How to Ask For A Salary Increase Or Promotion (And How To Ace Your Performance Review) | Dr. Warren Chalklen | Skillshare

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How to Ask For A Salary Increase Or Promotion (And How To Ace Your Performance Review)

teacher avatar Dr. Warren Chalklen, Education Innovator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (40m)
    • 1. What is a performance review?

      6:12
    • 2. How to prepare for your review

      5:34
    • 3. Responding to your review

      2:25
    • 4. How To Ask For a Salary increase and Promotion

      3:58
    • 5. How to give a performance review

      4:35
    • 6. Demo Employee Review Sheet

      2:33
    • 7. Demo Useful Phrases

      8:44
    • 8. Methods of Collecting Data

      6:16
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About This Class

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This course is perfect for anyone eager to learn about or how to give/receive performance reviews.

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Give and receive quality performance reviews now! Get the results you are working towards now!

Receive your certificate on completion of this course!

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As the co-founder of a successful non-profit organization, a former policy analyst in the Office of the Presidency of South Africa and a Master's in Public Administration degree holder from the Bush School of Government I have extensive experience in the field of performance reviews. 

And now…I want to share my experience and insight with you so you can improve how you use performance reviews to inform performance, communicate results through meaningful dialogue and sharpen organizational culture.

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8+ Lectures and Over 1 hour of content!

✔ Easy to Learn Material—free template download available to get started

✔ Apply what you learn to your context

 Follow the Best Practices of Top Corporations For Your Context

Five-Star Review: Perfect for beginners.

Here are some facts about performance reviews:

Today, organizations continue to utilize performance reviews to optimize organization effectiveness.

This is what research says about the importance of performance reviews:

  • Managers who received feedback on their strengths showed 8.9% greater profitability. 

  • 69% of employees say they would work harder if they felt their efforts were better recognized

  • Companies who implement regular employee feedback have turnover rates that are 14.9% lower than for employees who receive no feedback

  • Here's what we will cover in this course...

 We start with the basics of performance reviews and then describe how to give and receive effective reviews.

Don't forget to check out the free preview lectures to sample my course. Are you ready to learn with me? By the end of this course students will know:

  • How to give a performance review

  • How to receive a performance review

  • Prepare for a performance review

  • Effective performance review phrases

Don't wait another day to start learning how to execute and receive effective performance reviews.

CLICK "TAKE THIS COURSE" TO GET STARTED NOW!

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr. Warren Chalklen

Education Innovator

Teacher

Dr. Warren Chalklen is an education innovator who has taught over 92,000+ students across 179 countries using online and face to face platforms. He is passionate about building individual and organizational capacity in the fields of diversity, policy analysis, and data driven performance with softwares such as Excel, Salesforce and Balanced Scorecard tools. In his spare time he loves to travel and recently returned from a vacation in Cuba!

