How To Draw Portraits Better Than Anyone Else | Chris Petrocchi | Skillshare

How To Draw Portraits Better Than Anyone Else

Chris Petrocchi, I help artists grow on their journey

How To Draw Portraits Better Than Anyone Else

Chris Petrocchi, I help artists grow on their journey

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41 Lessons (10h 50m)
    • 1. Draw Portraits Better Than Anyone Else

    • 2. Course introduction 1

    • 3. The Drawing Tools Introduction

    • 4. The Tools 2 sharpening demo

    • 5. The Learning Process

    • 6. See like an Artist 1

    • 7. See like an Artist 2 Main problem

    • 8. See like an artist 3 Lighting

    • 9. See like an artist 4 The Bad Xerox

    • 10. Easy Way To Draw The Planes of the Head For Beginners

    • 11. Planes practice 1

    • 12. Planes practice 2

    • 13. Planes 3 Lighting and Shadow

    • 14. 3 Sided Head part 1

    • 15. 3 sided head part 2

    • 16. 3 Sided Head part 3 Pastel Demo with a splash of color )

    • 17. Demo 1 Shape Block In 1S

    • 18. Demo 2 Construct with Confidence part 1s

    • 19. Demo 2 Construct with Confidence part 2

    • 20. Head 3 quarter view analysis

    • 21. Head 3 quarter view charcoal demo

    • 22. The head and neck connection and anatomy

    • 23. Modeling Effects: the secret to believable form

    • 24. The 5 Value scale

    • 25. Modeling primitive forms with 5 values

    • 26. Portrait block-in demo

    • 27. Edges Demo FInal

    • 28. Form and Cast dx on Faces

    • 29. Eyes 1 Anatomy

    • 30. Eyes 3 photoshop demo

    • 31. Eyes 2 charcoal demo

    • 32. Mouth part 1

    • 33. Mouth part 2

    • 34. Nose Anatomy

    • 35. Nose front charcoal demo

    • 36. Nose three quarter charcoal demo (1)

    • 37. Ears digital drawing painting demo




    • 41. You DON'T have to draw (too much)

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About This Class

Discover my simple 7-step portrait drawing system for drawing the human face

You have a passion for drawing the human face and using it to tell your stories, express your visions and draw portraits. This is who you are. It's your calling and it's deep, and I am here to guide you on your way to reaching your goals.

Discover my simple 7-step portrait drawing system for drawing the human face. In this course I am going to help you draw the face really believably in the style you choose and apply it to your career or personal visions. You will be able to do it quickly with purpose in a way that is clear and carries meaning to your viewers. At the end of this course you will have an awesome portrait for your portfolio that you can feel proud of and attract attention.


  • 10 hours of On Demand video lesson content

  • 3 portrait drawing demonstrations from start to finish

  • Downloadable resources to help you practice

  • Bonus lectures on anatomy, planes and tons of portrait tips from my years of professional experience

  • Access on mobile and TV

  • Assignments

...and more

I want you to be the best artist you can be. I help artists of all levels crush obstacles, become dominant in their fundamentals, and overcome their fears to become the visionary fine artist or commercial industry professional they dream to be. For my 1 on 1 mentorships please visit

I look forward to seeing you in the course!


Visit More Classes To Improve Your Drawing

Draw Portraits Better Than Anyone Else

Draw The Head Fast With One Simple Shape

Draw The Front Planes of the Head Made Easy

Easy Way To Draw The Face Using Shapes

10 Minutes To Better Portrait Painting

Also, feel free to join the Facebook Group  and request to join to show your work, get feedback and encourage others

Thanks for your support! If you want to know more please visit/follow me online here:

Chris Petrocchi | Draw Jucie Studio

P.S. I want to share with YOU my personal favorite tools that I love drawing with to help you get started. Links for each tool online included! Find the FREE LIST here: (Affiliate links included)

