made those score marks. It looks fantastic. So I'm now going to turn the up and down to about a 180 degrees. I'm going to put it back in there. I'm going to leave it in there for 25 minutes. Just trust me, leave it in there. It'll cook all the way through. If you want your bread to be slightly browner, just leave it in for five more minutes. You can be the judge. Again, ovens are going to be very different. But just use this as a guide. Be the judge of how you want it, but yeah, enjoy it. Just get it in there. Now you can see it cook in C. You can see the color. And we're not far away, not far away from. A delicious homemade Saudi life. Okay, so congratulations, we've baked us out. I love. Hopefully it looks fantastic and it's written really well. Now for probably the rest, hardest stage of the process, what few people say is, please don't hate me. You've got to let it cool down. So we can't talk in just yet. Often. I do break that role and cut it open and have some lovely hot red and obviously loads of butter on it as well. But if you open it now, if you cut open, you will potentially ruin the Chrome inside. So each one let it cool down, so it keeps that structure. And basically let it call and then we can cut open. So yeah, let's take, let. This is such an exciting bit because you want to hope that there's lots of lovely open crowd and look at that is absolutely lovely. A really nice even crown. The holes there look fantastic. And actual bake itself. It's really well baked all the way through some really happy with that. You can see that is on the side is such a large rise just from that one score we did. The crust and the crumb is absolutely fantastic, really happy with this. So Excel, it is so easy to make. It's just understanding those key principles. And you can make your life write this at home. And this is why they are cut in half. And then I fold it over and I find this is a really easy way to cut sourdough bread on doing just slicing half is low there. And that comes out really lovely low slices. And look at this. You know, this is just covering butter and eat it. Actually love it. Size is like this as well. You know, I, I, I'll toast to these in morning. Cook, cook 2X and just this just fantastic. I'm really happy with that. And then this is one, another one that I did just to show two different scores ready? So like I said before, if I've done just won't clean school. And I really like this one is for scores. You kinda make low square, but each score goes slightly longer than square. You bake it and halfway through, oh, look like this. And it just gives it a different look. I, I love it. Every, every bank has different scoring technique and the different marks. For me if, if my, my gotos this already see, this is a lovely crumb. Really, really nice and which cut in here. And look at that. Okay, that's great. It's different, as Alex said, every, everyone's different. And this, the whole zone is big by brilliant mind that still really even bake. It's an open crumb that's not really tightly packed in together. And you can see just from the scoring marks, the fact it has. And I think when I was doing this one, I didn't score is deeply, so it's not gonna rise as much. But this is more, I'd have this with Samaj is cut off. But if we cut in here, you can just see is very holy in this nice hose there. And that, again, when it's just slightly warm, just a nice bit of butter on top. Absolutely love it. Holds h go all the way through the crust is really, really lovely as well. So there we go. You've created your fantastic Saudi life at home. I just wanted to say congratulations and thank you for looking at the course. Hopefully it's turned out really well. And any questions as mentioned before, please do get in touch. If I can help people make incredible sourdough bread at home, I really wanna do that. So thank you. Refer to the guide. If you get stuck at all or watch the videos back again. And you can make it and have the videos next to you to so you can follow and also check out the website. There's lots of details there. And you can just kind of see the process again step-by-step and scroll through depending on what stage you're at. Sea. I thank you so much. If you want to check out the other courses you can and enjoy, enjoy your bread. And I hope it starts incredible bread journey. Thank you. 5. Baking Equipment: So I want to share with you some of the equipment that I use. And I've put a list below and I've also included it in the guide to show you the exact bits I use. Bayes important to remember that I don't need to spend a lot of money on this. Crate and bread for me is incredible because you get to share it with lots of people. But also it's very, very affordable and that's what I like about it. The things that I'm gonna show you, you can spend a lot of money if you look at different things online. But hopefully the links I've included are affordable and they show you that you can create incredible bread and you don't have to spend the world together. So first of all, I've got my bread scraper. This is a plastic bread scraper. It's very, very cheap. You can get it for around about four pounds, $5. I think this cost me about two pounds. Actually. I've got it in sale, but it's it's plastic. And it means I can shape the dough on my work top without scratching the workshop. This is an incredible investment for oxy baking bread. Any form of DO I even use it for making cakes or other things because it's got a nice straight edge. So this is definitely worthwhile. The next thing is the ln. This is what I used to score the bread. And again, this was a very affordable. You don't actually need the handle. It's just a very, very sharp blade here. You can get it from CMS as well. Just different blades you can get. And I use that luck said to score the dough, it's very, very sharp, but if you haven't got that for years, I choose the knife. I showed a very, very sharp knife I used. Make sure it's a very, very quick cut so you don't actually have to invest in it, but since having it is great. So if you can afford it, invest in it, because it gives you a very, very clean cut, which then leads to, again, a great life. And this is what I cook in. My Dutch oven pan, my cast iron pan. This isn't an expensive one. I've had this for years. I think it was about 20 pounds, actually, about $25. With this you with cast-iron pan, you can spend a lot of money and you online, they are Roundabout. Or they go they go into the hundreds. Personally, I wouldn't do that. You just want to pan that allows the bread to sit in it and you can seal the top of it. I've put a link in the guide and also on the course of the one that I would recommend and I'd use from Amazon. And basically you are just using this to recreate a baker's oven. You can trap scheme in this and that allows the bread to rise during the first stage of the cooking process. And finally, what I would recommend these bread banner tons, I've got two different ones. This one I've had since the beginning, again, very, very cheap, very affordable. We do is you just line this with flour and it