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Transcripts

1. What is a performance review?: welcome back in this particular session, I'll be talking about the basics off the performance review or performance appraisal, and by the end of it you will know the differences not only between these times but also the features of a performance review. What is a performance appraisal and how is the difference from a performance review? Well, they're synonyms. You can use the terms, performance review, performance evaluation, career development discussion or employee appraisal simultaneously. Throughout this course, I'll be using the terms performance, appraisal and performance review. What do they mean? Well, what it captures is how your organizational goals aligned with the work that the team members in this organization are doing. Put in another way how your organization, how your goals as an individual in the organisation align with the organization's cults. So I see that a piece of this is cut off. But let me just put this in a very simple way just to give you a snapshot off what this actually means. In reality, a performance review is a way in which a organization is able to think about the people that work in the organization and, most importantly, how their work contributes to the mission vision and direction off the organization itself . And it not only is important for the organization, but it's also important for the career development off those that are in the building. What are the features of a performance review? The first future is that it collects data. Often people will talk about informal performance reviews well. Those are also methods of collecting data. A performance review is about using information and thinking through information. To make strategic performance decisions, you can have a performance review annually quarterly, weekly and sometimes even daily. The key feature of another key feature off the performance review is the alignment with organizational goals. In other words, how your work as mentioned earlier, how your work aligns with the work of the organization. And finally, it's performance oriented. A performance review focuses on what the person is doing on the contribution they are making towards the organization, so it is an evaluative tool as well. Let's talk about some of the benefits. The benefits of a performance review is that it facilitates conversations about the work that people are doing in the organization. So, for example, often we get so caught up in completing tasks. Well, what a performance review does is help to align those tasks and the purpose of those tasks to the ultimate peppers. It helps you set goals to achieve and gives people direction. It helps people improve their performance by understanding the boundaries and the goals and the plans that often come as a result of performance reviews. And finally, it helps determine training needs. However, performance reviews can also cause unnecessary complications. They are very strong negative perceptions of performance reviews, often in the literature. It talks about how performance reviews actually adversely affect performance. Well, this can become toe acted. However, It's important for you to understand that a performance review is not good by itself. It has to be done in a way that improves performance and in crude improves quality. Some complications can also be legal issues, often because of the nature of how performance reviews can be conducted. This can create complications when it comes to bias and some other elements that we will talk about a little bit later. And finally, performance reviews can have an adverse effect on the performance goals. What this means, for example, is that often managers will track and evaluate employees on certain measures, and employees will spend more time on those measures than other tasks that may be equally as valuable to the organization but may not necessarily be able to be tracked in the organization. For example, if the manager only focuses on finances, how many sales are made, they may not necessarily see that there are other elements that need to be taken into account and not just the final number at the end of the month. And so employees may see that they're only being evaluated on their sales on Do not take into account other quality standards in the execution off their work. So how can we improve performance appraisals or performance reviews? Well, training is critical talking through the point off if a performance review is critical for people to understand, particularly as it relates to pay for performance. Secondly, providing feedback to raters. Often the people who are giving performance reviews after need reviews themselves to understand how they can improve the way in which they give feedback. And finally, subordinate participation in the literature has been a critical way. In other words, a dialogue rather than a a linear process off performance reviews has been proven to be the most effective way off executing a performance review process. 2. How to prepare for your review: Hello and welcome to the section where we talk about how to prepare for your review. Well, you may have already had a review, or this might be your first time. Either way, this section is gonna talk a little bit about how you can maximize the review process and prepare effectively. We're going to cover a few things that I highly recommend you do before you step into the interview or the review process. The first thing is to have a list of things to talk about beforehand. We're going to be conducting a SWAT analysis later on in this course. But for now, let's talk about some of the major things. The first thing that you should be ready to talk about are some of your biggest challenges that you're facing as well as your biggest accomplishments. You'll notice that I put accomplishments in capital letters because that is the balancing part off the performance review. You don't only want to talk about the challenges that you're facing. You also want to be ready to talk about what you've done and how what you've achieved, as well as to reflect on your previous reviews and the results of those reviews connect what you did before to what you're doing now. Secondly, be honest about what isn't working for you remember, It's important how you frame the discussion, and what that means is to think about the words you use when you talk about your performance. There are very useful phrases such as one of the challenges that I have faced have been X y and Zed, as opposed to saying something like, I am worse at doing this or I am really, really terrible at doing X. It's important for you to think about how you are framing these, and it's