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Chris Petrocchi

I help artists grow on their journey


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1. Draw Portraits Better Than Anyone Else: Welcome to my portrait mastery drawing workshop, where you gain the skills to create beautiful and compelling portrait from life reference or from imagination. My name is Chris, and I'll be leading you through the course. I began my art career in animation, working on TV shows and commercials for clients like MTV, HBO and Nike. I then transitioned into games as a character designer, illustrator and storyboard artists working for studios like Elektronik Arts, Sony, Activision and Warner Brothers. I've been a portrait artist for the past 20 years, and I've been teaching portraiture for 10 years at major colleges in Northern California. I designed this course for anyone seeking to increase their skill level and become a better artist. After completing the course, you'll have the tools to be able to draw the face really believably in any style you choose and apply it to your career as well as to your personal and creative visions. And you'll come away with an awesome portrait for your portfolio that you can be proud of, one that can help you gain followers and potentially find work as an artist. That's what you're looking for. I'll be teaching a simple seven step method I developed for this course, but I call Scaffold. This framework will yield steady, predictable growth by focusing on first principles and conscious learning. These two tools will serve as powerful force multipliers toe help you overcome limitations and move forward to mastery in 4 to 6 weeks. As you learn to draw the human head from the ground up and the inside out alongside the course assignments, you'll be working on a creative project that will culminate in your very own portrait drawing masterpiece. Three. Ideal Student for this course is the beginner and intermediate student who's passionate about art and drawing Portrait's once the challenge of improving their skills and going farther than they ever thought possible. It's also excellent for those who have been trying for a while but feel stuck and need a path forward. And there's also a lot here for the season professional who's always looking to refine and improve his or her skills there. No requirements to enroll. All you need is your passion and an open mind, ready to take on a challenge and learn a much sought after skill. I'm crispy Track E, and I look forward to seeing you in the course 2. Course introduction 1: Hey there, I'm Chris patriarchy and I want to welcome you to my portrait drawing bootcamp. And just take a minute to tell you a few things to get you off to a good start. The course is self-study, so you'll go at your own pace and convenience. There are eight modules in total, which I built around a solid framework I developed called scaffold, that corresponds to this acronym right here. Each module takes one of those key ideas and develops it in isolation so you can better understand the basic concepts and improve your skills incrementally. I provided focused exercises that will help you practice the concepts thoroughly. And there are over the shoulder tutorials which break down the structure of the head and features and show you exactly how I deal with specific aspects of the portrait drawing process. As you move through the course, you'll find out with daily practice of fundamental ideas presented will become part of your thinking and approach to portraiture. And over time, your drawings will naturally start to improve. It may take a little time, just stick with it, it will happen. Now, the very first thing you'll do in week one is a C-instruction drawing as a Momento of where you are in your artistic process right now. So look for the pre instruction drawing assignment document in the introduction section with instructions to get you started. Post your work to the Facebook group as a personal statement and celebration that says this is me right now. And I'm moving forward from here. A major thrust of this course, in addition to getting technical skill, is getting you a portfolio piece at the end that you can be proud of. So look for the traditional portrait document that explains that portrait that you'll be working on throughout the course. And by the end of it, you're going to have an awesome piece that you can be proud of. Okay, that's it for now. I wish you all the best in the course and I'm optimistic and hopeful that this course is going to be really good for you. In the next video, I'm going to introduce the drawing tools. So let's get started. 3. The Drawing Tools Introduction: During this course, I will use both digital and traditional tools to talk about portrait trying. So why is knowing the traditional tools so important, I believe, to make good portrait. We need the confidence to construct, and that's what the C stands for in my seven step scaffold method to portrait drawing. I'll go more into that later. But what is the confidence to construct? Actually, me. It's about having confidence in the marks that we make, and part of that comes from a positive connection with tools that kind of allows you to make the marks that you want to make more consistently and makes drawing less frustrating. The drawing is not easy, but when you have the confidence to construct, you have that positive feeling that comes with that that boys you up and spurs you onto further success. Think about it like an N b a player or track star. They have to perform at a high level, day in and day out, so they're gonna have good equipment like Nike shoes, Reebok. And it's really no different for the artist in the relationship for their tools so they can perform at a consistent high level bottom line is, if you know your tools, your planning for success, and I think that's the by far the biggest thing you can do to it gives your artist street these tools I'm gonna show you. They're just suggestions that the tools that I use you can use this as a jumping off point , a starting point. But feel free to use the tools that work for you, and I'll have a PdF download of the tools description in the description box of this course . So let's step over to the drawing table, and I'll introduce the tools to you. Okay, let's talk about the typical drawing tool I use here on the left. I have pencils and I love the carb Othello made by stability on a choose couple different colors and that. And I think you could also charge these with water and they'll paint with like, water color. And then I have the generals charcoal pencil, and I'll use soft and hard grades any anything from six B 24 b two B two HB and then next to that I have content, and it comes kind of like a block with squared off edges and I will sharpen that with my sandpaper to a very fine point. I think you can see that. And same thing with the compressed charcoal comes in a barrel. But I'll take it and put it into the sandpaper and just rock it back and forth like that until it is chiseled fine, hard edge. And that makes it kind of a three in one tool instead of, uh, just a one dimensional tool. And so this, uh, sandpaper is 80 grade made by three n. But something like 80 grade will do, and it's better than those emery board things where you just use one side. This gets does the work twice as fast cause you're wearing down the whole tool and with a pencil to I would do that. I will put it into in between, and I hold it with my basically three fingers on one side and balanced by the thumb on the other side of an appeal for that tip and just rock it back and forth and also alternate. I'm rocking it back and forth, left to right, and I'm also turning it and wearing down the charcoal until it is a very fine tapered point . Ok, moving on. I have, uh, fine charcoal, and it comes in very thin sticks, which I break their pretty long and I break them down into smaller pieces, depending on what area I need to cover. They have medium, and they have a really large stick. And those are awesome. When you combine the willow or the vine charcoal with compressed, it's like velvet. It's amazing. I use a white Kant A for highlights. Also, I have a white charcoal pencil for highlights. Um, and then here are my modifier. So those heirs are erasers. Plastic. Marty Racer needed rubber eraser for more gradations and subtle changes. I have my stumps here the Tortelli owns, and that's also for smudging. And there's different sizes of those. And then I have a plastic eraser and a clutch made by Stetler and then the electric eraser made by Sakura in Japan. These are a little bit expensive, but I like that to get a really fine highlight and to erase charcoal. Sometimes you need something like that. So those are the tools 4. The Tools 2 sharpening demo: Okay. Now, the way we do this is we hold the blade and we cut away from us, and we just wear away the wood, exposing the lead. You've got to be patient with this. And I would just go ahead and where way, One side down to the lead. That would have wood supporting the other side so it doesn't snap off. And you just continue to do that until all the word is gone and you have exposed lead something like that. 5. The Learning Process: a little bit about the learning process before we get started. Learning is is difficult. It's not always smooth. And if you think of your learning process, the process of learning art here as like remodeling your apartment or your house well, with your house, you know where everything is. It's comfortable. You know what food is. You know where to sleep and let's say I come in to remodel and I move the food, removed the food, I moved the bed around and take things apart. What you gonna have? Will you be uncomfortable cause you won't know where everything is and it's gonna be a mess , and really, that's how the process is. It's messy, so I wanna encourage you to get messy, get really messy, and it's okay. It's supposed to be a mess. If you everything you know about art is on. Let's say your computer hard drive in your hard drive. You've got everything you know about art there, and then you take a class and all this gigabytes of information is on your hard drive. But you take a class, and basically it's gonna replace information now. So if your hard drive is full of information that you're comfortable with. You know, you know how to use you're doing pretty good. What happens when you put new info in? You're gonna have to reorganize that hard drive in some way, So you're gonna have to delete some files. And which ones are you gonna delete? Are you gonna keep the new information? Where you going to stay with the old information. So you have some choices to may, Um, and there's there's resistance in that process of learning, right? There's a lot of resistance and push pull. And so and there's that reorganization, which which leaves everything a mess. So it's messy. Be messy. Okay. It's okay. Make that room messy or remodel that house and then little by little, put it back together. So in the beginning, you won't be making great drawings. Maybe, Maybe you will. Maybe you won't. But as you're learning, your drawings will tend toe. Probably go down because you're again getting rid of some old information and making room for new information. Your drawings may go down for a little while, so don't expect them to be great. Just give yourself a break. Be easy with yourself in this learning process, and then I think it will make it a little bit better. Okay. All right, let's move on to the first module. 6. See like an Artist 1: how to see Like an artist, you know, most of us are enthralled with the idea of being able to draw. It's such a powerful skill toe have. But so many get frustrated withdrawing because they don't like what they see on the page. And in large part, it's not because people lack motor skills to make drawings. I believe everyone who's listening to me can do that. Rather, the problem occurs at the level of interpreting what you see. Let me say that again. The problem Withdrawing occurs at the level of interpreting what you see. Let me show you what I mean. To gain some insight into this, we're gonna have to write some code and do a backdoor hack into the brain. Most people have no idea about how seeing actually works. Most people believe that what they see and what they think is the truth. Most people, when they see something like a car, they think that's a car. It's made out of metal and plastic and rubber. It's red in color. It's really it's solid and that's a fact, and there's no question about it. That's how most of us think. But this is how it actually works. You don't actually see with your eyes. All your eyes do is receive the photons, the sensory data and your brain is the thing that creates the image. All our eyes do is receive the information. And then the brain interprets that information and gives its best guess at what it iss when it thinks it knows what it is that it projects up an image that we can see. You actually don't see with your eyes or hear with your ears you actually see and hear with your brain. What we're seeing is not really what we can see. Then it's more of our brains. Best guess isn't that amazing? So what you believe to be true affect your perception of reality. Don't believe me. Well, let's take a look at this checkerboard. What if I was to tell you that square a and square be are the same value? Well, let's take a look. If I paint the value from be up to a you can see these are actually the same exact value. But there's a trick going on here because square be is cast in shadow from the cylinder, so it's darker than the light squares in the light, but it's reading still as a light square compared to the dark squares, so our brains having trouble interpreting this if I show you the reason why is that value is relative, so be is surrounded by dark squares, whereas A is surrounded by light value squares. So if I put the same value behind both, you can see that these are the exact same value. So under certain conditions, the brain can be full, particularly with respect to value. So our biggest problem to overcome in seeing like an artist is the brain. And it's sometimes faulty interpretation of what is in front of us that factors into producing about drawing the brain has a left and a right hemisphere. The left brain is responsible for things like calculations, logic, math, letters, words. It's reductionist IQ. It breaks things into its smallest parts. Where is the right brain is responsible for creativity, music, intuition. It's more holistic in its approach, and it thinks in terms of pictures and patterns, so the right brain is primarily concerned with the whole or the gestalt. We gotta overcome the powerful left brain and its ability to assign meaning to everything we see. It's a survival skill evolved over eons to help keep us alive in the face of saber two tigers. But with respect to drawing its death, and we need to break from it and find help almost solely from our right brain when we're trying to draw. All right, so how do we overcome it? Well, the answer might seem a little strange, but it's a ridiculously simple secret. It's surprising it's so simple. It's not really a secret at all, but it's squint and compare now. What is that? Well, let me back up a little bit. Basically, we can use this strategy to our advantage to simplify detail and values, and that's huge. All the great masters used the squint and compared technique from Alaska's to Degas to sergeant to create their masterworks. Why? Because the job of the eyes is to take in sensory data, and that data comes in the form of contrast. Let me say that again. The job of ah rises to take in sensory data, and that data comes in the form of contrast. Remember that primarily contrast of value. In fact, if there were no contrast we wouldn't see much of anything except flat nothingness. But when you start to turn the lights on, watch this. Now out of the void comes a face, and we recognize we register that face in terms of light and dark contrast and light and dark contrast is the name of the game. It's how we register, form, change. It's why things look three D. It's because of changes in value and changes in value. Signal form changes to our brain. So the big take away for us here is that the biggest problems to solve for the beginning jar are related to value. Let me outline them here, and then we'll take a look at them in detail. The first is muddy looking drawings. Mixing up the value said that the lights are too dark in the dark to light. Number two is sacrificing the whole for the parts that is noticing and drawing too many value contrasts and emphasizing too many details. The 3rd 1 is symbolic drawing, but we'll just stick with the 1st 2 and we'll take a look at those in detail next 7. See like an Artist 2 Main problem: in the last section, we established that the two main problems for the beginner, our number one muddy looking drawings caused by mixing up the light and dark values. And number two sacrificing the whole for the parts in other words, drawing too many value contrasts and emphasizing details. So all this had to do basically could boil it down to that. Sometimes the brain can be fooled, especially with value, and the eye sees basically in terms of contrasts in value. So we've got to solve the value problem, and we stipulated that solving it would be done by squinting and comparing. So we're going to get to that. So But let's look at these two problems and break them down will look at the muddy looking drawings first. Okay, number one muddy looking drawings caused by mixing up the light and dark values. So we have the photo reference here and in the middle. We have this really dirty looking drawing. That's what I mean by Muddy. It's mixing up the values. So let's say in this area here, where it should be light, it's too dark. And then in this area here, where it should be dark It's too light and it just goes on and on like that. We can see areas that are in the shadow, but there to light. Okay, in here should be lighter, but it's too dark. So you're mixing up the light and dark values the growing here all the way to the right. This is a more harmonised in terms of its value. The darks are all unified into their design into a nice shadow pattern, and the lights are also designed well so that it looks more like the photo reference. It looks more natural. It doesn't look dirty, right, because the lights and the darks are nicely separated. And that's not what's happening here. The lights and darks are not nicely separated. They're all mixed, the lights go into the darks and the darks come into the lights. OK, so that's number one. How to fix it is separate your lights and darks, and we'll get into that as we go forward. So let's look at number two, sacrificing the whole for the parts, noticing and drawing too many value contrast, too many details. So can we have the photo reference on the left and then we've got in the middle here, a drawing that just has It looks spotty. You might say it's spotty. That means there's there's lights and darks spotted all around right, and there's too many contrasts. And that's a kind of ah, a distraction for the for the viewer because they can't really see you're beautiful design . They can't really see the picture because they're looking at the trees instead of the forest, if you will. So these dark accents all over the place right? The light accents. There's too many lights where it could be a lot more calm down. You could say you want to calm the values down, meaning you don't want a range all over the place. So I can I think you can see how this looks. It looks noisy, spotty and so on. And that's because they're drawing too many value contrasts. Okay, we want less contrast and more harmony. So here we have the darks, basically in their family, right? And so we kind of wanna unify the darks and connect them wherever we can so that they're nicely designed. Okay, there's the darks. Appear to right, and then the lights have there, um, pattern. That's also considered and designed. And so that could be, You know, all this stuff, all the other stuff next to the darks. It has hit its pattern, and they're really, if you can think of it like light and dark puzzle pieces, the light puzzle piece on the dark puzzle pieces and they're very clear. It's very clear and simplified. It's simple, so not everything is being painted all at once. The simplification has visual impact on the viewer because the most simple statement is usually the best. I hope that's clear. Let's move on. It will get more clear as we go. So we need to talk about value. If we're going to talk about squinting and comparing because the problem is with value and squinting and comparing, it's the solution. So we have to understand value. First, what is value value could be defined is how black, gray or white, an area of an object is. So we have a value scale here. This is called the value scale, and it's how black, gray or white, an object is pretty simple. The local value of something. Let's define that that's the essential value of an object surface without light or shadow something like this. It's basically a silhouette. Nothing but one flat value. The light and shadow, visually defined objects. So it has something to do with light. Here comes into play and how light the laws of light and how light behaves. So if you have a flat circle with a local value, that's sort of a middle gray. But you introduced light into the picture. Look at that. It goes bump. It pops its three d, and it's because of these light. These changes right in light, from a light to middle to a little bit darker to a dark. Those changes and I'm gonna use Delta as change equal the changes in value. Let's say equal a change. Inform All right, so let's continue. We'll get clarify that more. Here's some more examples. We basically interpret the volume of objects based on the light that reflects from them, and we all know this. So we basically have some flat local value, not much definition there, but we shine some direct light on them. Their form is revealed, so light reveals form because it shows the breakaway of the plains. It shows the plane changes and the darks and lights. So the big idea different value equals a different plane. Try to remember that or a change. Remember, Delta means change. Changing value equals a change in form. And that's just how we see form how we see depth in the real world. Our eye gets its cues about what is three D? What has formed by the change in value? OK, so that's our little formula. Change in value equals a change in form or different value. Goes a different plane. Different way to say it. Same idea. All right, so let's look at value a little bit more here. Here's our value scale at the bottom here, and it's one continuous tone. There's a lot of values in the world, and we don't need all those values. It's hard to draw when you're trying to draw every value in the universe, right, so we don't need that. We want to simplify things and let's do that. Let's simplify it with 10 steps of values from light to dark. Okay, that's better. But let's try and get it even more homed in, so it's easier for us. Let's take it down to five values. That's even better to values. This could be the most simple. Obviously, it is the most simple. We've gone from millions of values to 10 values to five values down the two. I'd say that's a simplification for sure. How this works is when you squint down the value range is simplified, the details go away. All those little myriad of values merge into either the family of lights and the family of darks. Either one of those. So let's look at an example on a human head. Here's the full value range. That's kind of too complicated. We want to make it simple. What do we do? We squint and compare. If I do a heavy squint, my eyes air almost closed. I can get to here. So we go from here. Heavy squint to hear. Notice what it does. It it really graphic ties is the thing. So you see the very graphic break up into the family of darks. Family of lights, Nothing in between. That's good. If we open our eyes just a little bit, a little bit less of a squint, we can get three values. So we have all the shadows unified in tow. One value and then in the lights. We have two steps, right. We have one step here, two steps here. Those are all in the family of lights, the light family, three values. Let's open up our eyes just a little bit more and we get this introduced another value in the dark's. So these are the reflected light here. Reflected light bounce, light, ambient light that are lighting up some planes showing some plain changes in the family of darks. So now we've got four values. We have the family of lights of lights. We have the family darks. We have light value. We have a dark value. Let's just pretend this is dark. I can probably change that to black. Okay, here's dark. Okay, that's better. And then we have two values of equal steps in between. This is white, and then this is a little less white and this is a little last way. So let's go back, Teoh Black again. We could make this a little bit darker and I'll cover this again. But the idea is to have a black white and then two intermediate values of equal jumps in between. And so we get to this four value. This is really important. This is what you want toe shoot for when you squint and compare, you squint because it makes all the contrast. Well, it makes all the details go away and brings up the contrast of values in a way that simplifies it. And then you compare to see is this shape here? Is this value right here lighter or darker than this value and you just compare. This is lighter than this, right? This right here changed, backed away. This is darker than this. You're just comparing right. And the more you do it, the better you get at this kind of comparison. So the squinting and the comparing they both go together. Hand in glove. Is this lighter than this? That's the question. You ask yourself all you're asking, is it later, then the thing next to it or darker. That's the question you ask. You squint and you just ask these questions. Very simple, But a lot of people don't know this, and they're not trained to do it. And so they suffer from those problems that we discussed earlier. So it's four values a light, dark two steps of equal jumps in between and it gets you this right, and this is the star right here from here. You can go ahead and finish this thing out. Render it do whatever you want to do because it's solid. Tonally it has tonal structure to it. Or you could hand it off to someone else because your idea is so clear that, you know anyone could finish it off because they know what you're trying to say. Okay, so that's value. And that's squinting him, comparing practice this idea with objects around you in life to start squinting down and get used to what that feels like. And then what you're actually seeing through your eyes, See if you can separate out the details and kind of separate out the lights from the darks . You need a good light source to do that. And that's why we're gonna talk about lights. But yet go ahead and start squinting at things. And if people look at you funny, just say, Hey, I'm practicing. My craft will doom or later on value, but that's it, in a nutshell. So let's go ahead and talk a little bit about light and then I'll do a demo 8. See like an artist 3 Lighting: in the last model. We talked about value and how light reveals form to us. The contrast in value is how we see form. Remember different value, different plane. A value change equals a form change. So now we're gonna look at lighting, and that's ah really important. There's a couple different kinds of light you should be aware of. What you're seeing here is an example of single source lighting that is light that comes from a spotlight, a soft box or the sun. And the key feature on the characteristic is that the light and dark shapes are separate. They're almost like puzzle pieces, and you can separate them out into the family of lights and the family of darks. They're clear, right, and that's good, because we need clarity and simplification, and when you have a nice balance of light shapes and dark shapes, it helps your design for portrait painting. More important than drawing details like eyelashes, nose holes and individual hairs, is first dealing with the two dimensional shapes like triangles, circles, squares, etcetera. So if we look at any one of these, you can definitely see you know the triangles, the circles right, the square like shapes. Those, like you can see this light shape and that idea that there like dark and light puzzle pieces. There's a light puzzle piece. There's a light puzzle piece, right? Here's a dark puzzle piece, this whole part of the hair right? That's a dark puzzle piece right there. There is a dark puzzle piece, and I try to unify the darks by squinting and comparing. When you squint and compare, you know those values get real clear. The details go away. You get your value structure or your tonal structure going, and then you can paint in details later, after you've got a nice, good sculptural kind of representation. Or at least first, it starts out with flat two D shapes. That's your main concern. The triangles, circles, squares, no ovals or variations of shapes. Okay, and we'll continue to talk about this and clarify this, so don't worry about it. If you don't get it right away, we'll definitely be repeating this. So again you can see super clear shapes, and you want to squint down and reduce things definitely to these kinds of of shapes. You've got this shape, this shape, and you got to make a decision. What's a light thing? And what's a dark thing? So you kind of have to understand. You have to understand value. Once you understand value, you can start to make these distinctions. What's a light thing? What's a dark thing? And what shape is it? And then you can makes it more manageable to get things down on the paper. Right? So these these air the dark shapes these air, the dark puzzle pieces interlocking with the light puzzle peaches pieces, which are over here on this side and the best draftsman are the people who can see clearly in terms of shape, dark and light puzzle pieces interlocking to form a picture. Okay, so let's move on to the second type of lighting, which is diffuse sliding. All right, this is an example of diffuse sliding, and what separates this from direct lining is that the few sliding is fuzzy. It's not so clear. One thing I forgot to mention about single source lighting is it's the best kind of lighting to show off the form. If we go back to this for a second, it shows the plane changes and especially cast shadows if we confined, maybe a good cast shadow, even a shadow, but it shows the plane change from front plane to an under plane. Right then it kind of disappears, but it comes out to a top plane. It starts to become a front plane and then turns under to a bottom plane, right, and that cast shadow here in the nose. That just shows this plane right here, the muzzle of the mouth right here. It shows that it's a plane protruding protruding out. Where else can I find one? I think that's good enough. It's definitely the best kind of lighting for showing the form now diffuse sliding. On the other hand, not quite so much. It's buzzy. There are lights and darks. It's right, but it's the The local color of this hat separates it from the local color of the hair. Price was the local color right. Her face is a light brown, and her hair is a dark brown so that local color separates out. But it's not really good in terms of showing form, because it's almost like a Polaroid or a flash from your phone. It just lights up everything from the front and There's no really opportunity to describe the plane changes because everything's getting all the same amount of light from at once. But also, if you think of, um, diffuse instead of one light source, there's like maybe hundreds of difference of light sources because the sun is here and let's say it's the rays are going through and they go through the clouds and then they get scattered right and they just go all which way, right? Completely scattered. And so the light sources when it reaches down here, this person, it's bouncing all around. And so it's coming from every different direction, hundreds of different directions, and it's lighting up everything. So there's no riel shadows. OK, everything soft now This is good in some situations, like for beauty shots and photography, right? Or fashion, especially with women. You don't want to show wrinkles. You don't want to show to money playing changes or hard um, hard lines in the face. You want to show soft, round blended things so there's kind of diffuse light is good for beauty shots and showing someone making them look young. From a psychological point of view, it shows peace and tranquility and calmness. So there is that advantage to that. But it's harder to do, because again, there aren't any shadow shapes. And so the shadows shapes are the best thing to show the form. And if there isn't that, then you you have to. There's a lot of passages, Let's say, like in here where there's nothing going on right in here. In here there's just no no detail of plain changes in the light and dark variation in the cheek. Even How do you know where the nose starts and the cheek begins? You have something here which helps, right? But everything. Even the separation from the chin and the neck is just not there. So how do you create structure and sculptural drawing? If there isn't any plane changes, it's hard to do so you have to kind of relay. Rely more on details. Okay, let's show how this relates to squinting and comparing