How To Study For Exams - A Scientific Approach To Essential Study Skills | Dr. Gary White | Skillshare

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How To Study For Exams - A Scientific Approach To Essential Study Skills

teacher avatar Dr. Gary White, Senior Data Scientist

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

19 Lessons (2h 47m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Low Utility Learning Techniques

    • 3. Moderate Utility Learning Techniques

    • 4. High Utility Learning Techniques

    • 5. Getting Beyond Learning Styles

    • 6. Does Listening To Music Make Studying Less Effective

    • 7. Handwriting vs Typewriting Notes

    • 8. Flash Cards

    • 9. 20 Rules For Formulating Knowledge Part 1

    • 10. 20 Rules For Formulating Knowledge Part 2

    • 11. 20 Rules For Formulating Knowledge Part 3

    • 12. Dealing With Longer Problems

    • 13. Studying Should Require Work

    • 14. Pomodoro Technique

    • 15. How To Reduce Distractions

    • 16. Building Habits

    • 17. The Feynman Technique

    • 18. Setting SMART Goals

    • 19. Congratulations!!!

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About This Class

Even though we can be in school for 15-20 years we are never taught what are the most effective study techniques that we should be using. In this course we take an evidence-based look at the latest scientific literature on study techniques to find out what techniques we should be using. Using effective study techniques allows students to boost their grades and frees up time to do more interesting things. Most student's rely on intuitive techniques like highlighting and rereading, but these have shown to not be very effective and lead to poor exam results. If you want to find out the most effective learning techniques, take this course.

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr. Gary White

Senior Data Scientist


Hello, I am a senior data scientist from Ireland. I recently finished my PhD in Computer Science and I am hoping to teach classes that I would have liked to have had while I was a student. My research and teaching experience is in machine learning and data science. I also have experience working with distributed systems and now work in industry for a large tech company.

