How To Paint Flesh Tones | Kristy Gordon | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (2h 53m)
    • 1. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Introduction

    • 2. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Materials

    • 3. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Underpainting

    • 4. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Brush Techniques

    • 5. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Light Side Color Lay In

    • 6. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Shadow Side Color Lay In

    • 7. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Big Form Modeling

    • 8. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Proportions of the Face

    • 9. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Feature Handouts

    • 10. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Ear Handout

    • 11. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Describing the Planes

    • 12. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Hands and Feet Handouts

    • 13. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Finishing Touches

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About This Class

In this 2 hour and 45 minute class, I'll show you how to mix rich and luminous flesh tones as I walk you through the stages to developing a nude figure painting. You can follow along with me in oils, which is what I'm using, or use acrylics as well.  You can find good source photos to work from at, or use any photo that you already have. In this class you will learn how to tone your canvas before you begin and how to use oil paints so that they're fun and easy. I'll show you measuring techniques that will ensure that you get accurate proportions and a good structure to your figure painting.  Next I will show you how to develop a monochromatic underpainting using Burnt Umber oil paint. With this foundation, you will be ready to move to color, where I show you exactly how I mix the flesh tones! This class is for absolutely all levels from complete beginner to the more advanced artist. The beginner will learn fundamental principles such as how to mix colors and render form. The more advanced student will discover how to take their work to the next level and achieve the finish that they desire. 


Check out my other classes:

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Underpainting (part 1)

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Color (part 2)

Portrait Painting with a Full Palette

Glazing and other Paint Application Techniques

Composition in Art

How to Paint a Baby in Oils

Painting the Portrait in Profile

How to Paint the Flesh Tones

Contemporary Portrait Painting

Painting the Eye

Drawing Facial Expressions: Determined Eyes

Meet Your Teacher

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Kristy Gordon

New York Based Artist And Teacher


Kristy Gordon has twelve years of experience teaching and conducting painting workshops, lectures and classes throughout North America. She is an adjunct professor at the New York Academy of Art and has taught at numerous schools and academies including the National Academy in NYC, and The Academy of Realist Art in Ottawa and Boston. Gordon has exhibited her work in solo and group exhibitions throughout Canada, the United States, Europe and China. Her work has earned numerous awards including the Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation Grant and an Exceptional Merit Award from the Portrait Society of America. She has been widely featured in magazines, art publications, radio and television shows, including International Artist, Fine Art Connoisseur, The Artist’s Magazine, Southwest Art ... See full profile