again, which is our main tool for solving this complexity of value and detail. Problem right From left to right, the first panel is obviously photo reference. If there's no squint eyes wide open, you're just looking at the model. You've got a full range of values. Okay, It's fully riel and its sculptural, its life, like you can see that the family of lights is separated clearly from the family of darks, and you have those puzzle pieces that you could almost cut out with scissors right there. So they're so clear and again that's good for us, because it's easy. And it's good press from a design standpoint to have that variety of value in there. Okay, if we go to the next panel here, that's a medium squint, so your eyes are just halfway squinted. Let's say and you're getting right, you're narrowing down the value range and you're getting less value that you have to deal with. And that's a good things. I don't know if you can see it here, but we've got basically four values, right, four values you've got to in the light. So two on the light side, which is here one and to so you have the light and then the half tone and the half tone is devalue right before it turns into the shadow. It's that step before it goes into the core shadow that you're half tone, so you have your your light and then you have your half told. Right? So that's in the light. The family of lights, Okay, now in the dark's now this is where you might not be able to see it. But there's the obviously dark, and there are tones in here that are a little bit lighter. So you have, you know, a shadow that's maybe, you know, 80% dark, and then you have a step lighter. That's maybe, let's say, 70% dark, okay? And that's in the family of darks. So it's four values. This reduces down to four four values, and that's what I like anything that's going to simplify all that complexity that we find here to here. I want that if we then go ahead and squint down E all the way, we can get ourselves to two values, right? You have the light side and the dark side right, the family of lights, the family darks, and that the puzzle pieces are very clear. You can cut him out. So this is this is where you go first. This is step one, right? You squint down almost father way until almost everything's just in darkness and you look for those values that stay dark and you look for the values that stay light and then you separate them and you keep them separated. Made it make it really clear and overstated at this point. Make it light and dark puzzle pieces. Basically, you're flattening. You're flattening out reality. So you're taking something that's three D here and you're moving it over. 22 D. That's your job. That's job number one. And then in your drawing, you go back to three D. I don't know if that sounds weird, but that's the process. It goes three d 22 d for our analysis there, and then we draw it Sculptural e, and we make it look three D with values and light and edges primarily here in this stage, we're looking for shapes, clear light and dark puzzle pieces and values. So it's the shapes and values that we're looking for. Heavy squint here, two values. Then we get that down on the page, and then we moved to here, right? This is four values. It's a medium squint, right? We've got to values in the light and two values in the dark. We can handle that. It's efficient, it's fast and it's fun. Okay, I'll see you in the next video 9. See like an artist 4 The Bad Xerox: with respect to our workflow of going from three D to two D back to three D. That initial two D analysis, right? It's really if you take a look at these examples there like they're bad. Xerox's right. Notice how all the values are combined, confined either to black or white and therefore very manageable. Shapes are flat and two D in nature, just like puzzle pieces that when put together in the right order and relationship they constantly face, all the details are left out. This is really important, and what you have left is the big overall in big impression. That's what you're hunting for at the outset. So when you see your models something like this, right, you squint down heavy squint to get to something like this here, or any of these you want to see like a camera or a dumb Xerox, the camera or the Xerox doesn't know what it's looking at. It doesn't interpret it and put meaning to it. So, in other words, it doesn't really know that this is a hat or that this is skin or those air lights or clothes or whatever. It just records the values just like our ideas. It takes in that sensory data, right? The brain puts the information and the meaning into it. We're trying to get away from that. We're just looking at things as dark and light puzzle pieces, and it might help you to turn this upside down. Um, and that when you get away from seeing things as noses, mouth years and identifiable things and just see abstract, dark and light shapes. Okay, let me do a little demo for you. Of how I plan things out. The first thing I'm gonna do is squint at the model, and I'm gonna decide what's a dark thing. And what's a light. Things I have to squint down pretty, pretty darn far to get the darks and lights to separate out. And then I analyze that. What's a dark thing? What's a light saying? That's my first question. The second thing is, what kind of shape is it? So if I look at this, I squinted her and I squinted my drawing, and I look at the light and dark puzzle pieces. I'm not drawing eyelashes at all. No eyebrow hairs just filling it in to see if that shape is designed well, and it looks like it has to correct proportions. And I'm not going pure black. It's maybe like a 50% gray at the beginning, right? Just squinted her squint. The drawing. I have to keep reminding myself to do that, cause I want to open my eyes, and that's a temptation You're gonna have toe resist. Okay, There's the hairline right there. Comes around, See what else we can get here with the curve of the cheek. I'm gonna go ahead and put the the nose in the side of the noses in the family of lights. So I'm just gonna leave it, leave it light, draw the plane, change just again flat two d, he bent riel. Simple concentrating. See if I can just get those dark puzzle pieces down and then fill it in so I can see my design. Okay, that she comes in and I don't really think in cheek. Right. I'm just thinking, What's that shape And is it light or dark? Keep it to that. You have a lot easier time. Try not to think. Try to forget the name of the things it is that you're looking at. You have to forget the name and draw it as if it's the first time you've ever seen it. The first time you ever seen that occur. Remember, we're not doing anything. Three D yet. It's all to D. All right, just get the shape down, Copy it, fill it in. Squinted the model squint that you're drawing. We are copying this shapes right now, but again, if that's all you do is copy and that's the best you'll ever have. So we're going to do better than that. We're gonna pull three D architecture out of these two D shapes, and that's gonna be the next thing will do a little bit dark shape there. Fill in some of this cheek trying to keep it flat and organized so I can see it. Hair boundary of the hair against the forehead. Right. And then we have the other eye socket. But again, not I stock it. I'm thinking like a dumb Xerox putting in the shapes. It's easy. It's relax, squinted but the model and squinted my drawing. You can do this. All right. I know you can. Oh, the big masters did it, So why shouldn't I do it? But there's the bump but the hi bro. But with the eye socket there, bump of the brow and down. So you kind of get the picture. You see how it's coming together, and I make decisions that little white shape in there. I'm gonna go ahead and put it with darks, because when I squint down, it kind of goes dark. Keep it simple, that's it. And that's how fast it can go. And then the next step, we will be looking like sculpting jar pulling three D architecture out of this with planes and rhythms, edges and all the rest. But for now, this is something you should definitely do. Maybe make a board like this with photo shop or some Xeroxes and get get it. Really, um, get the values really separated out. In contrast, e and then do some of these analysis kind of the two D analysis stuff. See, get down once you get down. It's fun, you know, and it's not rocket science. It's It's really easy. And it's surprising how easy is once you get past the idea that you're trying, you know you don't have to draw these details all you have to do his draw, the shapes and the value. So once again, number one consideration make everything flat and two d and just draw the shapes and then the values. And this is kind of like your your blueprint. Like an architecture. They have a a blueprint. I spell that right blueprint before they build the whole thing. They want to see what it's gonna look like, what is gonna work, and it's inexpensive way to do it. And we don't want to spend a lot of time on this phase. We want to get it blocked in, and then we can spend our money on sculpting it and making it look three D and beautiful. So you've got your blueprint there and then the next step, making it look sculptural and three D would be putting in, like the foundation of a house. All right, that's it. I hope that helps, and we'll see in the next lesson 10. Easy Way To Draw The Planes of the Head For Beginners: Hey everybody and welcome to front planes of the head made super simple. Now I had done another front planes of the head video that you can check out here. That was really quite complex and very advanced. But this one is really for the super beginner person who might have trouble just conceiving the idea of the planes and the proportions. So this, if that's you, this is really going to help you. So I'm excited to share it with you. I've got this handy app on my phone and it shows off what we're going for. We're going for very simple, plain descriptions of the head from the front and the side. And with this app, you can see it from any angle virtually. So I'm going to do the front planes and the side planes in his demo. So let's jump in and get started. All right, The very first thing we'll do is draw a circle. And then we're going to bisect that circle vertically. And horizontally. That means cut it in half. And then we're going to divide the top path into thirds and the bottom half into thirds. And then we'll add one more. Third at the bottom. Is top. Third is the hairline. This middle third is the brown. It's also where the ears going to be. The top of the ear. This one is the nose and the bottom of the ear. And here we have the chin. Let's get a sense of the neck. So from the top of the head to the bottom of the nose, that length will be the pit of the neck or the sternal notch. And I'll just put a letter V. This way. Just tangental to the side of that circle. And that's the angle that the ear is going to be. Now we can take this whole length, will top of the head to the chin and find the middle took place. And that's going to be the eyeline. Now I'm going to draw basically a diagonal line from the hairline down to that nose line. We're both of them intersect with the circle. And that's gonna give me the width of the head. Then from there I can draw down to the chin with a couple of diagonal lines. I'm going to take the brown line, not touching the edges of the width of the head but just inside. Don't just curve it just a little bit. Because that's a curved line. Then I'm going to take that just inside the width of the head and just draw one of the planes. Do the same thing on the left side. And remember, we're going from general to specific, from the big shapes to the small shapes. So I'm just going to connect these here. Now I'll place the eyeball, the center of the eye where I think that's going to be. And then I'll drop a vertical down. And that's going to give us some important landmarks for the width of the chin and the width of the mouth. But before we do that, let's go ahead and put the ear. And so the ears starts at the eyeline, comes up to the brow line and goes down to the nose. Starts on the eyeline, goes up to the brow line just about on average. And then comes down to that nose line sort of fits in that middle. Third, once we have the ears and we can just draw a diagonal from the top of the ear, right to where that vertical line from the eye intersects with the horizontal line of the nose. Let's do that on both sides. And then we'll go straight down to the chin. And that's really going to help us out here. Now really establishes the width of that shin and where it fits in. Two overlaps the front of the jaw and then we can follow that back half of the job. Okay. Now the bottom of the nose, this third right here is probably the top of the chin. So let's divide from the bottom, from the nose to the top of the chin into thirds. And that there is going to give us the placement of the mouth. And those plumb lines from the eyes give us the width of the mouth. So it's not going to go too far this way or too shy of those lines. Of course, everybody is different, but in general, that will be the width of the mouth and the placement of the mouth. And then let's build the eye socket out further. So we've got the keystone and then dropping down, we've got the no side planes of the nose that looks like a neck tie shape. You can imagine a neck tie. The guys wear. Then I'm going to add a glabella, which is a downward facing plane. And then we can establish the plane very clearly. So let's put that in shadow. The planes facing away from the light where the light source, he's planes will get some tone because they're facing away from the light. And the tones facing us, or the plane spacing us will get the light, most of the light. So there'll be light in value. And that's an under plane right there. And from the side of the head and just bring a line down on both sides. And that'll give me about the width of the neck. And then somewhere around the chin will get the shoulders just coming out. You can draw them like a sagging shoulder muscle or just a straight line is fine. Pit of the neck. Egg shape there. I'm going to start with that same idea of the circle, just a simple circle. And I'm just going to draw the guidelines out that show the heights of the features. This is exactly how we did it in character design for games, because it makes it a lot easier and a lot faster, too. Recreate the character from the front to the side. If we just draw out the basic guidelines, then I'll just go ahead and bisect it vertically and horizontally with brow ridge is divide those into thirds. So the top half, bottom half into thirds at one more for the chin. And we'll just go ahead and make an arc here for the front of the face. Then I'm gonna go ahead and put an inner circle inside that burst circle. And that's the side plane of the head. Go bring the jaw in it and the back part of the job nuchal line they call it. And it connects at about the eyeline where the neck connects to the skull. So let's pull the neck down. Just a simple C curve. And that front part of the neck can kinda line up with this inner circle. Come off of that, connects wider on top than it is on the bottom. And let's put the ear in at about 11 degree angle off the center. And it's in that middle third, from the brow to the ear. It'll be there. And there'll be roughly one ear to the back of the skull. The eye line is the eyes about here. We'll just go ahead and add that muscle that connects the skull to the sternum. The big long triangle. Let's go ahead and put in the nose. I'm going to cut in here from the proud, that kind of Keystone. And then come out keeping it real simple, like a triangle. And then there's the tooth cylinder part of the forehead. And going back. So ellipse about there. The eyes of an angle. And it's not right there at the nose or the keystone. It's there's some space in between and it's basing kind of downward, downward plane the socket. And then I'll just put a triangle in here. Then we'll put the eyebrow right where it makes that term. That's going to be that temporal bone that's side plane, dividing the front plane and the side plane of the head. Then I'll go ahead and Catch a diagonal line off the top of the ear to write about the nose line and then come down to find the chin and where it fits into the job. And then I can extend. We can define this a little bit more hair the side of the eye socket and then just draw a line to the top of the ear. And then you've got that cheekbone are placed in space correctly. Give that for more info on the nose. Now let's put in the hairline will follow this plane change from front of the head to the side of the head or that hairline, I'll go come down to side burn. And there you have it. Front and side planes of the head. Made super easy for the beginner. Hey guys, I really hope that this simple front and side plane breakdown of the phase really helped you. If it did, please like and subscribe and add a comment down below. You can follow me on Instagram at draws US and feel free to check out my head drawing courses at drawed All right, We'll see you next one. 11. Planes practice 1: Okay, let's look at the planes and the rhythms of the head. Nothing beats these tools for simplifying the complexities of the head, and that was indeed the exact intention of its creator, Frank Reilly. Thus the name Riley Abstraction. His purpose, according to his words, were to help his students understand and organized anatomy of human form without getting lost in the complexities. So Frank Reilly. He was a respected artist at the Art Students League of New York, and he was teaching there in the thirties through the sixties, and his influences date back to the French Academy of the 19th Century, and he studied with George Bridgeman. If you don't know who he has, you should find out, definitely. And Bridgeman studied with Gene Leon, Jeroen and he that I was one of the most prominent artist of the French Academy. So Riley developed these approaches to drawing to help his students, you know, organize all that complexity of the the head in the form. And that method was taught by Fred Fix Lor in Los Angeles. And that's where I got these was from Front Fixers website, and Bixler had been a student of Frank Reilly Okay, so that's to put it into context. A little bit, and I ran into was the first exposed to the rhythms by one of my teachers, Sheldon Bornstein and his teacher, and mine was the famed Glenville poop. So when I first discovered the rhythms and the planes, you know, at first I really didn't like him, to be honest there, very mechanical and robotic. There's too many hard lines in there, and I'm a tone person, and I resisted it. I didn't see all those planes in the face. I saw beautiful, rounded forms, and these didn't look beautiful to me. But when I discovered their utility, I was all in and used them. So the Riley abstraction is a kind of diagram, and it's a great tool to show the box like structure of the head and the features of the face so that your drawings looks three d when you're practicing that drawing the planes and the rhythms. The point is to overdo the box. Overdo the diagram to give a better explanation of the things you're trying to show. Knowing the planes and rhythms of the head helps you draw through your shapes and connect everything together. You have to do a dozen or so of these diagram attic drawings to become familiar with them, so you can use them as tools to draw the face and better explain what's being represented again. You've got to do them half a dozen times, or 12 times before they get into your muscle memory. Once they're there, you have the power to draw the head from every different angle. So you need to get this inside your brain inside your muscle memory and then draw them from imagination. Remember, it's a diagram. It's not really life. It's a kind of blueprint, so just do it enough so that it becomes part of your tool kit. And then when you draw the model, make sure to draw the model and not just draw a diagram. Okay, let me show you how I use thes. When I worked at Electronic Arts, I did hundreds of character designs as elite character designer on the Godfather, Lord of the Rings, and I used this exact method, and you can see some of the approaches that I took on the left side over here, and they show the rhythms Okay, if you can see that. And then the finish on the right. That's the way that I constructed them. I started this way and was able to do hundreds of character design. So you know, these things are really powerful. You can make a living art. If you're looking to make a living, you want to get into games. I've been there and this is how I did it. So it's very effective and everything that I gotta teach you. I did in the studio. It was a great joy, actually. Here's some close ups of some of those characters, Um, so you can see a wide variety of characters and this one we can close up a little bit. You can kind of see the under drawing really well. It's a great start. It's loose. So it's got the framework there of the rhythms and the planes, and then you can put your beautiful paint on top of a firm structure. So this is like kind of like a blueprint and putting in the framework, and then you can put your beautiful paint as a decoration, so doing a drawing is like building a house. First you have a blueprint, then you have a foundation, and then you put the walls and the plumbing electricity, and then you put your decoration pain toe on top, so drawing the head is a lot like that. It's also like building a song. You put in the drums in the base for the foundation, and then you have your melody. Omens top in terms of a singer, guitar player and so on. You can think of it like that. That's helpful. All right, so here is basically the idea for your studies, and what I would recommend that you do is you can do this in photo shop or have a tracing paper overlay off some photo reference. So find some photo reference, um, of photos that inspire you in different lighting conditions. And you can practice finding the planes and rhythms and you draw them over the top of the photo. That's a great way to practice again. It's a way to get it into your muscle memory, and I did it. I'd recommend you doing it so that it gets in there quicker, and then you don't have to struggle over this, but it is a bit abstract. It's a Riley abstraction after all, and so to get through it, you need to just expose yourself to it a number of times, and then it will become easy for you. So let's do a couple right now. 12. Planes practice 2: All right, we're gonna talk about the planes of the face and the Riley abstraction before I do. I want to dedicate this lesson to Glenn Orbit, who was one of my teachers. He was a great teacher, and he's since passed on. So he taught me so much, and I just want to acknowledge him and dedicate this to him. So thanks, Glenn. We talked before about squinting in comparing and to reduce the complexity and find the shapes. And so, um, if you open your eyes wide open, you get this right. If you shut them down almost all the way, you get something like a ah, what a bad Xerox sees, Right? And here's something in the middle. So, um, we're gonna move on to kind of the structure. So this is the shapes. And, you know, using the two D is what the camera sees it doesn't know what it sees, and that's what we're looking for in this face. So now when we go to the, uh, the structural phase okay of the plains or the rhythms were just going to do the plains today. Um, but it it's a way to get your foot into the door of the drawing, so to speak. So, um, right, the camera doesn't know what it's looking at. It's just mimicking light and dark pattern. So, um, if the best you can do is just mimic light and dark patterns, you're only gonna get a good copy. That's gonna be the best thing you can get and have, and your job is to make it better. It's like copying Chinese. If you don't know how to speak the language, the best you can do is copy it exactly. But if you don't know what it says, you won't be able to communicate anything. So the planes and the rhythms help help you take the two D shapes and ask yourself, How do I make it better? How do I make it clearer? How do I make it less confusing? What can I do to give it more structure and so on? So just doing the two dimensional shapes get your foot into the door of the drawing, but it gets you started in the right direction, but it won't get you a finished drawing, but it's a great start, so pushing the idea of the plains is great practice, and it helps to remind you where you're going and to stay away from copying. Okay, so I have to do this, Um, and just to brush up on it and again keep myself from copying. Um, the best way to do this is to look at a photo and, um, use that photo to point out the planes and the rhythms. So let's do that right now. So I get a piece of trading paint tracing paper, and I'm gonna use, like, a big marker fit. So as I look at the plane diagram and I look at my photo just going to try and find where I find the planes, right? And you can find the planes either by the light and shadow division. Right? That's where the front plane meets side plane I And I'm just looking for a simple structures that confined on the human space on the models. All right, Right there. Where the nose meets the cheek. It doesn't jump out at you, but I can go ahead and define it there. Right. I can see eye socket into cheek, right. And then down into chin box. Right? And so I'm relating That to abraded relating this abstract chart to something riel. And that's gonna help me when I get in front of the models so I could see where on the snow's This is a top plane. Changes to underplay. Right top plane, side plate. I think the eyes just go ahead and put that stuff in there. Don't worry about anatomy and eyelashes. And those holes and stuff just go for these big, broad ideas. Right? So where would I find this? This connection from the cheek Back to the jaw. Right. And separating that back half of the job from the front half of the job would be, you know, somewhere here and going back like that. Okay, it's helpful. Teoh do this because you can see real clear, front, real clear sides. And you could just construct this and then space and place the features where the below and you can do this. Uh, just like I'm doing with a big marker you can do with charcoal pencil, right? It doesn't matter. You can do this in photo shop, just as long as you do it right. And get this in your visual library in your muscle memory. Once you do it, you'll never not see it. When you look at a face, you'll never forget the idea of this. The plains of the head and the abstractions when you see someone's human face. Okay, So, for example, I can take this idea of connecting from the septum of the nose down to the chin to buy where the chin changes direction from front to side. Right? And that goes through That basically shows me a true front the front of the face as opposed to ah, plane turning away, right. It goes through the peaks of the upper lip. It gives me that and that gives me where the lower lip that w kind of has its peaks. And then again it shows me where how wide the jaw is on average. Right? So this this part is is true front, right? This part turns away. I could just give that little tone there just to highlight that these parts turn turn away two different planes, right, And that gives me that illusion of structure, right? And it shows me where if I didn't have any light, you know, this was all from memory from imagination, you know, I can put down where that shadow would be, And it won't be guesswork and smudgy. And, um then I make my drawing look like months. You know, I know where that show's gonna be If my light is coming from, you know, tops right from the right. Right? I could shade those eye sockets. I could shade this side of the nose. Okay. I could Shane shade where that chin starts to turn away from the life. Okay. Now, on women, you can't really get away with drawn a bunch of lines at a bunch of hard edges. Um, on their face on there, you can't show a bunch of plain changes. So we're looking here at Andrew Loomis, and let's say you had you had a a box or a house, right? And it was You're looking at the corner of the house, and it's being lit evenly at the corner, so there's no value change showing you the structure. So how are you going to show the structure on the house? We're going to draw things on the house, right at the door window. Right. You're going to use the details on the house to help you describe the dimension in the plane changes. So same thing, like with a woman's face, you're not going to draw a bunch of hard edges on box like structures on the face cause, uh, their skin and faces is smooth, right? That's what makes it it pretty and differentiates it from men in most cases. So what, um, Loomis's given us here is he's lining up, you know? He's showing you the plane changes with, like, the features like the eyebrows. That's where that plane changes right? Is giving it to you here. Same thing. We're looking slightly down on this head. And we can tell that because we have that corner here, right where the forehead meets the side plane of the side of the head of the temple, right? And then we've got that constellation of that front plane going this way and the side plane going that way. And those two things I can line up the eyebrow with the top of the ear. And so it's that idea of the box, right? Using this plane A on this plane. Be amusing, the's descriptions to tell me that we're looking down on this. So the same thing with this. We're showing off the box and we're using some minimal, um, feature. We're using the features to show us where the points are giving us enough information to show us where the plane changes are. You can see if he's giving a little tone here to show that the cheek turns under, Uh, but not much information here. You know, he's a lining up the nose here with that year, right? We've got that. And so we've got the ear and the nose kind of showing us that we're looking slightly down because the ear is higher than the brow and higher than the nose. Can you can do that? Whether you're looking up or looking down, you got that same idea of the box. You've got these two planes with this inside corner, and they kind of conspired to conceive that corner and by lining up cross contours along the front fronts of those planes, you could play in a Plan B, and you can put in an ear here and you can put in a sense of, you know, the eyes here that's gonna give you a sense of that. We're looking up on this all right. We're looking up on that head. We could do pretty, you know, pretty easily pretty quickly. But that box really helps us, you know, get there. Otherwise, there's a lot of, you know, guesswork. Okay, so do these exercises doom until it it kind of gets into your into your mind. You can see here on this shot even the shine, right? If you look at the shines, we always look at the shadow to tell us where the plane changes are on the core shadow. But the shine also tells us where the plane changes are. Shine is there for a reason. And so the highlights also tell us where playing changes are from you. No front plate of the nose to the side plane. Okay, that's important, too. So we're just getting the ideas from these from this practice toward distilling out the plane changes really clearly. And make sure we're just getting, you know, the information that this front plane turns to an under plane and it turns to kind of a top plane. Front plane down to aside plane. Right. We've got front side, front sigh. That's the kind of good stuff we want to get out of this. It's a diagram. It looks ugly. It's not a pretty drawing. Don't worry. You don't want to make pretty drawings. You're getting tons of information from this exercise. And when you put it into your rial life drawing and character designs Ah, it's gonna be you're gonna be amazed, You know, at how quickly things go, how good you feel, how confident you feel. You have that confidence to construct. So I've done this plane or analysis right, using the planes of the face. But you can also do the same thing with the rhythms with the basically the Riley rhythms here. And you can see I've done it here. Same exact thing. Tracing paper over the top and just finding the rhythms that have my chart here that I'm looking forward on the model. It's great stuff. I hope this helped you, and I'll see you in the next module. 