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1. Introduction: this is a course on head study. Effectively, we focus on improving student learning. What effective learning techniques. So we take a look at the latest literature on water, the most effective techniques we can be using when studying for exams. So most students are not using optimal learning techniques that they're using techniques such onside lighting and re reading which are not very good for getting results in exams to . In this course, we will present you with a lot of techniques which are much more effective and allow you to get better results in your exams. So one of these techniques is practiced testing, and we can see the huge improvement that students cash by just having a practice test before their exams. We also look at distributed practice. So does cramming the night before a test work on we reveal some interesting research which has analyzed this question. We also look into what type of learning style star And so are you an auditory learner, kinesthetic learner or a visual learner. You should be some interesting research that you can have to your learning style on what techniques you should be using. So we also look at some interesting research questions like those music makes studying less effective on. We look at different types of music, so we look a vocal music, instrumental music or no music on. We see how that effects. Studying for a range of different tests. We also have a section on how to remove distractions. So if you find yourself getting distracted player Mobile phone Quite a lot. We have a section on some techniques that you can try to incorporate into your study to hopefully remove some of distractions. You have your phone so you have more time to study for your exams. We also have an interesting section on some of the research that has been done on having a growth mindset. So I have students who are praised for effort rather than being praised for intelligence, lead to much better examination results. After a failure on leads to much more motivation to get better. Only we have a section on saying gold. So we focus on the smart ical framework which is having goals which are specific, measurable sign, herbal, realistic on time related. So these goals will help you to set what you want to achieve in the next few years as regards to exams. And if you're interested in finding what the latest research has to say about what techniques you should be studying for exams, then this course is for you. 2. Low Utility Learning Techniques: so welcome to this course on how to study effectively. This course we're gonna be looking at improving student learning with effective learning techniques. So we're gonna look at what the latest scientific literature could tell us a bit effective learning techniques on which sort of techniques that we should be using one starting for exams. So even though some must give me an education for 15 to 20 years, were never actually tell us had study effectively on def. You think of the amount of tests that you're gonna be taking within that time. Ish would be really great if you have an understanding of what were the most effective techniques to use on not just using something that either your friends or maybe one of your teachers told you, which might not be that effective. So a lot of the techniques bash students use at the moment, such as highlighting and re reading are not that effective on if they replace them by more effective study techniques like practice testing, they would see much more improved results in their exams. So it's a really important topic on We're gonna be looking at what the latest scientific literature can tell us about this. So one of the most recent papers that has been published is by John Danowski. So he looked at improving students learning would effective learning techniques, promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. So he had looked ash, 10 different learning techniques. So this included highlighting read, reading, South Explanation summary ization, Andi practice testing on a lot of other techniques as well. So one of the really great things about this paper is it constantly evaluates, have the learning techniques performed when used by students, and in some cases it offers a direct comparison between learning techniques. So this gives us a really clear indication off which techniques are actually working on what techniques are not achieving the good results in exams. So we can really learn a lot from this paper and try to incorporate it into, um, how we study for exams. It's 55 pages in length, which is really long for an academic article on. It has lots of detailed experiments, so it's really good source of information about this topic. So in this video, we're going to look at the low utility learning techniques, so these air to techniques that we should try to avoid offence sitting as they haven't shown great improvement in students for taking tests. So the first taking is summaries ation. Then we have highlighting or underlining, and we have keyword, no Monix imagery for text on re reading. So the summary ization you've probably heard of it before, maybe even used it before. It's where you write summaries of various lengths on the tubular in text. So this is quite popular and you try and basically captured the gist of a long text on. Put it into maybe an index card highlighting our under lighting. Were you Mark potentially important portions of the to be learned textile reading? Then we have keyword Monix so using keyword on mental imagery to associate verbal materials . So this could be things like Roy G. Biv to remember the colors of the rainbow. Then we have imagery for texts, so attempting to form mental images off the text materials are reading or listening. Andrea reading. So you re reading, I would say, is the most popular technique used by students. So it's basically restarting material, restarting the tax material again after an initial reading. And so these are the low utility techniques, and we're gonna take a look, um, in more detail in this video, and maybe try to explain why their lower utility so one of things that I want to mention is that there's always an opportunity cost when discussing learning takings. So it's not that low utility learning techniques are completely useless and you will learn material. It's just that you won't learn it as effectively as by using moderate on high utility learning techniques. So even though you might learn something 10% better by using a re reading if you're using a much more effective techniques, you might learn is 90 or 80% better but using one of those techniques. So you're missing ash on a lot of the potential benefits of using the high utility learning techniques. If you're just using stayed low utility techniques under some of the experiments, we can see that there is a direct comparison between approaches on students who are using the low utility techniques before Morris on the final exam compared to the students using the high utility learning techniques. So there's always keep in mind this opportunity costs, even if some of the low utility techniques actually improve student performance. So the first technique that we're going to look at his summary ization. So we identify the main points of the text and captured just while excluding theon important points. So this can be if you're going through a book or some notes that you've got from your lecturer and you're just trying to capture the most important point. So maybe a couple of sentences per page dash, you think are the most important points. So students may need to receive some coaching on which points to including a summary so that they're not including maybe some unimportant or not so important points in the summary ization Inter actually missing a lot of the most important points. So looking at the results on this technique, we can see that civilization on no taking where more beneficial than verbatim copying. Um, so looking at the diagram on the right, we can see that there was a number correct out of 25 for an immediate test on a delayed test. We can still see that because it's out of 25 20 getting 14 out of 25 correct, which isn't really decoration, um, on looking at the media test so we can see that summary ization on no taking improved results compared to decontrol. So he control. Um, just read the paper when it's memorization on the summer ization had read the paper and made some really on. Then when we look at the delayed test and we see a drop off results for thesis immunization on no taking so we can see that the standard Arab ours for the note taking and summaries Asian start to overlap with the control group. So it's not showing that great of an improvement compared to the control group. So overall, this is a low utility technique. But a Campion effective strategy for learners were already skilled. That's immunization. So one of the points of at this technique is that you really need to know what you're looking for when using some ization on that. If you summarise points, which maybe aren't too important, you're gonna miss ash on a lot of the key details in the text. So you need to be quite skilled at normalisation. So, um, there's better techniques that could be used. So one of the other techniques that come are one of the under point stuck amid of this experiment is writing about important points in one own's in one's own words, produces a beneficial over a selecting important information. So as opposed to, um, copying the text for a beige um, or no taking. It's better to try and put it into your own words and buy some more ization Bush. Even still, it's not really that created of effective technique. So there's better techniques that we could be using, which we learned about in detail. Utility lecture. So one of the techniques that is most appealing to students is highlighting, underlining. You can see the diagram on the right. What often happens when students are told to highlight text is that everything becomes highlighted on then when everything is highlighted. It's not really effective because there's no clear distinction off washer and the most important points. So one of the reasons it appeals to students is because it's easy to implement on. Did you get a great sense of achievement? So if you can look back in a chapter on, you can see all the work that you've done. There is lots of paragraphs Island. It shows that you know you've done a lot of work in this chapter. But when it comes to the final exam, um, will you be able to recall that information or remember the information that you've highlighted on? If you're a high legend, entire blocks of text, it's quite unlikely that you'll be able to recall it. So in most situations and where it is being examined, highlighting does little to boost performance. So, you know, in this image we see another example of the highlighting everything strategy, so it can be the first step to identify key points that could be used in other learning techniques. The benefits of marking text may be more likely to be observed when experiments imposed explicit limits on the amount of text students are allowed to mark. So for the experiments that they'd looked at, they didn't impose thes specific limits. So students and would be able to America's much text that they wanted, which could lead to these scenarios. So do you still needs to be some experiments done. If you were limiting the amount of text that the students could mark Bush, it hasn't been shown to improve and performance in final exams dramatically, so there's probably more effective techniques that can be used. So one of the other techniques that is quite popular is keyword mnemonics. So in order to learn the Spanish word for grass, which is Pasto, I first think of the word pastor the key word that I've chosen and then imagine Pastor noodles growing up out of the grass. So this is basically where you create these vivid images on. Then you try to remember those vivid images. I m to help you association words to it. So it's really popular in languages where you may be trying to learn a specific word in a different language, and you want to invoke a really fearful images to help you remember. So when asked what the Spanish word for grasses that should trigger the image pasta growing a bit of the grass on help you to recall the word Pasto. So one of the problems with this technique on you will see for their techniques in low and utility is that the really effective for immediate testing. But when it comes to delayed testing, they're not as effective. So when you develop this mental image off, the pastor growing out of the grass. It's really effective. But over time, this tends to you forget about all these images. And if you have, say, 20 return T of these crazy images you will eventually forget about, um on it won't be able to remember exactly what you're thinking off. And when you came up with these images. So if you see the mean number of words were called for the immediate testing, we see that using the key words, we had gotten improved performance compared to road repetition. But if we look at the delayed test in both of these experiments, we don't see any direct improvement on DSO. One of the problems with this technique is that worse. In the second experiment, we see a media testing we'd perform better. But then, on the delayed testing, we'd actually performed a lot worse, Which is? One of the problems with studying techniques is that it's so hard to know if you're studying correctly. So even though you might get a sense of achievement here that you you know, you're performing better immediately when you're testing yourself. In the long term, you don't actually improved that much. So developing mental images with keywords has been shown to improve results for immediate testing. Bush When you look at his delayed testing over 30 days, it actually doesn't improve your learning all that much. So. Imagery for text, um, is having students mentally imagine the content of each paragraph using simple images. Um, figure shows boosted results when figures are not us to try all the images. So here and they was two parents to the experiment with no drawing or drawing on which imagery on no drawing through waas a slight improvement inthe e comprehension performance. So this was helping destroyed in to understand what was happening. And if you visualize it, it can help you slightly understand. Ah, the material better. So it was largely constrained to image friendly material. So this could be in languages where it's releasing to come up wish imagery to associate with words but safer, maybe abstract mathematics, where it's much more difficult to come up with images to associate with the topics. It is much more difficult on the results that we're seeing here and really Doc Dramatic. So it's maybe, um, 70 to 65 under standard error bars aren't really that prayer part on in theater experiment . It actually goes the other way when we're actually drawing out these images. So further research is needed in this technique, but it's currently rated as low utility because we're not releasing the dramatic improvement by using a computer to not using it so re reading. So this is probably the most popular student technique. Use plant rent. 84% of students in a recent survey. So space treating at performance mast reading and by he say, having a treat for day log between re readings so it requires no training on the students can usually measure progress. So say, compared to some realization where you might need Teoh, have some training on which are the most important points re reading. You just re read the material. So it's very easy for students to do so. It can be effective for capturing the main ideas. Bush. It misses the details, um, in head to head comparisons with their learning techniques. Re reading is not effective, say practice Testing's and you can still hear stay here. So do percentage of correct responses after the number of readings it has improved, so we hunt for zero readings. It was around 16% and then after one reading and improves to and 35% and then gets up to 45% after two. We see there's very little improvement from 2 to 4 readings, and we're still at last and 50% correct responses for this experiment after four re readings, which isn't really that affected. So if we compared it to practice testing or somewhere there how utility learning technique , I think we would be much more improved results from that on in the later techniques and high utility. We'll be able to compare these methods so it's It's not that you don't learn any material from me reading. It's just not as effective as the high utility learning techniques. So this is a summary off the low utility learning strategy. So it's hard to trust our own perception when we're learning techniques such as highlighting a summary ization. As students, we feel really productive. So if we can look back in a chapter on, we've highlighted lots of material. I'm we've come up with these great images that we're going to association with keywords. You can feel really productive, but when we look at what the scientific literature shows us stash. We end up forgetting a lot of these images on on the final test. We may not be as effective by using these techniques, so we should avoid using approaches that are low utility as they don't lead to long term test performance. So if you're using these techniques, you should try and avoid thumb on, maybe swap the marriage with some of the moderate on high utilities techniques that we're going to be learning a passion in the next two lectures. 3. Moderate Utility Learning Techniques: So in the last lecture, we looked at the low utility learning techniques. In this case, we're gonna look at the techniques which are eating a step above that, which is moderate utility. So the mullet moderates, utility learning techniques, her elaborate interrogation self explanation on intra leaved practice, so elaborate interrogation on self explanation are quite similar. Collaborative interrogation is generating an explanation for why the state, in fact, our concept is true on self explanation is explaining how new information is related to known information or explaining steps taken. German problems solve them problem solving. So basically, they're trying to always get you to Tink. Ameche Water Eat white. Why are you doing what you're doing on How is this correct? Or how is the correct approach to be taking inter leave Practice is a bit different, so it implements a schedule of practice that mixes different kinds of problems or schedule of study that mixes different kinds of materials within a single study session. So a classic example of this is if you're doing some geometry on your calculating the area of different shapes, then you want to try and mix in a lot of different shapes rather than just doing five problems on cock in the area of the square on then by problems calculating the area off a circle. So we'll go treaties and more detail in this lecture, so elaborate of interrogation is asking Why a lot So asking why widely learning is really effective and Children are very good at this at an early age, so say you're learning that photo. Since this is a process in which a planned converts carbon dioxide on water into sugar, which is food, this process gives off oxygen. So if you're a student just learning about this, you should ask why. Why is this true on day? One of the reasons that you might come up with is that everything that lives need some kind of food and sugar. Is it food? So students know that, um, they eat sugar if they've got a lot of chocolate shirt, they've done some baking in the in the past, so they know that plants need some sort of food. On This process, called photosynthesis, is the way that they're creating their food. So they're converting carbon dioxide and water into sugar, which they're then able to each on grow, so trying to understand helps retention. So when you're asking these questions about why this is working and struggling to understand how it relates to what you know, it helps retention. Because, um, there's a concept that neurons that fire together wire together. So as long as you're I'm trying to associate it to previous memories and asking why it makes sense, it helps and with retention. So looking at, um, some of the experiments that have been doing using elaborate of interrogation on reading control we can see Dash um, the final test performance is quite dramatically improved by two groups of students. So there was a group of students that had a, ah high knowledge on a specific topic on a low knowledge on a specific topic on day were asked to answer questions on this specific article on so in both cases were getting quite a dramatic improvement. So in the high knowledge gaze from 50% to rain 75% into little knowledge case from around 15% to 30%. So we're seeing in the moderate sh utility learning techniques quite a bit more improvements compared to the lower utility learning techniques and This is why I was talking a lot about the opportunity cost. So even though you can use the low utility learning techniques, you're just not going to learn as quickly as effectively if you use thes better approaches so constantly checking that you understand the topic on how it fits into what you've previously learned is really good for attention and shows moderate improvement in reading comprehension from port high and low knowledge streets. So across a number of different student groups, it's shown improvement for a comprehension. So it's quite a good technique to be using, um, while you're studying. So the self explanation is quite a similar topic on ditz related to explore it of interrogation. So if the student for using self explanation when she was trying to explain, um, new information, then she tried to explain how this information related to the information that she already knew knew previously. So in the photo censuses case, and she might consider how the conversion is like her own body changes food into energy on other not so pleasant as oxygen fumes. So, in this case, instead off asking why and the student is relating it to her own body on her own experience would eating food. And she knows that