important to use positive framing in the way that you come across okay, and let me give you a few more examples. In a performance review, one of my employees came out and said, I'm absolutely terrible at my job, and I think that what isn't working for me is that I'm working long hours. We had to have a dialogue in a discussion about how the employees could reframe that conversation. They were being honest with me, which I appreciated. And that's what the first thing that I said, thank you for the honesty that you are sharing. But let's look at how we refrain this conversation, the language that I helped this person develop. The first thing that I suggested was instead of describing her work is terrible. Let's look at her previous performance reviews and see where her strengths are and the good work that she has done. That was the first piece. So instead of using the word terrible, we looked at the word. We use the word challenges or we use the word difficulties that she is facing. The second thing we spoke about was instead of saying she's working long hours, was to think about ah ho overall work schedule and talk about her work in relation to the value that she is putting in and the value that she is getting out and talk about schedule rather than being overworked, addressed the core rather than the outcome. I'll talk a little bit more about this, but that's just an example of how we were able to reframe the way she was quite describing her performance. Be alert, upbeat and ready to talk. There's nothing worse than sitting in a sleepy performance review. Be well rested, focused and prepared to talk about your job. Have a few points that you would like the manager to leave with. When they thinking about your performance review. Let them leave with three key things. And I like to start off my performance reviews when I'm receiving them by starting off with three key things that I want my manager to take away from that discussion. And often it will be about the results that I've achieved, the work, commitment or ethical leadership, some quality that I have achieved and thirdly, what I'm trying to get to achieve next time. So that's how I like to frame my three things. An example of what I like to walk into a performance review with is I say that I've I'm very grateful and very happy that I have achieved my sales figures. I've not only achieved the sales figures, but I've also being a leader in my team. And finally, I hope to grow in the area off leadership so that I can develop further so notice that the first thing I spoke about was an objective measure. The second thing I spoke about was high working in a team, and the third thing I spoke about was what I need to achieve going forward. And I can only do that if I'm engaged in the performance review, and that leads me to my fourth piece, which is be ready to discuss your role in the big picture. It's always important to know the mission of your organization and to talk about not only the mission of your organization, but the department that you might be in and how your work fits in to that overall picture. And be ready to talk about your performance in relation to those goals, the overall goals, the macro goals and the micro calls as well. 3. Responding to your review: Let's talk a little bit about how to respond to your review. The first thing that's really critical when you are engaged in a performance review is to consider criticism objectively. Be aware of your thoughts. Be aware of your emotions and think through and separate the criticism from who you are as a person. Often we can internalize performance reviews as assessments of our character, when in fact a performance review is an assessment of our performance. When thinking about your goals, set reasonable goals for improvement, make sure that they're smart, specific, measurable, achievable, results oriented and timeframe. Get the help or training that you need. Figure out what you need. Use the performance review process to think about areas off support that you need to perform your job effectively. Andi, in the greatest, most ethical and value centered way that you can, and training is a critical way to improve the work that you do. Remember to also look for opportunities to show improvement. Check in with your manager and keep your supervisor away off your progress, particularly when engaged in training and professional development opportunities. Remember to always check end an update. Managers on how those investments in you are being the return in which those investments are having for your job and for your performance. Keep the results of your review to yourself. Remember, a performance review is a private exercise. Those that go out and shape the results of the performance review are often viewed in a negative light. So avoid telling other people. And if you need to remember to be tactful and non boastful, okay, that's a best practice and finally move forward. Reflect on your performance review. Take what it is that you can use. Discard some things that may be unnecessary. You'll have to use your professional judgment, but use the performance review to re energize yourself and find ways to move forward. 4. How To Ask For a Salary increase and Promotion: Hello. Everyone in this section will be talking about how to ask for a salary increase or promotion when we're asking for a salary increase. There's a few principles that are really, really important to know. Firstly, timing is everything. It's really important to build your message to think about the kind of message you want to deliver and make sure that you don't spring it on your manager within your performance review to try and open up a conversation beforehand. Secondly, determine your worth. Use re sources such as Glassdoor, which will help you determine salaries in your position in your location across industries . That way, you would be able to see how you compare. Thirdly, plan your approach Used data such as the data from Glassdoor tired back to the organization's goal. Make sure that your salary increase shows value for your organization and prepare for multiple scenarios. Think through what will happen if your manager says no. What what will you do then? Let's say they want to talk options with you. Have some options available on Finally try to include other benefits within your negotiation, so perhaps your manager may not be able to give you a salary increase but may be able to give you other benefits, such as time off, working from home, different flexible working hours as well as insurance and the like. We've spoken a little bit about how to ask for a salary increase. Let's talk a little bit about how to ask for a promotion and similar principles. Apply. Firstly, prepare. Make