13. Planes 3 Lighting and Shadow: I Let's go in just a little bit deeper and show how effective these are in showing off the plane changes, and that will definitely make your drawings better. Imagine we had, like, a light here, right, and it's shining down on the model. Basically, you can light. Once you know these planes, you can light your own drawings, your own visions right quickly and easily because you know where you know where to put the shading because you know where the plane changes are. And it makes sense. Most people's drawings suffer from an inaccurate placement of value, and so it just looks like smudging and kind of muddy. Unclear. And the clarity of this, based on the anatomical structure of the head, makes your drawings very informative, very powerful. Okay, so let's say the light was coming from the left top left. Where would I put Thea? Where would I put the value? Right? Well, if I know where the plane changes are, it's easy. I'm telling you, it's easy. Let's just do it, Okay. Side point of the nose into the cheek. No problem. You could even put cash shadow of the nose onto the upper part of the barrel of the mouth, upper lip under the lower lip shadow and the chin box. And there you go, right? You could even describe how this plane is slightly turned away from the light in the plane to the left of it. And then this definitely goes and takes a major plane. Change goes into the shadows, right? Strong, quick and easy. Let's do, I don't know we can do. Let's do another one. That's the light shining from the bottom. Okay, so what would we do there? Well, on Imagine Light would not get to the top of the head right. It would maybe expose part of the brow right there. There's a depression right there. This part of the nose would get the shadow. The under plane of the nose would not. So I think the side plane would get the shadow, too. And then part of this. Let's see, we have the cheek turning into the lower lid that would get some shadow, and then the lower lid wouldn't and the upper lid would, and then the inside of the eye socket wouldn't. So it's kind of Ah, dark, light, dark, light pattern There, right cheekbone into the lower lid. Maybe this would be a little more. Shadows of the keystone would be in light. Right? See how that's coming out? Okay. The barrel of the mouthy upper lid with filter missed. The upper sort of part of that barrel would be in shadow. The upper lip or the upper lip would be in light. The lower lip would be in shadow. The plane below the lower lip would be in shadow. And then that Shan box you'd see part of the box going away from the light and part of that front plane would be or facing the lights. Who would be lighter? Um, and what else could we have here? Maybe something like like this We might be able to just Maybe that year is casting a shadow on to the head. Right? Something like that. We could we could light everything like this, and we could do it if we just think through the problem, right? And we know where the plane changes are. We just put the shadows on the surfaces that are turning away from the light. Then it's pretty easy. So you see how that ISS I mean, I just kind of thought through. You know what? I thought the plane changes where they were turning away from the light and I put the shadow there and that's it. Now that's that's fun. And I can use that on my illustrations, my paintings, my portrait drawings, my my thumbnails in conceiving, um, new things or getting down on paper things that I imagined or dreamt about. Um, I have power to express that now and communicate it to others. And if I'm on a team working on a movie or a game development, that's powerful, right? If I communicate visually and that's my job, then hey, that is employment right there. That's the money. So I would encourage you to do these kind of studies to where you put the lights and darks based on the plane changes and where the lighting set up is. And once you do a few of those, you'll totally know exactly how to use this. Okay, let's move on 14. 3 Sided Head part 1: Okay, the three sided head. So remember in the introduction, we talked about the face and how it's a broadcast screen, and it's a broadcast screen for people stories. And if the figure is a song and I want to draw my figures like I'm writing, composing or orchestrating that song, then the head is the first bursts or from writing a book. The head is the first chapter, and that's gonna be exactly how it is for your paintings. We tend to look at things that are like us. So no matter what kind of painting you make, if there's a figure in it, your audience is gonna look for that figure. If they could see the face, they will focus on that face. And, um so that's That's the kind of mechanics of painting, and that's the importance of of the face in at the draw of it, really in a picture. So with head, everything has a gesture, and the head is the first gesture of the body. So the head flows with or against the other gestures of the figure. Um, if you don't deal with head as a gesture, it will tend to get stuck on, so you can do a nice gesture of the figure. Uh, but if you put the head on last, it'll just get thrown out like a circle like that. Maybe it'll be too small. Or maybe it'll be just too big. And so, um, you need to be kind of conscious of that of starting with the head and that it is a gesture that relates to the rest of the body. So the head has three gestures. Okay, it's the gesture of the scope skull, the top of the head, the front of the face. And there's a gesture in the back of the cranium, all the way to the chin. So there's three gestures. They're the hardest part for people. Starting drawing is basically the beginning. It's that reticence of making a mark on the page that can be pretty intimidating. And so let's start there. You know, sometimes that can just stop people right away, so we need a really simple shape that can help with this problem. And, you know, we could start with head with a simple shape. Maybe like this, right? That's that's basic. But it's maybe it's too simple and doesn't really look like the head we want. It's not very satisfying. Okay, so maybe we can start with to two oval. That's okay. Let's not. Not bad. We could start with on oval and a triangle. Okay, that's good about this. This is a great shape. Um, it's a great shape because it's it's designed. It's designed to catch wind and pull that ship across the surface of the water. That's an amazing thing. And a well designed sale can do that. And it has power. So we want to use a shape that has power because their drawings need need power. They need gravitas really on the page to draw our audience in. So, um, let's use let's use that shape. Um, we're gonna start with that shape, and it'll be like a a sailboat shaped kind of, you know, like this. That's kind of a bulging triangle. You know, we flipped the sale a little bit. 90 degrees. Okay, so this shape has three gestures 12 and three, and it's got curbs, right? And it's got corners so the curves and the corners give it life right. The curves give it life that the corners give it structure And that's what's so great about the shape. It has a balance of boat. And if we take, uh, the head basically starting in any kind of profile, okay, we'll make this easy for ourself. And the head in profile fits basically in a box. Okay, so that's without the nose and without the hairstyle, right, cause the nose breaks out of the box and the hair style can break out of the box as well. And so the back of the head is a little bit higher in the front of the head, so the back is a little bit higher than the front, and that jaw comes out a little bit more than the forehead. Can't kind of Jets out just a little bit. Okay, so this will give us, you know, any kind of a profile. We'll be seeing a lot of sculler. Quite a bit of the skull, and quite a bit of the back of the head can work, So it's 3/4 front to three. Quarterback. Um so it's I kind of divide that up into that square. Divide that horizontally. The eyes air basically in the center. Okay, eyebrows or just a little bit above that and halfway is the no. So just from here to here is dividing this into thirds. And we're gonna place the ear, because when we place the ear, that's gonna really do a lot for us. That year is basically sits in that middle third right here. I'm gonna line that up. It sits in the middle third and is at an angle, maybe a 35 degree angle, something like that. And it sits right there. So what does that do for us? Well, basically, placing the ear helps us check for errors. Um, okay, so it's a good checking mechanism checking for proportion. And so, uh, at the beginning stage, and it's also separates the two shapes. So we've got the mask of the face and the back part of the face. And it's also, um, gonna be helpful to place the head in the second and third dimensions. Okay, so that's that's what it's really helpful for when I'm choosing my simple shapes for anything I'm trying to draw, I'm trying to design a simple basic shape. It has toe meet two criteria. It has to be basic, and it has to be distinctive of what it is I'm trying to drop. So if it's basic, basically I can get it down quick. I can dry quickly. Not drawing quickly is making good, simple, thoughtful decisions. It's not scribbling, drawing really fast or like speed paintings of intellect, sort of stuff. And you know, if I can get it down quick and I can get it down clear, then I can capture my audiences attention. I can get the attention of the audience, and that's what I want. I want their attention. So that's key. If I can make a good, clear statement like I hate school. Okay, that's a good clear statement, and it might capture the audience attention, and then I could go on and write a song about it. I can write 52 chapters in the book and make a movie a sequel. And so OK, so based on that, Um, based on that good clear beginning, I put myself in a good spot to keep the audience's attention. And, you know, our mind is is kind of like made to find meaning around us, and it's gonna call all of that data. But a lot of the data at season. It's going to edit out, and it's gonna look for commonalities, connections to make that meaning for us. So we can navigate our way through the world or that moment. And so it's gonna do its best to bring things together and make relationships and meaning between those things. Sometimes the things around our a desperate and isolated. And if you're an artist, your job is to bring things together, isolated things, unrelated things and bring them together in the new way for people. So you know, the song isn't just a bunch of notes, right? It's notes put together in a song. It's not just the dance steps, right, it's It's the cha cha the samba Garamba, right? You put them together and make some meaning out of it. Okay, So if my shape my well designed shape it that's basic, What can I dio? I can also, um, I can animate it. Okay, so, Pacman, it's just that simple shape. I can do this all day long. I can do thousands of drawings back, man a lot of footage and get him to do everything I want to do. And I don't have to think about any of the anatomy of the face. No muscles, no bones, nothing. And that's that's really what I want. I want to simplify my work flow. Totally so. But maybe, you know you're not an animator, your painter. Well, I can animate my poses. I can animate my figures in my paintings or in my storyboards by pushing the pose like Michelangelo I would do or re Ben's. Rosetta would do that. He's a great one, and he's just got these great, you know, positions. A contorted figures that maybe they just look so heroic and like they're about to do something or doing something the action awesome. And you do that with, um, you know, gesture it, do that with exaggerating the pose. And and that's kind of comes from animation. So if I can make my shape basic and not, then I can design and redesign. So if you want to work four mil uh, films, movie and TV and visual development concept art, then um, you're gonna have to in your designing characters. Then you're going to have to design and redesigned. That's your job, so it's going to help you be able to do it faster. Make changes quicker and it's gonna help you be versatile because all everything that you can draw is made up of probably three or four basic forms, and we'll get to that later. But if you can learn those forms, then you could innovate, right? You can add forms and stretch them out. You could divide the forms, you know, and just start playing with the basic forms and come up with an infinite amount of ideas and characters. Not only does the shape have to be basic, but it has to be distinctive okay of what we see and if if I have to stop, okay? And our director pulls me up the job and says, Hey, Chris, I want you to do this. Um, and I have to hand that work off to someone then, um, at least my idea is is clear, right? It's a good, clear idea that communicates something, and I can give it to someone, and they're gonna be able to execute that idea and build on it and keep going. So that's really valuable because, you know, if you have ah, you have to leave the job, you have a break. Something comes up when you come back to what you were drawing, you'll you'll have that simple idea. There will be clear and you'll remember what your thought process waas and then be able Teoh. Continue building on that. If it's distinctive right, it's going. Teoh have excellent connections, right? So the head is connected to the rib cage by the neck. Right? So those connections, um, the structures air connected by the gestures. Okay. And it was a really important because they're the connection from one thing to another. If your joints it don't look good, your audience will know it. If you're something's wrong with your drawing, your audience sees that right away. So the joints are important for animation, and if they don't look like they could move, the audience will figure that out. See that same thing for three D modeling? Those joints are where the action takes place and they won't move correctly. They won't work right for animation, so they have to be rigged correctly for the animator to be able to animate it. And if they're not, that's going to be it's gonna have to be redone. So if your connections air off your drawings going to be off. So if my head is connected by my neck too, the rib cage. But that connection right there is off right then and I don't kick. Take care to fix it. Then the next connection is off. The next thing is off, and the whole thing's just the total disaster. Okay, so connections are super important. So get that down. The connections. That is super important. If you have to stop, you could pass that idea on to someone else, and that person can take it. Continue to you working on it, or you can stop and then pick it back up because your ideas there and then continue on and finish. Okay, let's do a set of two minute drawings to practice what we've learned so far. Feel free to draw along with me, Uh, - five for five for three to one 543 21 five for 321 five , four, three, 21 five for 32 work 15. 3 sided head part 2: Okay, So getting back to our sailboat bulging, try and go ahead for a good, basic but characteristic shape. It's got the curves in the corners and the structure. If you're going to draw structure, you can. It doesn't have to be stiff, right? You can bring some life into it by gesture, right? You can bend those lines. You can take those corners. You can round them off and make that block of ice become a character, a moving character, right? Just by the gesture. A lot of people make a mistake when they placed that here in the middle third, right? And it's sitting there at the halfway point a little bit behind the halfway point. A big mistake that people make is they don't fitted inside a box. So the head is like this and it's too too thin, right? Because they don't, uh, take account of the cranium there, Okay? And so the ear is basically the only feature on the side of the head, so that's good. So on the front of the head are all the features eyes, nose, mouth on the side of the head is the year only. So that's good, because it creates like, ah, corner for us. We line up the eyes with the ear. The two planes come together to form a corner, an inside edge, right? And so that's gonna be able to tell me when I'm looking up at something or down. It's something, right? So if I have a box like this, right, that lining up those that corner can help me really quickly established this thing. I can tell you its direction in space is looking down. This is looking up right by just that inside corner on establishing them. So that's what this does for us. Um, don't take that. So if I take that golden triangle and let's say place the ear here Well, where are we? Okay, let's take a look at what placing the ear can really do for us on this model. So the year has a way of really telling us where the head is in space. We can get a lot out of this just by where we put the ear. So if you look at the model and the model starts to tilt, where does the ear go? It crowds out the top of the skull right And that's how you can tell we're looking up. If we go the other way, the ear starts to crowd out the bottom job line. If we go this way, the year starts to crowd out the front of the face and so on. Yeah, sit way. The ear will start to crowd out the back of the cranium. So where we put that here, IHS. Crucial. Okay, let's come back and finish this idea here. So we had the mistake. Common steak is that the head is just too thin, okay? And doesn't look done. Look Right. Okay, So we've got the ear here, and it's just floating there, and I don't want my features to float. I don't want anything to float there and be unconnected. So one of things to connect in touch, right, cause when they touch, then you can see the relationships and they look more believable. So I'm gonna try to touch that. I'm gonna touch that here, too. The mask of the face. I'm gonna bring a line from the forehead over to the ear, down through the job and back up to the front. That's the mask of the face can get a place, the nose, the two cylinder. And I've got myself pretty good face right there. Okay, My brow for the mask of the hairline could be just a simple shape like that, but I might break it up into a more characteristic kind of, uh, no there. And that kind of helps me to break up that space from, let's say, the forehead back to that ear or to the front of the year. It's a pretty big, um distance so I can break it up into smaller distances, and that helps me a lot. So right from the forehead to that part, out of part of the eyebrow, to the sideburn, to the ear, I can get there. Okay, The back of the next starts around the eye line and it go this way and that way. Okay, so it's kind of like a nice hourglass shape, its wider at the top. Then it is on the bottom, and I can bring for let's say, a woman. It can go this way and have this nice hourglass shape, but a guy would tend to go the other way. So let me draw that real quick, right? So here's is a guy's head and his neck. You could go this way, right? And so that that kind of looks a little bit more how it guys neck looks. And there's kind of like that characteristic sway, right? It doesn't just sit. And here's another mistake people make. They put oval on top of a stick, right or even just that kind of triangle shape and then make the neck straight up and down . That looks stiff and pretty unconvincing. You want to put that gesture in there and give that that piece of structure some life by bending besides bending the lines and that mark works much, much better. So I've got my neck coming down here, and then I can basically put in part of the neck muscle right there and touch the ear with that. So now I've got some really good connections happening because I've connected the ear to the mask of the face to the jaw and down to the pit of the neck. So I'm well connected. It looks better. So to the back of the head, there's roughly one here that'll get me back there. Okay, so keep that in mind if we do this again. Now, watch what happens when I placed the ear. Okay, A little bit. This way. Okay, Now we're a little more three quarterback because the ear tends to crowd out the front of the face as you turn away, conceive my ears crowding out the front of my face. And so that's what happening here. Right? So I'm gonna touch it to the mask of the face. Bring that jawline, Touch it to the eyebrow. No, there it is. Okay, so that's pretty, you know, pretty quick to be able to do that. And then to get to where the back of the head is right, I can find one years distance and that'll get me right to where that inside corner is, and then I can make that can change and establish the box. Turn this thing into a more convincing head in the eye line. Here is where the head connects and the neck starts. Second, bring the neck muscle down into the shoulder muscle, and I've got that good strong connection from that neck muscle from the ear, right down to the pain in the neck. That's the sternal clean. Oh, Mastoi. And that's there and how that fits, right? And so that can be a front of the neck like this. It can be even a back like that. See that there's a C seven right there onto the Jurassic part of the vertebra. And so we've got this now situated where we're actually three quarterback, you know, and we're looking at they back of the neck now, whereas before we were looking at the front Now that's really cool. Cool, That's powerful. So let's do it one more time and, ah, draw that same shape, not changing anything. See how much we can get just out of that simple, well designed, distinctive shape. And I'm gonna put the ear here. I'm gonna draw You're a little bit thicker here. We get that thicker edge. So if you think of the here is kind of a slice of salami, right? And I just cut this part and I end up with this kind of shaped like that, that's like an ear. Okay. And so that's what I'm doing. I'm thickening up this top part on the bottom. If you're looking up, you can thicken up the bottom part of the year, but just gives it that little extra sense to the viewer where they're at. So if I find this inside corner now I'm in. The ear is down crowding the jaw. I'm up above looking down 3/4 front. Right? So that's amazing. Amazing stuff. So you want to think about your shapes? Designed them, make him simple, make him Ah, you know, distinctive of what it is. And then you'll be able to start designing your own stuff. You'll be able to draw faster. If you're doing storyboards, you need to knock out lots of frames per day. And I didn't lots of this on storyboards, and I used this exact idea to, you know, speed up the workflow cause time, you know, it's money. Uh, so, hey, I hope that this really helped because it really helped me. And I got this from Steve Houston. He's a great teacher, and he teaches it so beautifully, and I just wanted to share with you today. All right, let's do another set. This time. It'll be 35 minute head drawings and feel free to draw along with me. Uh uh uh. 54321 for But you 16. 3 Sided Head part 3 Pastel Demo with a splash of color ): way, way, - way , way, way, way, way, way, way, - way , way. 17. Demo 1 Shape Block In 1S: Okay, We're gonna jump in and do a little quick demo here. The first thing we need to do is analyze the model. Now, hopefully you've listened to the lectures of in the first module about learning how to see . And so you're kind of recognized this. I think that on the right, we have our eyes wide open. We can see all the value range on the left is a heavy squint, and it separates out the light and dark puzzle pieces. Verily very clearly one single source lighting, which is the best to show the form. If we open up our eyes a little bit more, we get to values and the darks and two values and the lights. It's a four value system, and that's what we're gonna go for. So our first job is to do that initial two D analysis and then also to just look at the reference or the model and just squint down and compare what's happening right before we jump in and all excited. Let's just slow down and see what's going on here. So it seems to me this model, the way it's lit, is maybe 60% dark and 40% light or maybe 70 30. And I'm looking at the shadow shapes and the light shapes. So I'm gonna really edit this thing down into a very low resolution idea just to get it on the page. So that's my job, right? So we've got B right before values. We got black, we got white. And then we have a step two steps in between of Equal Joe. And that gives us two values in the light and two values in the dark. It's family light, family of darks. What to keep it like that. I'm gonna give myself a key. Was 50% right. That'll keep my values organized and in control. So that's my main things. That is to keep in control of this. And I want to look like a bad Xerox does and analyze the light and dark information. The value contrast. So my first thing after that is to space and place the elements, right? So I'm going Teoh, try and get the proportion of everything but the eyes air in the center, the eyebrows. So it's the average angles, right? The angle of the gays, the top of the forehead to the chin. Find that angle and find the angle of the eyes right. It's a little bit off center. It's not completely horizontal. Wanna make a note of that? And then the eyebrows are just a little bit above the eyes. In between the chin halfway and eye brow line is the nose generally on average, right? So let's go ahead and make a note of that halfway when the angle of the chin And when it makes that direction change the angle of the cheek on the far side, you get a very angular face, which helps. And then the cut in or the break in the eye socket to the eyebrow and then to the forehead . Kind of hard to see in the back there. But I'm just gonna Yes, I can. I can look at the widest part from that cheek on the left side, all the way to the farthest side of where her hair is and just make a guess there. I can measure the height to the whip, and I could do that on the model as well and kind of get a rough estimate. Okay, I'm gonna go general to specific big to small all right, As if I'm 20 feet away from the person. All I can see is the overall big impression. That's what I'm looking for. So let's see where I'm gonna space in place. That knows, Keep it real simple. Kind of like a prison or number two. Right Number two there. Put that in course. That's just a tool to help me get it there. It's not a number two, but and then between from bottom of the nose to bottom of the chin, halfway generally on average will be the split of the lips. And if I placed the eyes, if I can kind of get a sense of where the eyes are, the eyeballs nose up and what helps? There's teared up to tear duct. There's one I with I get the idea where the tear duct is. I can put the eyeball in there. Um, if I drop the some wind down, not the angle of the models. Gays. I confined, you know, generally, on average, where the end of the health is gonna be on both sides. If I extended down all the way, that'll give me where the chin bits in to the jaw basically. So that's a really important landmark. Okay, so what really stay? Stay in that block in phase. We're gonna find you have tendencies, right? Tendencies to that. You have to look out for that. You have to kind of fix. But it might be making the nose to smaller by PT making the eyes too close together something. Whatever it is, you'll start to to know your weak points. And that's why we practice to find our weak points and then that you know that they're there and avoid those traps. All right, I want to jump in. I see details. So I want to squint, simplify, compare back and forth, squinted the model, squint at my drawing and look at this light puzzle piece on that cheap but right side to see that's with toe height. We're always asking myself how tall is that thing? How wide is it? How tall is it compared to something else? I'm always relating one thing to the next, and it just sometimes look so ugly, right? But then you want to jump in and make it look pretty, But I'm not gonna do that. I think this hair is getting closer it's gonna Kurt down and I'm gonna look at that. Try and go right in here of that light peace. I can see it that I can't look at the dark puzzle pieces and draw that. See if I can see that Draw what you can, what you can see and what you know this is like putting in the plumbing. So if you do this stage, you know, well, then you're drawing will be on a firm footing. I don't You can't, you know, harder to mess it up. If you get it wrong at this stage, there's no saving it. You can put all kinds of frosting on top, but you'll never be able to save it without ripping the piping out. Taking the walls out, you know it's gonna be some major work. Teoh. Bang it back into shape. So we want to try and do the hard work now that where we don't have, I suffer later. Let's move this chin just slightly up. Always room for refining, feeling. I want to move it up, but I'm trying to gauge that distance from the far cheek and the edge of the job going up to the year. It's probably pretty good, right? There is a pretty angular bone structure. And let's see, what's this puzzle piece from the back? She's back lit. Just got a relate. The kicker is they call it photography and so scoped out this cheek into the rhythm of mouth, even going into the bottom of a rhythm in the mouth chin. And let's put the neck in. We don't want to forget the neck. People always forget the neck, and it's, you know, cover. Big mistake, but the angle of shoulder to the back muscle, the back, everything's connected. Check that doesn't have to be perfect, right? It's low resolution. This is the fun time where you can be a little bit loose, right? You're 20 feet away. All you can see is the overall big compression of the person. I can't see any details, but you know it's then because the silhouette it's so powerful our brain can recognize silhouettes. It's a silhouette recognizing machine. Let's see, where is this filter I'm gonna be, and then the lips still wondering where that it's gonna be? Maybe it's there. It feels more right. Yeah, I'm gonna What am I gonna do? have got this dark on her poor had I think I'll bring it into the dark's so I ask, went down. All this stuff just goes into dark, right? So after I get my two d puzzle pieces, then I start to Bill in again with a flat kind of a key like that. No, I don't want any darker than that because things will start to lose control of my values. If I do take a sip of water so I don't want to lose control of my values right now, I just want to stay, stay calm, stay in control. If you don't possible, what's the shape of this eyebrow here that gives me that shape now of the light puzzle piece next to it? I kind of see it. That's right. And then I can wrap the eyelid around the high ball, start to think a little bit like a sculptor here, pull that three D architecture out now that lower lives gonna come around the bottom of the eyeball and then it's got the shadow of that lower that could put that shape it a little triangle here, stripping round. And then you got the guy ball in there somewhere. Not just all almost always in the shadow shadow. There this is. Cut this in just a little bit shorter. All right, let's work on the eye. On the close side. Tear duct, upper lid. Super orbital orbital bone might super meeting above. Just think of pulling that island over the top. Still, I'm still in that block in phase that really goes into dark. There. Just squint down to your ducks. Thank you. It's like a porpoise shape right here. You can use anything that helps you. Yeah, to recognize the shapes. Don't think of them as people eyeball eyelashes. Right. Get lost in detail. Think of them as pure light and dark shapes. And how wide are they? How high are they visit around? Thing is it a square thing is a triangle thing. Very simple stuff. Okay, this little triangle piece right in here is below the eyebrows on that super orbital bone and then just goes in the shadow right there. Go ahead and put that in. So once I get this thing posterized flattened out, I can look at the design, see if everything is spaced in placed in proportion. Well, then I can start to design each section from the big to the smaller refining facets. That's a worse thing myself to squint it, the models with my drawing, that shape under there and just really kind of this space is it's that to the analysis that you have to do it. And so it's It's kind of ah translation phase. It's somewhat of a copying translation phase, right? But it's one of the tools available to you to get your foot inside the door of drawing. Get it going because pretty complex. But if you can stay, they like that dumb Xerox. You should be OK saying we have a sliver of light here. Let's put that neck in just to make sense of things. When it's connected, the heads connected to a neck. It looks way better. It's not doesn't float. All right, so let's flatten that out. I see. Separate the dark from the light. See how that goes Very soft in there. My oh, you know, I could almost all put this in the dark sense yet over there, we can put that in thinking really simple terms. So are so. Go ahead and hit the very tight, hard edged part of that. Lower Live, and then everything just goes into shadow. So beautiful, so subtle. But really, there's just about five or six things you need to know about, about how light creates the form and how how you interpret that in our eyes, this form and then and that it's somewhat easy kids there that let's stay in the bloc in. So let's look at the nose here. It's tight in our financial group right there. The winger that knows Slate. It's this circle circle we've got. There's so that cartilage in the nose who knows is not that smooth. All right, so it's fill it in, find the puzzle pieces filament. You know, you find the puzzle pieces, you can hire someone just to fill him in for you because anybody could do that. So you've got this sort of copying phase looking at the two D puzzle pieces and then your job after that is to make it that it to embellish it. But you can't embellish it until you got something on page. You know, go here to look for where the end of that whose is far side that fades out. There's almost nothing there. Go ahead. Put that highlighted look like that soft box they've got fighting. Hers is not an octagon, but rectangle rectangular like there, lighting her up. And then the curve on the our lead is really pronounced because it's in perspective and export shortened. So the more sports shortened things are, the more exaggerated the current way are the shape of the upper lid casting shadows. We're seeing the underside of the upper lid. Look at it. Knowing the shape it was, the lack rumble right there, lower part of the orbit of the virus. That's a tricky, tricky place. Just keep it simple and look at the