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1. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Introduction: and Kristi Gordon and I've been a full time artist since 2004. I've shown my work and galleries and museums across the world, and I taught classes at the New York Can You Art and the National Academy in New York and also workshops all around the world, like in Florence, Italy, and in Maui, Hawaii. And this particular class was filmed in Kelowna, in Canada. And in this class, I'm gonna show you how to paint the figure in oils. You could use acrylics if you prefer, and otherwise you could just follow along with oils. Both will work well for this process. So I basically I start showing you comparative measuring so that you can use measuring techniques where we kind of use the height of the head. Teoh judge the heights of other elements so that you can really get accurate proportions from the outset. So we do that with the under painting phase. Using just print number is kind of like a drawing, but paint in that way we get really accurate proportions, a good structure, basically a good drawing, and a light side and shadow side mapped in before we start in on color when we moved to color were using a full palate, and I love this palette. You could do anything with this palette to create any color you like, and I basically show you how to do a color. Lay in first just to get a light side of shadow side blocked in for every element in the painting. Personally, I really love especially the shadow side block and broken. Use this mixture of ultra marine blue and cadmium orange to create this brownish green, really rich shadow color mixture makes it with a little bit of the base flesh tone, which will show you more but in the class. And it just achieves a really rich color for the shadows, which it's kind of special, cause a lot of the time I could find you notify the shadows to be tricky to get, like they look too chunky or to muddy. But this way you get like rich, complex, varied, interesting shadows, so that's always exciting to see. And then, from after the color lay in phase is complete. We moved too big for Marling, where we basically are getting like the egg shape of the head. The cylinder culmination of the arms cylinder of the neck flattened cylinder of the body. Just getting the big forms first. Darkening at the edge owes lightening of the center before we start to put on, like the anatomy and the smaller forms. When we moved into describing the planes, especially with hands, I really go into detail about how to construct the hands. There's also a segment on how to construct the features of the face, looking at the structure of the eyes and nose of the boat in a lot of detail in terms of your painting, your want to either. You know, maybe applying this may be higher modeling work from life. Or look at some websites, such as post space to get some photos of nude models that will be really high quality for you to use or, you know, take photos of yourself that could work to see what you got brokered your own photo to be working from, and this classes for absolutely all levels from total beginner. I've had lots of people paint their very first paintings in my classes, and I just love seeing how well they can come together when you know some of the basic tricks, like different color mixing tricks, different proportional checking tricks and and just seeing how excited people are to paint their first painting with oils to, um, and following the stages that I moved through the oils can be totally easy to you. So I just love that. And I also love seeing artists who are a little bit more advanced in their artistic practice, kind of make a breakthrough figure something out that takes their work to the next level to . So I really enjoyed teaching this class, and I hope you enjoy it, too. 2. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Materials: in terms of the materials. I have my palate set up on some white palette paper, and on the palate we have titanium white cadmium, yellow light, cadmium, yellow deep cad, orange cadmium, red light, ah, leisure and permanent burnt sienna yellow Oakar, some cobalt blue, Floridian, green, alter, marine blue, ivory, black and I also have some premixed mixtures. This is a mid tone grey made with ivory, black and titanium white, and we've got a base flesh color that's made with the cadmium orange, the titanium white and a little bit of this blue mixture. And the blue mixtures made of ultramarine blue and some titanium white and lastly, have what I call a base shadow color mixture that consists of ultra marine, blue and cadmium orange. I have a range of brushes of Phil Burt's and bright brushes, and I have some blue shop tells as well as some walnut Alcon medium, which I have in a little container on my palette. We're gonna start by preparing our canvas with an acrylic base, Jess. Oh, so I've got this white acrylic gesso here, and some black acrylic paint and some yellow ochre acrylic paint. This is some liquid acrylic. This is a to paint, but either one will do. This is just what I've got today. Um, we've got some liquid tax, some gold, and I like those two brands in terms of acrylic brands, and I'll be using this foam brush to apply the paint. That way, it'll get a really smooth, even code free of ridges from a paintbrush. And essentially doing this is really gonna be important because it basically like, smooth the texture of the canvas. So there won't be the kind of, like, bumpy, sort of texture of the canvas. It'll just smooth it out, making it to be a really nice service to work on. It'll create like a mid tone tone to work on so that as you develop the painting, you can pull up the lights and it'll stand out against the middle tone of the ground and deepen into the dark, said It's just easier to work on, then the white canvas. So to get started, I'm just gonna dip my brash, my phone Brash. This is about a two inch foam, brash and width right into my white acrylic Jess. Oh, and I'm gonna be mixing it right on the canvas. Let's take a little bit more, but you'll notice there's not a whole lot. So if I use too much paint, I'm going to get ridges. So I wanted to eventually be a fairly a really flat and not too thick coat. I'm just gonna put a little blob of the black. I'm gonna mix it right on the canvas surface. Just a little bit of black. The black is really powerful, so I want to creep up on the amount of black, and I'll use more yellow Oakar proportionally compared to the amount of black that I'm using. It is the yellow car is not quite as potent. It's a little sloppy just mixing it on the canvas, But it'll we'll mix it together and see what we get. And basically, we're going for like, a mid tone color. So like a mid tone grey, but just a little bit more into the greenish kind of range. So I've added a little more yellow Oakar. This might be a little dark as well, so put a bit more white. This is just white Jess. Oh, so it's not white. Paint its weight Jaso, and that looks pretty good. So now I'm just going to kind of pull it all the way across the canvas fairly vigorously and it's thin. It's a thin coat of paint that's even a little bit too yellow. Hot, let's add a little bit were black to the mixture and a little bit more of the Jess Oh itself. Just mix that all together. The color. You know, that can change a little bit from time to time, so it'll vary. But generally I like it to be close to gray, but just a little bit in the greenish range. The yellow car helps it be a little bit more greenish, so just kind of vigorously. You can see that I'm like changing up the direction of the stroke like I'm not just going line line line. I'm kind of changing it up. And by going over any places that has little blotches, it just mix it in, mixes it in more evenly, and that I could just lightly brush across to smooth it out after to really make sure that there's no ridges. So I'm just like pulling it all the way across the whole canvas first, changing the direction of the strokes, and then once I've got the whole thing covered, then I might just go kind of across to really flatten out any strokes and then maybe go, you know, in other directions so that we don't get any strokes that are any one way, and it's okay to have some variation. I think that's even beautiful to have some lighter spots and some more transparent areas and more we'll pay. Carrie is that way. You're starting right from the start with a beautiful looking, slightly varied kind of visually appealing surface with which to work on, and there that will be a really nice surface to work on. 3. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Underpainting: So for the under painting will be working on this mid tone primed canvas panel, and I'll just be using burnt umber oil paint while it Elkan medium and these two small, bright, square, tiptop brushes. So what I'll do is I'll just start with a loose, gestural painting using a lot of oil so really thinned down pains just burned number to just get a basic impression of the composition that I'm gonna go with to begin with. It's not gonna be proportionally accurate, you know, right from the start, I'm just trying to get basically an impression, and I like this diagonal, actually, like how it's moving in a diagonal like movement through the composition. Um, so just getting with the basic placement on the canvas, I'm gonna have the knees and then have them cut off just a bit below the knees. And yet it's totally, you know, not accurate proportionally at all. We're going to start to hold the proportions next, but just to get you know, where is the head? Is that how big I want it? Or that's a lot of space above the head, you know, I don't think I want that much space. Let's make the whole thing a bit bigger and let's get rid of some of that space above the head. And I'm using like, yeah, a lot of oil. So I can always like white dip it and oil if you really wanted to erase, like, even stronger. So this is kind of like an estimate, um, to begin with and then from there will start to hone it in. So yeah, let's check from this apex in one head. Actually, it's exactly one head from the apex of the elbow to the line of the neck. So just to establish some terminology I'm gonna be calling Apex is like the turning most point on a thing. So, like on her chin, that's the apex there on her elbow. This is too low. But that's the apex there. So next leads actually really start to anchor the apex of the elbow in, so I've got the width of it. Let's count down with the height of the head and get the height, the vertical position, so one and 3/4. So it's one and 3/4 heads down from the chin there. I want to make sure that I get that accurate so that it helps sort of set up the rest. And then we can also use plumb lines. So if we take our brush, hold it horizontally and move it out horizontally, I can look across the top edge of it and see how things are aligning. So as I do that I can see that the shoulder they're actually pretty straight. But this shoulders slightly higher on this one, and we can also take vertical plumb lines so I can see as I do, like a vertical plumb line down from this face that the shoulders a little bit further out from the face. And then let's take the height of the head and count down to, um, let's see the nipple. And it's basically the nipples just a little lower than the height of the head. And then so now I know like this position, but I want to know where positions in terms of the, um, side to side motion. So I'm gonna take a vertical plumb line down through the face and kind of see how it relates to that nipple, and it's basically just in front of the ear. So I think that will be an okay position for it. So you want to be kind of looking at the alignments like vertically and horizontally as you get the comparative measure measuring skin. Let's anchor in this position off the crotch, too. So if I take a vertical plumb line down, I kind of look at the space that's created in front of the fee. So it's kind and kind of recreated. So it's kind of a boat there. And then let's count down with the height of the head to get the height of it. So one to three and say 1/3. So just working really slowly and systematically at the stage. Defect 12 three and cleared ups in the right place is going to really serve you as you move forward. Um, so just take a lot of time to really get accurate proportions. Another one is if, and I'll show you guys this individually at your easily if you take one brush. If you're looking at an angle and just tilt it until it's following the angle, like running right along the angle in question. Right now I'm doing the tall over leg and then you take your other brush and put it on the canvas in the place that you know the leg needs to go and then make this brush parallel with this one, which is holding the angle in question. And then take this brush, which hopefully has some paint on it. And you can just trace that angle on so you can really establish the accurate angles. Let's do that through the arm as well. So just really anchoring in the angles. Yeah, and at a certain point you'll be able to start kind of filling in information. Let's also take a measurement through the width of her body. Um, it's possibly about one head. It's one head wide just to that's good. So we're kind of just dealing with, like, the linear aspect right now, not the shadows just getting the proportions and the placement accurate. Um, for the back. Great. Here, let's take a vertical plumb line up through the head. It's basically right in line with the head, vertically measuring the angle. Here, the flesh kind of squashes as it sits on the chair, and then that kind of bends. This is an exaggeration, but you can see a certain bend as it rules off the edge of the chair. Ah, that looks too narrow. So let's check the with the height of the width of the leg taking the head again and then looking at it compared to the leg, Um, that leg is just slightly over half of the width of the head, so it is a little bit too narrow. So using the comparative measuring and the angles and plumb lines and then still kind of eyeballing to make sure you know, because it can't you might have to refine, um, widths and small little adjustments just visually. And let's take the height of the head and count from here to the front of the knee to check that length. So one to and about 1/3 to about 1/3. So that's working. Okay. Yeah. And so, yeah, once you get ah, lot of the basic proportions blocked in, there comes a time where you can kind of start to draw, you know, more freely, drawing in some of the details with hands. Let's check the hands. The height, like the length of the hand, is the height of the face, not the whole head. That the gin to the hair. So, um yeah, that is what it should be. So let's extend thes fingers a little bit and anchor this wrist in just a little further back. There's also an angle change at the wrist, and I'm just going to take my rag and erase out some of the excess lines and just clean it up a little bit so that I can see more clearly. So we've kind of got, like, the basic proportions blocked in, and now I'm now we can start to kind of articulate the line a little bit more like, for instance, in this area we can see it's almost like we see a bit of an extension of the back through. And then there's various angles. If you were to look at that curve, it's not just like a curve. It kind of has some angles along it, and that's gonna help will eventually round it out. But ah, little bit. But they'll still be a sense of the apex, um, at the apex that we're seeing of these angles in here, too. We've got a couple angles kind of going into there. You can see a bit of the hip back here. There's some negative space between the hip and the arm. Um, I think we could do a bit more in the collarbone area. So the neck this is really important doesn't come straight vertically out of the chest out of the like, we've got the rib cage here, and the net kind of light comes out and forward a little bit. Do you guys see that as you? So that is really important. And then we've got we could do an angle measurement to get the collarbone. Um, but clavicles, which kind of angle in and let's see, Let's I'm gonna take the height of the head and start from the under plane here and go up and see what it aligns with. So just to really anchor that in Yeah. So if I take the height of the head, the bottom of the breast from here to the bottom of the breast is one head. So sometimes it takes a little bit of kind of thinking about how to come at a measure meant like how toe, um get how to come at measuring a certain form. Um And, uh, so I will help you anchor in the right positioning. I had it just a little bit low, and the breasts are made of angles to. We've got, like, an angle this way, an angle that way, M. C. So I think that's pretty good. Let's put a couple more occasions in for the face. We've got the hairline in terms of the positioning of the face, the eyes air. In the center of the heads of this line will be the eyes. If we divide the hair to the chin into three equal proportions, that will give us the eyebrows and the bottom of the nose. And then you can start from there to just feel in some of the features a little bit more, Um, not going too far just to suggest, and just like the placement for now, um, and then let's take. This is basically our base 1/3 measurement from the bottom of the nose to the bottom of the chin. I'm going to take that on my brush and count width wise, so it basically counted width wise from this outer apex on the left to the place where the ear inserts like onto the jaw onto the face and that should be about two. Also, the top of the ear is aligned with the brow in the bottom of the ear. Actually, her head's tilted down, so the top of the ear is slightly higher than the brow, and the bottom of it years slightly higher than the bottom of the nose. We'll just get a suggestion of hair and yeah, so that