a case for yourself. Used the SWAT analysis and think about how your accomplishments and how those linked to the organization's call. Importantly, the is be specific demonstrated upper trend of value. In other words, for the promotion that value that you will bring to that your work and to the organization as a whole as a result of the promotion, What will be different if you get this? Secondly, be clear about the position that you actually want. Make sure you're familiar with the job description and ensure that you demonstrate a good fit. It might be very good to set some goals for yourself to gain the skills that the job description at requires, so that you can make sure that you fit it in a demonstrative away. Thirdly, as I mentioned in the salary Review is to get the timing right, take the landscape of the company and department very seriously. Think about the situation in the landscape, and maybe some change in the department could present you an opportunity to spring your promotion request. Understand your bus and thirdly, don't wait too long. Often, people can get stuck a t least in the manager's mind in their positions. So think about that as you go through. Finally, do your research. Be prepared to talk about how much money you want to make. Use salary dot com and pay scale dot com. Thes air Resource is that I think are incredibly valuable to figure out what, um, salaries and promotions look like across industries. Um asked for the meeting and ensure that you don't catch your bus off God. The key thing to take away from both a salary and promotion increases to have a plan in place and to prepare your message, I wish you well, and I hope to hear more from you as the class continues. Please remember to leave me a review and any feedback I can use to improve this cost. Thank you so much. 5. How to give a performance review: Welcome to the section where we talk about how to give an effective performance review. Many managers that I've spoken with find the task of performance reviews either incredibly invigorating or incredibly daunting. Those that find out the process daunting struggle with issues of communication and separating out the person from the work that the person does. Those that find the performance review process invigorating are able to see the process as a opportunity to improve not only performance but improve the motivation off the person that they are evaluated. And so what this section will do the session will do is talk about some basic principles that will help you sort of in the process. And then in the second part, I'm gonna be talking about some useful phrases that will help you frame and communicate your performance review in an effective way. So here are some basic principles that we have. The first thing is avoid surprises and void being the worm in the apple. Um, ensure that the person who's walking in and us, the manager are providing feedback to this person, doesn't feel hijacked or ambushed in the session. They should know the basic things that you're going to be talking about. Perhaps a memo could be sent to them beforehand, and some talking points could be drawn up. Ensure that you are prepared. Be the frog and the chef. You know, prepare the meal. Prepared the conversation. Think about what message you it is that you are delivering and have three basic points that you want to get across. I spoke about it when I was looking at performance reviews from the perspective of employees. But Manager should also have three basic things that they want to deliver to the person that they are having the performance of review with. They should have basic, uh, pieces off goals. They should have traits, and they should have movement going forward. So where the person is diagnostically, where the person is strategically and where it is that they're going moving forward in terms of their calls. An important characteristic, often off a excellent manager rather than a mediocre manager, is how the manager is able to take responsibility for their role in the performance review and their role in the employee's performance. So what does this mean? This means that one has to understand that nothing happens in a vacuum within a workspace in an organization. The worth the employee does is often directly linked to the way in which the manager manages that employees. And so they are spaces in which the manager has to take responsibility for how the performance of the employees plays out in the workplace. So ensure that you are you own and you name the areas in which you are responsible for at the areas in which the employee is responsible for and show that you keep the performance review professional, ensure that you enter the space in a professional mindset and that you keep the goal of the performance review, which is not to break someone down, but rather to build someone up and to equip them with the tools that they need to performed . They work effectively, also ensure that your professionalism motivates them and helps them see areas of improvement and finally, balance. Positive and negative feedback begin with the strengths off the employees. Often we begin performance reviews by just talking about what people do wrong, but ensure that you begin with the strengths, then talk about the weaknesses, the opportunities and the possible threats that the employees could be facing using these principles that have spoken about these five key principles you are equipped to begin to think about. How do execute an effective performance review in the next session? I'll be talking a little bit about some useful phrases you can use to frame your performance review and get better results. I'll see you that. 6. Demo Employee Review Sheet: Hello and welcome. I wanted to talk a little bit about what an employee performance review sheet could look like for you have taken this from Hoover Web design dot com, and I don't take any credit for it, and I don't get any royalties for it. But in the work that I've done, I found this to be the most useful sheet, and so I wanted to share it with you in the hope that it could provide you with some insight to at the top. We have the employee name department, the reviewer, which maybe you as the manager, as well as the date and the period of review. Remember, we can review annually quarterly, monthly, weekly or biweekly. We have the reviewers title, so not only the reviewer, but also their title. And what we have here is an example of a quantitative and qualitative review process where you can describe these components the promise evaluation, whether it's excellent, good, fair or poor. And put in some comments and what you could also do is number. These so you could say excellent is four and poor is one and three