just sits in, works really, really well. And yeah, just goes really nicely in the cupboard. And instead of using a bowl and a tea towel and getting things messy, this, I couldn't really recommend highly enough. And then this one, this is relatively new actually, it's a cardboard, kinda bored type. And it comes out really well. It just means it's a lot easier to clean. And it is a little bit more expensive, but it's fantastic. You can't get this wet dough and you get it where it would be ruined. But again, same process. I just add the flower. And it helps, it helps the bread in the final proof and comes out really well. So hopefully that gives you an insight into some of the equipment I use. And yeah, hopefully it can enhance your baking and get you one step closer to that. Perfect. So delay for him. 6. Starter Guide & Care: So I want to share with you some tips of how to create your startup but also maintain it. Now a lot of people don't like starters because they think it's a lot of work. And they say they've they've killed it in and they just can't keep it alive. I've learned a few tips and tricks that I will share with you. But before I start, I just wanted to say, I've put together a fully detailed guide that I've shared with you. So please refer to that as well. Just because I can make a video 2-3 hours long showing lots and lots of different tips. So I think it's important that I've just written it all down and you can read it and you've got it there to go through stuff. So having an incredible starter there it is. There's mine full of bubbles ready to go is very, very important when creating a sourdough life. I feed my twice a day and I also keep a small amount of time. You can see there, not that big. Other bakers I've spoken to, they keep huge amounts of it, which is great for them if they're baking, you know, three or four loaves a day. But personally, I didn't like doing that because it wastes flour. It's way more time consuming and you just feeding it constantly. So like I said, you're putting, you know, maybe 200 grams of flour twice a day if you want an active starter. So you're getting through almost a bag or half a bag of flour. And I didn't like doing that. So I keep a very small amount at time. There's 40 grams of starting here. I never go more than that. And then when a baking, I'll feed it so it goes up and there'll be 75 grams. And then it gives me enough to make a loaf. And also it gives me enough to continue my starter. So one of the most important things I can recommend is using organic flour. That's really, really important because quite often the first question I'll ask if someone comes to me and says I'm having an issue with my starter is what Flour using. And nine times out of ten, they're using a non-organic flower, which means it's usually been bleached. There's a lot of chemicals in there. And that just means that the natural occurring bacteria is not going to like that because the chemicals are going to be competing with it. It's just not going to work very well. So make sure you're using a strong white organic flower. And I also use a organic dark rye and organic strong White mix to feed my starter. So I feed my starter flour and water. But when I feed it with a flower, it's a mix. It's 25% of dark rye, seventy-five percent of white flower. And all I do to save time is probably maybe once every two weeks I've got my tub and I add my 25% of dark rye, my seventy-five percent of white flour, mix it all up. And then when I feed my starter, I'm not measuring small amounts. I'm just adding my flower in my water and give it an x. And then I leave it. Like I said, I feed it twice a day, once in the morning, once in the evening. If I find myself at home a lot, you know, let's just say if I take some time off work or I'm around for the holidays, it's kind of like I will feed it if I can't three times a day because it means that the more I feed it, the more active it gets and more bubbly It gets. So it's just a better starter, more active starter. And yeah, that's how I feed it. It's discard, so virtually remove all of the starter. I leave about three grams in there. And then I add 15 grams of flour, 15 grams of water, just mix, really, really mix it. And what that does, that mixing is I'm kind of giving it a chance for the flour to form with structure to activate that gluten. And then because of done that when the carbon dioxide is released, it allows these lovely bubbles to form. Like I've said, I'll show you there. You can see those bubbles there. And that's because I've mixed it really well and it's just keeping gases inside the starter. So like I said, there's plenty more advice that I've put in the guide of how to create your starter. That's very important. Please follow that. And, and then maintaining it. I don't feed it all the time. Quite often I put it in the fridge and you can keep it in the fridge for up to three weeks without feeding it. And that's again, people have busy lives, people go away on holiday. I'm not someone that takes my starter with me, but I try and keep out on the workshop when I can keep it in view. So if I forget about it, if I don't feed it in the morning, I'll be making lunch and I'll be off and need to feed my starter. That's quite important. But yeah, please don't obsess about it and please don't worry. If you miss a feed, you know, I could probably not feed this for a couple days. And when it's out at room temperature and still get away with feeding it, it will come back. It's very hard to kill a starter. If you've got mold on started, then I would start to be concerned and I wouldn't use it. Again. I've I've made a lot of mistakes. I've learned from them, and I've created a few startups as well. So that's important as well. It's a process to enjoy and it's a process to kind of figure out yourself and see how your variables will work. For example, your flour will be very different to mine if you're in a different country. So it's kind of making it unique to you. And all of those things will come together to allow you to make a really unique low fleck of said. And everyday food tastes different and that's important. So please feed you start to, well, again, if people ask me questions about their sourdough and it's my crumbs not very good or it's not rising as much. The first questions I will go back to is the starter. How much he feeding it, how many bubbles is it producing? What Flour using? So we want to use strong, strong wipe flour and dark rye flour. Mix that together. And if you can get a flower that has a very, very high protein content, that's very important as well. Anything around about 15 grams of protein. The one I'm using in this recipe or thinks about 14.8 grams. But the closer you can get to that 15 Mark will mean that you start will be strong and also your life will be fresh, strong as well. So thanks so much for checking this out. Hopefully that helps you to maintain your starter. Starter. And like I said, it's very important to keep that go and feed it regularly. The more we feel, more love and care you give it, the better it will respond. Say, thanks.