shapes. Very simple shapes will be OK. It's fine. The front plane of the mouth just gonna cut through. Is that all peaks on the upper lip? Kind of. Keep it. Bo Right there would call it. I was gonna put that in. Good for, uh, you tell me. Got it. In the right place, we've got the terminus of the lips on the park. Far side, lower lip fits into the upper lip so it comes out overlaps the upper lip on the far side. That's a pretty full lips here. And then there's the two Procol. We'll teach you that later. Sometimes anatomy comes in handy. Sometimes you don't need it so sometimes where you can't see things. You can use your anatomy to help you out, right, like in the dark areas. But in the dark areas in the shadow, you don't want hard edges and contrast. That's why their shadows that kind of fuzzy and you can't see anything in there. So keep it buzzy that make her shadow look like a shadow ever lived overlaps the lower lip so that your lips could be coming out. Then there's a little light shape right there. Put that in. I wanna miss that important. Find that shadow shape under the lower lip of playing. They're casting a shadow cardinal depression right there because of the Depression. That plane goes in away from the light and then comes out from the chin. Right comes into the life out like that. Let's clarify that's clean up a little bit of this. I like drawings that you can see how it's built up. It's like it looks authentic. It's got lines and it's got depth that way. so I don't. We'll take everything out on old super clean everything all the time. You know, I can get away with it, clean up where I have to and then leave the process in. Get the barrel of the mouth. That bump there. Pretty subtle. Okay, the keys don't. Here. It's commonly referred to this Super Salieri arch areas Keystone and just very subtly slopes away from the light and then back out the nose. So what's going on here? We've got nasal bone. Okay, so I still to stay out of the details. Let's look, squint down and look what happens here in the upper lip. Really hard badge can look at the edges in the shapes. I just crispin him up when I need to. Things. No, a big mistake that beginner students make. I see it all the time is that the line quality throughout the piece is the same everywhere , and it has a certain look. And then when you start to control your airline, quality your fix and bends right chisel hard thing lines and then you're wispy lines that could go into just nothing is that's what uh, really gives a a drawing interest because it's that variety, that visual variety that creates the interest. And that's something you learn over time. Okay, so it's this just disappears right here in the middle of that upper lip and then defines again. So let's go ahead filling the shape and see if the with the lower lip focus here. Okay, So right here at this big puzzle piece, I'm just gonna go same direction with flat part of my pencil and it keeps it. It helps me just to see the shape. If it's noisy, them cross hatching. And it has blotchy darks and lights. And I won't be able to see my design. And I'll be focused on that rather than you know, the thing that I want you to focus on, mainly this beautiful woman, the model. Okay, so I kind of get a sense of how we're doing here. Soften a bat and bring it. This is where that nasal passages So it the rhythm of the nose comes out just a little bit , bumps out and it's the cheek. It's very subtle. Very tricky area. Right here. We're the plane of the nose meets the plane of the chin where has it. You know, just a little cut. Let him swing down the bottom with the cheek that turns away from the lights that goes in to shadow. I will keep it in the shadow. It's definitely in the shadows. Why squint down, bash all this stuff? It goes away, merges together, got the cash out of the nose on the cheek, and it's close to the cheek. So it has a harder edge, all right. Maintained its integrity here, continuing to squint. Okay. And then we still have this big shape of the hair. Someone go ahead and put that and privileges that it was buying charcoal buying Charles Really soft. It's made from burning the, uh, twigs of grapes. Great buying great plans. And that is burning until it turns into charcoal. No, that shape the hair, Larry. And then I'll just move my pencil. Get that chisel fine. Triple lock brush line to it, using the side of the pencil. Really effective. You see, this shaper gets a little bit into the family of lights right there. It's just basically a shape. - I can't see anything in here, So go ahead and not put anything there much could see the edge boundary between the hair and forehead in villages. Let it let it go. In contrast, where the light meets dark but just let fade into a shape. Shadow is the shape is driven by shape. Where is the light side is driven by structure and color. If you're painting, dig out that depression right there. That's pretty dark. Went down pretty dark in here. And then it turns into just nothing. Edge. Good cloud. So here we have a little bit of ah, bounce, like coming underneath the chin. But it's still a shadow, right? It's not reflected light, but it's not gonna get. His light is the light side, because then at the value structure, the tonal structure will start to get very confused in. The viewer will feel that they won't feel good to them. You don't want that. This is all soft starting here, but I don't want you looking there, so I'm gonna quiet that down. Do you have a little pepper? Hold here. Okay. In the light side, that half told charcoal is very tricky because it gets muddy and dark real quick, so it's not too forgiving in the light side. So you almost want to have nothing in the lights or very little. It's getting a little out of hand here to go back and pick it out. No to too rough with it. Could see some strands of hair here coming out with a part, isn't it down this way for the forehead, that opportunity in a couple of those? No weaken, kind of in a position. We can look at our edges a little bit more. Oh, go ahead. And this is a protector. I could get him here. My palm will be smearing all charcoal defined the highbrow here, ground some of the eyelashes. I just group the eyelashes. I keep a really simple. Otherwise, we start to look no fake. I was put in a few put into many of these start to call attention and they look stuck on. So where that eyebrow turns, or the orbital bone turns under the little bit of shadow there and that upper lid cast a shadow onto the cornea onto the iris and the pupil, someone put a gradation there. That's what really makes it look, really. Is that sense of wetness sensibility Glass orb, right? Very reflected. So you've got speculator Highlight. You got the black of the pupil, which is amazing whole, but lets the light is just That's why it's so black. There goes back back to the nerves in the back of the eye. Get the name right now optical. Okay, so I get that I want to create a little occlusion shadow here that happens. That man gets really tight. Let's define this a little bit more proud here. Keep it simple. Almost like a Nike swoosh shape or an eagle wing or something. Just rock backing for it to get a little bit of hair there, but getting not drawing hairs, it's still squint and compare throughout the whole process. Then I use my black highlights have been holding back from using black black because black black I reserved for those areas. Where really want you to look once the viewer to look there first? Some part directing the peace you put it, you know, in the eyes is a good place under the nose as well, because that gets a usually a dark shadow with hard edges. Kids get that lower lip that has, and then the skin. Is it wraps around the lower part of the eyeball, and then it means the cheeks are kind of tight. But this just goes into Oh, all right, there's that plane lower plane of the lower lip that goes back. It was a private plane. Put in that shadow for the upper lip of the terminus. Squint down, lose the details for the shapes. Could you put the light under the nose and it comes up into the all of the mills, Gets dark there to find the shape, potable water, shadow shape. Oh, and we'll give a little sense of the nostril just like a little comma. The quotation work, you know, So your eye in your hand are gonna get real coordinating real sensitive to just changes almost in like topography. What you're looking at changes in a map, the highs and the lows. Registering is darks and lights. Then you're just gonna get really good at seeing that stuff. I think not a lot of light gets in here, so it's kind of included. Caught on inclusion. Shadow Cheek moves into the barrel of the mouth docking except a little bit. - It's just really soft right there. That transition our give a little half tone to the bar cheeks. The nose kind of emerges out from there. Oh, get lost. Gets lost back in there. Even this Clara is not white. Most people think it is. It's a ball, right, and it's getting top parts, getting a little bit more in the bottom. Part of it turns away from the light. Be a shadow that comes over the top plane or lower lid coming into that goes into nothingness and structures lost and established that core shadow to the edge of the lips. Idea Light holds dark. That dark is holding in the far side of her cheek and eye sockets on camera gives it some dimension going here. Now I'm just defining. Just find the clean, fining all the time. You could just go on right? Never stopped. Things get wiped away. You got to re establish him. Problems crop up, get a fix him squinting and comparing, looking back and forth from your drawing to the reference over and over again, unifying shapes where you can unifying values, family darks. Keep those together family lives. Keep those together. That's too bright. I know what that is. Bright is the highlight. Push that one of the white of that. I pushed that back hers. All the shapes so soft in here, the rhythm of mouth meats that shared its very, so a little bit of sense of that part of the hair right there. Let's worry about Gesture of Head is on the top of the skull follows the part of the hair that is, but that paid nothing. Just give a sense of pushing that top of the skull back, falling away from the light just a little bit that would establish that front player that knows as a bottom plane separate from the front plane of the nose. Yeah, coming along. Good stuff. It's like going out on an exploration, right? You never know what's gonna happen. It could all fall apart. Your ship could be wrecked, etc. But that's why we do it right. We explore on the way. Find out we reach the shore. It's awesome. Soft and hard edges. - Then let's just kind of shape this off. We want everything to be designed well, we can, even if we can't finish it if we've got a good foundation. Good, clear, simple statements. No matter where we stop. It'll look good, right? Because because we cannot understand how to build a drawing step by step. - And now I'm just doing the tertiary details. I'm kind of just the finding, making sure you know, everything reads everything sitting in its right place. No could be shaping this. His part. I can't see. She goes into nothing this so I can treat it as a just let that edge fall away into the background. Okay, so we don't notice it, right? But she's She's in an environment not just stuck on the page E highlight. Here, top plays take out some of those construction lines. So nobody knows how we did it and then step back And just look, if everything's kind of cool pullouts in that green light like that's happening off camera , right, you can just beef up the take out that number two. So there we go again. You could go on and on, right? But we're going to stop. Call that wrap. All right, We'll see you in the next video. 18. Demo 2 Construct with Confidence part 1s: All right, everybody, let's move on to the next step in our process. You know, someone said art is like having high standards. You've got to draw the line somewhere. OK, so let's get started now. In the last session, we talked about doing the two D analysis of the Simple Shapes. Today we're gonna be talking about constructing with confidence. And so we're going to talk about kind of a process that looks like you see things in three D, and we take it and we translated into two D and then we by through illusion and value and construction two D shapes, we turn it back into three D. So it's kind of a three D to two D to three D process. You might find that helpful. So last time we talked about analyzing the two D shapes right? And that's a tool you can use to get your foot inside the drawing and get it started. And, uh, if you do basically a to D analysis and you kind of get your values in. So you have your family of lights separated from your family darks. Um, and you copy that pattern really well, that's good but it's not enough. It won't get you a finished drawing. So the next step is to basically used the planes and rhythms to start to go to the next level. So, um, you know, having a good copy is like, uh, you know, being able to copy the Chinese alphabet, you can't speak the language, right? Then all you can do is copy the alphabet, but you don't know what anything means. So you can't say anything and express yourself in a meaningful way. So now we're gonna take the planes and the rhythms and start to pull three D architecture out of it. We're going to start constructing. We're going to start sculpting, and we're gonna basically try to describe the drawing better. We're looking for good descriptions, not fancy drawings. And when you start to put the plane changes and in the form changes, um, you're asking yourself, you know, how can I take that to D analysis and make it better? You know, where can I take uh ah, hard plane change? A very, uh, a soft form. Hard born, you know, crisp edges, soft edges where it turns. How can I bring that out in the drawing. So all those kind of descriptions. So that's what the planes and the rhythms for. Okay, so that's what we're gonna do now. And so let me start by taking a colored pencil like an orange, and I'm using orange because it's, um, dark enough to see on light paper. But light enough at the end, it won't show up in the Charlie. So the head is basically right, an oval, and I have to add the back of the head drawing really light, always drawing, likely gonna find the average angles just like we did last time. Find the eyes in the center on average, and then I'll take where that front facing face would be. And I'll just add the difference onto the back. And that would be a way to get me the back of the cranial mass. It's in the ballpark. Okay, the brow is here, just above the eyes and from the proud of the chin. That halfway point will be the nose and halfway between the nose and the chin will be the mouth, on average, the split of the lips basically Okay. So far, so good. Try to keep it really simple. Then go from that bump on the cheek. But white is part of the face is usually the cheeks, and I confined the back of the skull. White is part of the skull, right? The white is part of this whole thing. I kind of find that. And then the height. All right, from let's say here to here now, I could take that hairline and go 1/3 to the brow, 1/3 to the nose, 1/3 to the chin. I could go that way too, so I can go halves. I can go. Thirds is whatever gets me there. So let's put the ear and get that angle of the jaw. Simplify that lower part of the job to the chin box. I've got a rhythm right there of the chin. I know that barrel the mouth is gonna bulge out. It's not gonna be on the flat plain of the face. It's coming out. Some of the draw a contour over that right, And I can even build that barrel up if I need to make it. Make the point. Make it clear. See a polar rhythm here This rhythm dividing the side of the head from basically the front of the head. If I continue it all the way down, hit some really important landmarks, that corner of the brow. It's the corner of the cheekbone and then divides the front of the job from the back of the job. Basically, that must sadder chewing bustle. And then I can light up the brow and the nose. I just with some horizontal guidelines and get that ear that will be in the third that middle third somewhere in here and that will be the ear can be 1/3 of that upper here. The middle part of the third is the conscience or opening of the here, and then they Loeb. Okay, let's see if we can get these rhythms going here. I'll alternate between holding the pencil like this with an open palm inside the palm and then a palm down kind of a finger grip to build the sockets of the eyes. I think that's again trying to stay in my process, going general to specific big to small. My first move was to buy divide the side of the head from the front of the head, look for average angles for relationships. You know that eyeball is gonna sit in there. Let's get the, uh, club L A in here. Fancy name for the brow ridge over that into the keystone. Okay. Want to pull a rhythm from the helix? What defines the side of the head at the top of the cheek and then goes all the way over the muzzle of the mouth and then kind of turns into the defines the end of the lips there, the most narrow part of the terminus of the lips. I can draw that plum line from the iris down to define on either side where the lips are gonna end where the chin bits into the jaw, all that good stuff. So if I got that, I can imagine on the other side where that's gonna be And there's another one coming off the helix tune that goes around to the middle of the jaw separating on the side of the job . The front part from the back part. And then we've got the rhythm of the mouth. Basically, it goes from the wings. The nose to the edges of the mouth intrudes on the rhythm of the chin. Just a little bit. And then the rhythm of the change comes out. So they intersect the rhythm of the chin and the rhythm of the mouth that shows that barrel like nature of the mouth protruding from the face She coming behind. Okay, so that we've got some dimension cheek going behind barrel in front. You can see that by that little letter. Why, right there the why And the T principal. Another letter. Why here and that shows overlap, overlap. There's a great communicates. Um, dimension. Really? Well, okay. And then we have another rhythm here. That's the kind of the nasal labial fold here. And there's also gonna help me hold that chin where connects to the jaw gives it a place to end. This comes up and around behind the rhythm of the mountain. Okay, so there we are. I'm just gonna draw the plane change of the nose from side to under. Not going to draw the nostril just yet. If I can help it, the plane changes enough. It's better description at this moment. And then we've got the rhythm of the the nose. So that's there, too. But now we've got everything really defined pretty Well, it's a good a road map, you know, cheek interlocks with that temple on the side. I can't see with that. Hairline is something like that. And then we've got a plane change right from the frontal eminence here, which is that's got a rhythm of the forehead that comes out fits into the prow again. We have that glow Bella, which is really kind of knows, fitting into the forehead. Define that's pretty. Settle on this guy so I won't go super fire with it. But if you want your Conan like the rock kind of characters, put that global A and there really define it and you'll get fierce looking person. Okay? And there are there's rhythm that comes down. We have the front plane, side plane, and then true side of the head. So front, step down, side to step down again, too. The actual really turns a corner here and goes into the side of the head. I'm just gonna define that. I'm going to describe that it was giving a little bit of ah, gotta have a neck. Gotta have a connection. We'll send to the underside of the chin here. I can't see What's going on here? Coat wrapping around. It's tie. I don't really care about that too much. It's just Ah, a design. Right? Where am I gonna finish this off? Would be nice. Triangular shape is good. Make sure where things connect. Make sure they overlap, make sure they fit together well, and that will be convincing. Okay, so let's just take a step back and look see how we're doing. We have a nice temple here in the chin. Okay? So go ahead and just knock some of this back just a little bit with my needed rubber eraser . Such a great tool. Just ghosting it back. Okay, So I got a little sheet off to the side here that I can kind of shape my my tools. So I'm gonna squint down and look for my darkest darks and lightest light. And just instead of jumping in, I'm just gonna, you know, try to go slow and I'm using a piece of bristol. Actually, is a piece of charcoal paper because the buying charcoal works better because it has a tooth and vine. Charcoal doesn't work that well on newsprint, so it won't take it. Wipes away too. so easily, and so it needs a little bit more the of a rougher texture. I'm just using the side of the little piece of buying charcoal, squinting down and just looking for darks and lights, patterns, shapes. Now he's back lit. Two. He's got a rim light off camera left, so that's why the side of his cheek and neck is lit up. And then he's got that key light from screen, right, that sideburn behind his ear. - Okay , can Just squinting, looking for the flat two D shapes During my two D analysis, I love the way that fine charcoal goes on. It's just so something about it so smooth and silky get lost right there, trying to be really kind of the bit bold about it, because it's that fine charcoal I can very forgiving. I can just wipe it away. Okay, let's see here just kind of build this eye sockets. Go ahead and don't be afraid. Toe. Dig in here where it goes into shadow. If I was sculpting, I'd have to remove clay, right? So thinking the dark shapes that I make the dark marks is like pushing in to the paper and going into shadow. And this is where my rhythms coming. Really, Andy, I can just go ahead and be a little bit more confident. You know, I can construct with that confidence the marks that I make because I've got those rhythms in there. Put a tone here to push that side back and get the other I going here looking for the shape shadow of the upper lip. I mean, a perfect the upper, the upper eyelid. And then he doesn't have very dark hyper house, just almost the color of skin when it's really dark hair background, go ahead. But it the dark holes light principle leaves a lot of dust, this stuff but, uh, just blows off, right? So let's squint again. And to see the simple shapes and looking for triangle circles squares with the graphic shapes that simplify stuff. I se see kind of a semicircle under the nose. We're cast a shadow into the upper lip to keep it just like a circle. You could put the bumps in later on that edge, and there's something I'm noticing here about the the light as well. It falls off, hits him on the forehead. That's closest to the light, and then it just falls off. There's a gradual gradation that gets just a little bit darker under plate of the nose. Just put it in. So this process that we're doing analyzing the two D shapes and then turning those two D shapes into three D architecture by introducing rhythms and planes that's it's like telling a story because we're describing You can see elements of story in this process, right? Cause I'm gonna realize this face. I'm gonna describe it to you. I'm telling you a story through my drawing. The drawing itself is a story and stories everywhere, right? It's like I can somewhat improvise off of this. I can't just leap into improvisation right into chaos, because then you probably couldn't follow me, and I wouldn't be able to keep it together. So I need a base to come from. It's like the classic hero's journey. The hero leaves home, goes out into chaos, confronts the drag and slays the dragon, and then brings back the information to to the people at home so their lives can be be better. And so you need that structure. Your structure home is is your structure It's your identity, your traditions, your culture, your language, your God. And then you launch out into the world right and explore, and you try to make order habitable, order out of chaos and returned home again. That's what happens in music. You improvise off a structure. If the jazz quartet just launched off into a huge, a tonal solo, the audience wouldn't be able to follow him. So you first give him something recognizable, and then you slowly build out from there. That way, when you go back home is so much more sweeter to the audience because they recognize it. Recognition is huge, and it brings that that feeling of tension and release. You go out and come back, go out. It's tension. You come back, it's it's release right and you go back to the source is comfort and homey. So, you know, using structures. Okay, in fact, it's more than okay, all right. It's preferred because then I could take some chances on this thing, and that's that's the fun of it, right? Because it's that tension, you know, it could it could all could all go wrong, okay, But I'm hoping, but it's going to stay together, right? And that's why we we do this stuff because it's so so fun to be in on that journey, right? To see if our skills are are there to see where we need work to see where we can come back victorious with what we have, you know? And that is meaning. Story is a meaning. I mean, if you agree with that, what do you think? I'd love to know your thoughts Now, when we leave home and go out into that chaos, chaos of the drawing, right, the chaos of the music, the cast of life, um, things can go again. They can go kind of haywire. And that's called the Valley of the Stuck. I got that from Ryan King's Lane, great teacher and mentor, and he pointed that out that in the middle things just get looking bad. Things get chaotic and you'll feel like you can make it through. You feel like it's all come apart, and that's gonna be at the end of you, the end of your trolling, right? It's just that feeling like, Oh my God, this sucks! And I don't know what to do If you find yourself in the Valley of the Suck right, You've got to make a decision. Do I go home and start again, or do I keep pushing through right? That's part of that tension gonna make it through and so most the time in the middle. It gets sucky looking, and then the question comes up there. Am I an artist? Can I even really do this right? You feel like an impostor or something and you'll be challenged. Those questions will come up, you'll be challenged, and you just gotta push through it. Larger aware. It's like one of the one of the enemies of the creative process. Is that that voice? Those voices that tell you you suck, you can't do this and they're riel. Who knows where they come from and might come from old tapes, family upbringing, parents, whatever, something somebody said to us, or it's just that's the nature of reality itself. You know, you go out and do something new and just beer sets in. The voices come up because they want to be in comfort. You want to be at the comfort zone, not out here in the chaos where it's risky and you don't know what's gonna happen. You might meet the dragon and the dragons, not friendly. We all know that, right? Get this little edge here, the chin going into the underside of the chip and it gets kind of was kind of 1/2 told right there, thinking, put in there needs to be pushed a little bit, just gently applying. Things will be hard. Direct there. No. Okay, let's keep concentrating here. Sometimes my eyes can get a little off and not lined up. If I'm not careful, that's one thing that happens to me. That's why the rhythms and planes of so good cause from side to side because the head is the same split down the middle. The rhythm's really help Balance that out and keep the symmetry, my fingers a cheap, cheap paintbrush. Okay, so let's see. It's going to go ahead. And you know, there's this idea that you have a sphere. The light is coming from top, right? So you have ah, highlight and core shadow, so just draw the silhouette of the shape. Then you draw the boundary between the light and dark. Then you get the dark side value, right, so that place closest to the like, gets the highlight. Then it gets a little bit lighter that has the cash shadow. But that light balls off farther. The object gets away, falls off quickly. So it's lighter up top and it kind of gets, you know, darker goes away. So I'm gonna use that simple idea. Tryto squint my eyes and I see a kind of gradation here, a little bit darker here. Lighter here. Good. Connect this. Try to unify things as much as I can. Unify the darks, unify the lights. That's good. The unified theory of physics, right? Tryto find one theory that explains everything if it's possible. So again, just squinting the model squint at my drawing, Of course, this model of a photo. But the principle applies. Even so, just a squint and compare. Squinted Compare. Okay, point change of side of the nose from the front plane of the nose club, Ella steps down, becomes kind of an under plane, so it gets the tone. If I want you to look at the eyes that I want to put the contrast there. Okay, so let's just take a step back, see what's going on. Just squint down, Catch the top of the head there, lose the line. And then I didn't bring it back. Lost and found. I love that. Get something here. So again during on the outside as well. Negative space, positive space. You can see that in the background. There's that Boca. Right? So I could I could put some in just to suggest background there. Okay, so now, based to I'm gonna switch over to we're pencil because the biggest contrast is in the eyes to me. Let's see if we can. You could do that. But I want Teoh have just a little bit of charcoal on the side so I can get the subtleties in here. People say, Don't finger paint. Put your fingers on the paper, but because the oils will get in there and mix with the pigment, whatever you're using, the medium. And then it looks dirty and it's hard to clean. But I had, like, finger painting a lot. The tool, why not use it? Give us defined some things. We've been out here what we can do, and I see the eyes and the nose have the most amount of contrast. So let's just observe that and then put it in there. Make some decisions here, make some commitments, sculpt some things out. Eventually you get a commit right. So we've been in that kind of block in phase where or using the vine charcoal. It's easy to amend it, change it. It's very flexible, right? Very plastic. And so that's fun. What kind of using that? Innovating off the structure of the rhythms. And then we got a kind of tightened down before we have too much chaos. Right? We need some order. That's okay. So I cannot see inside that shadow. So maybe this kind of just leave it alone. Kind of put maybe with that tight line of the all our facial groove right there with a wing of the nose meets the cheek. I know that's gonna be like an occlusion shadow. It's gonna be dark in there. - All right, I'm gonna take the rest of this process off line to do the finishing work, and then in the next video, come back and discuss how I finished it. The tools that I used and a bunch of details like that. All right. Okay. We'll see in the next one 19. Demo 2 Construct with Confidence part 2: all right. Now that the drawing is totally finished, I want to tell you a few things about the tools that I use, how he shaped the tools and get the marks that I make and specific details about how to finish it drawing. All right, so let's jump in. In this module we've been talking about constructing with confidence. And to do that, you need at least two things you need to understand your drawing fundamentals, and you need to understand your tools when you haven't least those two things. You can launch off with confidence into your drawing and create something beautiful. So the first thing I want you to look at is in the eyes. I saved my darkest darks for in the eyes, cause that's where I want you to look. So as an art director, I want to move your eye around the piece, and so I saved my black accents for their I didn't overuse them everywhere. I want you to go to the eyes first. Then you can see that I spotted some dark accents around the face so you go to the eyes 1st 1st read. Second read. There's a little black accent here, Maybe third read, and then you'll just move around like that. That's art directing the peace. It's something you should be thinking about. It will make your peace is a lot more interesting. And give your audience something to come back for. A picture you're giving them that, um, variety of contrast and variety is the spice of life. Right? Visual variety keeps people coming back and interested. The second thing I wanted to point out is that you can still see the orange Riley rhythm block in that I did. Initially. I left it in there. I overstated it and left it in there so you could see where we came from, right and where we ended up and how I used that structure to get into the drawing, and that gave me confidence right to keep going. Remember, doing a drawing is a lot like telling a story, and in the story you start, you leave home, you get to the middle, it's chaotic, there's a conflict. You don't know what's gonna happen, and then you resolve it. You come back home, and that tension that tension and release is something the audience enjoys. So you put that in your guitar solo, right? You have the burst chorus, the solo you take off your launch off into this beautiful solo and you come back home. So you need that structure you need home for the song or the drawing toe. Have any movement right? It has to have movement. Has to ask