she has to eat food on, gives off certain gases on energy on DSO. She's relating how a plant would be similar to this on Hey, photo sensors would have to work to create energy for a plant on the reactions that could happen. That would be similar to the reactions that happened in her own body. So in this case, they were definitely trying to relate what has been already known about her own body into you. Something else that she's trying to learn. So if we look at the research that has been done, we can see that this effect has been really good in abstract transfer problems. I m so in this case we have. The tree colors are for concurrent self explanation retrospective self explanation on no self explanation. So concurrent South explanation is doing it at the same time as you're learning about it. Retrospective South explanation would be going over your notes again on then retrospectively explaining it to yourself. So asking, Why did this mix answer? What was the case that caused this to happen, and then no self explanation is the control group. So we see in the concrete practice problems there was a slight improvement by using retrospective self explanation on concurrent self explanation. But we see the most improvement in performance was with abstract transfer problems. So in this case, and the no self explanation is Dan Inter in 25% and then with retrospectives, Self explanation. We get a big jump up to her and 70 presents on then would concurrence off explanation. We get up to 90% so constantly checking that you understand the topic on C outfits into what you previously learned has shown moderate improvements across a range of learning outcomes, including memory comprehension on transfer. So it's more suitable to abstract transfer problems. So saying, If you're doing I'm striked, mathematics or physics, it's really good to be constantly checking that you understand the topic. Andi. It's shown really dramatic improvements in problem solving accuracy so you see, converted to controlled report, getting to to even tree try and sti problem solving accuracy. So it could be quite an effective technique for these more abstract problems. So Indra leave practice is really interesting concept. So involves mixing up the order of problems across different topics. So most students scheduled their learning and locks. So saying, if you're doing a geometry course on you want to learn deformities for computing the area of a circle, a square and a triangle. So the students would probably do, say, 10 problems computing the area of a circle and 10 Traube problems computing the area of the square than 10 problems computing the area of the triangle. And so, um, they do all these in specific blocks without mixing up the problems. And so this allows students to practice what type of problem they have to solve if they're using interleague practice. So after you say you've done the 1st 4 problems, dash for computing the area of a circle. It's really an built into your short term memory, the formula to use when you're not thinking of age. Identifying which problem you have to solve. Your basically just plugging in the numbers using your short term memory. And so you don't get practice at identifying which formula that you should be using. So that could be useful, especially in the exam, where they're not gonna tell you specifically which form that you should be using, so you need to get good at identifying the problems. So when compared to using a block practice, we see that, um, again, we have this interesting cup concept. Dash were performing worse in the practice, which is leading to us performing better in the test. So you always want to on test under game conditions. And so, in this case, by using the block strategy, we're not really testing under on conditions that we're gonna have in the exam where we have to identify which problems that we're going to be solving. But you can see here, So, um, by using blocked practice. So during 10 problems of one than 10 problems next we're achieving our 90% secrecy. Andi were any achieving around 60% accuracy with the Inter leave problems Bush. This leads us to be much better at identifying which problems that we have to use, which four minutes that we have to use in a test I m, which doesn't have the same effect if we're just blocking. So when using block practice, students can use the same form this as the previous problem, so it just gets in built into their short term memory. But when Inter leaving practice, the student, most identify what the problem is, what the formula to use announce off the problem so it rated as moderate utility and has been joined work on math problems. But further research is needed to show benefit with languages, So it's a really interesting concept on you Should definitely try Teoh. Do it. If you're doing maths or computer science type problems, it can be really useful to help you get better at identifying which strategy you should be taking when tightening these problems. So this is a summary of the moderates utility learning techniques. Um, so again, it's really hard to trust our own perception of whether we're learning, Um, because in this case where we're getting worse performance, so we're using interleague practice for actually were getting worse performance when we're practicing. So a lot of students who think, you know, I'm practicing here, and I don't think I'm learning as much. But when it comes to the actual final test you've been, you've been practicing under much harder conditions, and you've got a lot better at identifying which for me is that you should be using so getting better had identifying and what type of problem you're solving, which leads to much better test performance. So it's it's really bad to trust our own perception of how well we're studying and because we don't have a great intuition for it. So we should really, uh, at least trust the scientific literature, and then we can do some experiments on ourselves and see if it works for us. So checking our understanding by his health expiration on expletive integration have been effective across a range of different topics on students on inter. Leaving problems makes practice more difficult but improves the results on the test. So these air good techniques that you should be using when you're studying on inter leave practice, um, is a good general concept that you can use, especially when practicing problems in a maths and computer science. It will make the practice more difficult, but it will lead to much better outcomes in your test performance 4. High Utility Learning Techniques: Okay, so we've gone through the low and moderate utility learning techniques on. We learned a lot about what we shouldn't be doing, um, Synthes highlighting and re reading until we're finally at the point off where we're going to be learning what we should be doing. So these air, the high utility learning techniques on they've been shown to improve street in performance in tests over a number of different domains on across a number of different students, and so they've been really well tested on have shown consistent improvement across a number of different tests. So I'm sure you'll be really excited to learn. 30 High utility learning techniques are practice testing undistributed practice, so practice testing is self testing or taking practice tests over to relearn material on distribute Practice is implementing a schedule of practice tests that are implementing a schedule of practice that spreads study activities over time. So this is basically the opposite to cramming, where you try and schedule all year study sessions to the night before the exam or a couple of hours before the exam, and try to do all your study in this one big session. So with distributed practice you're trying to schedule a practice sessions and develop over time. So in the weeks or months leading up to an exam, you're consistently doing sessions on building your knowledge more slowly than trying to learn it all the night before the exam. I'm practice testing is pretty self explanatory, so it's taking previous exam questions or say you're reading a book on. There's some questions at the end that you're actively engaging and trying Teoh answer these questions rather than just possibly re reading. So in practice testing. So it's a. After reading, a chapter student tries to answer a question instead of just possibly re reading. So the benefits of this are two fold, so actually, recalling the information helps to improve long term retention. So there's a concept in and neurology that neurons that fire together wire together. So just the act of actually recalling this information helps you to learn about it. So in your brain, you're going to be building up neural pathways that will help you to remember the information that you will need an exam, I say doing previous exam questions or the exam questions that you get at the end of the book chapter have your learning about a specific topic. So the just the physical act of recalling this information helps your brain to wire together thes and neural pathways on that will help you to remember this information in the exam compared to possibly re reading. So reading can learn lead to a lot of recognition of wearing you. You grew familiar with a sentence or a figure, and you say, Oh, yeah, I'm familiar with that. But there's a huge difference between being familiar waited on being actually able to recall ish and an exam on. So one of the problems with re reading is that you grow quite familiar waiters, but you never actually able to recall it. Um, which can lead to the bad performance in the exams. On the second benefit that you get from re calling on practice testing is that if you can't answer the question, then you know what you don't know, and you can more effectively identify the topics that you need to spend more time on. So you get the tube full benefits off, being able to improve your long term retention by recalling the information and also being able to know what you know and know what you don't know so that you and more effectively spend your time. So most students would prefer to take a few tests as possible. This is quite unfortunate because testing improves learning I m. So it can be done using flashcards, completing practice problems or completing practice tests. So say, by using the previous had four or five years exam papers on if you do all the questions that you have a really good idea of how you would perform than the previous years exams on whether you know the material well enough to take the actual exam or if you need to study more topics and a bit more detail. So in this experiment that they done in the paper, all students reading experimental text happened, um completed a multiple choice test and then all completed a multiple choice test either one or seven days later. So the final test performance for the experimental text has separated at the top on bottom turns of performers on the baseline measures. So we joined improved ability are improved performance for all ability. So if we look at the top third community, the baseline measures on D Day DeLay between the practice test on the final test, we see that we cash a big improvement from 50% to just under 70% on this is so 20% is a big jump in grades or grade point average, especially if you're in university or even if you're, um, just in secondary school on this is for the day delay on. We see even bigger improvements when we're looking at a week delay between the practice testing on the final exam. And so this is what we want to see. Inner learning methods that they're effective over a long period of time. So in this case, were jumping from, say, about 45% Teoh just under 70% again. So you can see that learning remains quite consistent a week later when using a practice test. But there's a bit of a drop off when using no practice test, uneven afraid that have students who are in the bottom third of the baseline measure they go from around 30%. Teoh just made 40% on for a day delay between process on for a week delay. There may be just under around 40% from around 25%. So even for some of the worst performing students this this could be the difference between them passing the exam on them, failing the exam just by using a practice test to help them recall the information on, um, identifying what they don't know so that they could spend more time in this. So this is the reason why it's a really effective technique in the 100 works across, and a number of different student categories on has been tested across a number of different domains under shoes and quite a significant, um, improvements. So I'm getting almost 20% improvements in the final test just by using this one technique, so we're nothing. You, um, things I sometimes hear about this technique is you can't fatten a pig by wing it on. So this is the attitude that you know, just testing students doesn't help them learn Bush that this So it may be true about big that you can't vote Napo English, But by getting a student to do practice tests, you're really helping them improved their recall of information by getting them to actively recall what they're trying to learn on their also learning about what they don't know so that they can spend more time learning what they should be doing. So, using tests, you can easily identify what you don't know on re calling home. Strengthen your brain had two outs renting neural connections. So step. Several studies have also reported encouraging results concerning the extent to which practice testing can benefit comprehension. So here we see an under experiment, which was looking ash comprehension. And so we have fax on concepts in a number of different experiments of experiment would be Teoh entry on. We can see that the final test performance in this case and for Fox jumped from 30% to 60% . So we're literally doubling her results on the final test just by using practice tests as opposed to restudy. And so re studying here was just re reading. So this is why, um, I talked about the opportunity cost in that we've seen that re reading It does improve your results as lightly, so it's not completely uses. But when you compare it against practice testing like religiously doubling our final test performance on then for concepts, it's likely lest on doubling. But still quite a significant margin, like 25% then in experiment to we're still getting this significant difference and results in facts and concepts. Andan experiment Tree Realtor guess thes significant for improvement. So this is three different experiments that have consistently showed that practice testing is better for, um, performance on facts and concepts and final test performance compared to re studying. So it's been a really well tested technique across and a number of different experiments and students and domains, and it has consistently worked. So it's definitely one of the approaches I'm going to focus on in this course because it's so effective and so distributed practice. Is Thea under high utility learning to me, and it refers to distribute in practicing sessions over a number of days instead of trying to cram everything the night before the exam. So when students cram, they become familiar with the target material more quickly than distributed practice sessions. But does this lead to long term retention? Um, so when were coming and the night before a test, we probably have to do this in some s point in our lives where, um especially in university, a lot of courses can have. Exams are in the same time, and maybe you don't have enough time and to study for exam. So in the short term it works, Cramming the night before a test will work in that you'll be able to remember it material, say, for the next day or so. So in the short term, it will work. But over the long term, you forget most of what you crowned. So your brain has to work harder to recall information from a few days ago, which trendiness to connections if you have your sessions over multiple days and it has a utility and worked across a number of studies. So if we look at the results from this experiment, we have students who are doing six different study sessions on the's study sessions with Ian Black circles has the your days Between sessions, then we have two squares with one day between sessions and then the triangles with 30 days between the sessions. And so if we look ash, the performance, the proportion correct or getting in the practice tests from two to successions, we can see that, um, having zero days between decisions. So this was all done in one day. It leads to quite improvement in the proportion correct that we're getting in the practice tests. Andi, also having one day between the sessions, were getting up to you, almost learning or almost getting all of the questions in the practice desk. Correct on when we're having 30 days between the sessions, we're seeing that we're getting a much lower, gradual benefit in the proportion. Correct. And so you might think that maybe this isn't as effective. Why am I saying that distributed practices so good? But when we look at the final test performance 20 days after the session, we see that the people who were in the 30 days between session group improved had the best performance in the actual final exam. Then the students who had the next best performance were the ones who had to take between sessions. And then we see the people who had crammed all their sessions into one day, so they had zero days between second, they performed the worst on other and 65% compared to ran 95% for the people who had 30 days between sessions. So this again is one of the cases of where her intuition is really bad on, even though cramming the night before an exam will get you true. That exam for long term retention Hey, it's not so effective. So it will get you through that example two weeks later. If you did that exam or two days later, you would do quite perverted poorly and compared to if you had distributed to your sessions over time. So it's gonna be really useful once you get into a more professional exit environment where you're not just trying Teoh se passing exam. But you se working as a medical doctor and you can't. You know, you just do all this information and pass the exam and then forget about it is actually, um, it's really important that you're able to remember this when you're actually practicing medicine. Then you can have the correct diagnosis and not forget what you learn. So that's why it's so effective in that it helps you retain this information over a longer period of time. So this is a summary of the high utility learning techniques. So we have a practice testing and distributed practice, and again, yeah, it shows us how our perception it can be really poor in that. In this case, it's it's much more difficult, so our practice sessions are much more difficult, and we're not getting as many correct in these practice sessions by having 30 days between the sessions. But this leads to us being able to retain the information over a much longer period of time . So this is Thea. Ultimate goal of studying really is to retain this information over a long period of time on applied in their lives. So that's the ultimate goal of doing disturbing. So it's what we should try and retrieved. Unlike distributed practice is a high utility, and we can't really trust her own perceptions. So both of these have been shown in numerous studies to be the most effective techniques to study for exams on. That's why they're the highest utility. So looking at all the study techniques him that we've done so far, we know have a good idea of how effective that there. So we started with the lower utility techniques like re reading in Madrid, keyword mnemonics highlighting and summary ization. Then we went into more effect, or moderate techniques such as elaborate interrogation, self explanation on Inter leaving practice on then Finally, we went into distribute and practice and practice testing. So practice testing and distributed practice are difficult on that much more work than re reading or highlighting. But they produce better long term learning, which is the ultimate goal of doing all this study. So you should try to remove low utility techniques and replace them with moderate on high utility techniques so motivation is needed, which we will discuss in the embrace difficulties section of the course. So say, if you're doing practice testing compared to highlighting, it's much more, um, active on more intense work to be doing practice tests rather than just like possibly highlighting a few sentences in a book. So motivation can be a big requirement to using these techniques. So I give you some tips in that section of the course a bit later on, Um, but yeah, you should definitely try and experiment, which here the next test that you have to do try and replace any of the low utility techniques that you have with at least some moderate on high utility techniques, and you can see how you can combine the techniques as well, so you can combine interleague practice with practice testing, Um, on combining it with distributed practices. Well, where you would have distributed inter leaved tests where you would do a number of different sorts of questions over different sessions and then inter leaving thes specifics , questions. So say, in computer science, you would do something on May be a raise, and then strings and on algorithms Andi would enter. Leave those across a number of different sessions. So try these techniques age the next time that you have an example. 