and two, and then you could add up the force that three is the twos and come up with an average that could help the person as well the employees or the person receiving the performance review . The comments are really very, very helpful As you're thinking about the work that you're doing and how that fits together . All right, you can also provide an overall rating so you can count how many times someone got excellent, fair, good and, uh, poor Excuse me, and then you could make sure that you, um rate them over old. Finally, you can also put in the qualitative piece, which is opportunities for development. This is where you could put in training opportunities. You could also put in comments. And you could also think about the phrases that we've spoken about and how you could use those phrases in the comments section right over here. Finally, you could save this, and you could also ask the person that you are reviewing to sign it as well. And so in this with this form, you could file it somewhere and use it and refer back to it. When you are giving the next performance review. I hope you find this helpful and I look forward to hearing more from you. If you find other resource is as well 7. Demo Useful Phrases: Welcome to this demo lecture. In this section, I will be talking about some useful phrases that you can use to help frame your performance review with your employees. I did some research and found that attitude, communication, leadership and critical thinking are the key areas that managers are looking for in their employees and so obstructed this section around those phrases. When we thinking about attitude with thinking about customer service attitude is a critical , um, tool to think about when you are framing your performance review for your employees. I've put together some positive and negative phrases for each component, and when we thinking about positive, we're thinking about things like viewpoints. So, for example, you could say something that Lula frequently has a positive view point, and we appreciate her attitude when she makes decisions in difficult situations. Notice how this framing is focusing on both the attitude and the job that Lula is performing. You could say something like Jenny is always positive, or Wendell is appreciated by us because of his way of thinking about things. He's willing to share positive thoughts, which is refreshing the theme to take away from a positive attitude review is to think about the person's persona and how that relates to the work and the work environment. Let's look at some negative phrases, Kimble's team reports in productively, but he has some contradictions with other managers, which must be resolved. Notice. How attitude could this this sort of phrase could be used for multiple reasons for multiple areas. But for this particular area we're thinking about reporting and the way in which Kimber is not only communicating but the attitude. So a key take away here is that often these components overlap with each other. Leadership make overlap with attitude. The mail app overlap with other things. Let's look at amber. Amber needs to be aware of how her attitude is affecting those around her, and so you, as a manager, would talk a little bit more about examples. That's a critical piece you need to attach these phrases. Two examples off Amber's work embers work in Tom's work, for example, and this is both relevant for negative and positive feedback. Tom knows that certain conversations provoked members of his team, and yet he continues to be vocal about non work related topics. Tom Zookeepers conversations, work related notice that although this phrase is about communication, in other words conversations, it also reveals a little bit about Tom's attitude towards his work. And so you will. This is a great example off an opportunity to provide Tom with some examples of when he's actually done this particular thing. That's a good communication. And here you're thinking about clearness, effectiveness and impact of communication. And that's a critical thing for you to always think about. The impact off attitude, the impact of communication, of critical thinking and the like. So let's look at the 2nd 1 in positive. Sam produces easily understanding reports and presentations. So we're talking about written and verbal communication here. Mandy effectively deals with others, both internally and externally. She respects confidentiality and provides timely feedback on follow up and manages others expectations. Appropriately, I put respects in a capital letter because part of communication part of attitude is this idea of respecting people and not only respecting them but also respecting their culture and the lack. So communication is a critical part of that. Finally, negative. Let's think about how you know the opposite of some of these things. So if John was communicating clearly and effectively, Harper was struggling to effectively communicate his ideas clearly. Okay, Wendy can improve in written communication by reading her members are liars and asking for an independent. I notice how these phrases often offer solutions or offer assistance to the person that is receiving them. And Adam can improve into personal communication by being aware of his tone. Let's look at leadership. Leadership is a very complex thing, and so you will often be tasked with providing very concrete examples to your employees. Kyle is able to set a direction for his group and navigate the right course. So this is when an example way. I would use this phrase to help me give Kyle examples of when he's done these exact things . Tando acknowledges the accomplishments of employees and recognizes their contributions. This is an important leadership tactic. Rory encourages employees to take responsibility for their performance. So once again where when it's positive with thinking about these keywords, such as contribution, recognition, responsibility, navigation direction, these air some phrases that are really helpful in the leadership component. Let's look at some negatives. Sarah often seems adrift due to a lack of leadership. Bill needs to improve his strategic outlook and not spend so much time focus on the tactical. So I have include two pieces in here, and I put them together because they were really great examples off when talking about leadership, talking about something like a drift or strategic thinking. And those are important ways to frame leadership areas for leadership improvement. Finally, Kevin should work on his active listening skills over the next year by taking a leadership course so often you're phrases can dovetail or link with training opportunities. Let's look at critical thinking. Critical thinking is imperative for