basically shows you how I would go about just starting to get the basic proportions measured first and next. We're gonna map in the shadows and really go into more articulation. So if you need to, it's really helpful to, like, squint. It helps compress the tonal range so you can really see the shadows. We've got, like, a strong shadow wrapping down the right hand side of the figure. And, um, I'm gonna put a strong statement in first. I just feel it all in. I'm even gonna, like, lose the ear. I'm gonna let everything set fully into the shadows. Sometimes it's hard to see where the hair shadows are, but just kind of conceptually thinking of the head as like an egg shape. The shadow on the face can extend around to the back of the head. Um, yeah, And then there's this cash shadow underneath the the face, casting on the neck. And then So we've lost the ear, but basically next will just put a little landmark statement of it in just to not lose it completely. But, yeah, we really want to make sure that the all of the shadows are unified. So we're not going for, um, like, different tonal range in the shadows. We just want one even shadow side pattern so that there's just lights and shadows and, yeah, so and then again, we've got a shadow. It sort of wraps around the shoulder here and then comes down the arm. There's like a little bit of articulation to show the muscles. It kind of bends at the bottom. And then, since the light source is coming this way, we also have shadows on the bottom of some of the forms. So the arm has a shadow on the lower edge. Let's just feel notice how it's the right tone, like it's not Teoh too dark or too light. It's a good, solid statement, but it's some. Yeah, it's still kind of transparent, you know, So It's not, like overwhelmingly dark, but you can definitely see it. It's gonna hold up okay when we start to put the lights and it's still going to read as a darker tone. Um, there's some nice, interesting articulation to the shape in here as it describes the muscles. So the shadows air kind of lake describing the muscle. We've got a small shadow on the form of the press. There's form, shadows and cast shadows. So we got a small shadow on the form of the breast, and then we have the cast shadow coming off the breast. You guys kind of see that and so will fill all of that in together, and it carries down the side of the body and then inside that we can restate the line, which is the actual shape of the edge of the breast. So, yeah, this nipple is gonna want to move forward a little bit. Yeah, blocking in the shapes of the shadows helps us to, like, see, are sort of drawing a little bit better. So at the same time, we can sort of be articulating some of the shapes of the edges a bit more clearly. Um, Let's get that belly button. And I didn't put it in. So I'll use the head size to count down to, I suppose. Yeah, it's about their I actually put it in, sort of. So it's actually the shadow shape. Just with a little for stroke on. Ben, you've got this arm. The lower edge of it isn't shadow. We've got a little bit of form shadow on this breast there. There's actually a form of the muscle right here and then the form of the crotch. So it kind of softens into the shape of the edge of the hip. Um, with this hand, let's check one more time of length of the hand. So the hand is the height of the face, meaning to the hair pitch in to the hair. We somehow this got moved. The hairline is right here. So yeah, so that's about right. And then kind of just looking at it as angles to begin with, I think this can move down a little bit. So at each lake knuckle break, there's, like an angle change and most of the fingers air kind of mast somewhat together. And then we have actually I'm gonna exaggerate what we see, but we have one separation more strongly separated to Pinky and then the ball of the hand. Right now, I've got it too big. Just cut a bit off that. And then there's a shadow to the bottom of the ball of the hand and along the side of the wrist. And then there's a cast shadow from the hand. Actually, each finger has, like a little cast shadow. Yeah, we've got a really neat cast shadow, the whole hand and the fall of the hand. And then the arm is really casting this whole hip into the shadow and then the lower for legs and shadow. So I'm using a certain amount of oil. It's not too much. It's not too little its enough that it's, like, kind of transparent. But it's not so much that it's like dripping down the face of the canvas, and that's totally okay if that happens at a certain phase. But you might want to just, like, blot it if there's too much excess. Yeah, so kind of Yeah, getting a somewhat of a coverage with the paint. Um, for this hand, let's take check the length of the hand compared to the face it too. I wasn't sure if it since it's further back in the distance. I wasn't sure if it might be slightly smaller than the face, but it is not. It's actually the full face sighs. And then again, looking at the angles from each knuckle break. There's like an angle change. Make sure you don't make the wrist too narrow. It's really common to make like the wrists and the ankles too narrow. We think that there way narrower than they are and then the thumb has some strong angles around the ball of it and little pointy tip. And then we've got the cast shadow of the hand coming down. It's just a little cast shadow of it coming down onto the leg. I didn't really get into the knees in the last stage, but we'll just go into a bit of articulation there. We actually have this leg rounding to a bit of a shadow and then we've got a lot. Actually, the whole lower calf seems to go into shadow and then it. The side plane of this leg is wrapping into shadow and with this knee again, we've got some shadow from this side. This? Yeah, And then I'll just kind of put the line of the exterior edge in a little bit more clearly and maybe a suggestion of the, um share. Just so it doesn't look like she's like floating in space. I don't think he'll go into a lot of detail of the chair, but if you think a suggestion will be good, it also helps just, like, anchor in the composition nicely. So basically, as they move into the face, I'm gonna keep using this leg, right? Bristle brush. And then I'm also gonna use this leg little round now, so I might just, like dab some of the excess. Yes, I'm kind of just like lightning some of this stuff in here so that I, um can kind of see what I've got, but it gives me room Teoh get more precise. And so now, as they go into the details, I'm gonna just use burnt umber without the walnut Ellicott medium, and let's just, like start by kind of anchoring in the exact shape of her, um, the edge of her face. So the forehead has an angle of the top, and then an angle at the front, and then it cuts in at the eye. Socket cuts out at the cheekbone. That's pretty slight, like people will overemphasize that cut back, you know, but it's fairly slight. Then there's an apex of the top of the cheekbone. Make sure you don't get that too low. Um, it's Yeah, just sort of close to the top. I'm going to switch back to this rant. Um, this bright for SEC will taken angle measurement to really get that angle accurate. Make sure to get the chin like kind of thin and pointy. Um, that's a bit much. And, uh, really like checking the step back from the chin to the neck. Um, if you make that too long, you know, from the chin to the neck, it'll look like she's like sticking her head forward. So it's It's also pretty slight. And then with the browse, we've got the brow, and then it kind of like angles down right here. This is really important. Oh, turn your head a millimeter towards me. Yeah, And one more millimeter. That's perfect. I'm just gonna dab that knows. So there's an angle change right above the tear duct. between the knows where the nose inserts into the skull. And if you let, if you have the angle of the nose, carry all the way up to the brow, it's gonna feel too long. So we've got brow, that angle of eye socket basically cutting into the place where the nose and spirits into the skull. Then we've got the angle coming down to the tip of the nose. The tip of the nose is, of course, lower than the nostrils, but it's not that much lower than the nostrils. It's It's some, yeah, not too low. Ah, and then there's a form shadow on the nose at the bottom plane of the nose, so just darkening in the whole bottom plane of the nose first. And then you can put a little suggestion of the nostril inside that, and then on this side, you've got the eyebrow and there's two angles to the brow. There's kind of a apex, very subtle right here. And then it kind of sets into shadow heading into the eye. We won't go into like a lot of detail of the eye, yet just kind of suggesting the positioning eso right now can you see how this seems too wide. So what you'll tend to want to do is, once you get this in, we'll find that you almost need to always creep this forward this shadow pattern of the eye socket. So you want to make sure that in the end, you've got this narrow, like the the nose is a thin, bony narrow. It's got a thin, bony, narrow front plane, and there's a shadow on the back side plane of the nose, too, and then, in terms of the positioning of the most. So remember, we've got three equal thirds from the hairline to the eyebrow eyebrow to the bottom of the nose, bottom of the nose to the chin, and then to position the most a lot of the time, right in the center of that bottom 1/3 measurement center vertically. That's like the lower lip Enge. And then, actually was one of you guys in one of these classes that help me figure that out on. And then so the upper lip is basically slightly higher than the center, and then so the upper lip is in shadow. So you know how we're like putting all the shadows in the upper lip is in shadow. The lower lip is in the light, so we won't do anything to the lower lip. And we won't draw especially an edge around the lower lip. The way will give the sense of the lower lip. Is the shadow underneath the lower lip Just going to take a rag in the race and some of this excess and I'm gonna dab at this shadow pattern might get into a bit more detail now. Yeah, so we have a nice kind of cheek bony shadow, and it it does wrap up into the temple, actually could cut forward a bit that the corners of the mouth, like we can't were not really going into a lot of detail with the eye right now. But if we were to imagine more detail, the pupil would be around there. And if we extend a vertical plumb line down from the pupil, that will take us to the corner of the most. So that can really help anchor the most in And then the ear. Um oh, could you talk your hair behind your ear on the side? That's closest to me. Perfect. Yeah. So if you take a horizontal plumb line across from the nose, her urchins actually tilt your chin down. Just a slight that. Yet that's good. If her head was straight, the bottom of the ear would be aligned with the bottom of the nose. But since her head is tilted down, the ear is slightly higher than the nose on the top of the years, slightly higher than the brow. And if I was to take the base 1/3 measurement, the height of the ear is one of our 1/3 so it actually looks pretty good. I think I actually could creep it in words this way a little bit. Um, yeah, and then in front of that is the jaw. So the ear basically like sets onto the face and the lines of the jaw and the ears at an angle, which is the same as the angle of the jaw so it doesn't sit vertically. It sits at an angle, and I'll just put some suggestion of the details in the year. But actually, I've got a whole year handout that will go into more detail about a year later. Yeah, I do a couple hair like strokes. So that basically shows you how I would start with comparative measuring and get accurate proportions first, then map in the shadows and then start to go into more detail on articulation in the end of the under painting. So since we're using burnt umber, which is a pigment that dries quickly, and walnut Aleka medium, which helps speed the drying process, it will ensure that our painting is dry by tomorrow, so just make sure that you're painting your under painting is thoroughly dry before you move to cull early in. 4. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Brush Techniques: Before we dive in, let's take a look at some of the brush strokes I'll be using to create really smooth blended transitions in my painting. So the first brush stroke is called the airplane stroke. So say I've got like a face edge here. This is a little just pretend this is the neck and the jaw for example. And let's put a little bit of a shadow note under the jaw. Now, as I blend out this shadow note, what I'll do is I'll start with my brush is fully loaded with the shadow color right now. And I'll start with my brush in the place where the color is really there. And I'll kind of lift and pull my brush off the canvas. So it's kinda like an airplane taking off. So we've kinda look at it to the side. The stroke has kinda lake. And so I'm like lifting and pulling or they go so it's like an airplane taking off. So it's like I'm lifting and pulling as a go and it creates a kind of blended and right at the end of the stroke, funny enough, the, how an airplane going by above us. I gave you then the recording. But so it especially works when you're working wet into wet and you've got one color on your brush in one color already down. And you can see that as I lived in pull, it basically blends rate at the edge of the place that I'm pulling. So that's called the aeroplane stroke. And then the other brush stroke is what I call the wiggle stroke. So I'll just kind of restate the shadow here. I'm just going to actually warm it up a little bit too with a little more burnt sienna. And so I put it down and see how it's got. Let's even sharpen it up a little bit more. So say you put it down and it's quite sharp wherever the color, where the two colors meet at this point, we've got wet paint here and what paint there? And now what I'm gonna do is I'm going to take my brush and my rag. This is a blue shop towel, but you could use even a cut-off t-shirt or some paper towels. And I'll take all the paint off my brush so it's pretty much clean and kind of dried too. And I'll just do this little side-to-side wiggle as I kind of move my brush along the edge. But I'm trying to soften and it'll sort of the brush will pick up paint as it moves down. So you might just wipe the brush off again and you know, in kind of do it one more time. This is a stroke that takes a little bit of getting used to sort of figured out how to, you know, kinda maneuver the paint. There might take a couple wiggles along the line, you know, to just create a nice soft blended transition where it's got a soft edge. And basically the smaller the wiggle, the sort of more precise the shape of the edge. It will still be liger. I still reads the end as sort of right about here. But the truth is that there's no We're designation of where that edge happens. So again, if we look at it on the lower edge, now let's look at how wide or wiggle. So a broader, expansive soft edge. You can see that it, you know, the wider the kind of wiggle that you do, the more gradually blended that edge will be. So I use the wiggle stroke a lot, especially as I'm turning. Let's just wipe this off year. So say I wanted to like turn the edge of the form, having it darken as it moves to the edge. And I introduce a darker note right along the edge of the form. Then I'll often just do just a nice subtle little wiggle where the two colors meet. So that's a really useful brushstroke to know and to work with. So that's what I call the wiggle stroke. And then the last sort of fresh principle. Let's just sharpen up these edges one more time is paint the idea of painting across the form. So you can see as I'm kind of putting the stroke in initially if we, if we're imagining that this is the jaw line. This way that I'm putting the painting like this is what I would call painting with the form. And it's often the easiest to do. Like say this is the line of the neck. Again, painting with the form following the shape of the edge is really like the easiest way to put the paint on. It's the way we kind of automatically put it on, but it actually enhances the sense of form if you paint across the form. So if instead, as you put that paint down, you're kind of tediously painting across the form. And so a lot of the time the wiggle stroke will actually come in handy for that. You might sort of initially put it down with the form, but then kind of break it up with a little wiggle or just painting. Basically, you want to have the brush stroke go perpendicular to the shape of the edge. And I can change direction a little bit at those, it wouldn't look quite right if every single stroke is exactly perpendicular to the edge. But overall, the general principle of painting across the form is damped the stroke go perpendicular to the edge. So let's look at the application of the airplane stroke in the case of hair. So what I'm doing here, I use this greener brush. This has, as you can see, some long hairs and some short hairs. It's called greener because it's like good for wood grain. And basically I'll just mix up a kind of brownish color, a fair amount of medium on my brush. This is also going to be useful for eyelashes. I take the excess off my brush so there's, it's not dripping with paint. And if we do an airplane stroke is going to really enhance the hair-like texture. So again, the airplane stroke is where I start with the paintbrush firmly on the canvas. And then as I go I lift and pull and it kind of creates this tapered edge. And with the greener brush, it creates a really lively kind of edge. So as I'm doing, for example, eye lashes, let's just draw in the shape of say, an eye here, this is our upper eyelid. To sort of roughly. You can kind of take your grain or brush and start with the place where they start on the line. That's where the color is firmly there. And kind of lift and curl and pull as you kind of go along the edge. And so that's kind of using the airplane stroke to create eyelashes. So those are some basic principles of different brush techniques that we'll be using as we work. And I hope you find that helpful and until you applying them to your work. 5. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Light Side Color Lay In: So we're moving to color lay in and we're gonna start with the light side first. So I basically set my palate up in, like, an orderly fashion from, like, the lights and the warm colors into the darks. And then we've got the premixed mixtures over here. Um, yeah, And then, in terms of the color mixing, we're going to start with the light side, so we'll just leave the shadow side as it is for now. So only work on the lights. Um, right now at this stage, and basically what we'll do is we'll just take some of the base flesh color. Um, I feel like I might need to add, like a little yellow, maybe yellow Oakar to mine. And then let's just put a blob of it on the canvas. And then you'll basically judge that based on three parameters. So we use three different words to describe color. There's Hugh, which is like the color of the color, like orange or red or blue. And then there's saturation, which is like the intensity of the color, like orange is very saturated. Brown is kind of like an orange, but it's de saturated. It's not like as intense and then value is the third parameter. So value is basically like the lightness or darkness of a color. So yellow is like, really light blue is like dark value or tone. I mean, the same thing s so basically I put down a blob on my canvas and now, like, we don't expect it to be exactly right right from the starts and now will judge it based on those three parameters. So the hue value in saturation. So what do you guys think? In terms of the hue, like the color of the color when you look at that compared to her overall light side, Not the lightest note, which is, like, great, you know, not the highlight, like on the forehead, but kind of the overall color of the lights. What do you guys think? Yeah, like yellow. We may be a bit de saturated, and I totally agree, I think. Yep. I feel actually, green is a good light. And don't worry, you're not green. Um, yeah. We're gonna add some like yellow Oakar and then basically de saturated a little bit with some of this blue mixture and then I'll just put a blob of that on. Yeah. How do you guys feel? I feel like that is good. Um, and so again, we can probably all see that in terms of the tone. Now, it feels like it might be slightly slightly dark. But you almost want that, like, at this stage, if you really go for the latest note, you know it's gonna be all white, and you're not gonna have any light color glowing through, So we kind of want to go for, like, the mid tone color. Let's get that white off and just start with that so that they'll be like some color to the flesh showing through. So we'll bring that through. Um, and actually, I'm just gonna use a slightly smaller brush and there's not a ton of paint. I'm not using any medium right now. I'm just, um, using just the plain paint on and then just gonna like, lightly brush it through, make sure you're under paintings, totally dry, which are should all be with the moment Al could medium mixed in, but yeah, you wanted just, like, go lightly through. You could rub it if you want to make it a little lighter like you can still see the under painting. But what you don't want to do is be basically carefully painting around every single edge. You know, like this, and you'll end up with all this under painting showing through at the edges. So you want Teoh. Just get some good coverage from the start. So since the lights coming down on the model, the lightest part is at the top of the head, and as we move down the head, it gets progressively a little bit darker and a little bit cooler, so I'm gonna mix. You can use the gray or the blue for cooling the note, and this base flesh color is, um, it's pretty dark. It's not. It's a little darker than I have, basically, So let's see if that creates the sense. I think I should even like a little bit more. I might even makes like a little burnt sienna and just too dark in it a little bit more. Yeah, and maybe I'll try some of the space flesh color. Yeah, so that's pretty good. So you want to make sure that you can see the, you know, the actual movement from later to darker, almost pushing that just slightly. We do get a little bit more reddish in the cheeks, so it's it looks a little bit more reddish, this color. And, yeah, we'll just get that in. Um, yeah, but basically upsets to read. Now it's get a bit more yellow joker, basically just getting some good coverage through. And if you start to lose something, you can always lake rub it. But it's better to do it that way than to have carefully painted around lake all of the edges where you'll still have, like under painting, showing through yeah and then moving down the body as we get into the neck. It's darker, like if you flip your eyes from here from the face to the neck on the model, you can see that it's like darker on the model on the neck. So sometimes it's hard to like dark in this color. Let's try some burnt sienna, some of this base flesh color, and then yellowing it up with some yellow joker. Maybe a little yellow er and maybe a little greener. Your cruise What? Oh, I'm not sure right now. Probably gambling's, but I'll have a look after the break to think used lines very different. Really, really cool something. Oh, really? Several brands is totally different. Just promise me with Yeah, the different brands can totally be like different colors. Yeah, and then moving into the chest, we get like, a little bit of a flesh, like a pinky kind of color in the chest so we can make these, like, local local color is what it's called, like the color of the actual area. So getting those kind of local color shifts, as well as the big movement of it getting progressively darker as we move down the body away from the light source. No, this shift to a slightly bigger brush because we're not going to be like, super precise. And we don't need to be really slow and careful at this stage. We really just want to get a base basic color across. This thing's making like a rattling so interesting in the in that you can kind of see some tan. I like the tan lines. They're a little yellow, er a little lighter. I might just put like a hint of that in, and I'm like wiggling the brush from side to side as they put it on to just blend it a little as I go. And then if you kind of flip your eyes from, say, this area to the arm, you can see that the arm is like quite a bit darker, like more tanned, more burnt Sienna ish, Um, then the breast, you know. So it's really nice to set up those kind of big movements of different colors, different hues in the flesh, maybe even a bit more burnt Sienna ish, as we started to, like, really render in a lot of these movements from lighter to darker or like yellow here, two more brownish burnt sienna. It'll get blended in and be let it'll be. It'll seem more subtle once it gets more blended in. So you might like Teoh kind of mix. It'll even a little bit more strongly, just slightly exaggerating. Not like over the top. But I've mixed a little great, and I actually feel like into the palm of the hand feels like slightly grey er than the in the arm. And again, I can really only see that by flipping my eye back and forth on the model and kind of comparing one area to the next, so I'm not being really precise. I'm kind of crossing over the lines lately. The worst really is to, like have all of the lines showing at all of the edges. So in this stage, we want to just get, like, full coverage. Because if you yeah, like I say, if you start to panic and wonder where your line is and I think you're ruining the whole thing, you can just wipe hit out. But, um, yeah and then getting into the belly area. It's a little darker than the breasts, but a little yellow were then the arm and a little later than the arms. So it's kind of somewhere in the middle, maybe a little de saturated as well. I'm actually using the great to de saturate this yellowish color because it's a complex color and it's it's not really green like we don't want it to be like to green if it's like de saturated yellow. Um, so I'm not really using as much blue mixture right now, Yeah, so just getting everything filled in again, that's really our goal in this stage, and I'm not. You can see I'm just stopping right at the edge of the shadows. Um, yeah. And then so flipping my eye from, like, here to the leg, The legs, like a little bit more sort of red colored. Yeah, a little bit more reddish. And they're like, and maybe a little gray. They're slightly darker than the body. There's different, like things happening in the legs. But just in terms of like the overall, so squinting is helpful to get the sense of the overall color. Um, yeah, and it basically, as we move forward on the legs, that's where we see even more of a reddish like the knees are kind of more reddish. The fingertips are also kind of red. And then as we get down into the front plane of the lower leg, it's darker. Those that plane change their, you know. So this whole plane is like darker than the top plane, and it's de saturated and it ends up looking like slightly purplish, kind of like red and D sector it agree so slightly purplish, um, the one behind it. So flipping your eye back and forth Now on the model from this leg, that leg Yeah, you can see it really is like darker. Um, actually, all of a sudden are my legs too long. Let's just take one more. We're working really like to sec 12 pretty organically so we can move things around and make little adjustments. I don't recommend huge adjustments, but you can. You know, if you discover any, like proportional problems, this leg could be a little shorter. You can just go ahead and make it a little shorter and the color color lay in phase. Just cut a bit off the front of it there, and this leg will be shorter as well. So yes, so we do our best in the, um in the under painting phase. And, uh, yeah, there's still room to make adjustments, but I definitely don't recommend huge like changes like moving the whole head or something at this. I don't think anyone has any giant changes like that to make um, Let's complete the color lay, and we'll get the color for the other leg again. You can kind of flip your eye back and forth from leg to leg, and I feel like it's possible that the back leg actually looks ever so slightly lighter. Yeah, and also kind of yellow. Lee. Yeah, De saturated. Yeah, Yeah, it's pretty normal to be thinking that the painting should be more yellowy. My sister used to model s You left the class feel like it's my skin, like, really yellow is something so it's actually not at all just to put that out there. Uh, yeah, it was It's just the paint mixtures. Um, yeah, I guess the teacher had bean going around to all the students saying that they needed to make their paintings more yellowish, too. And then you were just complete. The color laying will get the light side on that back arm. It's a little bit more burnt Sienna ish to like the arms get a little more sun. So their, um, a little bit more tanned than, like the belly or something like that. That's why the chest ends up like a little bit, kind of reddish. A lot of the time to gets a bit of sun. The hand definitely feels darker than the leg, and then we've still got a couple other parts. We've got the hair to block in the light side, so I'll use the base shadow mixture. This is the orange and blue one, Um, and maybe a bit of brown, a bit of black and some lightning stuff, and let's make it a bit more brown. Yeah, there's kind of 22 colors to the block in for the lights of the hair. There is the more brownish part at the top. And then there's the more purplish areas, which I'll use theologians Aaron Permanent and the ultimate blue some white. Can we just get Oh, that's too late. So you really want to just complete the color Lian? That's still too late. By getting the light side for every element in your painting blocked in and even the chair , let's just like, really go for a completion of the color Lee. And yeah, I'm totally avoiding any of the shadow areas for now, so that basically Oh, and there's still the lips. The lips will just add a little red to the base flesh color, so it's the same tone as the skin around it, but just slightly more reddish in hue. Um, and only the lower lip is in light. The upper lip is in shadow. Just gonna like scratch on this with the back of my brush tohave the under painting show through a little bit more. It just makes the paint of it thinner. So that basically shows you how you would complete the color, lay in in the lights first and really making sure that you're mixing like the mid tone color of the lights, not hitting the latest lights first. 6. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Shadow Side Color Lay In: So we've got the colors laden and the lights, and now we're going to move into the shadow. So ah, lot of the time I find this is a really useful color for the shadows. This is our ultra marine blue and cadmium orange mixture, and it mixes two kind of like a greenish looking brown. Um, so we'll start with that and then we'll mix a little based flash color in tow. Lighten it a little bit. And so for the lights, we weren't using any medium. And we're painting a little bit thickly now. I've got a little tray of oil on the falcon medium here and will be mixing that in so the shadows will be painted a little bit more transparently, Um, just a little bit thinner that helps like the lights, kind of catch the late in the room and come forward in the shadows set back on, but just gives a really sculptural effect. So I'll put a blob of this shadow color my first shot at it in the face first. And now let's judge it based on those three parameters, so the hue value in saturation when you look at the model How do you feel in terms of the hue like the color of the color? And it's a little tricky cause there's different hat things happening in different parts of the shadows. Um, the cheeks are a little bit more read the temples a little bit more cool, I think, as an overall, it's pretty good. Yeah, So I'm actually gonna take, um, this is a graner brush. It's really actually in bad condition. But some hairs are longer, summer shorter. You could use, you know that or a normal brush. But I'm going to do a little wiggle side to side little wiggle stroke again. It was one of you guys in one of these classes that invented the term, um, and I still use it. So the wiggle stroke, um, it's just going to soften the edge. So we're just and not a big wiggle that where you'd lose the lights altogether, but just a little wiggle side to side to just make a soft edge while still being able to see with clarity where the lights in the shadows I'm gonna get rid of some. There's still under painting, showing through in my lights, and I don't want that. So, yeah, so you can still see very clearly that there's a light side in the shadow side, but it has a soft edge. Um, I didn't carry this light quite far enough over. Let's extended over a little bit. Um, yeah, I should have done that a little further over when I did the lightly. And And then again, I'll do a little wiggle stroke at the edge of where the Shadow is meeting. Maybe the temple shadow could come up a little higher. Yeah, And in the eye sockets, those air kind of like half tones in some parts there darker than the latest lights. But not in this case as dark as the shadows. Sometimes they would be. It depends on how the light sources placed, but in this case, they're just slightly darker. Um and so we have two different kinds of shadows. We've got form shadows, which is the shadow on the form, like in this case on the face. And then we've got cast shadows, which are the shadows being cast by a form onto another form. So do you guys see the cast shadow on her neck versus the former shadow on her face, Um, and so former shadows will have, like a slightly softer edge. And a lot of the time they look warmer, not always, and cast shadows often look a little bit cooler, and they have still a soft edge, but a little bit sharper than the edge of the form shadows. So, um, actually, it's not always going to be the case. The calf shadow will be cooler. In this case, we've got something happening with the reflection of the hair etcetera, where this form shadow back here actually looks quite warm. It is a little darker. I'm adding some burnt sienna, so we're gonna put it in its fairly warm, and as it moves to the front, it does look a little cooler. So mix some of these grain oats into the brownish note and let it mix in wet into wet into the lights. On DSO. It's got a soft edge, but it's, um, it's not super soft. It's yeah, a little bit soft, but it still has some clarity. And then as we move down the side of the arm, those shadows feel more burnt Sienna a like a little bit more richer, more of the orangey brown. So I'll start by just like pulling that through. And then and actually the burnt sienna will be a really nice color to let softly wrapped into the light side color cause actually the lights dark and as they round towards the shadow and then, you know, and then they meet the shadow and obviously the shadows, even darker. But letting a little burnt sienna mix into the lights will help that sense of the lights rounding and darkening towards the shadow side. And then we do have a top plane to this form and a side plane to this form. So the top plane is like slightly lighter, slightly cooler. I put it in first as one unified note, and now I'll just introduce a bit of the adjustment. And then there's also reflected light. We're gonna leave that out for now. That's like the slightly lighter