contrast, Big against small light against dark. And so that's what we're trying to do. And that's why it's important to know those fundamentals. All right, now, let me tell you a little bit about the tools I used Vine charcoal. Then I'll use a piece of dark Cray vine charcoal. That's one of these thin sticks, and I'll use thicker ones, too. But I'll basically break it into about 1/2 inch, and I like it just like this. Sometimes I'll also sharpen it up to a tapered edge site and get into some really fine points, but it really wears away quickly, so this I don't use a whole lot. It's effective, but this I use this does most of the work for me just broken like this. Now, one thing I learned from a good friend of mine, great artist Robert Valley. He showed me that he shaped off his hunk of charcoal charcoal. Really tough, because if all you have the hunk of charcoal and it's really black and dirty, you get frustrated really quick and you won't like charcoal. But if you know a few things about how to shape the tool, it becomes like a three and one tool. It's it's really awesome because the things you can do with charcoal, um, expression you can get out of this is is worth doing. So what I'll do is I'll just wear away one or two sides, and I'll just use a piece of paper rough surfaces. Good. And I'll just wear it away. So I'll get two sides that kind of conspired to get an edge. I don't know if you can see that, but there will be an edge, and then I can take that edge and news just basic moves. I'll pull basically along the long access of the tool. So this long access here and create verticals, horizontal als, diagonals, any which way I want to go. Okay, that gives me a chisel. Fine line. And then I bind that move with this move right you're pulling and pulling out and you get hard edges and soft so that I need a tool that has a hard edge on one side and a soft edge on the other and that right there and even this just turning the wrist. I didn't get so much out of these marks right here. You'll find this in compression folds and skin, uh, soft transitions on the cheek, right in the eye lid, anywhere where there's compression and there's a dark kind of crevice right in the middle. And then it comes out into tone like that. Okay? And also I just want to be able to get really soft passages. So I'll wear down either side of this thing on the two outs, the outside parts of the tool, and they'll use that middle part right? And I could just lay down really nice passages, transitions. I can press down a little bit harder and just get a nice squared off a piece like that. Okay, so those are my main moves, basically, with this tool, and it all has to do with how you shape it, right? Let's see how those work on the actual drawings. Try to point out where I did that on the drawing. All right, so in tight areas like the cheek against the shirt, right, others come in and I'll do this kind of move. All right, it's a little bit different on the tracing paper, but I think you get the idea. So it goes from dark shadow into 1/2 tone, just like that. Right now, there's this part of the cheek of the rhythm of the mouth, right going into the side of the cheek. I just dig in and pull out right the cheek, rolling away from the light. So it's in the light rolling away, and then dark shadow. You know, I just come in like that, right? And that's it, right? Just get these nice little patterns and then I can come in and chisel out, you know, corners if I need to. I can use pencil for that right, charcoal pencil or carb Othello to get in. If I need to reinforce an edge, especially on cast shadows, right, And then to fix something, I'll use this tortelli own, which is a paper tapered paper, and I'll just commitment, maybe clean some things up all right so that I can kind of just come in, drag that tool, fill in the dark's right, cleanup on edge, if I need to with my needed rubber eraser, right? Used that a lot. Or my plastic eraser that I can cut with an Exacto into, you know, a chiseled hard edge and then just come in and hit that. So it's just really a nice chiseled edge in the hair. Okay, let's look at that. Okay? It's basically just setting up a tone right like that and then working the edges so you'll have a tone here, highlight in the middle. And then I'll just pull a few edges just like that on one side and then on the other out has come out into the highlight area and just pull a few strands of hair, right? And that will get me the really good suggestion of hair, right? Just using kind of like a wave. It's like a wave, right? I can do that in here one more time. Let's show you on this orbit of I I just dig in and then dark into a very soft edge. So a firm edge to a soft edge even here on the super orbital, into the forehead. Just lift off, right? Like use my finger to clean or soften and edge. Right? And so I have confidence because I know the tool of shape the tool. And I know the marks that I'm gonna make and how they work Now, Another thing important thing is that this tool, you works really well at scale. So at a almost life size head about the size of my hand, I know that this one inch piece of fine charcoal is gonna work well in this area because I can pretty much, you know, it fits. It's like a with oven. I right, It's like a NYSE with and so it fits a lot of the features that I'll be working with at this scale. Now, if I was working on a 20 foot wide wall 20 by 20 while doing a mirror a mural, this would just reduce down to just a line. It wouldn't work, right? I couldn't put in mass in any value or big, you know, passes big value passes because just too small. So here, though it's barely big, and I can I can sort of start to get these lay in big value passages, fields of value pretty quick, right? So this works well with the pencil at this scale, and that's another thing. Kind of add to it. So, you know, if I'm working bigger, you know, I might want a bigger hunk of buying charcoal, right? Something like that that's gonna give me a lot like a big paintbrush. And I would be working bigger if I used that one more thing. So we talked about the structure the Riley rhythm lay in. And then how that helps to define the planes and where to put the shadows and then the shadows and the edges makes sense. Put the core shadows and it it reads well. But there's this other stuff around here. They're like, Flourishes there. Bold Marx, almost like brush strokes. That's like your guitar solo, right? That's your exciting, um, acrobat on the high wire. I can do this stuff because the set up the trunk, the home part of the story, the familiar part is well done and it's it's there, it's strong. And then I can go and do just these kind of marks that are almost random. and their exciting the provide movement for the peace right? Some of them are just scribbles. Some of them are a little bit more, um, hard edged and structured. And then you have the lost and found edge. So you've got a found edge, right? It's very crisp and clear, and then it gets lost up in here, right? And then it's found again and lost and found, and I just play that game. It's a lost and found game. That variety in visual variety, is the spice for your viewer, right? It creates interest, so visual variety creates interest, so you want to bring that into your piece and use it where you can. It's just lost and found edges. Hard edges, soft edges, lost edges. Okay, that's that very simple. So I hope that help. I think that's about it, and we will see you in the next video 20. Head 3 quarter view analysis: All right, let me note a few important things on the 3/4 view before I go on drawing one. And the first thing is the division of the front plane to the side, plain in the face. And there's an S curve there. You could simplify it to its most basic like that from the front plane going to the side plates of front to the side like that and you could lay it in almost You could say, like a letter s. You can also see. Sometimes I'll just say I can do this. Move in a certain amount of moves. 1234 56 Right, That's the chin top plane, Side plane, right. They have four head the front plane under playing to the eyebrow and top shelf on the lower part of the orbit of the eye and down the front side of the cheek all the way to the chin box like that. So that's 1234 56 moves. You could even do it. Maybe in less than that. But I'd say six is pretty good. So just memorize that and, uh, get that, Get those series of sequence of moves down, and it just, uh, helps your workflow a lot more. Okay. The other thing is here. You can see on the left side the I to the nose is like a number two. Okay, with a little triangle at the bottom for the bottom plane. So you can see here a number two with a triangle at the bottom. All right. You can also lay it in like a prison. So the nose ca NBI thought of as a simple prison thinner at the top at the root of the nose . Bennett the ball of the nose. Right, But like that. Okay, a simple prison. Make sure your nose is just gonna put a tone for the side. Plain and under plain, you can see it better. Make sure that it is emerging out from the surface of the face. So big problem, uh, that I run into with my students is that they haven't knows, right, and it's too flat. Goes straight down, so it doesn't look like it doesn't look. Three d doesn't look like it's coming off of the nose. Right. So make sure that when you do that, it's sticking out at an angle Okay, Maybe it's better toe. Overstate it a little bit. So you get the idea of it. Okay, so that's sticking out, right? It's sticking out this way. So this one don't do it. This one is okay. All right. One final thing is the when you're dealing with four shortening, if I have a tube and you're looking at its side and it has stripes on it, right, things become more curved when therefore shortened. So if I lift this tube up this way towards us, this end here, coming toward us, right? Than those stripes become curved, much more curved. Okay, so on the model, the eyes, for instance, from that, um, straight on view you have the lids are like like that they're curved, right? But when you turned the model a way for shortening that far, I for sure watch what happens with the curve. It starts to really become curved. Much more than this top one here. Right. It's a lot more curved. Curved is accelerated, so to speak. Okay, so you've got something like Like that. So this is the top part of the lit. This is the inside. So you've got the top part over here and then the inside right there. So it's kind of something like like that. That's the inside inside top. So the peak of that curve has moved from here to here. Okay. Right there. Same thing with this other island closest to us. It's still the peak moves from somewhere in here to now. Here. The farther I is much smaller in with. So not only does the curve get more curvy, it gets smaller, the more foreshortened it is. Okay. She might want to practice something like this, right? It's like a piece of paper folded over. And you find this in eyelids, even the mouth or even ribs as they as they turn around, right? Kind of Go go away from you. The sites closest, the sites bar, and it's turning away. It's that kind of twisted piece of paper, right? Just practice. That move even works for teeth. This could be teeth right here. Okay. All right. So let's move on to drawing the demo of the 3/4 view 21. Head 3 quarter view charcoal demo: all right when drawing the head and 3/4 the two things we need to focus in on the most are the structure and the proportion of it. So I'm gonna start with the head straight on and then get it to turn and I'll show you how to do that. So start with an oval that's three units high to two units wide bisected down the middle, vertically and horizontally. Then I'm gonna take an ark, get its gaze to turn to the left, and then this little space right here, that distance I'm gonna add almost that distance to the back on the swing, an arc this way and connected to where the nose would be. And that's gonna get us the back part of the cranial mass. And you can see I just bring it a little notch right here. How that's gonna kind of workout, put his idea of a cheek and now I think you can probably see it. Okay, let's divide the front half the face from the side plane. I'll just swing this simple s curve, but and put a tone in so you can see So we have front plane side plane and the forehead curbs will just bring it around this way. Almost a contrary motion to that. Okay, Now the visor will swing an arc here from one side to the other and bring it into shadow here, protecting the eyes. You will swing. That's part of the globe, Ella, In here. But it's like a non awning that protects windows. All right. Okay, then the nose will be congee, like a number two of the triangle at the bottom, or it could be a prison. So let's go with the idea of the prison. So I'm gonna bring out a keystone here and then pull the root of the nose, and where it ends will be from the top of the brown to the bottom of the chin. Halfway will be the bottom of the nose. All right, so let's get that in. That prison shape is very effective. It's so simple, so clear. Once we get it in, let's bring in the side clean bottom plane. Okay? And now we're going to bring in the muzzle of the mouth or the the barrel or the two cylinder and literally just draw a barrel here on one side and the other, and you can probably see here. I'm gonna point out that the front plane in the face of this straight line here but the arc of that barrel, the plane of that barrel is this curb lying here? So you don't want to draw it flat because they're too soon. That, too, won't look like a form that's projecting away from the front plate of the face. I'm just gonna put this in tone here. Besides, go back, you know, put tone bottom right. Way have chin. Will state that, like a room with a box. Make it clear. Do you want to overstate the box of the beginning? And then you can pull it back later. So start with this boxy shape, and then we can Vanessa into something more like a human face later. Okay. Cheekbone coming from the brown swinging around. Make sure we get that cemetery on both sides and the zygomatic arch back to the year that's there. Okay, Now we can start to put in the eyes now that we've built housing for the eyes. So the guy is a almond shaped and the tear duct you confined will not intrude any further in than the wing of the knows. I'm just gonna make sure it doesn't do that and start my tear duct here. If it is goes further in, it looks across. I So here's my tear ducts swinging curve here. Out job inside. I could enjoy, uh, something like this in practicing joing these kinds of curves just like that outside, inside, inside and shadow outside here. And then I'll draw the lower lead here. That lower lip. A nice thickening because the ball of the eye is mostly resides under there lower lip, not the upper tell here. Okay, This part to see the bone of the orbit, the eye socket really tight against the I. This part will be in deep shadow here usually. Okay, let's put the iris in. Sensible. That's gonna be well, just give that a tone, I'm sure spaced and placed in the right place. Okay, Once we've got that in, we'll go ahead and put the other eye and on the other side. So I'm just gonna make sure they're lined up along this line so the eyes don't sag. Well, when that tear duct that make that curve a lot more exaggerated on the foreshortened side, All right, so anything that goes into four short name is is more round. Get the top part of the orbital bone here. Who's in some shadow here on Let's filled out the yeah, show us thinking here. Iris put more of an oval because it's in perspective against, but I it's closer to us. More of an oval shape. That's this Clear. Why this a little bit. Okay, all right, let's work on that nose 1st 3rd of the nose is bone. The nasal boat second, 2/3 of the nose is cartilage. There's ball the nose, and 1/3 is the middle third and cartilage and then the top third bone. Go ahead. Put this in. Now that lower part is kind of a shape like a trap is a little shape coming in interlocking with that first trappers oil shape up here and then we have the way in the nose, okay? And then, like a disk with thickness, and then the other side will see it in a very barely seeing depends on the person. It's right. Let's put a shadow on top of the barrel of them out. Okay. And then the nasal passages. There's a rhythm here, one side to the other side. I remember the first time I saw this, that weight. I was on a plane and the stewardess leaned over and said, Would you like something to drink? And when I looked up, she crinkled her nose and I saw this rhythm just like that, and my teacher had been had taught me the rhythms and the Riley rhythms. And there it waas I saw, and it was mine forever. I couldn't unsee it. That's the funny thing about. Once you learn something, it's hard to unlearn it right? Sometimes that's a good thing. This is the continual refining of each part. Each phase that we do, getting it closer and closer to reality. Hopefully, you know that ball the noses separated a lot of times into to spear oId shapes. I could go ahead, put that in. Okay, tighten up that shadow there. All right, so let's do the mouth. So now that we've got the pupils in weaken, drop straight line down on one side, and that's gonna give us the end of the mouth and the width of the job. So that relationship is there between pupil Straight line down. You can catch the side of the mouth of the terminus of the lips and the width of the job. Now, if you're not aware of that and you don't take that into account than the jaw can become crooked easily. Right? So this is the way to check your drawing and make sure that that doesn't happen. Okay, so bottom of the nose bottom, the chin in the middle is roughly where the split of the lips is gonna be. Okay, so I'm gonna go ahead and swing an arc out. You know, this way? A little bit from there. So I've got about, like, an end shape. I'm gonna echo that m shape, like, kind of like bird wings. All right, give that top lip. Atone here. Goods usually in shadow, basing, playing, facing away from the light. Okay. And then let's go ahead. Put in the lower lip. Upper lip is superior to the lower lip. The lower lip comes out from the upper lift. Quite pillow. Here. Two distinct forms. Remember, this is a blueprint toe the schematic. It's an analysis. It's not a pretty picture, really. So don't worry if it looks, you know, it looks a little robotic. It's sort of it's supposed to look that way. Okay, so under the lower lip, ISS usually in shadow. And so I'm gonna kind of a w shape right here. Okay, then that meets the top plane of the chin in front point of the chin. Now we can round out that chin more characteristic. Oh, human base here. Right. So we start out very low resolution, very blocky. And then we round things out as we go now, at the terminus of the lips. That's very tight right there. So I can put a shadow in here, this light up turn See how that lower, like cutlet comes out from the upper lip. And I'll put tone here indicating the plane change that goes away from the front of the face. So we have front lift and then side play of the lip right in size. It goes back. Also, there's a plane change here to just as the lip comes out and then goes down so it comes out and then down with that. Okay, So the searchers of the lift, we have the vascular note. I'm gonna put that in. And thats real subtle if your lips just end. Sometimes it looks a little weird, but if you can indicate just a little bit of this vascular No, Sometimes that does the trick. It was very subtle, but if you look for it there many times, I'll go ahead and finish off that bar of side of the cheek so that she will go no lower in the bottom of the nose. Let's bring that into focus here, and there's an interlocking here. Sometimes it can go back up into here and lock in with the temple from the side, play depending on the lighting. Let's strengthen this up a little bit here. Yeah, that brow bits in to the cranium. Here. We'll clarify that. Told to push it back a little bit in space. All right, so this is you don't need to drop pupils and eyelashes and stuff. Just get the shapes and the values right, and it'll read for you. Okay, Now we can go ahead, and I think we're ready to put the year in. It is clarify things a little. Let's bring this playing change here a little bit. Warrant, focus okay. No sense of where the neck might be. Go. Okay. Okay. Putting. Looking at the ear a little bit Here. There's gonna be at an angle about 11 degrees this way from the middle of the head and back . Right. So we swing guideline out from the brow and bottom in the nose. Go ahead and just want to see current right here. There it ISS seeker with the letter y inside. So the top part pop top third is the curve. Middle part is the the bowl. Lower third is the globe that connects in back of the jaw. Okay, so I'll just bring that. Oh, for some shadow in the bowl. There we have our ear emerging. Let's bring in the most setter here separating the front of the job from the back of the job. That's your chewing muscle. Oh, okay. And let's put in the eyebrows. So how could do that? Is an angle from that top lived onto the forehead, back down to the other side. All right. Like a little triangle that sits up there on the brow, starts underneath the eyebrows, ducks underneath and swings over to the top on the front of the face. I don't from the forehead. Hey, starts on the up over, kind of like a bird waiting. And the younger the person, the thicker the eyebrows. This remember that in the older the person, the thinner, the eyebrows. Okay, And then let's complete the front part of the orbit of I. So we've got top part of the orbit of the Eid swings here and goes this way. What goes this way? And it's somewhere in the middle, right of nose. That's where the top part protecting the lower part for a little boat comes down and then it completes itself here like this please itself here, like this stuff. You wanna draw someone looking old, you can add bags right there, bags to the eyes and more wrinkles. It'll make sense because you know where to do it. And then there's that front part of the cheek there. But really, now you can see some the state clean changes there. Did you have four? Let's say that you know the front part of the cheek of the top part of you. Hi socket, which will get light and then the front part of the cheek, which will get less light, and then it turns under all right pop front turned under so long we're describing things were giving good descriptions. Then we're doing okay. Doing really okay. Okay. It is time for the hair. So we could come down to about 1/3 of the way down forehead, Let's say and then there's a lot of different hairstyles, but basically come back like that, but that All right, come down, Teoh. Sideburns over. You can have all kinds of different hairstyles. Could be jailed up, right? Cropped short. Could be love. But if he treated, treated like a tone that also has playing changes, then don't worry about drawing strands have we wear Just get the shapes and the values there more corners, you have more boxy. It's gonna love them or basket masculine. It'll look, uh, more curves. You have more feminine. Let's go look. Okay. So it goes away from the light, it will be. Get a toll that goes towards the latter. Get lighter. All right, so there we go. You have ourselves a ahead and 3/4 here. Clean down a little bit. A little plane change happens here, goes from forehead step down and that goes to the side plane. So as long is, uh, you know, you're describing the plane changes, right? Stepping out, going under. All right, top lead under for the square. Uh, pop plane, side plane. And then we go to the front and down. It's a real stair step. E kind of thing is just going out. Down, over, out. It's kind of like that, right? Look, Stairs almost the laws were getting those kind of descriptions and definitely going to you drawings. We're gonna be better than so many other drawings out there and better than your past joins . Don't compare yourself to others goes Just compare yourself to who you were yesterday. If you're making progress, that's beauty now. Absolutely good enough. That's realistic to measure progress like that. Okay, so there we have it. The head and 3/4. We'll see in the next video 22. The head and neck connection and anatomy: and today we're gonna talk about join the head in profile. So let's get started. The first thing I'm going to talk about is proportion and how to get the head pretty quickly onto the page. But roughly speaking, Behan is in profile basically a square. So we just look at it roughly speaking, without the nose, without the hair style, you've got basically a square so we can use that simple, primitive shape to get us going. The next thing is, is we're gonna look at some basic playing brand cap. So we've got the basic side of the head here. That's one big plane and there's the front of the head there. So we want to be able to break that, Um, we have another plan here that you can take right off of the helix or the top of the year will bring it straight down to the chin. And that kind of separates out the side of the face that includes the jaw and the gear from the front part of the face, which is Yeah, there's also another rhythm that you could bring right up. He lifts the opposite way, and you can go right to the mouths where it could go right to the bottom of the nose and continue on to the other side. We might be able Teoh, use another color there. Just a show that's that second. And this is the front of the face here, that front facing plane green. Yeah, that's what we need to know that show off the idea of box because if I could show off the idea of the box well, clearer, my idea will be, and it will be will have some veracity on the page. Yes, that's what I'm looking for. So we have this front playing here, and it steps down into a thunder plane where the orbit of the eyes and that steps into it kind of top shelf complains and shelves, and that a front facing playing some and so those are the kinds of descriptions that I'm looking for. It's also looking place the here so the ear is somewhere in the center of the head, but definitely it will be at an angle. Maybe about 10% off the jawline. You could go around the other side, so there's not here there, so there's roughly one year until you get to the back of the head. So that's good to know, for placement of that year, how to get well, find out just where the back of the head ends. Because I could be tricky. So, uh, if we don't take care of that, we can get our head kind of looking a little too narrow. Yeah, that's not, uh, that's not good. Right? So there's no cranium back here, okay? We're with head. That's just loose. Well, too narrow, horizontal aspect. The next thing is and he next we want to just talk a little bit about that. But I like to draw my heads with necks and I don't put the neck and just looks like it's floating in space. Where if we don't like that, I don't recommend it. So the neck pulls right off the new coal ridge When there's this process here, um, Mastoi process, which is right here. Last story. So pulls right up here and you can pull it right off the bottom of the chin. Mr. Ignore this part here. Happiness model tilted back. So it looks like kind of like this. So you'll notice that the head is wider on top heads wider on top than it is on the bottom . And that's doesn't seem to be the case intuitively, but in actual fact, it is. So that's something to definitely make note of. And that's basically well, we're going to say about that. Except for that mass story process, we have the sternal clean. Oh, Mastoi muscle. Well, you out there into the sternal notch in attaching to the clavicle. Okay, so let's get started actually trying this here, So just full of shock backup. All right, so we have this basic square, I'm gonna use it as a template to lay in or block in the head fairly quickly. And as we said, the proportion to the head without the knows where the hairstyle is, Basically a square. So I'm gonna go stat back a little bit, and then just I could break up that square several ways, but I'm going to use an oval and a triangle with the overall. It's drawn in using going around several times just to get the feel of it, and it's touching the top and both right and left sides of the box. And the triangle is just coming off basically that front left plain and going back at about a 45 degree angle, creating the jaw and then going up at about 10 degrees to build the access where the here is going to be built from the ear is going Teoh hang out and about the middle third from the top of the cranium to the bottom of the job. If I break that in the thirds that middle third is gonna be right around with here, is he, uh, Forehead is a little bit farther back than the tip of the chin, and the back part of the cranium is a little bit higher than the front part of forehead. So if we divide that distance from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin in half, uh, that's roughly where the eyes will sit. And just above that is through the eyebrow line. And there's no real measurement for that. You just have to kind of feel it, and it's a case by case basis. But we want to make sure, um, we can then use that measurement from the top of the brow to the bottom of the chin, dividing that in half. We get the bottom of nose, and then we can divide from bottom of the nose to the bottom of the chin into thirds that 1st 3rd being the split of the lips. And that 2nd 3rd being the top of the chin, that space between the bottom lip on top of chin. And, as I said, the there's a kind of a sloping angle just to the right and the chin jets out a little bit further in the forehead on average, and the back of the cranial mass on the right there is a little bit higher than the forehead on the left. Let's take that out those lines. So I really like kind of understanding the basics here because, um, if I kind of no the steps and I understand where the planes and the rhythms are that I don't have to think the head just emerges on its own. And the less work I have to do in the less I have to think so it works pretty well for me to kind of know technically what I'm doing each step of the way, and then it just becomes muscle memory. So I'm gonna pull a seeker about for the front of the neck and the back of the neck. The back of the neck. Um, you can feel where the back of the head connects to the neck, right around where the eyes are. You can just feel in your own head, sort of Take a line from your eye all the way to back your head, and you can feel there's that bump there. That's the new cool line or the nuclear ridge. And then there's another bump just down into the right and left of that. That's the Mastoi process that lines up with about the bottom of the nose. So somewhere between the I and the bottom of the nose on the back of the head is where the neck begins and departs from the back of the cranium so you can see I've got to see curves for the neck, and the neck has a characteristics way to it. And what you don't want is toe have ahead, sitting on two parallel lines like a stick, because then it it looks real stiff, and, um, the spine in the cervical spine. The top of the spine isn't like that it's curved. So I put in the lips a little bit. And all these things, basically we're creating a basically a standard which helps us get the head on the paper. And then from there, we can modify it to make it to make it look like an individual. Ah, a man or a woman. But we have to start with a standard that's helpful. So with the the the mouth I'm gonna put in the two cylinder or the barrel of the mouth, I'm not gonna put in the lips just yet. I'm building the architecture that the lips will be sculpted into, So I've got the barrel of the mouth than into the chin, and I've got kind of a boxy chin cause this is a guy, and then just refining the ear a little bit. I think ultimately it's just a little too high. But I'm gonna pull a rhythm right off the top of the year that top of the ears called the Helix, and I'm gonna pull a rhythm just a seeker right down to the chin, and that's gonna give me part of the major plane break up of the head dividing the front half the front of the face from the side of the face. And if I want my drawing to look like a a sculpted drawing, I want to show off the box. I want to show off the plains. And so my first thing to do, um after I kind of get it down is to do those major plane breakup. So now I just went ahead and put an arc in. That is the side plane of the head. And as I draw that arc all the way through out through the jawline, there's some very important key kind of bony landmarks that land along that arc. And I can use that to place those. So from the back of the ear, roughly between the back of the ear and the back of the head, I just swing a an ark all the way through to the front of the head and then out towards the neck or in towards the neck. And I'm gonna get the basically the front plane and the corner of the eye socket. So the corner of the eye socket is gonna land along that arc, and I'm gonna do it again because I didn't bring it out far enough. So the corner of the eye socket or the eyebrow is gonna land. We're gonna find that along that line and there's I carry it through. The cheekbone is gonna be the top of the chief boat is going to land right there so I can find that. And then, as it carries through, it's going to help me divide the front part of the job from the back part of the job, really good rhythm and that I can pull another rhythm off the helix that can, um, kind of going in the other direction. In the first rhythm, I