5. Getting Beyond Learning Styles: So in this lecture, we're going to be looking at how learning styles on why I believe that we need to get beyond the current learning styles methodology that's being talked about. So looking ash the Venn diagram on the right of the slide, we can see you that there's quite a variety of different learning styles that you can be so you could be an auditory learner, a visual learner, a kinesthetic learner on Did. You can be a combination off all of these types of learner by being a visual auditory, kinesthetic learner. Or you could be a kinesthetic auditory and Lerner M. So you would catch most of your learning tree musical techniques by being a combination of a cane, a static on auditory learner. So one of the issues with this approach is stashed the amount of different learning styles that you could be has grown exponentially in the last few years. So I was looking at a recent article which was looking at these different learning styles, and this was a list of just a few of the different types of learners that you could be so you could be a linguistic learner. You could be a naturalist, You could be a musical arrhythmic learner. You could be a kinesthetic learner. You could be a visual or spatial learner. You could be a logical or mathematical learner. You could be an interpersonal learner, or you could be in in tribe personal learner. So there's a huge variety of different learning styles that you could be on. This is still taught in a lot of teaching colleges that you should design your lesson plan to highlight specific, um, different types of their inner in your class so that you'd have different many sessions which focus on auditory learners, kinesthetic learners on visual learners. So I wanted to look at what the latest research says about this, so earned their effective learning styles that we should be using or do different times of students learn differently, depending on whether they're a visual learner, an auditory learner, her kinesthetic learner. So, first of all, we need to define what acceptable evidence would be So in examples A, B and C here, the learning method that optimized the mean Tesco more for one kind of layer is different from the learning method that optimized the mean test score for the other kind of learner. So we always get this crossover in the figure. So say A is a visual learner on B is a kinesthetic learner, then say in this case, Method one would be a visual methods so ever a method dash. Um, the lesson plan is totally visual on. We see that a has improved performance compared to using method to which will say it was a can of static type learning. So I think this isn't the results of an experiment, but this is what we would use as acceptable evidence. So we can see here. Doctor was a crossover on Method. One was better for a on method to was better for be based on their final desk or Andi. That's results we would get for both of them. So even if B had improved test score test scores for both approaches, it was that it was optimized for a so method one achieved better. The most best results for a on method to achieve the best results, for I had to be stopped learner. So even if both of the results for be styled earners were better than a slow learners, it's still optimized results for a star learners to be using this method one. So the visual method. So what would be unacceptable? Evidence is figures like this where there's no crossover. So in examples D try the same learning method. Optimized the mean test scores for both kinds of murders, thereby precluding the need to customize the instruction. So if, um, the learning method is improving the results for a boat type of learners, then there's no need to have these customized learning techniques because you just used Method one. Because, um, a style learners in peace dot learners both achieved the best test scores by using this method. Um, so this is what we've seen wish the practice testing and distributed practice and that we weren't dividing. There was no division of the students and based on and whether they were visual learners or kinesthetic learners or natural learners or musical learners. We just used practice testing on DWI Joan, consistent improvements and cross results. So we've already seen some indication that, um, there isn't really much or there wasn't at least evidence for this type of learning approach based on the previous experiments on, So I decided to do some more investigation into this by looking at the latest reach research literature. And so one of the papers that I looked up is this Learning styles and concepts and evidence by Harold Past, particular on and hey Done a really detailed survey on different learning styles on the evidence that he comes up. So it is that there has been no study on learning styles that is produced acceptable evidence showing that using a person's learning styles leads to improve performance when used on decrease performance were not used. So we've never had this acceptable evidence here of where one approach has led to an optimized results in the final death for one specific group of learners and then another visual approach has learned to optimize for these other visual learners. Andi. Even though there's been no positive results, there's actually quite a lot of negative evidence. So Massa, on mayor in 2000 and six, constructed a computer based electron ICS lessons on two different sorts of help. Screens for customized for a variable are visual learners, providing either supplementary, printed text or carefully developed diagrams and illustrations, respectively, and so there was no tendency for better performance for those who received help screens, much to their preference, so they could choose whether they were visual or verbal that learners on they could get the help screen on provided to them. So the authors concluded that the results provided no support for the idea that different construction methods should be used for a visual. It visualize er's on verbalize er's, so they totally contradict that. And there's any validity to having these different different types of learners on that there was no benefit to M having ish in a visual or verbal form for the different learning styles. So despite the popularity, off learning styles and education, there is no credible evidence were to use, with some of the studies even showing negative results when used and that there was no effect. So Learning Styles is still talk in some teaching colleges, so it can take sometimes a while for the scientific literature to get through to the masses on. You will probably have very drew teachers talking about this or seen ish on Oprah or something that different learning styles. But there's no scientific evidence for it on their effective techniques, such as practice testing on distributed practice, that lead to better test performance would know where he got her to learning styles. So in all the previous experiments for those types of learning techniques, there was no consideration for the type of learner or the learning technique that they preferred. But practice testing showed consistent improvement across the bottom learners on the top learners on across a different range of experiments and across different range off domains . So I am. The previous experiments that we've shown have definitely lead to this result that it's not just the learning style is about using the correct technique. Andi, I've actually seen some of the latest research has been even more negative about learning styles in that you know, students. They tend to believe these learning styles in that if a student has told I'm a visual learner, they tend to sort of zone it. Then when they're doing something which is auditory or kinesthetic and the they think or they believe that, well, I'm a visual learner, so I don't learn this way, so I'm not gonna pay attention or make an effort. But there's there's very little scientific evidence that shows that he's learning. Styles are effective, so What you should do is use the learning techniques that have been has studied over a long period of time on different experiments, which is practised testing on distributed practice, as opposed to you believing that you're a visual learner or an auditory learner. 6. Does Listening To Music Make Studying Less Effective: So this lecture and looks at the interesting question off those listening to music makes studying less effective. So listening to music has become really popular when studying in recent years, and there has developed a number of different Spotify on YouTube playlists that you can listen to you while studying. So low fi hip hop study mixes have become very popular. Aunt, if you recognize the image you've probably listened to on on YouTube before on DSO, there was some questions that I had based on my previous experience and listening to music waas Um, I would affected your studying. And so some of the anecdotal evidence I have based on my experience is that it depends on the type of music on that. Vocal music can be distracting as you start to concentrate on the lyrics. Andi, if you've ever been writing a paper on listening to some folk music, maybe you've looked up at your paper and start realizing that you've been typing along the lyrics that you've been listening to in the song rather than what you meant to be typing in the paper so you can start to concentrate on the lyrics. If you're listening to a lot of vocal type music. So a lot of the popular playlists on YouTube on Spotify are instrumental music, which can be significantly less distracting. Bush. I want to see if there was an impact between instrumental music on not listening to any music at all while studying. I want the impact of that would be so. One of the ways of having acceptable evidence about this research question is to look at a number of different tests and to see how listening to music affects the results of these tests. So we have a maze dress tracing speed test, which is a measure of visually scanning a wider, complicated spatial field. So ah, special scouting and which would look like the Mays on the right from a being a bit smaller . A new bridge, dry and scanned, amaze Andi. Find the entry and exit point on. It would see how listening to music affected the response time and being able to solve a maze. Then we had another deciphering of languages test, which was a measure a logical thinking, reasoning on decision making. Andrea also hard an object number test, which was measure off associative memory for a bits off unrelated material so we can see here and thought. There's quite a variety of tests, so we have thes spatial scanning. We have a logical reasoning test, and then we have a memory test. So it's a good evaluation off the impact on music across a different set of learning techniques. So this is the paper that I used its buying Helen Jay Crawford Crawford on it looks at the effects of vocal and instrumental music on visual, spatial and variable performance as moderated by study, preference on personality so vocal on sometimes instrumental music has significantly debilitating text about upon cognitive performance on effect that was moderated by tasks type. So this is why it was important to have the different types of us as we wanted to see how it would affect our memory or cognitive ability or a special scanning speed. So if we're doing a task which is in one of those, we might be more suitable to listen to the music, or we might have to not listen to music at all. Or maybe you could even listen to some vocal music. So in the maze tracing speed test, vocal music disturbed spatial scanning more than instrumental music. Well, neither music condition was significantly different. Funding, no music and condition. Eso in this case with sort of what we would have expected. Well, based on my previous experiences, what I would have expected. So vocal music was the worst, and we had instrumental music. But the instrumental music was not significantly different problems, you know, music condition. So this was just the spatial scanning in the maze tracing speed test so vocal music and disturbed logical reason. So this was the deciphering of language. Test more that either the instrumental or no music conditions, which did not differ significantly from one another. So inthe e languages test theological reasoning were getting similar results in which vocal music's definitely seems to be the worst. Then we have instrumental and no music conditions, which are not significantly different from one another on finally, in the long term memory. So this was the memory associative learning and recall from long term memory. The object number test. Um, we had, um, a preference for people they study without music and people who study with music. So in the black lines, you can see the people that are usually used to sitting with music until we can see that with the no music condition, they performed the best, and then with the instrumental music, there was quite a significant trump off in at the associate of learning and recall. So the mean number correct jumped through seven from around just over 12 and then vocal music showed the worst performance from four. So it's going a significant drop off if you're used to studying without music on, then studying with vocal music. So studying with music, if you have a preference for studying with music, Um, you got just under 10. Correct. If you were listening to vocal music on, then if you had no music, you got a correct on then instrumental music you're gonna bet five correct. So am it. Sort of depends on if you're used to studying with music, we can see here that three best results were studying without music on. If you're used to sitting with music and if you'd know music on this was for a long term memory. So we see in long term memory ish and have any seems that it's better to have no music in the logical reasoning. I am so the instrumental earn no music conditions. So that would be so doing some practice problems on then. Thes facial scanning Vocal was definitely the worst, but there was no significant difference between no music on and the instrumental music. So for remembering, it seems that if you're used to studying that music, it's best to studying for that music. But for the other two cases, you can probably listen to some instrumental music. What a significant difference in performance. So with summary of listening to music and you can take a slight performances and while listening to instrumental music in some of the tasks. But if your task and does not involve memory and you're just working through practice problems than you can listen to some instrumental music with no significant effect. So if you spend more time studying while listening to instrumental music, if maybe worked well, so say you find it much more enjoyable and you haven't spend the next Ram and 30 or 40 minutes a day by listening to instrumental music. Then there might be a trade off, which makes it more worthwhile to listen to some instrumental music because you'll end up doing more practice problems, which might need to and better results in your final exam. So it's a tradeoff based on whether you used to studying with music. But listening to vocal music was distracting, especially for Theo. The practice problems tasked, but not so much if you were used to studying with vocal music. But I find that it could be quite distracting, especially when you're dealing with abstract problems. So, yeah, the key take away is that there wasn't much difference between instrumental on no music. Bush vocal music can be quite distracting, depending on the type of task that you're doing. 7. Handwriting vs Typewriting Notes: from this next, we're gonna be looking at how to take notes in class and so that we can use them to study effectively after we finished the lecture. So there's two main types of techniques that are used. Teoh. Take notes in class. There is the the using a pen and pen pen on pencil on paper. Or we can use our laptop or iPod to type the notes as the lecture is going. So how should we be taking notes? Is there a benefit to either handwriting them, or should we just typed? Um, so most people can type a lot faster on the laptop. Lundergan. Right? Eso this can lead to copying Edem. What the lecturer saying on. So maybe missing some of the key points. So we've seen previously that it's not good Teoh, and just capture verbatim everything that you read in attacks to everything that a professor is saying on that you should try and find the key points that they're trying to my life and right, the lecture or the book. So one of the latest research papers on this is buying. Dima TJ smoker Andi has explored this question off the memory effects come off either handwriting. First things typewriting notes through is possible links between thes psycho motor action in the activities of handwriting and memory. So the hypothesis is that the additional contacts provided by the complex task of writing results in better memory. So it's again, this sort of, you know, struggling while practicing on making it more difficult leads to better long term retention on recall of information on. So that's the question Dash Timothy J. Smoker was exploring in this paper. So a comparison off the recall for common words is demonstrated. Dodge memory is better for words when they have been written, then when they're done when they have been typed. So a number of errors was significantly higher for typing. So if you look asked the table on the right here, we can see the theme number ever called Correct recalled words round writing and typing. We have mean of 5.7 for handwriting on 4.10 for typing under deviation of to and then for the incorrect recall receive that for handwriting. We have point age on for typing. We have one point age, so it's quite a significant difference between Theo Incorrect recalled on you see that we seem to be incorrectly recalling a lot more off the words buying, um, typing the motion. So this is because you know there's last context around on his last effort and to having to type motion so for the correct recognition. So this is just recognizing that we've had this word before. We're also getting improved results for handwriting compared to typing on for incorrect recognition. Um, we're getting worse results for typing and convert town writing. So 1.26 compared to 1.0 tree. But so the main results that you can take are the recall. So this is what would actually be using in an exam when we would have to recall the information M. We seen that correct recall was better right on. Reading on Incorrect recall was worse with typing, so it's pretty consistent here. That handwriting has leads to much better recall of common words on DWI lead, which leads us to being able to recall the information much better using handwriting compared to typing. And so one of the reasons for this is the future that makes typing so appealing is the ability to type fast, and that's when actually undermines the learning. So there's there's no effort to it, and there's no context. So once he had a really quick A typing on you can touch type there is. You can do right out of a sentence without even thinking about it. But if you're actually having to move the pencil on, do the additional context on Make sure you're heading clearly alleged allegedly. It makes it much more effortful, and you can concentrate on what you're hiding. So the added context allows you to be able to recall the information better in future instances, and you don't end of coving rebate him what the lecture has said. So I would say almost all people can't write us fast as someone can give a lecture so you end up having to be more concise on get the main points about the electorate's trying to say so when really effective method for no taking a hasty Cornell, no tacky method so you can see here on the diagram on the right. We have a que column on a Notes column on a summary color. So the practice of Cornell no taking method is to divide up a page into these different columns. So in the Queue column, we have the main ideas on study questions. So this access, like, um, indeed practice questions that you would act. Ask yourself later when you're studying thes notes so that you're getting the benefits of practice testing. The notes called him, which takes up the majority of the page. Still is the main lecture notes on your advice to use concise sentences short and symbols, abbreviations, lists. Um, and this is all done during class aunt. So after class, then you of a review on Do you can review the main ideas? They're questions that connects. The point in these lecture notes made me draw some diagrams, and some studies crumbs on. Then finally, you have a summary column. So it's at the top level main ideas and used as a quick reference area on this is done after class or during a review as well. So it's actually a really good way off automatically transferring your notes into, um, study questions that you can use to practice. Test yourself on later when you're realizing for exams on. If you do it quite soon after you the class, then you already have a list of pre made questions that you can use to study for exams. So it's an effective method that utilizes a lot of the most effective learning techniques. And if you distribute this over time, it can be really effective way to to study for exams. So I would recommend if you're taking 100 writing notes and Teoh trying utilized a Cornell no taking method. So summary of how to take notes is that with the recent trend towards Elektronik, no taking the educational and practical implications of these findings would suggest that performance may be improved by using traditional paper and pen dots. So many junior schools use iPod on it could have unintended consequences if students air just typing on these ipads verbatim and not actually using paper and pen to come up wish and summaries on getting the additional context off writing at their notes. So the Cornell no taking method is an effect. Approach on git has have been shown to be effective in improving results in exams on is used by lots of students. So once you're in developing the questions that you ask yourself on the notes that you're taking in class, then it makes it really easy to have a bank list of questions that you can use when studying for tests. So if you're currently taking notes on your iPod or, um and locked up, I would suggest maybe trying to experiment, wish and taking some 100 written notes for oil on seeing if that improves your ability to recall the information from the election notes. 