note that we see at the very edge of this arm. For now. We'll just leave that out. Um, because it's common to overstate the reflected light and make the reflected light is lightest, some of the lates and that will really, like throw off the total range So we want to start by just getting a good, strong sense of the of the darkness over all of the shadows. I think the Shadow could be actually slightly cooler, so I'm introducing a little bit of gray into it. It just felt a little too hot and actually in the cheek, um, of the face. It gets a little bit warmer, so we can just introduced into the note that we've already got just with a little wiggle stroke, a slight hint of a little bit warmer, local color in the cheeks. Oh, in the ears in the shadow. It's really important that the years in the shadow it's just a little bit pinky er. It's still dark and just fits right into the shadows. So if you squint, you'll see that the form shadow, the cash shadow and the ear, which is part of the form shadow. They all mix together like visually, and that's what we want. We want everything in the shadows to visually be close enough in tone together that bill end up feeling unified, and as you move into the chest, it looks like I feel like a bit of a burnt sienna ish that's not dark enough warmth glowing through the shadow in here again, it's got a soft edge, so we'll just wiggle stroke on the edge of it. And then I feel like it gets, um, well, it's a little bit. So there's the form shadow on the breast. That, too, is a little bit warm. I think we can see it a bit more clearly. The temperature changes from the form shadow to the cast shadow in the breast, and then the cast shadow is a little bit cooler. Gonna add the slightest bit of green just to emphasize that it could be nice to exaggerate the cools. That might be a bit too strong of an exaggeration, but that's pretty good. And the shadow down the side of the body feels cool as well. So in terms of the direction of the stroke, as I first put a stroke down, you probably saw that I went with the form, in other words, mirroring the shape of the edge and then all kind of wiggle across the front form like perpendicular to the shape of the edge. And what I might do after all of that is due a couple airplane strokes where my brushes like fully loaded. I start on the canvas where it's the colors fully there. And then I lift and pull as I go, so it creates a soft sort of edged. It sort of blends as I go, and I can just do like a couple of those. If I want to suggest some of united me some of the rib cage and Syria's interior muscles that we see there, um, they results. So this is technically probably part of the lights, but we can do some sort of airplanes strokes to just softly brush in some of the description of the And now, to me, there's a cool note there. We do have a warm, true shadow on this side and in the collarbone area. Some of that anatomy could be done with some airplane strokes, just basically softly blending into what we already have so that it's not over painted. So I kind of painted it through first with some based flesh colors and just get the lights like, blocked in. And then I can do some airplane strokes. But they'll be mixing in to what's already there so because what's happening in the collarbone is happening really suddenly, like it's all very subtle, so you don't want to overstate it. So having it like mix into what's already there, UM, helps keep it subtle. This line, too. You can just sort of do it with some soft, wet into wet strokes. It could be a little cooler. Yeah, I feel like a sense of a greenish glow in the way that that four rounds on that side, then the belly button has a true shadow actually, have lost my belly button, but it's right about there. And then the shadow, without the shadow of this arm, feels kind of like a purple Lee brownie. So again, I'm putting it in with the form. The side plan of that hand feels like a purple e brownie kind of color, too. Same with the side plan of the fingers, and then I'll take the excess off my brush. So there's just a little paint on there and just softened the edge. So it's basically just letting the lights mix wet into wet into the shadows. Could get a hint of the redder notes there, and what else this hip we have. If I squint. I feel like it actually is kind of cool. I feel like I can see the color more when I squint and flip my eye back and forth from the arm to the hip. Oops, that's way too cool. It's yet pretty neutral, like it's not supercool and actually make sense that it is a little cool, though, because again, that's the cast shadows of the form. Shadow on the arm is warmer. It's like more reddish in than the cast. Shadow is cooler. It is actually right now a little bit of light coming through. Oops, that's too late. Coming through underneath. Yeah, that's too late, though. There just to have it and then the leg. Um, I feel like that, which is a form shadow, is more of a warm and slightly purple e or and kind of burnt sienna ish color. Um, the more round in a form is the softer the edge will be. So this is rounding and quite a soft way. It's a really rounded form, so yeah, making that edge a little softer and then the other arm has the similar, actually is a little bit more reddish. It's probably reflecting some of the skin color because shadows are mirrors. So do you guys see how there's actually quite a orangey sort of note? It's really warm, and that's cause this playing on the arm is facing the skin of the leg and they're bouncing back and forth. And so it's reflecting the skin color, so it's really warm in there. And so if we had, like a blue wall right next to her face here, these shadows would look really blue. So shadows are mirrors. So where is like the lights? Show the local color, the shadows air, really reflecting the environment. So there's kind of a lot to think of it with the shadows. There's the form, shadows being warmer, the cast shadows being cooler. And then there's the what the shadows facing for whether it's reflecting some color back to us. So and then let's just get the hair color in the darks of the hair are some of them are like dark brown. Some of them are more dark purple. I'll do some airplane strokes again. I'm using this grain or brush, so it's got some longhairs in some short hairs, and I'll use a little extra oil which will just help it flow more fluidly. And I'll just do some hair like strokes, their airplane strokes where I start with the brush firmly on the canvas and I lift and pull as I'm going. So it helps create more of a flowing, fluid hair like kind of stroke. Kind of going around here. Yeah, And then at the last, um, I guess we'll do the shadow of the chair. And then also, we'll get a background color, and I actually like this color of the ground. It's working really nicely. Um, so I might just remix something similar to that. Yeah, the shadow on the chairs really dark. It's nice to get the full contrast. Once you've got your lights and your shadow's blocked in, he'll sort of have the the contrast set up. Um, so having some nice darks is nice and see Get sharing. I'll just do a little bit, um, probably fill in the background during break so that you don't have to watch me to the whole thing, but I'll just get it started. So let's see if I mix up. Um, yeah, I like that background color. I just have a darker toe later. Um, yeah. So I think I'll use some white and some gray and some yellow car, which is essentially the same mixture that the background was that the ground was done with And maybe have it a little darker over to this side. Moore's think? Yeah, I did put some yellow ocher yellow. Yeah. Oh, yeah, yeah. Um, actually, this is Ivory Black today. But either ways, however, is actually not as cool is the Mars black, So I'm not sure. Yeah, but it's probably to do with the yellow okra that I'm adding that makes it, like, look greenish. Yeah, but yes, I'm just having it lighten. And I want Teoh. I don't want to do the hair before I do the background. So I'm gonna want to kind of set it up so that when I do like, I've done a suggestion of the hair. But when I really go for the hair, it'll be able to have it meet wet paint in the background. So it'll be like, wet into wet. Yeah, so? Well, I'll complete this during break. I'm just gonna extend this color like across through the rest of the painting. But that basically shows how you can map in the shadows after you've mapped in the lights 7. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Big Form Modeling: and now we're going to start to move into the big for modeling where we like, dark him into the edges and lighten in the center of the forms. So I'm going to start, actually by lightning in the center of the forms. I know we were like holding off initially on getting the latest lights and look really good to get some of that latest note in. So the lights, or is that we have on the model is cool. And so the actual latest lights, like on the face, do you guys see how it almost feels slightly slightly cool like a little teeny bit bluish? Um, not totally blew, but it's cooler, then the warmth of the skin around it. So I've mixed a little bit of white and a little bit of blue, just a touch of blue into the base flesh color. There's still a bit of base flesh color in it as well, so by lightning in the center of the forms, you're going to start to get more of the Big Four modeling. We've got a little cool light front plane to the nose. There's a temptation to have a line of the under painting or something like right behind the nose. But we don't really see that the lightest plane of the front plane of the nose just basically meets the slightly darker flesh color behind it. And and it's so it's very subtly like described, got a little bit later in the cheeks on then this light here it's a little dark in a little warmer as it moves down. It's just not quite as late and break. Um, we've also got a little bit of a cooler highlight. I'm just gonna mix, Um, I just make some oil in and, um, a little gray, and I'm just gonna kind of zigzag across the hair and maybe scratch with my brush to cut into it a little bit. Um, so the chin is definitely darker than the forehead, but the chin has a teeny tiny little later note down there. Maybe I could go still slightly later through some of this forehead. Yeah, and a little bit in this cheek is will on the neck, the next darker than the face. And I've set that up well, so this darker note still stands out as later against what I've got already established so kind of lightning in the center of the neck, as I do the tendons and muscles in the neck. I want to just keep them really subtle. And I actually don't want to go into, ah lot of the detail of them. Yet I kind of want to focus on just the big form, the sense of the neck being a cylinder and it getting lighter in the center, as darker towards the edges. Oops, that's too late. Yeah, so later in the center, let's go ahead and darken towards the edges of the neck, and I'm doing it with that little wiggle stroke where, as I like, apply the paint. I'm just wiggling my brush side to side as they move it down the length of the form that I'm darkening. So it kind of just blends in a little bit as I go, let's see. Let's get a little bit of the form of the hair. So if we think of the head as an egg shape, the egg gets like darker towards the edges. So I'm gonna put mawr of the darks around the edges in. I always use a little extra oil when I do the hair just so that it flows really fluidly and has three ability to create little hair like strokes where, like the texture of the paintbrush shows and looks like hair. And then up here, it also darkens a little bit. I might need to bring some of my background color a little closer to the head up here. Yeah, just so that I can get wet into wet with the shape of the egg shape of the head. So I'm kind of like starting if the edges where it's dark and up darkest. I'm kind of starting with my brush on that edge and that I'm lifting and pulling as I pull inwards so it creates a blending as it moves in with the neck. We want to make sure let's switch to a different brush that there's an angle change lake, depending on what angle you're working on you want, even if it's a front view and you hardly see it. You want to have, like chin and then a step back to the neck, and then, as the neck sort of meats, the trapezius there's, you know, the neckline here, and then the angle of the trapezius there. So a separation for each of those movements. Let's go a little darker. It's like darkening at the big form of the neck, the big cylinder of the neck. It rounds into a really dark form of the hair in and around. They're also really watching the hair edges, like we hardly see where that hair and meets the temple. I'm gonna actually scratch that with the back of my brush to make it even softer. We just hardly see it at all. And with the ear just talked about the year in the handouts. So what I would do is I would basically just take a clean brush, and I would use that a lizard permanent and some brownish Starks, maybe a little black. And just start by putting in some of the key lines that we talked about. So we've got, like, the jaw, and then we've got that little flap of skin that comes out and then you could darken into that conta. It connects up to the describe the he legs, the little odor rim, keeping it sort of subtle. Um, if we like over defined the ear, it can become to visually contrast into exciting, so I really like said it back. It could become especially from a profile, like a painting about an ear. So it's good to keep it subtle and then right underneath the lobe. We really also get a sense of the Big Four modeling of the rounding of the neck back into that darkest, darkest note. It's hard to get in there. Yeah, and then what? Actually also do at this stage is just restate the features subtly now that you've got complete coverage, Um, and there's no under painting like we can see the under painting, but it's not, uh, looking like a big crusty outline, so we'll just kind of restate some of the features just toe maintain their positioning. I'm just using Brown to do this will render them or later, but just to kind of restate their positioning and so that we don't lose thumb. So I'm Yeah, I'm just using brown for the lip. I'll go ahead and shift into a little bit more of us. A lizard permanent color. Um, actually never did do the upper lip. It's part of the shadow side. It's a very small part of the shadow side So this is just like a brownish purplish color. And then we've got a very subtle, cool little form underneath the nose that extends into the lip. In terms of the Big Four modeling, I've got a kind of cool, darker note on my brush and just right along the edge of the face. I'm just running this slightly darker, slightly cooler notes so that now we're darkening to the edges of the form. So we've lightened in the center of the forms in the face so far, and now we're darkening into the edges. And let's continue with the Big Four modeling through the figure. So a lighten in the center of some of the forms. Yeah, this is the part that we've really set it up for, like we started with a whoa! That's way too light, with a slightly darker kind of mid tone light side color. And that was because we know that we're going to be lightning in the center of the firm's later bless you. So if we didn't have this initial statement of the fleshy color put down first, it would just end up feeling almost like a ghost like should be so light, you know. So we have to get, like, the flashy color in first so that it glows through as we put these lake latest notes on top . And as I put the lights in, I'm kind of wiggling it. I'm moving my brush down the length of the form, and I'm wiggling it side to side as I go and then take the excess paint off my brush and kind of wiggle on the outer edge of that. So so that I'm kind of doing it with a soft edge but controlling it so that the late doesn't carry too far over to either side. It still gets a little darker right as it meets the edge. So its latest in the centre darkening towards the edges. And we're just going to kind of carefully work through all of the forms and make sure that that's the structure, some of the sort of anatomy that's happening like in here. It's happening a lot with temperature changes. It's not like a huge tonal shift, Um, and so we want to make sure, as you put in the different forms and the anatomy that they don't become overstated and compete with the overall big forms of, like, the cylindrical nature of the whole body and the light side shadow side patterning. So that's why it's good to get the, um the bigger forms in kind of in a strong way first, so that as you introduce the smaller forms of the anatomy, they stay within Um, yeah, they just stay subtle enough like we should be able to see them but not have them compete with the light side shadow side, um, block in so lightning in the center of this form, and basically able to just let what I had put down, show through and be the darkening at the edge of this arm. So by just lightening in the center of this arm, I'm achieving the Big Four modeling this arm feels like I could move the elbow down a little bit. This arm is too long. The hand needs to move back to yeah, years it might be, but how work? Yeah, so I'll just move this hand back and I'll put a little subtle hint of the sort of break which shows the elbow. And then I'm also actually darkening the lights as they round towards the shadow. So the lights kind of darken towards the shadow, and they also darken towards the edge. And then I'll just cut the fingertips back a little bit there, and then I'll use the background color to cut the shape back of it. So with hands just looking at the angles that air made, there's like an angle change at each knuckle. So we've got, um, yeah, one angle here than another angle. And then there's the angle at the top of the who will hand. And then the wrist separates a little bit from, uh, hand. That's too dark, and they'll be like a tonal shift for each of those two. But we'll look at that more when we get into describing the planes. Um, so I don't want to spend too much time on this hand. Uh, that'll that'll do. For now, that's a better scale in positioning will move through, introducing the later note in this form and then softening the edge. And a little later, on the top plane of the valley with the belly, we've gotten a late top plane and then a slightly darker front plane right here, um, votes. You got a little bit of muscular, sure showing, Um, and sort of the rib cage. Actually, it's the connection between the ABS and the ribs that's being described right here. But yet kind of like we're able to describe the anatomy. But just doing a fairly suddenly and then softening the edges of some of it so that it doesn't compete with the overall stronger sense of the lights and the shadows. The front plane of the belly could be a little bit warmer, you know, we've actually got, like, two forms here. There's the belly, and then there's kind of like the crease right here, there, more separated. So there's, like, the hip grade in there. And then, yeah, a little bit darker. And here and then with the leg will just complete the big for modeling by lightning through the center of the leg and then darkening at well, the edges already darkening. And I think we'll also go very subtly into some of the reflected light and reflected light is essentially this very slight lightening effect that you see in some of the shadows, which is caused by the light bouncing off the wall and reflecting from the environment back into the shadows but remembering to keep the reflected light subtler than what you think. Everything in the shadows and the reflected latest part of the shadows should be darker than anything in the lights. So there's a tendency just like there is to make some of the anatomy in the lights to dark . There's a tendency to make the reflected light in the shadows to light, so I want to really keep that toned down. Same with, like some of the reflected light in here. So that basically shows how to develop the Big Four modeling by darkening at the edges, lightning in the center of the forms and suddenly introducing some of the reflected light. 9. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Feature Handouts: I want to discuss some handouts that you can download and follow along with me. There's the eye, the nose and the mouth handouts. So download those print emote, grab a hard surface and trace along with me, and let's discuss them in more detail. Let's start with this more front facing I, where you can see the construction lines more clearly, and this center line that's coming through at an angle here represents the tilt that the I slopes either towards the nose or away from the nose. And this drawing the nose is on this side. And so it's basically the relationship between the inner tear duct on the outer corner of the eye. Obviously, it won't be in your final painting, but it's just representing the tilt. So if you you know some guys have, like more of a slope inwards like a characteristic feature, that's kind of cat eyes, some eyes characteristically slope away from the nose, and also the tilt of the head can change like the person. That perspective will change the Children they had eyes. So if the eyes, if the heads Children down the idol slope in towards the nose and if the head's tilted back . The perspective will make the eyes slope away from the nose so you can take like a horizontal plumb line. Check that relationship there and then and yet trays along. As we're going, you get a good kinetic feel for the construction of the features, so next will break the upper eyelid down and even see how are breaking this curve into two angled straight lines, with the apex favoring in towards the nose on this side. So breaking the curve into two angled straight lines, Apex waving and towards the nose, you can break the lower eyelid down into two angled straight lines with the apex favorite away from the nose on the lower edge. So you get this kind of skewed rhombus effect where the apex is, and I'm gonna be calling the turning most point on a curve, the apex where it's in, towards the nose, on the upper eyelid and away from the nose on the lower island and then breaking down the upper I'll increase. You can break that curve and two angled straight lines, three angled straight lines. And for the lower eyelid, you can break it into two angled straight lines, with the information favoring away from the nose. Look for an two angles to describe the eyebrow as well. Don't just do it as a big generic curve that looks really weak. Instead, break it down into two angled straight lines as well. And then the iris is fairly large, takes up half of the white of the eye, and it's partially covered on the top by the upper eyelid. That's really important because it gives the I more of a relaxed look. If you can see the whole top of the iris and the pupil in your painting, it gives it this like Stary by guide kind of feels. So make sure that is partially covered at the top to get that more relaxed look so moving on to the more rendered version of the eye. And again keep tracing along with me. You can see how the I curve Thea Upper Island breaks down into two angled straight lines, with the apex favoring towards the nose. The lower eyelid broken down into two angled straight lines. Apex gave away from the nose, which is on this side of this drawing as you do the final rendering you'll really curve out this lower lid and have it really wrap around the eye at the corner so you don't want like a big point on the corner, the outer corner of your eye in the final. Instead, he'll really wrap this around to show the curvature of the eyeball, then breaking the crease of the eye into three angled straight lines. They're slightly curving, angled straight lines. But really looking to nail those apex is, which is what's going to give the structure and solidity to your constructed the construction of your features and then the lower eyelid broken down. It's too angled straight lines favoring the back of the, you know, away from the nose. The iris, like I said, it's fairly large, takes up half of the white of the eye, and it's partially covered on the top by the upper island. So that's really important. Um, as you go into the pupil, those basically a cast shadow when the light source, which is this represented here, is coming down on the face. The upper eyelid has a thickness to its little cast, a shadow on to the eyeball, and you can use that cast shadow toe actually connect to the top of the pupil? A swell. So looking at this again, we're having the I the iris partly covered at the top. Then we're using a cash shadow that will come down on the I, and the pupil will kind of connect to that cow's shadow, so that gives it more of a relaxed look. This illustration down here shows how the pupil, when there's like a strong light on it, or when the person scared the pupil gets small. And when it's relaxed, or when there's like dimmer lighting, the pupil gets larger. So a lot of the time. If you're painting, say, a model from life and you have like a really strong light blasting on the model, their pupil might actually look small, so I'll tend to make it a little larger again, using that cast shadow that comes down from the upper I to connect the top and give it more relaxed. Look the curve of the eyelashes kind of curve and come off of the line of the upper eyelid , and they grow in clusters so they're not just evenly spaced or straight like this. They curve and crisscross and glowing grown clusters and the lower eyelid. There's some that curve and crisscrossing blanc grown clusters coming off the lower eyelid , and that's favoring the back of the eye. So there's not so much eyelashes towards the front. There's this really important little light rim of thickness to the sort of top shelf of the lower island, which is really important to get in. So really, observe that and definitely get that in. It could just be like one little brushstroke, kind of a pinky, flesh colored brush stroke. But it'll give a lot of dimension to your eyes and really make it look solid and structured . Also, don't forget the darker front plane to the lower eyelid. That'll help really solidify, like bringing the eye into the face. Um, the hot highlight of the eye little white dot, which is a reflection of the light source. It occurs right at the edge of where the pupil meets the iris coming from the direction of the light source, and I'll show you how all of this applies to the demo. And when I do the demo so and then looking at the profile, I you can see how the shape of the upper eyelid looks like a wedge shape, so it's like a triangle, so avoid the temptation to sort of pull it back and curve it to make it into the shape of an I know. It's like a full wind shaped like a triangle, the line of the lashes kind of curve and come off of that line of the upper eyelid. And then we've got the pupil looks almost just like a line. It's like a dark little line coming down off of the line of the upper island, and the iris looks like an oval. It's a circle in perspective, which is called in a lips, and there is this little clear dome in front of the iris, which is called the cornea. So you don't wanna have the colored part of the I extend all the way to the front. There is the little clear dome that sits in front of the iris. Also, the upper island has a certain thickness to it. They both do the lower eyelid as well, and the upper island has more thickness than the lower island. And so there's a certain angle created from the upper eyelid to the Lower Island. And also, if you think about like where the center line of the eye is like if we have our pupil, we have our iris, and we have the cornea and the sort of center line through that where the upper I crosses over the lower eyelid is just slightly lower than center, So the vertical height of the upper eyelid is taller than the vertical height of the lower island. And again, we've got that little light room of thickness showing on the top shelf of the upper island and then looking at the 3/4 view. Same considerations. Break the upper eyelid into two angled straight lines, with the apex raven in towards the nose, the Lower Island in the final rendering. You'll really round that out. Get that little top light ridge. Get that little light rim of thickness to the lower eyelid, and again make sure it really wraps around the curve of the eyeball. The iris from a 3/4 view will look like an oval, so we're starting to see the turn of the iris. It's not a full circle and also always set the eye socket into shadow, and that shadow gets darker, darker, darker as it rolls towards the crease of the upper eyelid. And there's the little darker front plane to be lower eyelid as well. So I think that will really help you as you refine the features refining the I and let's move to the mouth. So let's start with the front facing most and work through the center crease of the most. So it goes horizontal first and trace along with me and then angled straight line, going up, angled straight line going down. This is like a Big M angled straight line going up again, angled straight line going down and then that horizontal note again. And then the upper lip is sort of a curving, angled, straight line going up, down, up, curving, angled, straight line going down and the whole upper lip. When the light source is coming down on the model will be in shadow and the lower lip. We won't have any edge to describe the lower lip. The lower lip color will basically be like base splash color mixed with a little bit more cad, red and white, so it will be the same tone as the flesh around it. But it will be, ah, little bit pink here. So put in that tone than the pink your color. Take us off Russian wiggle along that edge to create a totally lost edge here and instead, the definition to the lower lip comes from the shadow underneath the lower lip, which will often be a cool ish color, sort of a grey green often, and then the lower lip is constructed of two circular fat pads. You'll get this little David in the center, and sometimes they'll be like a highlight running through here. Um, depending on the direction of your light source looking at the 3/4 most, it's the same considerations as the front most. Now you'll take all of the horizontal Zell's that were, you know, the base of the front view, and now they're receding to a vanishing point, which is kind of over here, and the whole face will really be receding to the vanishing point. The eyes, the nose, everything goes to that vanishing point, and so again, the center line of the mouth can be constructed with the horizontal and an angle straight line going up can go straight line, going down, up again. The horizontal distance is getting a shorter as it goes back into space down again and that little horizontal that anchors in the back corner of the most and then the upper lip kind of an urn angled straight line, going up, down, up, curving, angled, straight line going down again. The horizontal width is getting shorter as it turns back into space. The whole upper lip is in shadow when the light source is coming down on the model and it gets darker, darker, darker as it rounds into the center line of the lip and then the lower lip. There's no edged lower lip here. You might see a little divided between the two circular fat pads that make up the lower lip , and the construction, or the sort of edge of the lower lip, is defined by this cool shadow. Underneath the lower lip and with the color of the lip, you'll probably is like a warm radish brown for the upper lip. Cool the color a little bit as he moved to the back corner of the most, and then it turns into this soft, cool sort of grey green note with a lost edge that describes the muscle. Talk it like the back of the most. So that's the 3/4 mouth. And then looking at the profile most, um, so all the edges of the mouth will have soft edges except for this center line of the lips . But with the profile, you'll want to get really sharp edged right at this part here. So the upper lip cuts up at an angle straight line about a 3/4 decree angle coming up, 45 degree angle going out, and then it slopes in underneath the nose. You condone. Construct the sharper edge of the um, center crease of the most cuts up at a certain angle down. And that little suggestion of the horizontal that anchors it in softens into the muscle. Took the back curving, angled straight line going up and down on the whole upper lip, sitting in a shadowy, ready Brownie Purple e kind of tone, which gets like darker and warmer as it rounds into the center line. No definition through here with the front act of the lower lip. It's sort of overshoots from the center line of the most and then cuts down at a certain angle and then angles underneath the lip and out into the chin. And the structure of the lip is really defined by the shadow underneath the lower lip. So you really study these angles here. That's what's gonna really get you a nice looking profile, and you can see that the nose also, by the way, sits half on and half off the face, so there's a tendency to make the nose, like all the way off. But you can see how it's kind of half on and half off the face from a profile, and that takes us into the nose. Things happen out here. You can see there's more of a constructed version of the drawings in a more rendered version. So basically, let's start with this constructed version of the profile nose and you'll break the curves, as always, into angled straight lines. Sometimes this here will just be more straight, so you can kind of see what it's like on it. The person that you're painting. Sometimes you'll see the definition of the bony structure there and breaking the curves into angled straight lines. There's a really important insertion point right here. We're like the nose inserts into the skull and that occurs like right above the tear duct. So the tear duct would be like here. And you can see that the nose inserts into the skull just above the tear duct. And that should have a really strong angle change almost like a rating and go. So there's a tendency actually to, like, curve this out and make it yet it's really curved. This line will turn into the eyebrow a lot of the time, but you weren't really. There is a strong angle change there and make sure to capture that. And then you can break the planes into the front facing plane of the sort of bony ridge of the knows there's a side facing plane and and also really important on the nose is that there's this very important form shadow on the bottom plane of the nose and a lot of the time with soft lighting. It's hard to really see that, like in the nose is so grounded, so the transition happens really softly, so it could be actually hard to perceive. But I promise it's there. If the note if the light source is coming down on the model and definitely put that in. Put it in a little darker than you think. You can wiggle across the edge, get it soft, and the nostril will hide within that and avoid doing. Don't do a nostril that's like a big circle pig nose. Instead, describe the lines of the nostril as like to angled straight lines sort of pulled down in the center to create the opening of the nose and again that sits within the form shadow off the nose. And then there's a cash shadow that comes down on the face off of the nose, and a lot of the time cast shadows air cooler and form shadows. Air warmer. Always check. You can see with the lighting. If that's true, and then in the more fun like finished version of the knows, there's often going to be a highlight. Save the light source is coming this way. On the figure they'll often be a highlight running along that band in the Plains, where the side plane meets the front plane and a little speculative highlight on the ball of the nose, too. So looking at the 3/4 knows same considerations. Get that strong angle change with the nose inserts into the skull. Get the bony front plane and of the nose and that different tone for the side plane. Watch that the front plane of the nose is nice and narrow and bony and construct the curves of the nose of angled straight lines. Definitely get that form shadow on the nose, the lower plane of the nose all being slightly darker and get the nostrils to find with a nice warm color and two angled straight lines pulled down in the center and for the back nostril. The center line here is basically like this part, and then we sort of pull back and see some nostril holes showing behind it. And then there's the cast shadow that comes down off of the nose as well. And in the finished version, you'll put the I had a light that runs down the bony plane where the front plane and the side playing meat and the little speculate highlight that occurs on the ball of the nose and then front facing knows same considerations. Look for three tones for the side plane, front plane and other side plane always really get that form shadow on the lower plane of the nose and describe the nostrils with two angled straight lines instead of the big circle pick nose and get the cast shadow coming down on the faces. Well, and then this illustration here just shows how the front facing noses vertical, the 3/4 knows shows some of the angle, and the profile shows the full angle of the nose. Also, if you go from the back wing of the nose and kind of follow it up, the same angle is the nose. From a profile view, it takes you to the bottom of the eye, so there's a tendency in a profile to place the I too far forward. But following this, you'll get the I anchored in in the right spot. So this is going to really help you as we move forward next and start to construct the features in our paintings. 10. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Ear Handout: So let's take a look at the construction of the ear. So I'd like to start by having you follow along with these steps and just create one ear, a little ear drawing following the steps. So in step one, we kind of established the overall shape of the ear, really noticing that it's wider at the top and narrower at the bottom. And then, in Step two were starting to develop the little rim around the odor top portion of the ear , which is called the Helix, keeping it nice and narrow, keeping the width, in other words, narrow. And then, in Step three, we put the little notch this little triangular flap, which is basically where the ear anchors onto the face. Just putting that on and the next we start to extend that and extend this down. Step six, we start to put in the Contra the sort of hollowed out central area of the ear, and then, in Step six, we put in this little did it at the top. So basically this here is like a curving why, and I really find that that helps make some sense out of some of the anatomy of the ear to kind of simplify the understanding of it into the idea that this is like a curving Why also , in terms of the proportions of the here, we've got 1/3 at the top than this hollowed out central area is another 1/3 vertically. And then we've got the bottom part, the lobe as another 1/3. So in terms of the anatomy, we've got the helix, which is that rim around the outer portion of the ear. And then you've got the contra, which is that holiday out central area. We've got the anterior Nagy, which is that little flap of skin that connects basically onto the jaw, just anchoring the ear onto the face. And then you've got the lobe and the inter tragic nacho, just sort of this curving shape that connects that flat to the central hollowed part. And then we also have the anti helix, which is that curving? Why shape? So we've been looking at the profile view of the ear, and if we take a look at a slight rotation of the head into the 3/4 head, so this would be like our 3/4 of rotation view of the year. And so we've got the helix, which kind of overlaps itself kind of showing that this is more in front of this part and then keeping the with nice and narrow, especially narrower, towards the back portion of a little wider at the front as it comes towards us to show the foreshortening again. We've got that anterior notch, which is thief lap that really angers the year onto the face and then the lobe of the ear, remembering that the top of the ear is wider than the lobe and you've got the thirds in terms of the proportions and that curving Why shape that wraps itself around the concept. The holiday central part in the like whole of the ear is smaller in his inside and then, from this more front on view, where you can only see like a sliver of the ear again, you can describe the helix with the sense that the front is wider and it gets narrower as it goes back into space. Just a little sliver of that curving. Why shape get that interior notch anchored onto the jaw and the low being narrower than the top, and it looks really nice to carve out the ear with sort of angles. So it really helps, like, avoid like a big Muppet here, you know, giving it a little bit more articulation and specificity. As we get towards the back view of the ear, you can see that there's actually this flap of skin that anchors the ear onto the head, and it's actually wider at the top. And there were at the bottom. So the ear sticks out a bit more from the top than the bottom of the ear from the back view of the head. And then you can carve up the helix again, keeping it narrower in the back and having it. Wyden has. It comes towards us towards, you know, are back view of the ear. And then we've just got, like, a little sliver of an indication of that curving. Why she very subtle little sliver of the indication of the contra and the even the back. It's like we're looking at the side of the of the ear, so we're seeing like the the side playing the thickness of the ear and then just a little bit of the front plane of the lobe and at the total back view, the helix starts to kind of curve into this s sheep and we're just seeing. And it's a little thicker at the top, a little thinner at the bottom. And then we've got that flap of skin that anchors the year onto the head in terms of the proportions of the ear we've got. Basically, this is our base 1/3 measurement. So from the bottom of the chin to the bottom of the news bottom the nose, eyebrow, eyebrow to hairline that they're all three equal thirds on the face and the ear is equal tore 1/3 measurement. So if the head is just in a neutral position facing forward, no tilt down, no till up the bottom of the ears aligned at the bottom of the nose and the top of the ear is aligned with the eyebrow, and also the year sets at an angle on the face. That's the same as the angle on the job. So I hope that helps you with the construction of the ear. I think that understanding the proportions and the anatomy of the ear will really help you as you create your own. Your portrayals 11. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Describing the Planes: So basically what we're getting into now is describing the plane. So we've got, like, the big forms, like the cylinder of the arms, that kind of flattened cylinder of the body, the egg shape of the head, those air, the big forms. And now we're going to start to describe the planes of the smaller forms. So I'm gonna start with the face. Yes. So the forehead has two planes. So let's start with the forehead, some of its covered at the top by the a little bit of like hair. And it's sort of hard to see exactly. But I do want to suggest the plane of the forehead on the tall and because right now it just looks like we've just got the front plane of the forehead. Um, so I went a little bit more of the sense of the top plane, and it almost looks like the top plane is like a little bit darker, then the front plane. So we want to be looking for three planes, and they'll be there for three different tones, and each tone will be a different hue. So, um, some planes might be warmer, some might be cooler some might be sort of neutral, and you want to kind of analyze for those things. So and then So the front plane looks like it's working pretty well. It's like lighter. It's a little warmer than our top plane. And then we've got the side plane, which is like cooler and darker. I think I could cool it a little bit. I think I could refine the temple area just having described. And then as I get into the, um, let's see that area between the eyebrows where the brow is inserting into the nose, it's It darkens a little bit into their to show that plane change that. It's like turning down, away from the light a little bit and it's a little bit cooler. And then we've got the side plane of the nose, which is a little darker, and it's slightly warm, like it's not. It doesn't feel bluish. It's sort of neutral. But if it had to be something, it's like slightly warm, a little bit brownish, but not to brown, not too brown or to read. And, um, the nostril on this side is in the shadow, too, and that is a common mistake that people will like, not have that nostril set into the shadow, the render it light, and it'll kind of throw off the tones. So next we want to get the form shadow on the lower plane of the knows that plane at the bottom. It's darker and warmer in the side plane of the nose. There's also a darker plane at the back of a nostril. That lake darkens a little bit more, and then also, as we get closer to the eyebrow, there's some darkening just in the sort of corner between where the brow is heading towards meeting the nose. So kind of getting into the eye socket. We've got this darker and slightly warmer. It could even be a little bit more burnt Sienna ish plane there, and then we've got, like, a slightly later in slightly cooler plane in the center, and then it heads into that sort of side plane in the temple area, and I'll just refine that a little bit. It gets a little darker as it rounds into into that, and even the eyebrow has, like different planes who got actually a slightly later, slightly cooler plane on Oops, that's a little too light Yeah, on this side of the brown, so that we want to make sure that the brow doesn't just feel like, ah line so that it's sitting into the forms of the face. And then the front of the brow is like a little darker and a little warmer, maybe even a little warmer still. Yeah, and then this other brow It, too, is a little cooler towards the edge and a little warmer towards the center. Let's get a smaller brush with the eyes, this painting so small that I won't go into much detail. But I'll get the big like the main shapes, like we see the structure of the eye lid so that creaks of the upper eyelid, and it's hard to get that line thin enough. So I've put it in, and then I'm gonna scratch it with the back of my brush to make it even narrower. And then I'll put in the line of the lashes. I'm not gonna be like showing eyelashes or anything, but it's basically the line of the upper eyelid that meets the I. And, yeah, and then I'll just put the pupil connects to that line and the pupils like pretty black. I'm not gonna make it super black. Or it might be too high contrast for such a small area and making it like, kind of grayish, blackish brownish does not like total black. Yeah, we hardly see the white of the eye. Um, yeah, we really actually hardly even see that at all. I'm just gonna put a dark grey tone in their toe, basically suggest it. And then we do have that light rim, the little light rim of thickness, the upper eyelid, upper edge or the lower island. I mean, upper edge. And we might even put a little highlight in the center of the upper eyelid. Yeah, and that's about as much detail as we can get into. If you put too much detail on such a small painting, I mean, I don't think the center of interest is really the face. I'll probably make the center of interest more this whole area, Um, and then getting into the cheek bone, we want the three planes just continuing to, like, really analyze for three planes and three tones. We've got our latest top plane to the cheekbone, and then it starts to, like, darken and round in a reddish way towards the shadow. So let's see. We'll put that in, and I think that will, um, it can push. My shadow could be pushed over a little bit, so we're gonna eat into the shadow patterning and let's work the transition between those two. So, just like moves gradually into that note, just want to move that up with it. There we go, and then there's a little bit of light. It's not very light. It's pretty dark. Um, so I want Oh, it's definitely a situation where I want to make sure that I don't make it too late, Um, because it's yet pretty dark. So it just cuts in right around there and then around like the chin. We've got a cool gray green shadow under the chin. I mean under the lower lip, so sometimes the you'll use like a temperature shift. In other words, um, like warmer, like the reds and yellows or cooler like relatively a little bit more gray or green. And so the gray green color is sort of sit back, and it can give the kind of shadowy feel without going really dark so it actually helps keep it, Um subtle. Yeah, and I just want to kind of soften this transition one more time. Let's do a little a little bit on the back. I the back I it can set back even more, so I'll just kind of get the line of the upper eyelid lashes in. I kind of pull that down again. I'm not doing it too dark. I really don't want this. I to lake attract too much attention. I just wanted to sit back and just Yeah, just be a suggestion of a NY back there. And then we've got the We will often see even a small in a small painting this crease of the upper eyelid top edge. And I'm just gonna soften it even a little bit more. And I'm gonna put a couple lines on just a like little teeny couple of highlights on the ear where it's picking up some light. And then as I moved, actually in the chin, there's the lower plane so that shin, like we've already got kind of the upper plane of the chin and then the chin. You can hardly see it, but it rolls down to a slightly darker playing on the very bottom. And so moving into the collarbone area again, just looking for three planes for each of the small forms that are sitting on the bigger form. So with the collarbone, we've got this muscle, the sternum asteroid coming down. It connects to the back of the skull and comes down and then connects at the front to the clavicle. And we can see a little suggestion of the front of the clavicle bone right here. And right here this color is looking a bit to Pinky whitey. Um 01 thing I wanted to show you guys glazing. So before I really get into the clavicle, let's do a little glaze I'm gonna clean. I think it's dry enough. Yeah, I'm gonna clean my brush off really well. Him and use. Um this is the gambling solvent free jail, and I'm in love with it actually is still paint on my brush. I like it is better for glazing than just the oil, is it? It's really good. So I feel like let's go ahead and just pretend even. I think it's true that her chest is even slightly pink. E er, just slightly pink ear than what I've got. So with the glaze, you'll just use a very small amount of pigment and a lot of medium so that you're making like a really transparent, transparent coat. I wanted to be like an orangey red do that is getting there, and I'll use even more medium than that. And so you can basically just pull that through on a completely dry surface, and it'll just you'll still be able to see through, you know, and they don't have to re render everything, but it'll just give a little a little bit of, ah, color adjustment to the whole area. So, like, it's too late for me to do it on my face because I've painted into the face and I like the face colors. But if you came to your painting and we're like, Oh, no, the whole thing looks pasty white or something or like pasty pinky white, you could do like a yellow ochre or an orange glaze as long as your face was like, totally dry. Um, way could, like, give the fingertips maybe like a little bit more kinkiness if we wanted, just with a little glaze. So it's really useful because you can make color adjustments without having to, like, repaint the whole thing. Actually, one other thing we could do because I didn't paint into the lips, we could give the lips like a little bit more Rosie nous. Yeah. Um, so, yeah, getting back into the collarbone area, Um, as we analyzed the clavicle, which is this bone coming down here? I think first of all, actually, right above the clavicle, I need to give a little bit more of this lighter top plane, which is the front of the trapezius showing between the hair trying to get the right color here. It's pretty good. We'll do the hair on top of that later. Yeah, that kind of comes down and then connects into this muscle. The sternum. Asteroid. It would be nice to get the neck a little darker. Let's do it, glaze. I'm gonna do a very thin It's black with a little yellow Oakar. So it's like gray green. It's just lightly dark in the neck. And actually, let's also have this dark and a little bit as it goes back. Yes, So, um yeah, and then this line coming down the clavicle. Top plane moves through a couple colors. We've got a reddish brownish color at the front, Um, really soft edges, very soft. And then I think it opens up to be lighter and even more soft edge and a little bit cooler , like right in here. And then, yeah, just stays pretty subtle. Maybe a little cool. We see some of the description of the top of the actual bone sitting on top of the humerus as we get into the side plane of it. So there's, like, a little bit of light here. Um, yeah, And then there's this front plane to the clavicle. Heading down the rendering in the shoulder area is a case where were similar to the the most cash shadow. It's really a temperature shift. It's hardly a tonal shift, so that will help it stay as subtle as it should be. It's just like a little bit cooler. It's a little bit darker, but not not much. So when I say temperature shift, yeah, I mean, like either warmer cooler, and it's just relative to the stuff around it. It may not really be like Super Blue, but it's just a little bit more blue, then the warmer colors around it. As I get into the muscles right here, we've got kind of a top plane, even to this form. This is actually the pectoral muscle connecting over to the humerus, and there's on the side, kind of into the upper chest area. There's like a side playing here in the front plane there. The front plane is a little darker, a little warmer, like a little pinky er. We can see a hint of some of the bony structure of the rib cage attaching to the sternum. I want to keep it really soft. There's not such a dark right here. The lights actually just sort of fade into the, um, the collarbone. Yeah, there's only the slightest hint of a dark. So keeping it way settler than we think as we do the collarbone. And then, yeah, there is a cooler side plane, which we already kind of have to the breast. And with the other shoulder again, we can see this is actually a little scooping area. Um, it's actually a gap between the deltoid and the pectoral muscles, so there's always like a little scoop rate in this area inward, hollowed out, and it's catching the light in this case, and I could give a little bit more bone up here. The shoulder comes up a little higher and again with the clavicle. We've got, like the front plane, which in this case is darker and cooler. And then we've got the top plane, which is slightly lighter and slightly warmer on the clavicle and with the front plane, I'll just restate that. It's like cooler. I think the clavicle in some parts gets a little later still, and I'm lightly brushing through even the front plane of the clavicles so that it isn't too dark in that area to There's definitely a tendency to like, over state the variation and tone in the clavicle. Um, so you want to watch that you don't do that. So with this whole area, it looks like there's more of a sense of this being lighter than this. So this has returned to the top plane of the clavicle. Could be a little darker. Yeah, so I'm not going to carry all the way through right now, but that basically shows you how I would start to put the forms the smaller forms onto the big forms and just really analyze for three planes for each form and looking for a later playing a darker plain and a midtown plain and a cooler, warmer and neutral plane. 12. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Hands and Feet Handouts: So let's take a look at the construction of the hand. And ideally, you might like to have these handouts printed out so you can follow along and trace along with me that we'll actually get like a kinetic feel of how to construct the hands or feet. And you'll really get like, a firsthand experience of the details that I'm talking about. So if you take a look at this diagram here, you can see that the overall construction of the hand will begin by getting an equal proportions from the distance of the palm of the hand to the distance of the tip of the middle finger, and even basically construct a slightly wedge shaped box. The width of this will obviously depend on the spray, the fingers and then one interesting thing to note when you get into the rendering is that the side off the hand with the pinky finger has more of a rounded musculature, whereas the side of the thumb has a bony structure that's really square, and we'll have a nice straight sort of edge to it. Here, also, from the pointer finger extending down, you can have the skin and muscles overlap having this line overlap on top of the thumb to create extra depths. And when you're rendering the fingers, it's nice of you. Exaggerate the bulge at the knuckles so that it just looks a bit more dynamic. Sometimes it's not a huge bulge on a finger, you know, But you can kind of exaggerate how it goes outwards at the knuckles and also in the forearm , the muscles in the forearm basically round towards the side of the thumbnail, that kind of head down that way. And if you look at the bony structure of the hand, you can see how the wrist area is made up of a bunch of little bones. And then we've got the longest bones coming right in through here in the hand, in the palm of the hand. And then we basically have a slightly longer bone for the first segment of the finger, a slightly shorter one for the next and the smallest one of the tip of the finger. So they do go kind of long, a little bit shorter and then shortest and their tapering towards the edge. So if we look at the rendering of the 3/4 hands 3/4 angle of the hand. You'll start with the box to construct the palm of the hand, and then you'll basically break the fingers down into boxes as well, constructing the fingers with a series of boxes for this finger. I can see that we're looking at the side plane and the top plane and then for this finger were actually seeing a little bit of the underside of the finger and more of the side plane . And you'll get better at analyzing this, Um, as you get used to constructing the fingers. But it might take a bit of thought to figure out what direction you're looking at the fingers out for. You know how to construct thes boxes, whether you're seeing the side plane and the top plane or the bottom plane and the side plane, and you'll do the same for the thumb. I got a side plane and the bottom plane for both of those. It could be nice to do kind of a rounded mass at the base of the thumb, and as you get into the rendering the of the fingers, you could make the top of the finger nice and pointed and the bottom of the finger rounded , seeing kind of see how my finger has like a pointy top. It's on the male side and a rounded bottom edge. Then when you just grabbing something like the hand holding something again, you'll start with the box of the palm of the hand you'll get from this one. We've got that rounded base of, um, a series of boxes to describe the construction of the fingers and then, when you're rendering the hand look to really describe with a tonal shift, the bend in planes. So in this hand we've got thes thing, the plane, this side facing plane facing this way and it's a bit lighter in tone. And then we've got the front facing plane of all of these fingers facing more front words, and it's a darker tone, this hand again. You can really see the same premise, starting with the box on the underside of the hand. There's kind of a pointy nous that extends out towards the middle middle finger in the structure, and again, you can really see how it's nice to exaggerate the bulge at the finger. And then this drawing here basically shows an interesting fact that the in terms of the bend of the fingers are first knuckle break. Actually, Ben's most and our second knuckle break doesn't have as much flexibility. So you can see like my this top knuckle so you can see, like, this top Michael Lake really bends, but the second knuckle, it only bends a little bit. So in this drawing here, you can see that ah statement having the first knuckle band be a bit stronger and the second knuckle band be kind of slight. And then when you're dealing with a four shortening situation as you construct the hand, that primary box of the farm with hand, you're gonna have the side planes received together kind of narrowing as they go back into space. And you'll also have this distance here which initially was, you know, half to half like 1 to 1. It will be a shorter distance now than the fingers, so the fingers will be larger and the horizontal distance of the palm will be shorter. To really sell the foreshortening situation, make it look like the fingers air coming towards us and the palm is shooting back into space. So I think that's going to really help you as you move forward into rendering the hand and let's look at the foot next. So let's look next to the construction of the foot and similar to the hand. We're gonna start with basically a overall box that will just lay in the overall perspective of the foot, just basically massing in the entire area that the foot fits into. So this basically is just setting up the perspective and just blocking in the whole space of the foot first. And then from there you can extend a couple angled lines heading up into the leg. And if you look at this diagram over here looking at the skeletal structure of the foot and proportions that make up the foot, you can see that the hell proportion basically takes up about 1/3. And then the space of the arch of the foot up to the right. Around here on the ball of the foot is another third and then from the ball of the foot. Extending towards the front of the big toe is another third, so that will help you set up the proportions as you draw on your foot and then what you'll do next is you'll start to break the toes into little boxes for themselves. So describing in this one aside plane on the top plane for each toe, and generally it will actually end up looking on, especially in a small drawing or painting like too much information to really describe in precise detail all over the toes. So it often looks good to just do kind of a suggestion of the other toes and then to really describe the big toe with the most clarity. And so, with the description of the big toe, it's kind of like a finger. You'll have a pointy top on the nail side and around a bottom, and then it kind of goes so it kind of steps down to the toenail, and then it kind of goes like that. You'll want to describe the arch of the foot and the little curve here along the toe between the ball of the foot and the fall of the toe, and you could make the shadow a little bit deeper and darker here to really show the weight that tends to look nice and you'll get the ankle steady and and So when you're describing a front facing foot like this, you'll want to analyze the perspective. So we have to front facing feet here. Basically, this one. We're looking more directly at the foot and this one. We're looking a little bit more down on the foot, so you want to really analyze the foot? I will say that most of the time you'll be looking at the foot from this perspective, and it is a common error that I see in a lot of work to actually end up describing the foot Maurin this way, looking down on it, so really analyzed the angle that you're looking at the foot. If we look down at this diagram here, it basically describes one point perspective. So we've got our horizon line, and that's the level of the eyes. And then we have what's called a vanishing point, which is essentially the position of the eyes on the eye level. And so what you'll do is you'll start by describing the front plane, and then you'll extend the side planes back towards the vanishing point so you can see that he used to lines are receding towards the vanishing point, so it's wider in the front there were in the back, and that's gonna be how you're gonna construct the box for this foot. And so you can see that as you're setting up the perspective, these two side planes air receding back into space, and you'll also notice that this height here is not super high. So, um, you'll want toe, really capture that. And so you can see on this foot that basically, when you're looking down more on that the foot, this vertical distance, the height is longer. It's more what we think of in terms of the length of the foot eso. When you show that length, it makes it look like you're looking down on the foot. But when you keep it nice and short vertically, it helps make the foot look like it's receding into space. And so, from their U boats, describe the toes as little foxes with little front planes. Side planes. Um, the toenail basically describes where the top plane starts, and then you can. It looks nice if you kind of do like a ball above your basic, but I'm block, and that's kind of representing all of the bone structure that makes up like the the base of the foot, Um, and then on top of that ball basically sits the leg bones and at the bottom of the two leg bones that tibia and fibula. We have the ankles, and you'll notice that the outer ankle is actually lower. In other words, the ankle on the baby toe. The little toe side is lower, like the apex is a little bit lower, and on the big toe side on the inner side, the ankles a little bit higher. So you get a certain angle creative in the relationship between the two ankles, and then when you're describing a back view of a foot again, you'll start by massing in the overall perspective of the foot, just blocking it in as a box. And then you can put a circle in to construct the hell and then describe the ankles again. The inner ankle is higher. The A text. The bending most point on the ankle is higher, and the outer ankle is lower, so there's that certain angle created. It looks nice from a back view. If you let this ankle overlap, the description of some of these distant toes that just gives it more space. And then again, we've got the hell. We've got the arch of the foot, the ball of the foot and just a little suggestion of the big toe and then extending up from the hell. You can see the Achilles tendon heading up towards the calf muscles. And from a view like this of the foot, I would start with, like a gesture. That kind of gets the overall sweep of the motion that's creative with the foot and then from there, blocking the perspective. So we're seeing aside view of the foot were actually seeing some of the underside of the foot in this drawing. And then we'll extend these angled lines in towards the leg, get the suggestion of the ankle and there and then describe the toes extending forward. So that shows you how I would construct the foot. And I think that will really help you as you move forward in your own drawings and paintings of feet 13. How to Paint Flesh Tones: Finishing Touches: so I'm gonna do a little bit on the hand. Just add some finishing touches again, thinking about the different planes of the hand. So we've got the top plane of the back of the hand, and I think it could be differentiated a little bit from the side plane of the hand. It looks like it's just a little bit later. It actually is darker. Toe later, right here, soul just and actually, sometimes, as they do the finishing touches, I'll do like semi transparent glazes where, um, the paint's just slightly transparent so that I won't have to completely like remix a color . It'll sort of let the initial color glow through, and it's just easier to make subtle adjustments that way. And then as we get into the fingers, the fingers have like a top plane, which is slightly later. And then they have the side plane, which is darker, and it always looks nice when you're setting up a hand to have a clustering of fingers and then one sort of separated from the others. Like if you look at um, so many artists like Rembrandt or Sergeant or just so many, that's Van Dyke. That's a good way to kind of set up appealing looking hand pose. And then there's also a plane change at each knuckle like bend. So we've got the front plane and then we've got Abend. And now we've got the top plane on the top planus slightly darker than that initial front plane on this finger. And there's also a nice, distinct actual bend in terms of Lake, the exterior shape at each knuckle. So I'm kind of making it really straight and then a sharp bend than yeah, really straight to the next knuckle and then a sharp bend. And so we've got two knuckles on the length of each finger, and it's really the first knuckle back here that bends the most. The second knuckle, you know, closer to the tip of the finger. In terms of its mobility, it doesn't bend as much. So emphasizing that first knuckle bend is really the key one, just glazing on a little bit of a brown or no towards the bottom of her wrist. It looks like it just has that, and I might go a little darker with the side plane of the fingers on the hand. We even get, like a little bit of, ah, darker plane that describes the side plane of the actual, the first knuckle back near the back of the hand. Then with this hand, first of all that brownish, that's cool. Dark color is too cool and dark, so I'm gonna do a semi transparent glaze with some white mixed in and some warm colors and just glaze on top of that. It will just make it less dark and less cool. And then let's see, um, there's some refinement to be made to the wrist the way we've got, like the bump, the styling process at the bottom of the all Know that arm bone or is that the radius actually forget right now? But there's a bump at the bottom of this arm bone and then getting into the top plane of this hand area here the little later, and we've got a top plane to the thumb, which was a little lighter. This finger behind the 1st 1 kind of highlights the 2nd 1 because it's slightly later creating a silhouette shape. And then there's a little bit more of a lighter plane and a bit more of a sense of a bend in the 2nd 2nd knuckle on this finger Simplifying the hands a bit in a painting this small is probably a good strategy, but just getting some of those Knuckle Benz and the different planes of a hand work well, I think I could go. I haven't actually done like anything on the nipples. I think if I just give them a light side shadow side that work will, um actually, even just that is fine. Notice that the Ariola has a light side and a slightly shadow side gets a little darker as it rolls down, be a little darker on this shadow. And then the belly button has a little bit of a mid tone right below that darkest shadow and a little bit of a light catching on the top of this belly. Yeah, maybe I'll get a bit more of a light side over here, and then I think that well, so that basically shows how you can kind of continue to refine picking and choosing the areas that are important to bring to a finer finish as you put in the finishing details and continuing to look for the different planes that describe the smaller forms