pulled off the helix, and that could go right under the nose. Or you can take it right to the corner of the mouth. And that's going to be the underside of the zygomatic march. So the first rhythm is the top part of the zygomatic arch. That second rhythm that opposes it is the bottom part of his zygomatic arch or cheekbone. So one of the biggest mistake students make is placing the I too close to the nose, as if it's stuck right on to the, um, contour of the face and they don't give it enough space back into the eye socket. So we don't want to do that. We need space for that eyeball to sit inside the housing of the eye socket. So we need to find that corner of the eyebrow along that arc. And then we can make our D sent for that side wall of the eye socket and then go forward for the top of the cheek and then pull down for the front of the cheek itself. So far, so good and then putting the eyeball that sits in the housing that we just built for it. So there's the eyeball, the upper lip that are the upper lid that wraps around and I'm gonna show show the upper lid. Sometimes you can't see the upper lid, um, people's eye lids open right to that bone, the top part of the, um, orbit of the eye socket so you might not see it, But on this person you do. And then you have lower lip floral in the lower lid that wraps around to the other side of the eyeball. So I'm trying to get that description in, and then we have the brow itself. That's like adviser, protecting the eye from damage potentially So that fits into the forehead. And then we've got the nose and I'm going to just draw the the plane change of the wing of the nose and nothing nostril itself. I'm gonna build the housing for the nostril. So big mistake people make is the draw nose and then put a dark circle there for a nostril . And it looks suddenly like near the black spot on your drawing. So you don't want to do that. You want to just draw the plane change and if you have time to go ahead and you shaded put a nostril in, But just for an initial block in the plane changes really effective. So now I'm gonna draw the top of the wing of the nose, and then it meets the ball of the nose and drawing a little bit more of the opening of the nostril of the nose and then the bone right there next to the I, where the bridge of the nose is. That's bone with a ball of the noses. That's cartilage. So by the bridge of the nose, you'll often get a shadow right there where it's the plane change between the front plain at the nose, in the side, plane of the nose is more obvious. So we've got the angle of the top and bottom lip and the angle of the nose to the chin. Two angles that I can kind of check my proportions and build things off of. I'm always trying to find lines or curves that that I can build my forms or my features from so the top of the lip that top lip curves down. And then I've got the masculine node, that bit of fleshy part of the terminus of the lips there, and the at the terminus of the lips that the split of the lips that comes out and just overlaps. The side plane of the upper lip overlaps T to Burkle, which is that Cupid's bow triangular shape on the front plane of the upper lip. So the side plane overlaps that front planet lives, um, giving that description and then knocking it back with the tone because usually it's a plane facing away from the light, so we customarily see it in shadow, and then the bottom lip emerges out from the top lip. And so it comes down from at an angle that it turns abruptly into a front plane and then curves abruptly again, back into form the top of the chin, usually at the terminus of the lips. It's very tight and dark shadow. It's really dark in there, but in the line between the split of the lips so a man's chin could be blocky and a women's chin, you can use more round curves, kind of like like a series of s curves, gentle curves to make a look more feminine. I'm kind of working the whole thing over at once and not getting stuck on one thing and detail ing it out. Trying to stay kind of zoomed out. I'm not zoomed in, and that's not time for details yet. I'm gonna give that area under the chin, are between the bottom lip and the chin, atone because it's usually in shadow. There, on that bottom lip has a plane, so it has a front plane, and then it turns and goes towards side. It wraps around the barrel of the mouth, so that's usually I'm gonna give that tone to show the plane changes When you give something a different value, it has the illusion of giving it a different plane in space or the illusion of depth into the page. So right there on the side of the nose, I can giving that a tone So it looks different, like a different plane from the front plane of the bridge of the nose. So the idea there is different value. Different plane or a value change equals a form change to the eye. That's how we see depth. So that area, just to the side of the terminus of the lips, that little masculine node. It's kind of a no man's land. And if you don't know the masculine node, then you don't really know what to put their. And if you put nothing there than it tends to look flat, whereas if you kind of have a little bit of information there, it just fills and nicely. And it's not something that people notice as an area that doesn't have enough information in it. So if you know where the masculine note is and how to shade it, it's great if you don't know and it's kind of a big deal cause your face won't look right in that area. And so the neck was connected right into the bottom of the job. And basically, if I want my drawing to look convincing, I need my connections toe look, toe look valid. I need my architecture to look, ballad, and if my connections are valid and they look good, that makes my drawing even it sells it even more so. That area under the chin where the neck comes out, you know, needs that area, which is often a no man's land. It needs some information, and it's the area that's kind of formed by the dye gastric plane. So it's the bottom of the chin, and the top of the neck area that looks like a trap is always shape. Kind of an upside down trap is oId Still. Give that a tone. It's usually in shadow and hard Teoh to see. So we gotta get in there and do these studies so we know what's what's there. And then you can do it by memory or clarify something in a live model situation that, um, may not be clear, but you can give it some clarity and structure. Let's get rid of that little diagram. I have always loved drawing faces. I was when I was a kid. I had these Academy of Arts sketch pads, and I would do athletes and actors and just draw them and seem to be able to get a likeness . Um, I didn't really know what I was doing, but I was able to make the drawing look like the person. Remember, I do Portrait of Barbra Streisand and one of the Charlie's Angels and Kate Jackson. I think it waas and it looked like him. So it was rewarding to me to to do that. It was fun. So I'm just kind of sculpting out the must setter muscle in the back half of the job, which is the chewing muscle. If you just chew Planche down on your teeth, you can feel that muscle come bulge out. So that's them. A setter just looking around. I'm gonna put that eye socket and back into tone, cause it's usually dark, generally right under niece, the brow and sometimes the upper Islanders in catches the light, and then the eyebrow itself begins underneath the brow and then comes up on top of the forehead. twist over and ends up right on top of the forehead on the front of the forehead, just clarifying the GLA Bella the eyebrow and in the housing of the brow itself that the eyeball fits into. So knowing how to block things in like this knowing your proportions, knowing the planes and rhythms, some of the planes and resumes of the face allows you to construct the head, um, from imagination from memory. And, um, before I knew that, I used to just copy surface details, and so it kind of that was a good finisher in terms of rendering surface rendering. But I couldn't build it. I couldn't construct it. I was limited to rendering, so consequently, I couldn't make anything up. Really. So, um, you know, after I studied are seriously, I have some good teachers. I learned basic things that you're supposed to learn. You know, the foundational things as an artist. Um, and it's like, you know, any endeavor, any occupation. You've gotta learn the basics. You have to know the basics in order to use them to make things worthwhile. Um, we're using to break the rules once you know the rules. So it's just trying to clarify the cheekbone there with the the couple of rhythms there that we put in initially. But I'm gonna go ahead and clarify this now with a tone. Imagine the light scenarios that is coming Street, um, opposite the head so the side planes will be will go into shadow there. So I'm gonna put a shadow, so weaken see the design and see the planes a little bit better. We got just a bunch of lines and it could get look like a tangled mess of lines like a schematic drawing. But I like toe introduce some tone in there so we can see it right. And there's a hollow there behind the eyebrow and just behind the cycle Matic arch. And that's the occipital area of the skull. And then the cheekbones of the white is part of the front plane of the head and kind of comes around and up behind the eyebrow on the side of the head and connects into that sort of temporal bone or the side plane of the head. So I'm just making things connected. If I could make things connected and Sollett, they look more solid. If I've got good connections, So kind of Ah, um Then I'm gonna strengthen up the tone on that cheek bow a little bit. I'm just using in photo shop a blocky brush. Um, the flow is pretty low about 37%. So I can kind of lay the tones down and build up the values capacities maybe around 60%. I was trying to get photo shop, pencil tools, toe work. So look more like Kant A or charcoal on newsprint, and it works pretty good. But then when you need to get a really crisp detailed line, it doesn't work so good. So I just abandoned that just went for a digital, you know, blocky digital brush. And so when it's really small, that works like a pencil line. And when I make it really big kind of works like a a nice big piece of charcoal to block in kind of wide swaths of value quickly and so now what? The ear? I had to memorize the ear when I was working in Shanghai, is a concept artist. I had to fix a lot of anatomy. The biggest things I had a fix were anatomy in perspective and So we're working on a particular comic book like a graphic novel, and a lot of these years were just terrible. So I had to fix a lot of years and I was struggling with it. So I just decided to that memorizing the ear was easiest way. So I kind of memorized the parts of the eager and how it looked. And then now it's really not a struggle, so the ear can be divided into thirds. And in the top half of the year you get the helix and the anti helix, and it's kind of like the the middle part of the ear is the conscience or the bowl of the ear. And then that final third of the year is the cartilage. Um, so I just view the initial block end of the year is just a letter C with a letter y inside , and that's how I usually start and you can. You can use that as a cartoon, just that it as it is, or you could build it up into a realistic eras well, so right behind the ear is the masterly process, and that's going to be the starting point for the origin of the stern Oakley No mastoi muscle of the neck. So it comes from the Mastoi process to the clavicle work Lato Stern. Oh, clay toe mastoi process. So it goes from the Mastoi and it angles down and it hits the clavicle or the sternal notch . But I need to know how to get to the sternal notch. How far down does it go? Salt. Take the measure from the top of the head to the bottom of the nose and bring that down from the bottom of the nose toe. Where that measurement ends down. Get us to the clavicle. So we're going from the Mastoi process to the clavicle and the sternum. That's why it's called the Eastern OKC. Lito Mastoi are not attach is right to the inside of the clavicle, top of the sternum and then part of it. Fans out called the Plati asthma, and that connects to the sternum that 1st 3rd of the sternum as it departs from the sternal notch. So I give that a tone so you can see it. It's just a long triangle shape, Um, rope kind of a rope muscle. So there is that POTUS Ma That's a flat muscle that comes off of the started plenum asteroid and connects to the clavicle. The first start of the clavicle. Putting that in this is good stuff. When I learned this stuff, my necks looked away better, and it's not that complicated. But if you don't know anatomy, it's a big deal. But if you do know anatomy, it's really not a big deal. And the trapezius muscle coming from the back of the neck from the new KAL Line and comes down and moves over and connects to the outer third of the clavicle and, you know, on the lateral side or outside of the clavicle so that clavicle or shoulder blade is like a handlebar kind of muscle. Work of bone looks like handlebars to an old bike, and the trapezius is like you're shrugging muscle. If you shrug your shoulders up towards your head, that's the trapezius doing that work. There's a bit of a hollow between the petit asthma and the trapezius, and between the sternal clean, a mass toid and the plenty smart. There's also a bit of a triangular shaped hollow, or you can use an oval shape to put these Hollows in there. But it's good. Teoh take care of the negative space and positive space. So those Hollows are like negative space there. Placeholders. So we've got the top of the arm really on a line with the clavicle on the scapula, which is the back upper back bone. So put that in a little bit. So it's the spine of the scapula that's sitting right under the end of the clavicle, and the scapula is a triangular shaped, um, bone on the back. So what's of note here is the bony landmark on the back of the neck called C seventh or the cervical seven cervical vertebra. So I'm gonna color code that in there that there's that triangular shape you can look for because it gets a little complicated there to find the c seven with that kind of pops out, and you could feel it on your own neck. And then it goes the opposite way as it continues down to form the upper part of the back. Well, so goes from the cervical vertebrae to the Jurassic vertebra. You can see those angles that I'm gonna put a tone here into the trapezius, so you can see that a swell. You know, I'm doing the neck a little bit here because if I just do the head, it looks like it's floating in space and it doesn't look right. And the biggest mistakes that students struggle with is just drawing ahead and not drawing the neck. It just doesn't look right if you draw the next. Suddenly it looks. It looks great. Makes a big difference. So it's worth noting that neck, head neck connection. Okay, little tone shadow behind the ear, working on them, a center muscle again trying to make that full formed muscle. It's like a little egg as a placeholder. There, find simple shapes. Ovals, eggs, balls, boxes, tubes, squares, triangles. Let's find the simple shape. Block it in, and then you can finesse it to look like the thing that you're most characteristic of the thing. Your joy. Now it's starting to come together even more. Like I said, this isn't a pretty picture. It's just a more of an analysis schematic with some tone put into it because I just can't resist. The neck is a tuba cylinder, some drawing cross contour lines around that, even though we're looking from the side. Kind of nice to sculpt, a little bit of dimension into it. And then just a sense of where that top part of the arm is. We got the humor head there, the humorous You've got the deltoid. We've got the Spectra, Alice. Well, kind of weaving in there. I'm not gonna go into that. So just indicating briefly the top of the arm, and then we're gonna put a hairline. And so the mask of the face, you can have a simple line from the forehead to the ear and then the jaw down and then to the tip of the chin, that is the mask of the face. And that contains all the features on the front of the face. And there's one feature on the side of the head, the ear. So we've got the mask of the face and you can use a simple diag. No, you can make it a little more characteristic using the hairline, basically the mask of the face. That diagonal is the hairline. So we're gonna go ahead and use a little more characteristic set of lines, too. Put the hairline into this guy and then put a little hair style there. He's got the haircut swooped up in the front, but it could be anything. Okay, just modifying that. Got this great brush. That's just a add water brush like a watercolor. Adding water to pigment with this, make it cloud out fuzz out for nice soft transition. And then we've got the part of the hair. Let's put that in, just flipping it so I can see the mistakes. I was feeling something with that neck. Maybe see, seven was a little too far in, So I wanna pull it out just a little bit, Get the thickness is right. And again, that neck is wider on top than it is on the bottom. I'm checking that room. Checking the chip. Easiest took my connections. All right, so it looks like this thing is just about done. 23. Modeling Effects: the secret to believable form: okay, in this lesson, we're gonna talk about value. We'll revisit it. Look at it in detail and divine. Some things about it. Show how it works to define form. Then we'll talk about edges, the various kinds and why they're so important to creating the illusion of three D. Third, I'll render primitive shape to show how it's done practically and forth. I'm gonna talk about a way to invent value or shadows on the fly from imagination. So up to this point, planes and rhythms basically give you an idea about the construction of the head and what it is you're trying to show. It's a way to understand it, to study it, and we've been doing it with lines, and it's kind of, um, it's like a diagram. It's like a schematic. It's a study. So the next step we want to take the next problem we have to solve is how do you show it? So how do you show the human face? Yeah, the way we want to show it as artists, and that's where rendering comes in. So let's talk about value, what it is, uh, and get into it. So let's define value value is the different shades of gray between black and white. Basically, it's how dark grey or light something is. Now there's a term called local value, and you may have heard the term local color may have not heard the term local value. So let's define that local value is the essential value of an object surface without lighter shadow. Now, in truth, an object surface without light or shadow will be nothing. If it has no light will just see black. We won't see anything. So I'd like to say it's the essential value of an object without any dramatic bright light showing on it, almost just like ambient light or the object on a foggy day. Okay, so local value. There's some examples there. It would just be kind of flat. It's that meet middle gray, Let's say of this particular value or these these three objects. Okay, light and shadow visually define objects. It's that contrast of light and dark. The contrast of value, um, allows us to see the world in three D. So contrast of values super important. So it follows that we interpret the volume of objects based on the light that reflects from them back to us. So look at that light defining taking something from flat two D shape to a three D form. Check these out. Right. We've got the local value, put a little light on it, and suddenly it's three d. Okay. And there's some anatomy to this, and we're gonna get into this real quick, big idea. Here is different. Value equals different plane or another way to say that is a change in value equals a change in form. So we'll hit this idea. Ah, lot more. But if you can remember that different value equals different plane is the way you get sculptural drawings or sculptural paintings and the planes that face the light in the same orientation to get the same value. And they're different from certain other planes that are facing in a different orientation to the light. It's not that complicated, but it's a great idea. So let's, uh, continue on here. Let's look at a sphere. Yeah, talk about this now. Talked about the anatomy of light in the anatomy of form, so let's get into some specific definitions. First of all, you'll be familiar with this. We have the family of lights and the family of darks or the light family in the Shadow family. And that's the first thing we did when we squinted down to reduce the complexity of the value of the tonal structure into two separate light and dark puzzle pieces. Now this is also called the form light in the form shadow the Terminator. Okay, that is where the light stops and the shadow begins. So light hits here and travels over the form, and it stops here at the Terminator and the shadow begins. So it's where the light ends. It terminates. That's a great way to think of it. One thing I wanted to mention is that the part of the object that's most perpendicular to the light so perpendicular. I mean, it's at a right angle to let's say, the light source right here is the light source. Here's the object, and that's a 90 degree angle that gets the most light. So the part of the object that's at 90 degrees to the light source gets the most light, and that's where they the speculator highlight, is gonna come. But it's gonna be the brightest part of the object, and nothing else will be a slight is that and you can see light travels in straight lines from these photons of light. They're like little packets of light being shot out and where the light hits the object. Obviously, it's light, and that Terminator again is just right. Where that proton is that a tangent, Right? Here's the photons traveling this way, and it's at a tangent to the sphere. There's that tangent right there. It's a point where this photo time or plane touches the edge of the sphere, and those four times travel on right. The photons that missed the spear illuminate the ground plane. Okay? And the photons that get blocked by the sphere and reflected back to us, Um, they leave. There's no light, right? So an object that is in basically blocks the light. If there's an object like this sphere between the light and the ground plane, that object or ground plane received no light. Okay, so that's that cash shadow. And there it is. Now it's interesting about the the cash shadow. We can name some parts about the shadow. Okay, The cast shadow has something you may have heard of something you may not have heard of, but it's, uh, the umbra. So this area closest to the object that's casting the shadow onto the ground plane. Kate, that's called the Umbra. You may have heard that before. Maybe not. And the area that's furthest away from the cast from the object casting the shadow or the spear that's called the Hey number. The interesting things about those is that usually cast shadow, right? The cast shadow Call it D X. Because DX was the animation term for doing a shadow, Matt. Shorthand cast Shadow has a hard edge generally. Okay, I supposed to a form shadow that has a soft edge right there. Okay, So the umbra that has the hard edge its closest to the object casting the shadow. So it's hard right in here. Can change colors here. It's harder right in here. Okay. And then when it gets away from the object, it starts getting soft. Okay, gets fuzzy. Then you can see that on light poles, right? Anything. When you look at a long shadow outside or even inside, you'll have the hard edge here. The umbra penumbra will have the soft edge. Okay, that's gonna make your shadows look really good. Just that small, hard and soft delineation. Now, the hard is very hard and very crisp. Okay? And then the soft can be various, uh, levels of soft. But the longer the shadow, the more soft the edge. Okay, Okay. The reflected light. That's the area of the shadow or not the shadow, but in the form shadow. So this area here, as you'll recall, is the form shadow. There's gonna be some of it that's a little bit lighter in some other part of it. You see that? So this is lighter. There's a little bit darker. That's the reflected light or bounce light. So these are the same thing. And so what's happening is thes photons. Air coming down. Some of them were bouncing off of the object in different directions. Okay. And some of them are bouncing off the ground plane in different directions. Right? And some of them are bouncing off the ground plane back into the sphere. Okay. We'll hit the ground plane and bounce into the sphere and that area of the sphere that's closest to the ground plane. This area in this area, that area is gonna be lighter this area here is gonna be lighter because it's closer to the ground plane makes sense. So that's why this area here is lit up. And then there's a great Asian where it gets those from light to dark. This area is farther away. This area is farther away, so it gets a little bit darker. Okay, so that's the reflected light of the bounce light. That bounce light is never gonna be as light as any of your speculum light or highlight or half tone in the light side. It's never gonna be a slight as anything in the lights. If it does, your values will look confused and you'll get mud. Okay, So make sure this reflected light is still in the shadows because it's part of the shadow family. Okay, there now is the core shadow. It's the key feature. It's of the shadows. It's the edge, okay? And that edge tells the story about the three D quality of of something. Now the thing that make something look three d is the light. It's the light reflecting off of that object. It's not the shadows. Okay, so just remember that now this the edge, the border between the light and the shadow. That edge really is important. It's so important. So the core shadow is just before the light that the Terminator completely goes into shadow . It's usually soft. Okay, the core shadow is soft. Okay, it's not the It's not the darkest part of the Shadow, but it's definitely in the shadow. Okay, so there's the inclusion Shadow occlusion. Shadow is the darkest part of the shadow. It's occlusion means to block it secluded. So these photons are you know, they're bouncing around that bouncing into the object, right, lighting up the, uh, part of the shadow bounce light in here. It's bouncing, you know, obviously off the object, lighting that up and in here we're getting some bounce light to bouncing, not only into the object somewhat, but it's bouncing off the object into the shadow, right, bouncing off the ground plane into the shadow so it's a little bit shadow. It's dark, but in here there's no light getting in at all, right? So in the occlusion shadow, that's the darkest part of the shadow, and no photons are getting into there so you can see it's the darkest part right there and so you'll see that on everything and you'll see it on the human face as well. So just great to be aware of this stuff. And again, the occlusion shadow. You can really see it. It's just nothing there. So it's all almost pitch black, right? Okay, let's look at some half tones. Okay? As the light is, uh, the most pre perpendicular part of that form towards the light. This is the light object. There's a light source, and right here there's that speculum highlight that's the most perpendicular to the light source. Speculum is the brightest, okay, is the hottest and brightest, and on a very reflective surface, it's going to be a really tight wait um, shape. It'll be in the shape of the object or of the light source so it could be circular. It could be box like it could be some kind of our tag anil shape. It could be any shape. OK, whatever that light sources. You'll see it reflected as a speculum highlight, and then you'll see all in the light form or the form light in the lights. You'll have the speculum highlight, and then it gets a gradation getting a little bit darker each time before it goes into shadow. So these air called, uh, half tones. So you get this speculator highlight, right? And then as you move away from that perpendicular orientation, you get the half tones and in the half tones you'll have your light half tones. Just call him HT light, half tones and your dark half tones. Okay, so you got your speculative here, then you have your light half tones. Then you have your dark half toes. Okay, let's, uh, make those different colors just to make it more clear of your light. Half tones here and dark half tones. That's a lot of information. It's just kind of good to know, like what's going on? You can separate these into, like, you know, these bands of your speculator light, half tone, dark half tone and then your darkest half toe. In here, it's almost like steps, right. You like stepping the value darker and darker, and these concentric rings and I just basically this this half tone, you know, what's important is this speculator is brighter than anything else. And then just before it goes into the form shadow. Okay, um, that half tone right has to be. This area here has to be darker, then the highlight. And it has to be darker than just this area here. So there's basically three zones and the lights that you can really be worried about. Just the speculator. The light half tone right in blue. Let's say it's the light have toe and that green dark capito Dark half toe. Don't be confused by that word. Dark because it's still in the lights. OK, but it's compared to other areas of light. It's darker. Okay, so those are three areas of the half tones you'll want to be familiar with, and here we are again. So just to recap, um, you have the form light everything in the light family. Then you have the Terminator, where the light terminates and turns into shadow and that boundary that the Terminator we call the core shadow. It usually has a soft edge, and that says that the object, the sphere, is turning slowly away from the light. If we had a very crisp shadow, it would say that the object has turned very quickly away from the light that in the shadows we have yes, the core shadow, the form shadow, the cast shadow and the reflected light The most important ones that you wanna kind of the terms that you want to know of the vocabulary that you want to know is going to be highlight the core shadow, the cast shadow the reflected light and and here we would have the yeah, the half light. The half tones are also called half late. So really just five things. Five terms that you need to know for value and how it turns an object how we interpret an object that looks like a form like three D It's the highlight. The half light, the poor shadow, cash shadow reflected light and then you could throw in the occlusion shadow. But as long as you know these five terms right here, you're good. Todo all right. I wanted to point out a couple of important areas about edges and 1/2 tone just because before it goes into the core shadow and you can see here on this picture of earth just as it gets dark at the core shadow, Here's what I want you to see. You can see the most detail in this area the most texture and the most color. All right, so near the contour, the upper part of the earth, it's all washed out. You can't see much detail because it's is the light is just watching, washing out the detail in the color. But as it turns towards us and just goes into the before it goes into the core shadow, you can see the most detail color, so that's where you're gonna put it. Put your detail in color and texture in your drawing. 