8. Flash Cards: So this lecture we're going to talk about it. Flashcards on Why dear on defectives two d technique to use for exams. So from the previous research that we've done on the scientific based study strategies, we know what we want from her study strategies. So we wanted to combine practice testing distributed practice on intra leave practice and Flash parents are actually a deceptively simple way of combining all of these techniques. So he's probably seen the cards in the diagram on the right, so they're like index cards and you write a question on one side and you write the answer and the other, and it's really simple. So, um, you can use carrots like this on, but they actually suddenly combined all of the effective study techniques that we want so we can put the flash Karen's into treated from piles. So yes, no, maybe while reviewing, So yes, would be pile would be the questions that we got right and no would be. The questions that we got wrong on Baby would be the ones that we started got half writer were into shore on. We can then review the know and maybe pile every few days for a distributed practice. If we want to include inter leave practice interest of the sessions, we can mix up the carrots between different topics. So in the classic example of calculating during a geometry, rest on happen to calculate the area, you could mix up the problems for calculating the area of Circle Cube strangles on Then that would give you introduce practices. Well, on each time you're doing a flash card, it's a small practice test. So you're really combining the most effective learning methods in this deceptively simple technique. One of the reasons why it works so well is because of the forgetting curve. So there was a scientist called Ebbing has who'd looked into a memory, and he'd come up with this concept off the forgetting her. So each time you learn something new, you will eventually forget it after a period of time. If you don't recall the information, this is called the forget anger. But every time you, um, actively reviewed again if declines had the speed at which we get it, so it shows decline in memory retention overtime. So each time you visit the fact off, uh, the slope of the curve decreases until you're able to remember the fact for a long time. This is why I distributed practice is so effective. So you want to distribute your practice over time rather than cramming the entire syllabus tonight referred the exam and you can see avoid. This does work in the short term. So if you do, it's one day before the exam. It will still remember quite a bit. But it's if you have to do the task five or six days after. You would probably perform very poorly if you were just cramming your steed systems rather than if you were, um, spacing your study sessions over time. And that's what we're trying to aim for is the long term retention in her study sessions So we can also use um, Elektronik Flashcards on one of the most popular applications is monkey. So hunky is basically, um, a digital flash card where you have a question on one side of the flash cared on. Then you press the space bar on it, shows you the answer, and then you can give feedback and based on whether you knew the card, so in this case we have what is the port for DNS on the port Memories 50 tree. And then we can respond whether that was easy and we would get it again in 8.1 months. Good would be 5.8 months on hard would be treat 0.7 months. And if we didn't know it again, if we didn't know if we could get us in 10 minutes or less than 10 minutes at to review it again to make sure we knew at this time, so it automatically classic calculates. The next time there's Carrot will be shown based on how you answer on it comes with a lot of Adam's that makes it really easy to use and has lots of Gamification things build into her. So when you know the information really well, it will be a long time until you see the carrot. So, in this case, when we will supply a flight by two major expire to buy five metrics water do dimensions of the final matrix on, say, we knew that the answer was five by five matrix. In this case, we would answer good, and then we wouldn't see this carrot again for 2.1 years So it's very good that spacing Ashley parents so that you only after you the carriage that you don't know so well on. Once you remember something quite well and get it correct a number of times in a row, then you might not have to review cards in this case for two years. So it makes it really easy to focus your attention on the cards that you're learning on what you have learned. I'm quite well. It will space the Met so you don't have toe spend so much time reviewing cards that you ever you know, which is really effective. So you can gracia range of different decks on inter. Leave them. Um, in true different study sessions on donkey has a lot of extensions, such as a heat map, where you can see how effective you've been unforgiving guards on see how long you can keep the streak for. So if you're studying for an exam, you might want to, um, keep a streak of them 30 or 40 days before the exam so that you have built up a good amount of knowledge on all the questions that you could possibly need for the exam. and it obviously depends on how big the exam is. If it's, um, just like a small intestine some, it might require a small amount of time. But if it's like a big medical exam than is my require even more time and so you can use all the effective through the strategies that we've learned the bench, like Inter leaving practice on distributed practice. And it's also a specific example of practice testing. So it's really good to build your own decks. So in the decks that I've created, and so my areas, mostly in computer science, I have built my own decks. But there's a lot of really good share decks on. This could be suitable for subjects such as medicine and language, where there's a huge amount of standard fax that have we learned on Standard X could be very useful. So in medicine, there's a huge amount of standard information that you need to know like the anatomy of humans on. So if you have t o angry Web has life shared slash thanks, you can get lots of these cream index which have ratings, so you can see in this case it's been quite good and it's all a bit amino acid flashcards. So in this case it has a description of the amino acid. It's tree letter of one letter andan image of the amino acid, and it also gives its chemical type. So first, under it information, um, such as languages on Madison. It could be really good to use these pre made decks, but they're not always available. If you're in, um, more specialised topics on, there could be good practice to get really good at building your own decks. So that's what we're going to look at in the next lesson on 20 rules of formulating knowledge. So there's lots of different options that you can use for flashcards. There is Anke Quiz. Let's study blue Study Shack, Brain Escape to Lingo. So do linger. You probably heard of it specifically for languages on. It uses a flash card based approach, so the summary of flashcards is that they're deceptively simple on they combined the most effective learning strategies, such as deliberate practice into leave practice on practice testing on digital flash card applications such as Anke air free on automatically calculate when you should be showing the carrot again based on your response so this automatically, it shows you parents based on how well you know them on. In that case, you're always spending your time most efficiently. So reviewing the carrot stash your just better for guests or that you're currently learning on the ones that you already know, you only have to review them every couple of years. So this reviews reduces the amount of time you spend on topics that you already know. So they're really effective technique to use, and we're going to go into more detail in the next lesson on how we should form Ashar flashcards. 9. 20 Rules For Formulating Knowledge Part 1: So in the previous lecture, we looked at flashcards on hoid her such an effective technique to use when studying for exams. In this lecture, we're going to look at the 20 rules of formulating knowledge on how this applies to flash carrots, so the rules are ranked in order of importance. The most important rules our first. So if you don't want to stick around for all 20 of the rules, I think the most important topics are covered in the top 10 rules. The's speed of learning can be much faster if the material is format as well. So when we're going to our flash carrots, we want to be able to go through them quite quickly on if we have. You know, the question is really long or it's a bit ambiguous. It can lead us to slowing down on flash cards, so it's really important that we format the material well on thes rules. Striped one through the question of how to format are carrots and what to include in our life cards. So some of the rules overlap slightly, but it's all to give you the general picture of what you should be, including in your flashcards and they were developed by Peter Wozniak at super Mouth. So the first on most important rule, I would say off anything Got to do it. Effective study is do not learn if you do not understand. So this is the most important grew in formulating knowledge. Eso If you don't speak German, it is still possible to learn a history textbook in German. We will take you a very long time so you could learn a German history textbook word by word , by just memorizing each of the words. But if you don't just speak German or understand German, it will be very difficult for you to learn. This one will take you a huge met of time. So it's much better to understand German first and then to try and learn a history textbook in German rather than to learn the history. Tie spoke without knowing any German and just doing it word by word. So you should be able to explain the idea. Five year old using no German, no jargon. This is called the Feinman Technique, So the diagram and rice is a physicist, Richard Feynman Andi. He was quite famous for this technique in that if he couldn't explain the problem he was working on to a five year old, then he would realize that he didn't understand it well enough and needed to do more research on the topic and something that I use quite a lot as well. So if I'm not able to explain a research topic that I'm working on to fly grilled, then it means that I don't really understand it enough on If I'm relying on jargon, so using big words to try and get away with not knowing exactly what's going on, it sort of revealed stash. Andi will go through the firemen technique in more detail in some of the laters lectures on exploring when you really know something or if there's an illusion of knowledge. So the second rule is quite similar on its to learn before you memorize. So before you learn individual Ruel, Fox rules build an overall picture of the learned knowledge so each fact or rules should fish into a single, coherent structure. So read the chapter first, then create questions based on the most important fax or rules, so you should try to have in your head and overall all idea of the structure on Then try to fish where each fact or each formula fits into the overall structure of the knowledge. So if you look at the overview of this class, we had an introduction. Then we went through evidence based education, had to take notes using flash cards which were currently in, and looking at how to format the matter Demo going, do some work on inter leave practice embracing difficulties. Onda voiding illusions of knowledge So you can see this gives you a quick overview off all of the effect of study techniques that we're going to be covering in this course. And so you know that you're in using flashcards section on, you know that you're learning veg had to learn how to format your flashcards more correctly . So you this helps you to structure your knowledge in that you know, you're ridin this subsection off a section which is contained within this whole course on how to study effectively for exams. So building upon the basics deter drill. So all these top battery rules are quite similar. Eso it uses the 80 20 rule in that 80 per joined percent of the final results come from the most important 20% of the contents. So is so scoping the subject using the table of contents. Then if you can find out whether the tree most important flax on formula for each chapter on only once you've understood stand the basics should you build under later on. So building upon the basics, you can sort of, um, look at it like this'll diagram here where you have your roof sketch drawn Age off what you want to draw later? What you want to fill in more detail later on. But you just have a rush of shape off the deer on the antlers and then eventually you can fill this in to be at this really nice painting. But initially you have your basic lines, which gives you the overview off. Had the painting should be formatted and then you're just going to focus on actually filling in those details. So building upon the basics is really important for learning knowledge and that it it it just gives you the rough outline of where each individual fact will fit in to each subjection, which fits into each section with fits into the overall structure. of the course. So wouldn't really important, really is to stick to the minimum information principle. So this principle states that there should be one answer per card, so you shouldn't try to be recalling a big list of items it should be. When you're doing flash carrots, you should at most have to spend maybe two or three seconds coming up with an answer, so they should be really quick. Teoh get the question on really quick to answer, so it increases the speed at which you can review carrots and makes it easier to schedule. So if there is tree answering on the card on you want to get to Is that good or bad? Is if correct or incorrect. Er, do you have to put it as somewhere in the maybe pile, so it's much easier to schedule. If you could just say, OK, I got this card wrong already got this card right? So here's a top an example of ill formulated knowledge so is complex and wording. So what are the characteristics of the Dead Sea? And then the answer is it's a salt lake located on the border between Israel and Jordan. It sure shoreline, its lowest points on the Earth's surface, averaging 396 meters below sea level, it is 74 kilometers long. It is seven times a salty 30% by volume as the ocean, its density, keep swimmers afloat so you can see this. Is that a really complicated answer? And so say, I remember all of the first points. But then I forget that only simple or organisms can live in its saline waters. Do I make this is correct, even though I got most of it wrong? Are most of it right or the market as incorrect or somewhere in between? So the well formulated knowledge is simple on a lot more specific. So in this case we would have a question. Where is the dead Sea located? So it's on the border between Israel and Jordan. What is the lowest point on the earth's surface, and that's that heads the shoreline. One is the average level on which the dead sea is located, so it's 400 meters below sea level. How long is the dead sea? 70 kilometers and what saltier is the Dead Sea than the ocean? Seven times so you can see in this case, we're making some approximations. So how long is the dead sea? We have 70 kilometers converted 74 kilometers on on average. Travelled at the dead sea is located is 400 meters as opposed to tree 196 meters. So the approximations sort of depend on the feeder in. If you're in Madison, you probably don't want to be doing too much approximations. But for topics like this, you can get away with having a rough approximation of the final answer. So the fifth most important real for formulating knowledge is that closed deletion is easy on effective. So when you do, um, Elektronik flashcards applications like Yankee on Quisling, you will be able to you do close relations. So this removes some of the words from a sentence on you have to remember what the missing word is. So it's great for beginners as it makes it easy to stick to the minimum information principle. So this is an example of what it looks like. So you see, at the top again, we haven't ill for mated and a carriage it'll formatted card. And so what is the history off the Khalida company? So it was funded to the tune of 40 million by Apple and IBM in 1991. It was red hot. Start up on It was missing Mission. Most great multimedia programming languages on it finally produced one cold script X, but it took three years on me in oil. Competitors snapped up all the business. Seems he again here. It's a very wordy on a complex answer on If we're missing one point in this market has good or into the market is bad so we can use close delusions. I'm here to remove some of the text in her answer so we can say Khalida was funded to the tune of and then we remove what was detects that was here and replacing play image. And then we can answer 40 million. And then it was funded to the tune of 40 million by Andrea replaced the text with companies in 1991 on Greece, a Apple and IBM on then Khalida was funded in June of 40 million by Apple Computer and IBM . In this case, we're looking for the year so we can answer. The year is 1991. So in this case, we've managed to have to break up that one complicated question answered that had a had lots of different topics on We have one which just has one answer prepared, which makes it a lot easier to for much when we should review this knowledge. 10. 20 Rules For Formulating Knowledge Part 2: so another technique which is really useful to use is imagery. Um, a picture is worth 1000 words on. It's easy to add image inclusion and Anke on, so this is very useful in specific subjects such as geography, anatomy, geometry, chemistry, etcetera. So in the last beneficial formulation, we would just have the text. So watch African country is located between Kenya, Zambia, Mozambique and the answer would be tons. In here we're in the more effective formulation we can see we have a diagram off the country's Andi. We're asking Wash. African country is marked white on the map. You can see it's a between Kenya, Zambia and Democratic Republic of Kanye Congo on Mozambique and so we get a much more visual, a way to answer this question. So, using mnemonic techniques, we've seen that in the effective study strategies that it was one of the low utility techniques so I would use with caution on. And, um well, they should only be a small amount of pneumonic cards and your decks if you're using them for, um, every single card that you're adding, Dear Dick, it will make it really difficult to remember all these strange images. Bush. If you're only using them for a certain selection off cards, then they could be quite useful. So I still use radiative to remember the colors of the rainbow on. It makes it a quick, easy to learn lists, but the real bottleneck is the long term retention on another, uh, good way to format your flashcards is with graphic delusion. So graphic deletion is good disclosed elation. So you can see here and for topics like anatomy, where we have a diagram of the brain and we're trying to remember each compartment in the brain we can cover up, um, one of the areas here. And so we have the prefrontal area, the frontal lobe, the frontal. I field the partial lobe on all the different parts of the brain on weaken. Just cover up one of the texts on. Then we will be able to. Once we give our answer, we can reveal what's hidden behind this taste and see if we heard right around. So it's very good for subjects like anatomy, where you're presented with a complex illustration on, you only have to remember one piece so you can add covers for all of the's difference text fields, and then you'll be able Teoh go over each of them so that you can remember them in an actual exam or if you're diagnosing a patient. So the reason why they're good for anatomy is that when you're actually, you know, doing your job, diagnosing patients or looking at a brain, you have the image in front of you. And so it's much better into be practicing visually than to be practicing using tests as that's and what you're gonna be using under your test conditions. So it's always good to practice a Z would when you're being tested. And so the visual method, it's probably better for these visual feels so real. Number nine for formulating knowledge is to try and avoid sets, so a session is a collection of objects with no ordering. So this could be things like a set of Rusche might be an apple pear banana. So, if necessary, um turned the sash into an enumerated list where you have to recall the items in the same order each time. So this would allow you to at least have some ordering to yourself so that you could go true ish, um, in the same order each time. So if you were asked what countries belonging to the European Union in 2002 on, do you have to answer Syrian, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy looks on board than headlines. Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom? Well, yeah. So, yeah, kingdom doesn't hung anymore, but this was in 2000 and two, so it's a big sash on. It could be very difficult to remember all this knowledge in one go. And again, it's the problem off if you got all of them. But you forget Luxembourg, do you market is correct or incorrect, or it's somewhere in between so well formulated knowledge converts to stash into meaningful listings. So which country house today? I'm meeting to consider the creation of the European Community of Defense in 1951 and that would be France, on which countries apart from France joined the European coastal and steel community in 1952. So Germany, Italy on the peddler on. So you can see that we're building up the list off countries which would belong to the European Union in a in which more amount of questions on it also allows us to add some context. So the creation of the community of defense and in 1951 on how that leads to the European coal and steel community in 1952 on had this leads to all the European communities wanting to get together in the European Union, so it allows us to understand much more. Abeche had the European Union was formed on the events that led to it. Andi In each of those, um, questions, we only have a very small amount. So tree is probably the most amount of answers that you would want to question on you. Can that niedere be correct or incorrect? If you manage the adultery, correct or if you don't get them? Correct. But when you have much more in your list, like 15 or 14 or 15 items if you got 14 correct and get one wrong, you can be a bit more ambiguous when you're that was a good robot. So in literary, something you want to avoid is in real number 10 on which is in new Marais. Shin's so it's better than that. But you still want to try and avoid them. So try and use close delusions instead. So hard to learn items. So might be the sequence if your child might be the sequence of letters in the alphabet. So a B, C D E f g hauled away to Zen, and then you can break it down into much smaller questions, like water in the 1st 3 letters of the alphabet. And when that's ABC, and then you can fill in the missing letters between A and E, which is B, C and D, and then filling the missing letters between B and F, which is C, D and E. So in this case, you're avoiding, um, having to have this massive enumerated list of items on your breaking it down into much smaller questions. So again, a lot of thes rules are quite similar and as all the Bush and breaking down your questions to be as simple as possible so that there's no ambiguity Gyoergy about getting a question right around. So you got to get it right. Sure, you get it wrong. Eso if you got 25 letters of the alphabet correct and one wrong, it's a bit I'm ambiguous Bush. You either get the tree letters correct, or you don't get them all correct. So that's out of the question. Gets Judge Twitter. It's right around. So it's all about making these questions as simple as possible. So real Number 11 is to compassion. Come bash interference. So when you learn about similar topics, you can often confuse them. This is especially visible when dealing with numbers. Example. Optimal dosage off the drug to give. So if you're in pharmacy on, do you have different dosages off a drug that you can be given? It can be quite easy to mix them up, and especially when they drugs are very similar sounding names, you might forget what doses you should be giving per milligram to a patient, so there are some tips to help avoid interference on. That's by making the items as unambiguous as possible. On this is having very simple carriage that stick to the minimum information writable aunt to eliminate interference as soon as he spotted adaptation. The question and answer. So if you spot that you were having some interference between two questions, it's to try and make them as different as possible from each other, so that you can combat the interference and that you're not confusing them anymore. The real number 12 is to optimize where do on this is to try and keep the questions a short on to the point as possible. So this reduces the time needed to review carrots on delays. You to get through the carrots much more quickly so you can see at the top, have less optimized item on this is a closed delish in that is too wordy. So Al Davis invented a test up publishing in 1985 page Maker. A little competition for years so failed to improve. Then Denver based something blew past. Page Maker, now owned by Adobe, remains Number two on The answer is Cork, so you can see you have to go through multiple sentences just to get to what you're actually being asked on. A better approach is to have a few words as possible, So if we start with the the top one, that's slightly better. So add Louis invented desktop publishing with Paige maker but failed to improve. It was soon a distance bike work and even better approach is page maker. Failed to improve on was a distance by this cake cork and then getting to the best one is page Maker lost grand to quirk, so you can see the answer here we're looking for essentially is who did page make her lose grand too? And it's only in the final question final formulation that we get to the really essential knowledge that we want to know which is who the page maker lose grand too. So all this additional context is not really necessary on the main thing that we want to learn in this carriage is huge. Did Page make less lose ground to? So by formulating the text and our by optimizing the world, warding and formulating the text of it better be able to answer this question in less than a second compared to having to read all this text and then find out what we're actually trying to be a masked 11. 20 Rules For Formulating Knowledge Part 3: so rule number 13 to refer to other memories. So this comm place the item that you're trying to learn in better context, simplifying wording on reducing interference. So if you can link this back to something that you already know, like theater operation interrogation technique that we learn to back from thes study techniques, we can see how that would be effective for allowing us to remember it more easily. So in this case, we have a, um, question that is formatted and poor way on the top. So a derogatory adjective, shamelessly conscious of one's failings and asking in a begging way. And the answer is cringing. And then we can use interfering memories to amplify the correct meaning. So is shamelessly a derogatory adjective that same shamelessly humble on supplicant, And that answer to Nash would be cringing. You can see it leads to a shorter question on its much allies is to answer it much more quickly. So real number 14 is quite similar on its to personalized on provide examples. So one of the most effective ways that we can Hance memories is to provide them with a link to your personal life, so it is again sort of similar to elaborate interrogation and looking at what you already know and seeing had this new piece of information and fits into ish on adding that to your cards. So what is the name of a soft back bed without arms or back on its a de van? So that would be a hard right. Um, So what is the name? An easier way to format. This would be one of what is the name off a soft bed with their arms or back, like the one at Robert's parents. Andi, the answer would be a divine. But in this case, we've added some personalization and provided an example off what were specifically referring to on how we know it from our own life, which makes it easier for us to recall. So 15 is to rely on emotional states. So using vivid or shocking examples can enhance retrieval. So your items may assume of bizarre reform wherever, as long as they produced. For your own private consumption, the end justifies to mean so, um, I'm not a big fan of this one, Um, but I've included it. So in a harder item, it could be a life on a joking conversation, which is banter and then an easier item, which is a life and joking conversation like Mandela under clerk in 1992 as Bender. So this is a really famous interview between Mandela and de Klerk. On it was a life in joking conversation so you can use whatever context you want to add to your questions and to have emotional stage. And it's just adding a bit more context to the carrot, which could make it easier to recall the information. So count excuse as simplify wording so labelled sub categories with strings such as Kim for chemistry, math for mathematics, they can help specify the context of this question. So if you're Inter leaving a lot of questions you want from different categories, you want to add some context so that you know which category is coming from. So what is in the poorly formatted question you have? What is G or Easton Foreign biochemistry? And it's glucocorticoids response element, Aunt. In the better for mounted question with context labeling, we have, um, b i O C h so bio category biochemistry on. We just have the letters jury on its Google corrode to response element. So in this way, we've been able to, um, reduced the amount of text that we have in our question, and it makes it much easier to to come up with. The answer is faster public possible when we're going through any actual parents. So thes real 17 is that redundancy does not contradict the minimum information principle. So the minimum information Fransman was having as little information in each of the parents as possible. So redundant ian simple items is more information than is needed or duplicate information. So when we were doing word parents such as phone, telephone, oh, language Lingle Hope s Toronto, etcetera. We add carrots with translations going the other way. Telephone or phone? Lingual language. Esperanto Hope so. We want to learn the translation both ways, from English and to the other language, from their language to English. So remember, 18 is to provide sources except for really basic knowledge. So just to buy two equal for you should include sources from where you're getting the facts . So some facts can differ depending on the source is that you're using on. You may want to recheck them in the future. So always be incredible. Hulk on back up your fax with documented sources So it's really useful if you want to review your flash carrots in some point and you forget where you exactly got the Peter piece of information, it could be good if you include sources and other points. And that's really useful in Real 19 used to provide dates. Dumping. So knowledge, such as math kanashimi on geography, is relatively stable over a long period of time. But other knowledge, such as economic data on high tech knowledge in computers on may be time dependent. So we can see we can get a 10 megabytes computer system for only $5995 which may have been a good offer at that time. Bush 10 megabyte computer would be absolutely terrible on today, so they have a 5.5 Jewell density floppy disk backup on an eight bit microprocessor so you can see how much computers have changed in the last 30 or 40 years compared to what was available then. So a lot of the knowledge on what would have been possible for devices at that time him would be totally wrong in today's market, so it's good to provide some date stamping so you can know when you were writing this carriage what the knowledge waas available at that time. So the final rule, real Number 20 is to prioritize. So there's always too much learn in basically every subject that we're going to be doing. So we need to prioritize. What are the most important things that we need to learn from the exams to do the best? So try to extract the highest value information from prioritizing sources, so try and extract information from the most reliable sources. So textbook is usually more reliable than online news articles. Um, especially for stable subjects like maths and anatomy on When you're extracting knowledge, it is rarely makes sense to memorize every word in an article, so extract only the parts that are likely to impact the quality of her knowledge. So this, um, is when you're actually building up your monkey flashcards. Don't try to learn everything. So, um, bra advertised water the most important at the treatments from boarding things in that chapter and then try and build upon the basics by adding additional knowledge that fits into the most important parts in the chapter. So the summary off 20 rules that we have for formulating knowledge is that the 1st 16 rules revolver and making memories simple. So it's trying to combat interference. Make sure you only have one answer for carriage making. Sure, Thedc Wes Chin is a simple as possible. There's one definite answer. You're not giving a big list off him. Different answers that would have some ambiguity, whether you're getting them right and wrong. And so it makes it really easy to review the flashcards. You're some materials that strongly overlap. So, for example, do not learn if you do not understand, is a form of applying the minimum information principle, which again is a way of making things simple. So it's really vent making anything simple and that there is a concrete hunter to every question that you're asking. So here's all of the 20 rules for managing knowledge in this one slide, so you can pause the video on, have a go treat the mall to make sure that you're able to recall the most important ones. So again they're listed in order of importance. So the number one rule is, do not learn if you do not understand. So that is the most important drill, then learning before you memorized, building upon the basics, sticking to the minimum information principle on using closed late deletions. So all of these top techniques again, basically making the question as simple as possible on having only one definitive answer so that it's easy to, um, specify whether the question is correct or incorrect. And then Angie will take care off when you should see that carrot again based on, um, Wonder how you've answered. So those air to 20 rials for for mating knowledge, I hope youll be ableto really good flash parents now based on using all these different drills. 12. Dealing With Longer Problems: through in the previous section, we'd look at Yankee on how to formulate our cards so that they were really quick and easy to use so that we would be able to get Ricard since a less than five seconds. But there's a number off problems which are much longer than this, and we want to know what are the best to do techniques to use for that. So on key questions air suitable to recall answers for specific questions. So you should be able to answer the question almost immediate immediately. So they're very well suited to medical courses, which involve remembering a lot of information. So, you know, um, the specific veins in your 100 of specific bones in your hands, your arms, Um, a lot of detailed anatomy of version, three different areas of the brain and the heart. Eso there Really, you know, specific. What is this thing on? Give me an answer and you know almost immediately. But there's a range of other problems that we have em for computer science on months. You have a number of different steps that you want to take, and so you you can't just recall the information directly so we can use a monkey, um, to remember key rules and remains, such as two dimensions of matrix multiplication. So in this case, we have how one multiplying a five bedroom major expire to buy five matrix. What are the dimensions of the final Matrix? In this case, the answer is five by five. So am we've answered good here and then we won't see the card for 2.1 years. Bush, um, we're not actually doing matrix multiplication, so it's just giving us a good overview. What are the general rules that we're using In distancing Bush for computer science problems? We have, um, problems where we need Teoh right as an algorithm or to solve a problem. So there's a number off online places where you can get these problems like high crank, early code. And so, in this case, we have a designer doormat. So Mr Vincent works in the door match manufacturing company. One day, he designs a new door mash with the following specifications. So the math size must be n by n. The design should have a welcome written in the center. The design pattern should use only straight lines. Comma full stops and characters on, so you have to design an algorithm that will be able to prince. He's, um, welcome months based on the's M and N values, so you can't done through this question immediately. It involves writing an algorithm with a number of steps on, so you can really use it in a flash character because there's no immediate answer on. You can also again get the problems inlay code. So in next permutation and in this case, you have to have a replacement in place. Um, that can calculate the next permutation given anim push using those examples So it involves Milty. Step answers Teoh thesis allusion. It takes longer than five seconds to answer your question. We can't really use flash parents. So are effective learning strategies, Camrys. And so the number one effective technique that we should be using is practice testing. So practice testing in this case involves working on practice programming problems. So after you've done 100 practice problems on hacker rank, you will be able to much more quickly and easily answered, and the problems on tests and introduce Onda. We can see this consistently by looking at the research on on using practice testing. So for top performers, the bottom performers on a one day delays on week delays on a range of different subjects, it's always shown that this type of practice testing is effective. So if you're thinking or if you're preparing to do some interviews with Amazon, Google and Facebook, the best thing you can do is to practice tests. A lot of these problems that you get on hankering hacker rank or lead code on it will just make you, um, it would build up the muscle memory that you need to solve each of these problems and other real that we can follow. It is distributed practice so distributed practice. I call across multiple different sessions. So say you have an interview at Google on Friday. You don't want to. You try to do 100 programming problems today before your interview on Maybe not get only sleep. So you want to be consistently building up a bank of questions over the weeks and months leading up to you during these interviews, and then this will lead you to be much more relaxed in the interview stage on will lead to a better performance and Finally, we can also inter leave the practice so we can try to answer questions on raise Than strings entries onto inter. Leave the practice M so this can help you identify what solution you should choose to avoid . Choose to the problem. So when um approach that they often like to ask in thes programming interviews is dynamic programming questions. So if you can get in tow, the Hamish of saying, Is this a question that I could solve using a dynamic programming approach? It will be really good for interviews and that you'll be So you're not just doing 10 problems that use dynamic programming. You're asking yourself, Is this a possible solution that could be solved using dynamic programming on if you think it could, then you can work on the solution. This makes you much better at identifying the correct solution that you should be using in theory, the when you're actually doing the interview and you can see again using the results stash . So this makes the practice performance a lot harder on. You might not be as accurate. Shorris fast into practice, but will make your test performance much better so you'll get much better at identifying what approach you should be using to solve the programming problems. So there's a huge list of computer science problem pages. There's ALGO expert lead code Kochav hacker Rank Interview cake. Gold Wars Geeks reduce Real Dev Onda. Obviously, there is the classic book called Cracking the Coding Interview on. This has 189 programming questions and solutions. So you, although you can't use Anke cards or you can use them for it like the high level information just going through the 189 programming questions in this book would get you well on your way to being able to do well in the interview with Google and Amazon on Facebook. So the same principles apply in this case. Where were using practice testing. Inter, leaving their practice on distributing it over multiple sessions, were just using longer form questions rather than the questions and Anke because we want to build up the muscle memory of actually going through each of the steps that we need to solve these in an interview. So for math problems, it's the exact same thing. So there is, um, a lot of places that you can cash my problems depending on your level of expertise. So the Putnam problem of the day is great for getting these university level math problems . Or if you're not on a university matter level, then you can use the textbook to build up a bank of questions that you can inter leave and test. So this is one of the putting on problems. So determined all possible values of the expression a cute for a speak you to execute minus Treat A, B, C or A, B and C are non negative introduced, so I have no idea what to do. That is, my specialty is not months, but I'm sure if you have a mathematical background, then you might have some idea that I had to solve that problem. So this is the longer problem. Summary. So Yankee is great for recalling information for very specific problems and for remembering key Thanks for questions that have multiple steps such as bats and computer science, it is useful to build up the muscle memory of each of the steps that you would need to take to solve the problems, so there's lots of resources online that you can use for practice problems, a monkey can be used to recall specific bits of information that would be useful in general problems. So, for example, in Anke, you could say, What is the average performance of a buying research? In this case, it's log in, and then, as a practice problem that you could build. It would be to implement a buying research algorithm using Python. Then you can set up a calendar to remind you to review certain problems after a period of time on this would have you had really well prepared to do your interviews. So although Anke is really good for the shorter questions, I think you should practice doing the longer form questions in, um, mats on computer science by working true, the entire problems on by building up the bank of practice questions. 