teamwork and practically solving problems. So let's look at how we framed critical thinking. Greg's investigative skills have provided a key resource for a team focused on solving glitches. His ability to quickly assess a problem and identify potential solutions is key to his excellent performance. This is an example of a fantastic way of framing Greg's critical thinking skills, and if you want to make it more succinct, you could just say something like Wendy analyzes decisions before implementing them. Let's look at ways in which you could frame this in a so called negative way, so let's look at lend Len is good at identifying a problem, but he fall short when it comes time to suggest potential solutions. This is another way for Sen, for example. While others may be able to come up with a couple of options, send seems struck on the problem itself without being able to discover potential resolutions to that problem, it's a critical thinking could also be a synonym for problem solving right joint. He needs to expand his analytical skills to help identify core issues and suggest appropriate responses. So, in a nutshell, and in thinking about these phrases, here are some key takeaways. The first take away is that phrases help you frame the conversation. The second take away is to ensure that you use concrete examples when using these phrases. And thirdly, a main take away is to link the phrase to some kind of action to improve or to really refer back to actions that have already been implemented. They were effective Now, as you go about thinking about these performance reviews and using these phrases, it will be important for you to come up with a definition for each one of these pieces. For example, what is critical thinking mean to you? Does it mean problem solving is problem solving Not a better phrase to use these air some things that you need to think about as you go through and and use phrases throughout your performance reviews. 8. Methods of Collecting Data: Welcome back in this section, we will be talking about the methods of collecting data. Remember that every performance review is about collecting information that they use or we use to influence or inform performance. Would we talk about data we're talking about Qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data refers to qualitative pieces in other words, feelings, thoughts and words. I wouldn't be talking about quantitative data. We're talking about numbers. How these I used is very, very influential in the kind of performance review you are able to effect. For example, if you raise an employee five out of five and you rate another employee five out of five quantitatively but qualitatively, you know that person A is more effective and works harder than person B. That means that the five at the one person God is not the same as the five at the other got , and you need qualitative information to be able to distinguish the nuances between the two . Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative data are really important. When we're thinking about performance reviews. There are three times off data that is collected, objective personnel and judgmental data. Objective data refers to things such as sales figures and production numbers. This is really important when you're thinking about how someone is measured. The second main type is called recording or personnel data. This is a punitive kind of data that is used to penalize often those in blue collar industries for things such as absent ears. Then we have judgmental data. Judgmental data uses rating systems such as the 1 to 5 that I mentioned earlier to determine the performance off the person. This is the most popular kind off performance data that we collect in. Performance reviews on these can include both quantitative and qualitative components, as discussed earlier. One of the types of assessments weaken do self assessments where someone assesses themselves through their own lens. We have peer assessments in which people who are on the same level as you in the organization assess you. 360 degree feedback is when those across the organization both above you, below you and next to you if you will assess your performance and then we have negotiated performance appraisal, and this is where you and your manager engage in a dialogue. Um, and the performance reviews are co constructed and co evaluated. It is very important when we're talking about performance reviews to talk about the cross cultural implications off these performance reviews. The main take away from this is that a performance review is not a neutral exercise. It someone in power, namely a manager, is evaluating another person. And so the biases that exist in society when it comes to race. When it comes to gender, sexual orientation, age, ability and other factors shape how people are evaluated. And so what may be effective in one context may not necessarily be effective in another. For example, in South Africa were very cooperative, and we use a very interpersonal method of evaluating one another, whereas in other cultures a very assertive and personal accomplishment perspective is used quite after. And this could be very difficult. When you bring these two worlds together, because in some cultures, personal accomplishment and talking about that is completely acceptable, and in others it may not be so. So your take away as a manager on as an employee is to think about the cultural context in which the performance review takes place. Let's talk about some issues with assessment. The first issue is rated bias This is when people bring their own prejudices on their own biases from their lives, as people outside of the work context into the work environment. And this is a very, very critical thing to understand and to check if you're a manager. The halo effect describes when a manager gives a employees fantastic reviews across multiple factors, when in fact they're only good or they outperformed in only one element. Another issue with assessment is the contrast effect, in which someone is evaluated according to their colleague standards as well as their own standards. This can be quite a challenge. The key take away when it comes to collecting data is to understand that data is used both qualitatively and quantitatively, to assess not only diagnostically where you are, but also to strategically where you ought to be. Data, however, is not a neutral thing it is used to evaluate, and it has cultural implications as well as implications such as biased, the halo effect and the contrast effect. What will be doing in the next section is talking about how you as an employee can prepare for these features but also prepare to take on your performance review. I'll see that