13. Studying Should Require Work: So in this section, we're going to look as embracing the difficulties of studying on into specific lecture We're going to look at why studying should require work. So one of the people who's done some interesting research on this topic is Angela took Werth, and she has published a book on Grayish. So Grayish is, as she defines it is the power of passion and perseverance. So there is often too much emphasis placed on talent when effort is Justus important, if not more important. So talent is how rapidly your skills developed when you commit time and effort. But if you persevere, you will be able to achieve Justus much. It just may take you a bit longer. So grayish is about having passion and perseverance for long term goals. So the two parts to have English Sarah to have a large vision so a big dream, something greater that's meaningful to you on that can inspire you for a very long time. So whether this is getting a PhD are becoming a famous musician or something, it's your big, long term goal that you're constantly working towards and then what you want to have to him as a flip side to this is thes small, achievable daily goals to help you get winds make progress on state motivated. So maybe doing this course is a small, achievable daily go that you can do, which would help you to improve your exam results, because you would be able to then use effective study techniques, which would improve the results you get in future exams, which might help you to get a PhD or to get into some course that you want to do in university. So Grishin relation to effective studying. So the most effective study techniques require a lot of motivation to keep up so constantly doing practice tests on and the having the perseverance with the practice tests and distributed practice over time. To see the benefits you need to keep these up over a consistent period of time, and that can meet quite effortful. Compared to say, just highlighting are rewriting are re reading a text. So even though the individual sessions can be more difficult, they lead to better long term learning and test performance. And so that's what we've seen by looking at the state of the art literature. So even though by distributing practice sessions between multiple days. It could make it more difficult during the practice sessions, and you may not be getting as many answers. Correct leads to much better long term learning on final test performance. Bush thes techniques are a lot more effortful, so you have to keep your motivation up by remembering that this is a small step and to your goal of doing well in these exams on to keep the larger goal that you haven't well as well of maybe getting a PhD or becoming a professor or what I rate your larger term goal is, or maybe just getting into your favorite subject out of good college. So one really important thing when thinking about this is to have a growth mindset over a fixed mindset. So with a fixed mindset. And if you're not pushing yourself to the point when you're failing, then you are limiting yourself. So you learn a lot from your mistakes. Say the 1st 20 times you do something, you'll be bad, so you might as well just get them out of the way and move on. So say even things like M public presentations. You might be bad for the 1st 10 or 15 times. But after you do a 10 or 15 times, you learn a lot from your mistakes, and then you'll be able to incorporate Dash and you'll get a lot better at public and presentation. But you just have to. I'm sort of accept it and move on and say, OK, I'm giving myself at 10. Free goes to be patters on. Then after Nash, I want to see some consistent improvement because you just learned so much from your mistakes. But if you're too fixed on want to get it perfect and the first time it's not gonna happen on do, you may get frustrated. So it could be really good to have this crude mindset that no failures are an opportunity, an opportunity to grow. You can embrace challenge. You can learn from feedback. You can keep trying and never give up as opposed to having a fixed mindset. That failure is the limit of your abilities. Um, your intelligence is static. You avoid challenge and you stick to what you know. So one of the really interesting studies that has been done for this is how the different types of praise can undermine Children's mayor, motivation and performance. So different types of Bray's kind of different responses institute in students. So this was a study by Carol Derek and which explored this topic in high school students. So the praising a student for being intelligent can lead to them being less motivated after failure. So praising student for Evert leads to them being lied to them, developing their effort and showing more effort for problems after they fail. So effort is something that the students can control, which is why it's so effective I m in helping them after a failure. So here we see the results of the experiments. So it was the number of problem solved, and we can see the students that were praised for intelligence used this square bracket on you can see in trial one. They solved around 55 playing four problems and then after a failure. So there was tree trials on bond. They done one trial to get a baseline, then in trial to they were told they'd fail, and then they had to see how many problems that they would do in trial tree. So you see what students who had been praised for their intelligence after a datum encounter. Failure in trial, too, they were less motivated to do and more problems on. You can see this is replicated in Study five and study six. So again we have, in this case the intelligent praise people solve around six problems on that drops to read 4.5 after they encounter a failure. So they're less motivated because they've been praised for being intelligent and then living 100 a failure under less motivated but in the same effort. On the other hand, if you look at the people who were praised for effort, which is thes circles here, you see that they showed a big improvement after being praised for effort even after engendering a failure in trial, too. So they go from 5.5 to almost 6.5 and in trial tree and then in study. Six. They go from solving six to studying seven, and we also had a control group here, which showed slice improvement in thes study five but nowhere near as impressive as the street into her embrace for effort. Andi in 36 it was a slight decrease in the control praise. So you concede this type of phrase has a really massive impact on the way students are motivated on and, um, the amount of time they will give two problems based on just whether they were praised for being intelligent or praise for working hard. So there's another interesting aspect of this study as well, in that students were asked, um, if they thought intelligence was fixed. Um, on the students who are praised for being intelligent, we're much more likely to agree with the entity theory of intelligence. So the entity Serie of intelligence is that you know, people are smart or people are stupid and you know that's just the way it is. And there's nothing you can do to changes. And so if a student is being praised for being intelligent, then it leads to a fixed mindset. So the student thinks that they're intelligent, and then they will want to believe it on. Do they want to believe that it's fixed so that they don't have Teoh do any additional work ? Bush. If you're praising um, effort, it leads to a growth mindset because students can see how their efforts have changed results so they would have seen in the previous tests. And how greater effort need to solving more problems on this leads them to not having this fixed mindset or believing three anti theory that elegance intelligence is fixed. So it could be really useful to just focus on at the effort because it's something that you can control. And also there's quite damaging things that can be done from praising till Children for intelligence. So this is the proportion of Children who misrepresented their scores on the experimental task, plotted as a function of their praised type and can see the effort group has lucky less proportion of Children that were reporting errors in their exams. Um, Bush, if you look at the students were praised for intelligence, it dramatically increases compared to the other two groups. So students who are praised for being intelligence, it leads to them misrepresenting their scores on tests so they learn to measure themselves true performance on day. One of the worrying things is that it becomes so important radish, and it leads them to Mr representing what they got into test and which is not a good trade . So this is the proportion of Children who selected performance rather than learning goals and as a function of the type of praise given so students could choose problems to work on after the experiment. So performance goals focused on display of ability so they could choose to work on problems that aren't you heard. So I don't get many wrong problems that are pretty easy. So I'll do well on problems that are pretty done in pretty good actress. So I can show that I'm smart or if they could choose an interruption. So problems that I learned a lot from, even though I won't look smart. So this represented a learning gold, and it emphasized the development of ability over the display of high performance. And so if we look at the type of praise given across the tree, different studies, we can see that students who were praised for being intelligent were much more likely to strike performance. So these were the problems that were easy on stock. They could show how smartly where eso they were much likely to choose these problems compared to the control group. If they were praised for being intelligent on, we can see the big difference across all the different studies off the effort group. So the effort group were much more likely to dio choose problems that I learned a lot from even though I won't look smart. So this is really what you want to see when you're developing Children, you won't see them pushing themselves to answer problems that are at the edge of the ability on just by a simple thing, as the type of braised that you're giving, it can have a huge impact into what type of problems they want to solve. So as a summary studying using effects, effective learning techniques is more effortful. Grisha is the combination of passion on perseverance. If you persevere, what effective learning techniques You will see the results in your exams and having a growth mindset that you are always capable of improving on learning new skills is really important. So one thing that you can always in Croat control is your effort on. So the next time we're doing exam, you should praise how much effort you give the task not higher, naturally, Intelligence, birth. So this will lead you to being more accepting off when you don't when you're not good at something the first time Andi will lead you to realizing, You know, you can grow to get better at it on. It's not the first time You don't have Doesn't have to be great. But the last time that you do it, it should be pretty good. So whether it takes you 20 or 30 times to get to be pretty good, All right. So did you want to be at the subject? You should just have the group mind set that you can always get consistently better. 14. Pomodoro Technique: So in this extra, we're going to look at the poor mode ever technique, and this is a specific technique to help keep you motivated to study over a long period of time. So the poor Madore technique is used a timer to break down work into intervals. So Pomodoro comes from the Italian word for tomato, so the intervals are usually short about 25 minutes, which short breaks in between Andi it Usually you can use a kitchen timer in the shape of, uh, well, any shape. It doesn't have to be a tomato, but if you look for a poor Medora timers, there's lots of them that are freely available online. So this lecture is just gonna be a short introduction to the technique that you can use if you want to, Um, stay motivated to get motivated? Well, asked Jodi. So the first step is to decide on that has to be done. So if you have a lot of monkey flashcards to review or you have some practice problems for an upcoming interview in computer science or mathematics, you can choose the subset of problems that you want to practice on, and you set the door, the Pomodoro Timer, In this case for 25 minutes, it could be any interval judgment. It should be arranged. 25. Say to 40 minutes at most, or however long you can maintain. Focus where so you work on the mosque for in the 25 minutes and work when the timer rings and put a check mark on a piece of paper. If you have fewer than four check marks, take a short break of treat. Five minutes. Thing go to step two. After four form adores, you can take a longer break of 15 to 30 minutes. You reset your check mark inch to zero and then go to step one. So this is a way of introducing some smaller breaks three year in study sessions, and then you also get to have a larger break after four for Maduro sessions. So it adds a bit of game ification two year study technique where you just have to concentration on getting UM, 1 25 minute session after another done, and it breaks up today and adds a bit of freedom and by having a few breaks and with inter leaves bases to write today and so there is some evidence from the scientific literature that shows brief and rare mental breaks Help keep you focused. So in this case, the participants were less Akers, after calling three digits and took longer in the control group on the no switch group compared to the group not switched on hand brake. So in this case, it was theocracy of the recall. I'm concede that the people who switched her had a break perform best on the group who were the control or the nose. Which group who just continued working on the mosque without having a break or switching. They weren't getting as many. Correct, although it's not a huge difference. I mean, and they're still getting 95. And this was getting that 90. There is some evidence to say that having a break will improve theocracy. You can also see in the response time. But, um, having a break leads to having ah, lower response time. Which is better for this task? I'm compared to you having no break or, um, not having a switch task. So I would say the evidence isn't that concrete, that it helps Bush. I find that for me, it could be good to break obsessions, Aunt to see planned my day and to have many palm adores that I want to get done. So the summary of the Pomodoro technique is that it's very simple on some people find it very helpful. So I know some people that they say like I'm going to do for five Commodores. Andi then have ah, big break our go to lunch and so you can make decisions longer if you wish. So if you find you're able to hold concentration for 40 or 50 and 40 or 45 minutes, you can make that does your sessions and then have maybe a larger break after those. Some studies have shown that a brief mental breaks can help maintain focus for a longer period of time, so the main summary of this would be to try it out and see if it works for you. It's not the most rigorous scientific evidence that it helps maintain focus. But if it works for youth, an, um, keep using it 15. How To Reduce Distractions: in this lecture. We look at it, reduce distractions while we're trying to study. So one of the main culprits that we have for distraction or that will interrupt our study sessions is our film. So there's a huge array of different destructions that her located on your phone, the's, could be social media applications. It could be notifications from different ups gaming ups. There could be all sorts of notifications that you're going to get in your phone so you can put your phone on silent on. Still, allow favorited contacts to get through to you. So this is one solution that I found. So if there is an emergency, it's usually going to be someone in your family or one of your close friends that's trying to get through to you on. Do. You can add those to your favorite contacts and then block everyone else. Eso that only those people are able to reach you on it stops being you being distracted for , say, unnecessary email notifications or something. So one of the things that you can do is to put your phone on the other side of the room if necessary, and so have it on silent. Put it on the other side of the room, if necessary, in a different room if necessary. So even if you're in the same room and you find yourself constantly thinking about using your phone, then maybe just put it in a different room on, put it in a different house, if necessary, So just find whatever works. And if you have the neighbors, has, um, relatives as that can keep hold of your phone for a while. Do you stop you being distracted? I would say Do whatever works. If so, if that works for you, then by all means keep doing it. So another culprit for all these notifications is your computer. So during work hours and tried to turn off notification for distracting applications. So if you Congar away with turning off notifications for email and slack, I would advise to do it. So in most of these e mails, you're not usually that time restrictive. In my personal case, they're not that time restrictive. So if you answer an email half an error in their relation, it's usually not to pick up a deal. So it obviously depends on what job you're working in her if your students you may need to respond to emails a lot quicker, so if you can get away wish and turning off notifications on, then patching them ash. Maybe certain intervals strike today. So at lunchtime earned just before your finishing work, you can answer a lot of different emails together. This can save you a lot of time, as opposed to train to answer them as they come in. So trying to have just the task that you were working on the main screens and close all on relevant applications. So if you have a set up that has multiple screens, try to not have say something like slack open on one screen your email client open on another screen, then the work that you're trying to do in the middle screen, because this will allow you to become easily distracted on. See the flashing, flashing lights or the noises every time, like somebody posted messages like or every time you receive an email so it could be hugely distracting. So the best way is to just have the task that you're focusing on the main screen, and then any references or, if you're coding, having stack overflow open on the screen. Besides you m as to help you goat. Andi, if you don't need access to the Internet, I would suggest turning off WiFi on just focusing on whatever your task you're trying to do . If you're trying to write an essay or thesis so you can turn off the WiFi on, just work on writing at the words. If you've done all the research you need, Teoh. So if you're reviewing your Anke carrots, you can do enough. The WiFi on just, um reviewed the Yankee Yards to have always getting any distractions. So if you're still having trouble, you can try blocking the websites. Did you find most distraction? So in this case, I'm using enough people location called and rescue time to block YouTube, and you can see when I try and go to YouTube, it redirects be to this block TRL on gives me and motivational semi motivational closing. I love deadlines like the washing sound they make us. They fly by by Douglas Adams. And then it says you're focusing on meaningful work. So youtube dot com is on your list of distracting websites so you can add a list of all the distracting websites that you don't want to go to during work hours on. Then any time you go to them, rescue time will block them. So there's lots of applications that do this. You can use freedom, rescue time or stay focused. Andi. They yeah, just add an extra bit of difficulty to trying to get these websites. So there's there's always a way around them. You can just uninstall the application or remove it from your list of distracted websites, but it just adds another layer of something that you would have to do so maybe another minute or two that it would require you to get a website, which might just be enough to say it's not Wear it. The one really interesting thing that you can do with rescue time and it's an application that I use quite a lot is to track where you spend your time so rescue time. Eso this isn't sponsored or anything, but it It's an obligation that runs on your laptop and phone and attracts what applications use. So this could be very useful to understand where you're spending your time. So when I initially installed it, I found that I was spending a lot more time on YouTube and social Network sites than I expected on DSO. In this case, you can see my weekly dashboard from April the 22 April 2 26. And in this case, I've been spending this much time on software development and referencing, learning, design and composition and business so it can give you basically a minute by minute analysis of where you're spending your time trade today. So this is like a week weekly overview, and it gives you a productivity pulls so you can see here, the blue indicates productive and the red is not so productive. So it's probably not so productive on Friday, which is probably usual. Andi. Yeah, it can give you really detailed descriptions of where you're spending your time. So in this case, it tells you how many minutes you were spending on specific applications. So in this case, I was bending a lot of time and Pedram. So I do a lot of development on Fight on on a stack. Overflow was there. So whenever you're programming, there's a lot of solutions to questions and stack overflow. So its parent of software development so the other referencing and learning things was Adobe Reader. So I have a lot of books and PdF's and freedom in Adobe reader google dot com uh, you to me, Google scholar on So I could learn, And then I was doing some design and composition. So Google presentations, Microsoft Word Notion and Microsoft PowerPoint over Leaf. So it's, I think you can get a free trial of rescue time. So maybe trying out for a week to get a baseline of where you're spending your time. I think you will be quite surprised on how much time you spend on social media sites. And then you can get a goal of where you want to spend your time. So, for instance, I quite recently I wanted to do more software development, so had set a goal to improve the amount of time that I was spending developing software. Each week on this has helped me Teoh reach these goals. So is something else I have to reduce. Distractions is that the easiest way to reduce to deal with distractions is to remove them entirely, so your phone is a distraction machine on social media. Applications are specifically designed and engineered to increase user engagement, which infinite scrolls, delayed alerts and basically all the casino tricks that they can push into an application. So one interesting question and I came across recently, it was How much time would you spend on Facebook if you have to pay per minute? Andi, compare that with how much time you currently spend on Facebook. And then you'll get an indication of how Facebook works your behavior to spend much more time looking at adverts than you probably need. So if you have to pay for a minute, I would say that most people would be able to get everything that they need to done that to do and Facebook and, you know, maybe 10 to 15 minutes. Bush compared that with the current amount of time that they spend Facebook, there would be quite a difference. And so that lets Facebook show you much more Hades, which is basically their entire business model. So you have to measure to know where you spend your time so when to install an application like rescue time or you just track this manually, you'll get a much better indication of how much time you're actually spending studying versus how much time your spending on YouTube or Facebook or something, So it could be really interesting to give you an overview of how you're spending your time . 16. Building Habits: So in this lecture, we're going to be looking at building habits, so building habits is a really important part of how to study effectively. So you want to build really productive habits that lead us to getting good marks in exams on this can be by using effective learning techniques. So building habits has been quite a popular subject in a lot of recent books. So we have the power of Average by Charles Do Big ON Atomic Habits by James Clear. So one of the summaries of had this type of thinking is that you do not rise to the level of your goals. You fall to the level of your systems so you always fall back on your habits on. So our daily lives are made up of lots of habits that we never even think about. So if you think about your morning routine, so what are their 1st 4 or five things that you do after you wake up? Is this reach for your phone and take social media or having shower are grabbing a cup of coffee? It's probably a lot of things that you have been placed a lot of effort or a great amount of time thinking about what you just do naturally. And so these books lead us to sort of questioning habits to look at what we're doing in our daily lives. As basically our entire day can be made up of lots of little habits that maybe we don't even realize that we're doing. And one of the reasons we're addressing this is there's small, incremental improvements complained over time. So we've refocused on trying to get one present better each day. Um, it can lead us to having, um, a dramatic improvement over the space of a year. So if we got 1% worse every day for a year, it's your 10.99 to the power of 365 which is 0.0 treat, which is quite a big decline from originally being. That's your 0.99 so getting worse every day for a year leads to a dramatic reduction. But if we try and get 1% better every day, so going from so one points here, one to the pair of 365 we get to 37.78 so you can see that there's a huge difference between getting 1% worse every day for a year and getting 1% better every day for a year. So the small, incremental difference is getting one present better. Every day leads to a huge change over the period of a year on. If you're quite young, you can see how this was dramatically improve over 20 or 30 years and can leads to huge improvements over the course of your life. So in atomic habits, there's four stages of rubbish on her feedback loop. So in summary, the Q triggers a craving, which motivates response, which provides a reward which satisfies the craving and ultimately becomes associated with the Q. So we get into this loop off Q. Craving response on reward. So maybe when you moke up, wake up in the morning. That's a cue on. Then you're craving some social media news or some dopamine from Facebook, so you grab your phone. Then you get that dopamine response. When someone likes a photo, are someone answers the message or something on this leads into this, um, habit formacion that every morning would have realizing you always grab your phone because that's what your habits tell you to do so. If you're looking at had form good habits, you can address this habit loop, so the first thing is to make it obvious, then to make a as the queue. So you want to say if you're going to the gym to leave your gym by the door so that it's obvious, Um, it's an obvious que every morning that you want to go to data gym yesterday, then you can make it attractive. So this address is that craving bish of the Loop. You can make it easy, so this is their responsible loop. So this would be, say, if you're going to the gym that you set your goal to be very small for the initial a few a few weeks or days, which makes it easy. So you when you have to do 10 or 15 minutes on the treadmill on lift a couple of weights on . You can build that up gradually over time and then make it satisfying. So if you can have some rewards, such as maybe having a healthy snack like an apple or something have to go into the gym or something that you find it satisfying having a nice well calf. Trish. It could make it much more easy to get this loop to form on to start building these productive habits. So you can also use this loop to try and bait break bad habits. So in version of the first lower law is to make it invisible. So if you think about when we're talking about distractions, this was what we were trying to do when we're moving our phones. So we're trying to make it invisible to put the months island to put them in a different room or a different house so that we never got the queue to then look at her phones and to get that whenever dopamine response from Instagram or Facebook. So we can also invert the second law, which is the craving to make it an attractive. We can invert the third law, which is the response to make it difficult. So this could be, um, unending, uninstalling the up from your phone so that you have to go on Sir Harry or Google to interact with dish on an actual Web browser rather than using your phone. And then you can invert D Fort Low by making it unsatisfying. So you can also change the color on your phone to be gray scale, which makes a lot of abs like instagram and photo based ups a lot less attractive. Eso if you want to reduce your time spent in those types of applications, putting your phone and grace but gray scale can be and an interesting approach to take. So it takes 60 days, 66 days on average to form a new habit on. After a while, that behavior will become automatic. So there was a habit that I was trying to build quite recently of going to the gym on Monday, Wednesday and Friday on this rule. I'm sort of stuck with me, So for the 1st 2 or three weeks, it was really difficult on, and, um, I was wanting to give up, and we're not seeing the results directly, but then after 66 days, so after about 2.5 months, it just become so automatic that you stop even thinking about it. It becomes like when you wake up in the morning and you automatically grab your phone. It just becomes the thing that on Monday, after work, I know that I'm going to the gym, so I don't even think about it. And like some days, I leave work and I'm suddenly, you know, running on a treadmill. And I'm wondering, how did I get here? Because your brain is just on autopilot, so it just becomes a habit that automatically builds over time. So you want to build up all these automatic good behaviors on trying to reduce the ones that are aren't so productive. There's also this topic of Keystone habits. Keystone habits are really important habits that lead to other good behavior. So there was treat that I could think of based on my own experience, which is getting enough sleep, getting enough exercise and eating healthy food. So I find when I'm getting enough sleep and getting enough exercise, I have, um, a lot more motivation and energy, which leads me to making better decisions, such as eating more healthier food on being more motivated to do work and which can like financial benefits or using you to get more papers accepted. So these air good habits, which lead to other good habits so they're really important habits that you should try to form and if there was one in particular that I would focus on for everyone in this video, if would be getting enough sleep. So a really fantastic book that I read a couple of years ago is why we sleep. Unlocking the Power of Dreams, Sleep and Dreams by Matthew Walker. On it goes into great detail about why sleep is so important because it helps our ability to concentrate for longer. We feel more motivation to exercise. We feel more alert. Andi. There's just a huge amount of benefits that we get from sleeping. Eso I try and make sure that I'm getting at least eight hours sleep every night. Andi, I tracked my sleep using Anke Droid, so it's really important Teoh to try and get at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night on . You should experiment with this if you're getting less than seven hours. So one of the ways you can improve the amount of sleep your gash is by looking at your sleep hygiene. So these air some basic rules, which makes it easier to fall asleep every life, like me going to bed at the same time, avoiding your phone because of the specific blue light before bed. Andi, I find that reading my Kindle or just Natural books helps me to fall asleep a lot quicker. So these are some simple sleep hygiene rules that I follow on. They allow me to fall asleep a lot quicker on to get a good night's rest. So the summary of building habits is that our habits, our tiny behaviors that we don't. I realized that we do that often. We don't realize what we do. So have a look at your morning routine and see what habits that you're getting into that maybe you might not even realize. So. Are you always having a sugary drink in the morning? Which your breakfast? So maybe you could try and cut that age once you realize that you've gotten into this habit , so break the bad ones on and trying creation good habits. So if you're looking to exercise, I get more healthy, try and go to the gym and maybe every second day. So like Monday, Wednesday and Friday on a good habits will become automatic after 66 days. So that's the really good thing about habits is that once you have them, they sort of dissolve into the background. So once you get into the habit of going to the gym and three days a week, it will become automatic and you will have to stop even thinking better on putting in the intense effort to try and stick with. Establish after a certain period of time. And the same goes with the bad habits. So once you once you break that loop and make it more difficult to have the queue to respond by using social media ups, say when you wake up in the morning on you, replace dashed by having a shower or doing some exercise, it could be really easy to then break that. So I'd recommend and maybe reading some of the books on atomic habits for more detailed discussion. Um, but yeah, it could me really effective to take a look at what happened to you have during the day on to try and improve thumb 17. The Feynman Technique: So this lecture is on avoiding illusions off knowledge. So we've I think we've all probably had this experience before off where we went into a test, thinking that you know the subject on suddenly in the middle of the test, when you're trying to recall and important for him there or an important piece of information that you need to write an essay, you suddenly realize that you didn't know it quite as well as you thought you did. And you can't recall the information. So we want to identify what we don't know on what we do know. Before we said it asked on one principle. So one saying that Richard Feinman had who was a Nobel winning physicist was that the first principle is that you must not feel yourself and you read the easiest person to fill. So he had a technique called the Feinman technique, which we're going to discuss in this lecture. So just thinking back to some of the effective learning strategies that we covered in this course, a lot of them were a bush, um, covering illusions of knowledge. So there were a lot of them were about making practicing performance more difficult, which would lead to more realistic results on your test. So you see here on the interleague practice, the results on the test and result in the practice are almost the exact same. So there's no illusions of knowledge here. Bush with the block practice where your during 10 of the same problems. At the same time, there is quite a big illusion of knowledge and that there's a huge difference between the practice performance on the test performance. So we want to practice as much as we can under the match conditions, on making our practice sessions more difficult and Bush leading to better test performance is what you want to achieve. This was also the case in all of the most effective studying techniques, so practice testing allows you to easily identify what you don't know on. Recalling information from your brain helps to strengthen neural connections, and there was several studies across a range of different groups on different topics that showed this on also in distributed practice. This was another classic example where your brain act work work harder to recall information from a few days ago, but is strengthen the connections and major learn it over a long period of time that lead to better results on the test. So that's ultimately what we're trying to get better long term knowledge on. By making air in practice a bit more difficult, um, were able to achieve those results by using distributed practice and practice testing an interleague practice. So the technique that I want to cover in this video is called Feinman Technique. So it's a mental model named after Richard Feinman. So he was a Nobel Prize winning physicist. Andi Draughts, um, famous books in physical as well, so it is designed as a technique to help you learn pretty much anything. So understanding the concept, you don't really guess remembering stuff you have already learned or starting more effect efficiently. So it's a really simple technique on. The first thing you want to do is to write the name of the concept on the top of a blank piece of paper he didn't want to write, then the explanation of the concept on the page using plain in English. So this is really important to not use jargon on to pretend you are teaching it to someone new example to a new student, or M, a five year old or a Labrador. So I try and use the most simple English that you can avoid using heavy jacket. So Step Tree is to review what you have pinpointed. You don't know. Go back to the source material. Re read relearn ish on, then repeat Step two. So repeat Step two of writing, then the explanation of the concept on the page until you can explain it in plain English. I would hate for lying and jargon on explaining it as if you could to a five year old or someone new students learning about the topic. So if you're using overly wordy, are confusing language or simply paraphrasing the source material, try again. So you filter into context. Simplify your language on where possible. Use a simple analogy. So this is again, like a lot of the rules that we'd seen in. Formulate. Acknowledge is about making it as simple as possible. What is the core idea that you're trying to learn in this technique on? And so I've finished my PhD in computer science, and although things can add another color, they can seem quite complex once you have a real deep understanding of it. There's always a simple idea behind each of these very complicated and concepts, and so you really need to get at the core of what is this idea? So it's been really useful for me in doing my PhD Andi, even for my Viber in what was the core? A research question that I was trying to solve it, my PhD so we could be really useful and across the number of different areas and exams. So this summary have illusions of knowledge is that we want to know what we know on what we don't know on defective studying techniques are designed to check for illusion to knowledge , re reading on highlighting, don't test your knowledge so they feel quite easy. But you may not remember the stuff in the test on this. The difference between familiarity on being able to recall so re reading on highlighting their very easy you can show your progress. You can see what you've done in the previous chapters, but you might not be able to recall the information than exams, which is what you want to be able to do. And the Fine men technique is a really good way to check your understanding. So if you come across a new topic on you want to see if you fully understand that you should try to explain it to a new student or if you have, um, a small child, do you try and explain it to do the child and see if they can get the core insight that you're trying to explain to them? 18. Setting SMART Goals: in this lecture, we're going to look at setting smart goals. So a lot of the goals that we consent for herself can be very vague. For example, I want to get better at Spanish. Wanted Aaron Mozz. So the smart goals framework can help you be more specific about what you want to achieve. So one of the problems wish I want to get I want to learn Mats is it doesn't really show. It doesn't give you a timeframe. It doesn't show how much better you want to get it. Months, It doesn't show what specific topic and mats you want to get better after. So it's very hard to evaluate. How have you got better at Mozz? So if you were to review that, when you're later, would you be able to tell yourself? Okay. I know I've got better at months, so the smart framework can help you to be much more specific about what you want to achieve . So the smart framework, um, is a collection of different letters. So the first let each letter stands for something, so it's S m A or T. So the first letter stuns for a specific on the goal. Most target a specific area for improvement. So if you're talking about mats, you should maybe focus on a specific area of maths that you want to get better at on how you would evaluation to get better. So maybe you have a specific test on this area of mats, and you can use that to a valuation if you have improvement. So what should also be measurable, so you should be able to quantify or at least suggests, an indicator of progress. So a good way to show this would be in your practice tests. Or if you have a test in cause, then you can measure your progress compared to previous tests. But practice testing in your study sessions will be able to show you a gradual improvement over time, and that will allow you to know if you're getting better at the specific area of mats, so it should be assigned herbal so specifically who will do it? So if it's just a personal goal and you can assign it to yourself, or if you're working on more tingles, you can choose who it will be assigned to. It should be realistic, so it should stay for what results can realistically be achieved given available resources . So maybe you're not gonna win and the Nobel Prize in the next couple of years if you're still in under graduation. Mathematics. Um, Stuart, to be realistic on, um, maybe you want to guess, you know, 80 or 90% in your result in your next test, which would be a realistic goal for a lot of students. And that should be time related. So this is a big one, so specifically when the results can be achieved. So a lot of the goals that we have, they don't have a time related component, which can lead them to being dragged out for years or a zoo long as possible. So a lot of people who have goals of writing a book, but they don't have any. There's no time related component of that. So the concept of writing a book can get dragged out for years or even creating an online course can take a lot more times than people give it credit for. And so it's really good to have a time related components so that you can know when you're going to evaluate whether the goal has been achieved or not. So it was some example of smart goals Is ash. I want to save 10,000 year. $10,000 a year for the next two years. I want to increase search engine traffic by 10% in the next two months. So this maybe, if you're working in advertising on and so if you're working in research, I want to get tree high quality journal papers submitted this year. So these, um, have specific time components. They're easily measurable. And so, for the, um, search engine, are you? In two months, you can look back. You can see if search traffic engine has increased by 10% on if it has. You know that you met you. Go on. If it hasn't, you know that you failed. And you can try some other strategies for the next month on. If you want saved 10,000 year for next two years, it gives you a really straight answer. And so yes or no? If you have, that's great. You mention gold. If you haven't, then you can start looking at maybe some other sources of income that you can use to try and save $10,000. So summary of smart goals is that they had a lot of clarification to what you underachieve badgering by adding measurable on time related components. So you should be able to know if you have achieved your goal. So have I got better at Spanish? Maybe. Have I improved my ability of months? Maybe because there's no real time component. There's no measurable component cities, so we would never know if we've achieved our goals. But how? By save 10,000 per year over the last two years, it's a yes or no, you mean there have after your happened. So it makes it much more clear on what you want to achieve and which could be very useful when you're thinking about your long term future goals. 19. Congratulations!!!: So congratulations for taking discourse. I hope you've learned a lot from all the different research studies that we've looked at your at the course. It's a great achievement to make it to the end of this course. And I hope that you incorporate all the different learning techniques off high utility that we talked about during the course. That you'll see huge improvements in your exam results over the next few months and that you will be able to set some smart goals that you'll be able to achieve over the next few months and years. So if you enjoyed the course and you got something, editors be really great. If you could leave the five star rating on, I also have some other courses available. So if you enjoyed the format of this course, you can have a look through my other courses and see if there's something there that you find interesting. So thank you very much for your taking a course on See You on the other side