24. The 5 Value scale: Okay, Now that we understand value and it's vocabulary, let's do a few of these down you scales. And in order to really understand value, you not only have to understand the definitions, but you've got to put your hands physically. Put your hands on pencil and paper or charcoal and do a couple. So we have a value scale in five steps, going from the lightest number one all the way to the darkest number five. And we'll be using vine, charcoal and charcoal pencil. So on the left we have vine charcoal, and it's really important to understand the medium and how it works and how dark it goes. That's really important. So the charcoal pencil goes darker than divine charcoal. The vine charcoal comes in different grades, and I used an extra soft piece of vine charcoal stick. And for the charcoal pencil, I used an HB, which is right in the middle of the hard and soft grades for the standard range of charcoal pencils. So this is pretty straightforward. Takes a little time and a little patience. Gotta be a little bit careful. You wanna have even jumps in between each change in value, okay, so I just make sure to watch that. And now we're just gonna go ahead and put those values onto us a spear, both with vine charcoal and then with charcoal pencil, and so noticed the order, which is really quite helpful. It's separating the lights and darks with the value number four and then putting on value to. And then you can see I put in value three and then are you five, and then you won. And those are the modeling factors that create realism. Let's do with charcoal pencil in the charcoal pencil. Not as easy to erase and goes on darker than the vine. Charcoal. Same order. First separate from the lights from the darks. Put on about you four right first, then about you, too. Then the mid tone value three. Then value five and then the highlight. It's a very straightforward, methodical approach, very simple. Now this is the part I want you to focus on and internalize is matching the values from the five value scale onto the actual sphere, and that is going to really help with your portraiture because this simple mapping or identifying the values onto a three D object is going to really help when it comes to a real life human hit. It's going to seem much more complicated and it is. But rest assured, this approach is gonna make it much simpler and easier for you to handle. So let's go on to the next step, which will be applying value to four primitive shapes, the same shapes you're going to encounter when you encounter drawing the human head. If you can do these, I'm confident you can do anything. All right, so let's go. 25. Modeling primitive forms with 5 values: all right. In this lesson, we're gonna practice what we learned the previous lesson on for primitive shapes. Again, this stuff is pretty straightforward, but it does need some practice, so you'll encounter thes primitive shapes in the human head. Once you can render these and build three D form from them, you can handle the head even better with your values. So we've got to map our shadows shapes. And for that, we need to know the direction of the light that's gonna help us, because that will tell us the direction of the shadow. The length of the shadow and the shape of the shadow are light is coming from top left and from the front 3/4 down. All right. Our first order of business is to separate light in shadow. Every part of the process I'll talk about from here on out are called modeling factors. Our brain is pretty lazy. That's why this is important. Because when light and shadow are confused, the brain is just gonna say, I don't know what this is and move on. So you've got to makes sense. Help your brain makes sense of the image by putting down these values in a correct order. So they read right next step after value for is about you, too. All right, it's the lights. It's not the highlight, but it's the local value of the object, and you just lay that in. Cover the whole object. So that's basically level one separating light and shadow. All right, you're gonna have your form light on the light side, your Terminator that separates the light from the dark. You'll have your form, shadow and your cast shadow. So there we are, two and four applied step by step straight forward, and the next step is to lock the shadow shapes. So I'll take an HB charcoal pencil and go over the outline and the interior and just lock the shadow shape. I use an HB charcoal pencil because it's harder to erase the vine. Charcoal that went down before is easily rate he raised, so I just wanna go ahead and commit basically to the shadow shapes. This stage basically ends up darkening the shadows a little bit and smoothed them out because the charcoal passes over the vine charcoal and distributes it more evenly throughout the peaks and valleys of the paper. next step in the process is applying value number three to the light side of the form. This is where the idea of different values different plane comes in so handy. Each of the planes are facing the light at different angles. The ones that are facing them more directly get more light, and the ones that are turning away get less light. It's a very simple idea that when applied to flat two D shapes like magic, it starts to transform them into three D objects. And that's what we're looking for. Notice how the forms started to pop and begins to appear a little bit more. Three D This value number three is 3/2 tone or the mid tone. It's the dark half tone still in the light, but it's a dark light if that makes sense, and then we're gonna apply value number one or the lightest light Teoh. Each of the primitive shapes primitive forms in the sphere. It's the speculum highlight in the cube and cylinder. The top of that plane that's facing the light the most receives the most light, so it gets the value Number one has do. The sides of the cylinder and comb. Next step is to apply value number five. Our darkest dark or black accents will apply it to the form shadow, the part of the object that's not receiving direct light from the main light source and will beef up the cast shadow, which is the Terminator projected in the direction of the light onto another surface, such as the table that these objects are sitting on darkening. These two parts gives us automatically the reflected light, which is indirect light that's hitting the object from nearby surfaces. And that light just bounces into the object and the lights it up just a little bit. That really completes and rounds out our shadow side again. The core shadow is in the presence of reflected light, and it's the dark area of the form shadow that remains dark, unaffected by it reflected light. So there we have it, the introduction of our darkest dark or value number five. Let's move on. Okay, Next step is going to be to refine the edges. I call it my edge pass or edge control and out of all these techniques, if you just do this one thing, assess your edges correctly. it takes your two D objects into the three D you realm with no effort at all. It's like magic, and I'm just basically going to soften the core shadow coming out into the mid tell. I don't want to make sure if it's a round object. I want that edge to be soft on the core, shadow to the half toe. If it's a squared off geometric object like the Cube, I want that edge to be very crisp. OK, that's crucial. So soft and hard edges. Basically, the sphere has a soft edge. Cube has a hard edge in both. The cylinder and cone have soft edge transitions from dark rolling into the light. All right, In the next lesson, I'll apply these principles by drawing a human head, and this is going to solve your problem with values. Let's go 26. Portrait block-in demo: All right, let's apply our five value system for drawing ahead. First thing going do is block in using a circle triangle. A little bit of Loomis. We're gonna find the major plane breakup first, the side plane of the head, then build the high sockets, keeping things very flat. Simple shapes. Prison for the nose. Two cylinder. We're going from general to specific big shapes, medium shapes and then small shapes. We're pretty much kind of building a shadow map and also a little bit of structure. And now I'm just gonna lay in value number four, right? Very flat. I just want to see and separate the lights from the darks, find the big shadow shapes, then find the smaller and smaller refining facets that make up the shadow pattern. I'm not really drawing features red. I'm just drawing dark and light to d puzzle pieces in value number four. Very simple. Just finding where everything belongs in the drawing. Next step will be to put in value number two, which is the local value of the light side. It's not pure white, right? It's skin tone, which is around value number two on our five value scale. and I'm going to refine the edges just a little bit. Using vine charcoal here, it's easy to fix correct mistakes. Plus, it looks nice on the paper. Main thing I want to do here is keep my values under control. Five steps. That's plenty of complexity, just laying value for value to keeping it really simple. The less complexity, the better. But as I build upon each step, which each step is pretty simple, I get to complexity. Okay, that's the secret. Why now? I'm coming in with a HB pencil and I'm gonna lock the shadow shapes. Remember how we did that with the primitive shapes? I'm just going to we find the edges, clarify a little bit more, locking the shadow shapes in and then going over the vine charcoal with the compressed charcoal to smooth it out and distribute the material of the vine charcoal into the paper a little bit more so it's nice and smooth. The sequence here is four. To lock right value for value to lock the shadow shapes with HB compressed charcoal pencil . Easy. One thing that's really gonna help this, that I need to stress and you can't forget this is to squint at your reference and squinted your drawing. Do it. Ah, lot even get up and back away from your drawing a little bit. Okay, Let just squint and compare. Squint and comparing. Your eyes are bouncing back and forth from the reference to your drawing and just asking yourself, Is it a light thing or a dark thing? What's this shape? Is it? A square is a circle triangle or variation of that. Keep it very simple and you'll stand a trouble, right? You'll be able to control things. Spot problems sooner, correct them faster, and that's good. Now I'm just going to smooth things out. What the tortelli own or paper stump? And now the next step in this simple process is apply value. Three. The dark half toes There we go. This is that step Word starts to turn right the half tones or in the light just before it turns into the core shadow. And I've gone back to the vine charcoal to do this. The next thing is, I'll put in the highlight value number one, the lightest lights. These are gonna be the corners in the lights where the form is changing direction and I just use a needed rubber eraser to pull out that buying charcoal to create the highlights. And it's easy to dio. Okay, now I'm gonna go ahead and put in my value number five with compressed HB charcoal pencil, which is somewhat hard in the middle between hard and soft in gonna go in and create the form shadows and the cash shadows refined my edges a little bit. Place my dark accents in the eyes cause that's where I want you to look And then I'm gonna come in and do an edge pass right and assess my edges. And I'll do that with the, uh, tortelli own or paper stump tool and just kind of soften out the transitions between where the form is turning away from the light. So you can do that with the paper stump. You could do it with HB pencil just very carefully. And now I'm gonna again kind of worked the light side and dark side together because I've now have increased the value range a little bit. But we've done pretty much all the heavy lifting and we have our toll structure, our value structure in place and that's not gonna change if we have to change that. It's huge work, right? You might as well maybe start over. We don't want that. We want to step by step, control of the values all the way to the end, right? We're gonna want to make it fun and manageable. So something I want to point out about structure. We have linear structure. We do that with line at the block in stage. And what kind of describing plane changes right planes of the face rhythms? Um, the a sorrow had, you know, the plane had and then we have tonal structure, and that's building the illusion of depth with value. And that's what we have here, that tonal structure. We built it step by step with five values. That's also structure. So when you hear people talk about the tonal structure of a piece, that's what they're referring to. And it's very powerful for creating that illusion of three D form, along with the linear description of the Plains. And it's a 12 punch. It's awesome. So to take this drawing to the next level, I would put in details and textures and refine everything and go through the drawing again . So let me just recap. We're not going to do all that refinement and detail at this stage, right? This was just about controlling and applying value. So to recap replied value four than value to. Then we locked the shadow shapes with HB pencil. Then we went with value three in the dark half tones than about you five for our darks. And then we added our highlight at the very end. All right, I really hope this helped you and we'll see you in the next one. 27. Edges Demo FInal: All right, so let's get into the four kinds of edges and get really crystal clear about them. All right, So here's what they look like on the left. We have crisp hard edges. Then we have soft edges firm and then lost edges. And I'm gonna do some examples for yet. And in each example, the lights coming from camera left, 3/4 down, Let's say Okay, so, Well, I'll do a couple examples of these, and then we'll show talk about where we can use thes. Okay, So I'm gonna give this just kind of a local value here and side most facing away from the light. It's gonna be the darkest right. And then the top is going to be the lightest. Takes him off here and notice when we use the different value. Different plane principal. You automatically get a three d looking form, right? Different value, different plane, top side, back, different plane. That different value makes it look three d. Okay, So the main thing here is that crisp edge right there And that says that the object is going very quickly away from the lights. Right? Is making a quick change, just like that going quickly away from the light. That's why you get that inside edge that tells the story. All right, So where can we find these edges? Usually. Okay. The light is gonna be the kind of light that's a single source. It's gonna give you those good cut out shadows. I got a sunny day. Okay. You can use it for your cast Shadows. You can use it for contours. It's gonna be inorganic objects right there. Mostly a geometric to put that down here, geometric kind of man made stuff right. You won't see anything quite this hard on the human face unless it's a cast shadow. But the idea of that structure is there, and we want to use that to our advantage. Okay, let's move on to the soft edges again. You got a local value and then work. The value changes work the edge. You can have that core shadow and into the shadow side. You'll have little reflected light from the ground plane, and then we'll just come back and give it a highlight on that top plane where the light's hitting it facing the light, and then it moves away from the light So it's in this scenario, the objects moving slowly away from the light and so you get a soft edge. So where can we find those? Where can we use them? Well, they're gonna be in round egg like forms. Okay, like a cheek, fatty or fleshy areas or parts. The light will be usually diffuse light, like on a cloudy day or foggy days. The light's bouncing all over the place, and there's no clear shadows. Okay, so again, cheeks, egg like forms use a soft edge. It's going slowly away from the light. Okay, let's do the firm now. This is a beveled edge, and it's not Crispin hard, and it's not soft. It's in between a little bit tighter, right? That core shadow is tighter. It's not so spread out. Maybe something like that, right? So it's a lot tighter, and it comes. The form goes more quickly away from the light. And not as quickly as say, in the Chris part kind of chiseled hard forms of a cube, but still faster than the soft. Okay, so that is how that's gonna look. Where can we use thes? That's gonna be your core core shadow. So the firm, and the soft will be good for core shadows you can use in both bone and hard. Muscle tendon. Usually it's on male male models a little more than female in general, but it's on all muscular models, so that's both male and female. If they're muscular, you're going to see this kind of firm core Shadow Island to do the lost local value. And then it's gonna go really slowly away from the light, this one most slow, the least defined boundaries between light and dark. So much so the bounties air so diffused to to you can't tell where the light starts and ends or the dark starts and ends. So it's like a cloud, right? So let's say we can use thes super soft. You can use these in the half tones or the half light in the light side. Soft fabric you could probably find in hair, too. The light will be diffuse. It's not gonna be sunny and single source. Use it in shadow areas to because what makes a shadow look like a shadow is that there's not a lot of detail and you can't make out the edges. So the shadow areas, the recessed areas. We're not a lot of light is getting into it. And so when things don't receive light, we can't make out what it iss remember. Because the way we see things is based on contrast, the variety of contrast of value and in the shadows, there ain't no contrast really to speak of. Okay, so there we go. Those are the edges. Now let's look at the edges on the human face and see where we can use these edges. Spot these edges and then start using them in our drawings. Okay. See, in the next lesson. 28. Form and Cast dx on Faces: All right, let's take what we studied about edges and value and apply it to the human face. We're looking for basically four kinds of edges, and you can see right away will go from kind of like top to bottom, closest to the light and further away from the light. You've got this nice form shadow. It's describing the form very nicely with that soft edge, right kind of soft kind of firm. Here, we've got another one. The firm edge goes into a real soft edge right here and goes back to firm. Same thing in here. All this stuff is formed shadow. This says that the object is turning slowly away from the light. Okay, so it's got a soft or firm edge showing cheek bone muscle right now in opposite, isn't it? On opposition to that? You have the cast shadow, and it's if you really look at it, it's quite hard. Can't get rid of that comparatively. So here we've got soft and here we've got hard. We really analyze it now. What's really interesting is that hard and soft edges or form and cast shadow follow each other down. The figure, like twin brothers Or you could say maybe twin brothers and sisters. Right? Wherever there's a form shadow, there's gonna be a cast shadow. So let's analyze that and look for that. So on this brow ridge right here, it's a form shadow. It's turning slowly away from the light, but right down here on the nose is the cash shadow on the eyes. The cash shadow. Right. The cash shadow follows that form. Shadow form, shadow eyelid Cast shadow, Right form, shadow All this stuff form shadow Cast shadow Right there. Cash shadow is made by the object in front of it, blocking the light right form. So you've got all these forms. Shadows cast shadow form shadow on this upper lip, mustache hair and then cash after you could see it on that lower lip. Same thing here. Form shadow. Look for the cast shadow. Where is it? Here on the neck. And look at how kind of firm and soft the cast shadow has become here. It's crisp. OK, we'll look at that a second. All right, so there we go. Form and cast form cast shadow anywhere else. I think that's good. Okay, let's look at the cast shadow that here. It's really crisp, assuming a little bit really crisp, right by the filter, um, of the nose very close to the object that it's casting the shadow on right, So it's crisp, then it gets soft. It's, you know, Crisp gets a little bit of soft. If you play that up, you get You can squeeze a lot of information out of your shadows just by that hard versus a soft edge play. Just play with that. Look for it. Play it up. Okay, here. Same thing on the neck, hard right there, close to the chin. And it gets really soft, right? Really soft right in here. And it starts toe firm up a little bit. It's everywhere. Okay, let's look at another example real quick. Now this one is. Can the previous one that single source light. It describes the form the best, and it's clear showing you know the form and showing the different kinds of edges on this one. It's very soft, like they have a huge 36 inch Octa box or beauty light, maybe even bigger than that. 40 something inches, and it's just like she's sitting in front of a window I'm kind of an overcast day. So there's there's nothing's hard, right? Nothing's hard. It's all soft, really soft. There's not even a cash shadow below her nose. There's a lot of form, but even the calf shadows. A lot of forms shadows, but the cash shadows are about the same. So we get a list light firm here, but it goes into soft. This is difficult to do. A portrait by its very soft, very feminine. Um, you know, it evokes a certain amount of emotion as opposed to, let's say, harsher lighting. So just keep that in mind. This one's There's nothing hard in here except the shadows in her lips. The forms in her upper, you know, her eyelid and stuff like that, and just the boundary of her headdress against her hair. Those air hard. But everything else is soft to move onto the next one. This one's got a lot a variety here. So again we have, you know, this form shadow over upper lid, and then the cash shadow right of the eyelash there. Let's just zoom in a little bit, see that the cash shadow onto the lower lid of her eyelash. Okay, same thing over here, it's crisp form shadow on that ball of the nose. That plane is turning away from the light slowly and it goes into shadow. All this is shadow, right? And then that cast shadow pretty crisp. So form soft and hard. Twin brother and sister, right form shadow, upper lip. And then we get a cash shadow onto the lower lip form shadow of the chin Right in here. Cash shadow into the neck like clockwork. Okay, you could see the nice soft shadow of the cheek. Right? Nice saw. Very soft shadow defining that, uh, per plane of the chin And where that jaw turns under, and then you can see. Um, look at that. Let's look at this. Reflected light in here. Right here. Right. So we've got highlight half tone, dark, half tone core shadow. That's the Terminator. And then right in here, right, you've got reflected light. Can you see that? Reflected light right in here. And then it goes into the occlusion shadow right there. That's the occlusion shadow. It was so that how tight that is. It's in that crease. You'll find the inclusion shadows in the deep shadows or in the creases right there where the chin meets the neck. Right chin goes into the shadow of the hair. Right in here. I think we got that one pretty good. Let's do one more. Okay, this guy's pretty clear. What's going on here, Right? That's a very firm form. Shadow into a soft form shadow into a soft form shadow. And then a crisp cash shadow form cast form cast. Right. This is all form, form cast. Look at that form. Cast form cast. This is cast form. Gas work back and forth. It's like a cascade right of back and forth. Here's a nice soft form shadow form shadow the brow cast shadow over the eye, Right. Just look for those things. Play him up and, man, you're gonna get a lot out of that telling you Just do it. Analyze your edges. Just do hard and soft, you know, crisp versus soft affirm, and you're gonna get all you need pretty much OK. All right. We're going to continue studying the form and the next module with simple, primitive shapes. I'll see there 29. Eyes 1 Anatomy: All right, let's do a breakdown of the structures of the I, the glorious organs that allow photons in and allow us to see the beauty of the world around us. Let's get in here and see what's up. Let's talk a little bit about the anatomy of the eye. Can see that the eyes literally a ball and is about one inch in diameter, and it fits inside of an eye socket or an orbit to be technical about it. And that's socket protects it from blows to the I from predators enemies, The eyebrows protected from sweat, the eyelashes protected from dirt getting into into the eye onto this Clara and irritating it or damaging it. Um, the eyes is like a fingerprint. It has 256 characteristics as opposed to fingerprint, which has 40 unique characteristics. And so that's why it's used in security scans to identify people a lot more accurate than the fingerprint. And it's the eyes composed two million working parts. That's amazing. So three I weighs just about one ounce. It's about one inch across, as I mentioned, so if we look at this here, there is one I in between I from tear duct. Two tiered deck was a tear duct would be about there. It's We have one I in between and then we have about one. I I don't get you out to the side of the head or even to the edge of the ear, approximately on average. So that's called right there is called the Five. I lied, and that's a measurement that you can use once you're familiar with five eyes across. Um, that's the same distance from the tip of the head to the bottom of the nose and from the bottom of the nose. Take that same measurement you can get right down to the pit of the next. That's a very helpful measurement, Tono. So oh, we've got basically bone protecting the I. We do have muscles here, here and here that control the movement of the eye inside the orbit. It also controls the blinking of the, um, the eye lives and, um, so on. We're not gonna get into those that much, but we will get into some of this. This is called the lack Roma Bone right here. Okay. And there's the talk. Top of the zygomatic arch talk a top of the site Goma, which is the bottom part of the orbit of the I. The top part of the orbit of the I is thief or Amon. And, um that is the basically the is the technical name, for it is the super orbital notch or super orbital for him, Right in here case. All right in there. And the sub Orbital four and then is down in here and here we have something called the Globe Ella or the Super Salieri Arch. And that's in here very important. One that we can talk about a little bit later. But I'll note it for now. Okay, so let's go to a 3/4 view right here. So now you can kind of see that how this gla Bella overlaps the super orbital notch or the eyebrow bone, the eye socket so that my brown bone bits in to the club. Ella la Bella comes in right there. And so you can see there's the top part of the front point of the nose, and then it steps down here and hits the lack Roma and then goes into the interior part of the eyeball. And this comes out that way. So there is a kind of, ah, you know, a plane right here, right? And that this can continue out this way. And there is the nasal labial fold that time you'll start to see that. So it's muscle, a little bit of fat. Uh, that covers over, Ah, the zygomatic arch, which is underneath and covers over the muscles, many more or less, depending on the person. And so let's move into how we're gonna how we would draw something like this. Let's get a little deeper and describing the eyeball. Okay, let's look at the shape of the eyebrow itself. Because we definitely need Teoh know that it's really you can look at this thing, and you can draw it like absolute cult. Another layer here. Okay, it's kind of like a square, okay? Tilted a little bit, but it runs this way. It's at an angle. It's not horizontal like that, Okay? It's at an angle, and it's got some straits and some curves. Okay, you can also think of it as, um, a pair of aviator sunglasses for the quick block. In quick iconic, I write the chicken, go ahead and kind of block in like that just to get it spaced in placed. All right, from there, uh, you can draw the rhythm of nose, okay? And continue on building the eye inside. That the case of those air, uh, the aviator sunglasses or basically the straits and curves. But it's definitely at this angle, that kind of, uh, slopes down. Okay, look to other helpful quick ways to help you visualize the eye socket is a cup. So imagine this cup and there's a spear took nicely inside of it, right? If the light is coming from top down, then we have shadow here. Right wing a shadow on that I ball. Okay, so that's one way you can think about it. Another way to think about it is like a whistle, okay? Or like some kind of cone coat cylinder with the peace whittled out of it. All right, so it's just a nice cut out peace where you can see front plane and it steps down. It goes in another direction and then becomes a top plane again. And then side plate. So front plane under plane, top, plain thin, side plate, and then be it's that little highball sitting in their protected. Okay, so that's, you know, another way to think about the eye socket and eyeball connection ship moving on. Let's, uh do you know, I hear So the I as literally a ball. Okay, So if our light is coming from top right, a little bit in front, OK? So use this kind of no here to show the light direction. Okay, then we're gonna see light being cast onto the ball. And then so it'll be lighter at the top, right? And it'll move slowly away to the left, will get darker. And then we have the iris inside. So the irises, about half the dike diameter of the eye wall itself, something just take a quick measurement like that. Okay. And then and I love it. And then let us paint in here. And when I just built that up kind of slow here. Okay, I'm just blur a little bit here. Okay, So that right there is the iris. Okay, so the iris is an amazing, amazing thing when you look at it so close up. It is so cool. Let's do that right now. Look at that. That Iris, that fuzzy Harry looking stuff is the iris, and there are colors, right? So there's different colors. Look at that. That is just otherworldly. Doesn't that look like a So I find landscape or something like that Weird black hole. Right. So there's pigment pigmentation in the iris. So I could be many different colors in, um, all that pigmentation and kind of harry stuff prevents light, prevents photons from passing through there and restricts the passage of light through the pupil, which is that black thing right in the middle. And, uh, it's on top of that. There is a cornea. Okay, so that is light is passing through that cornea. Some light is reflecting off of it, and some is scattering across the surface. Okay, so getting back to this So we're looking at the iris right here and now I'm gonna go ahead and paint the pupil. So I grabbed my marquee tool. It's select space button to move it around. Center it So the pupil is a black hole. It's actually a hole in the iris that allows photons to come in to the back of the retina, hit the rods and cones, and reveal things to us in the world around us. The white stuff around the ball, the ball of the is called the squarer. That's just stuff. Here. That's this, Claire. Okay, get my shape. Dynamics going. Capes, Clara. Right, Iris. Right here. People here. Okay, you can think of this eyeball as having like, uh, kind of a dowel stuck in it coming out the other side. That can help. You kind of keep your orientation of the eyeball horizontally so that it doesn't start toe , you know, tilt this way or that way. A little bit weird. Okay, Just think of it as a ball with a datil going through it on that surface, okay? Of the cornea, which is the lens covering the iris is the highlight. You're gonna see that highlights the speculator highlights right there. That's the light. This really reflecting right back at you with the most intense from the most intense way. It's the thing that's facing the light. Okay, So what happens is some of that stuff that reflects right back to us, and some of it, um, passes right through the corn here, and it starts to illuminate this side of the iris. So we get a little bit of kind of reflected, not reflected, but it's refracted. So it's going through the cornea and refracting and lighting up this part of the iris. Okay. And the part right next to the highlight on the cornea IHS darker, right. This area here it's darker right next to the highlight. So around the highlight darker and on the opposite side, a bit lighter and it see kind of a gradation here from dark to media gray. Okay, that is really important. So you're gonna see different things as reflections in here. You can see I have a brush that actually is really cool that I created. It's for retouching photography stuff, and you can you can put a brush right in here. It's like this seeking poppin looks like reflecting of flash of a bulb. Maybe with the soft box and down below that it kind of looks like a maybe, you know, a reflector right here that's underneath. So you get these dual kind of highlight with this one being brighter, this one being a little less bright. Okay, so that's beautiful. For talk for photography, portrait photography and also for just painting your portrait. Um, not only that, um, you know, you can have you might see something, like, you know, a window in there. It's it's a room, right? That you're you're in. So that ISAF just reflecting back the surroundings, and that's what's ah, pretty pretty cool. I don't see might see something like that. It there, you can see all kinds of stuff. You can see people you could see building Jacuzzi environments and so on. And you might have, you know, like it's a couple different ones because the eye ball is always wet. Okay, what's always wet? Okay. Very reflective. A very amazing Oregon. Okay, so you got the by lead passing across the top here and then coming down right into tear duct care and that coming this way, and you probably won't see the bottom either. You never really see the whole, uh, iris unless it's ah, someone's really frightened. The way you make someone frightened is put that whole eyeball in there. You see, the more weight to the eyes. Okay. So that little bone right here it looks like Bo. Now, that's the come top of the eyebrow. I don't see the top part. I led. Yeah, this kind of stuff, right? So that's how that is. You'll see that there's on angle here, so there's really a straight line, straight line. Uh, you can get straight here and straight here. It's not and home, and that's so equal in top and bottom like that. It's definitely not that. It's more like this kind of angle here. All right, so let's look at it from kind of a 3/4 view. So let's take this. Move it over here. Manti. So imagine there's that, um, that kind of dowel going through it so you'd see it Maybe kind of passing through here right there would be coming out the other side over on that far side. Casey, imagine this Dow have passing through. It's gonna kind of helping you keep the thing boring too. All right, so that's somewhat would ever look like And I would be thinking about that when I would pull my eyelid over the surface. So I'm thinking of stretching that island over the surface of the ball of the I pulling it over, and it has a thickness, right? So I'm going to see the top part of that island right now. I'm going to see the under part. But I that as it pulls around to the other side, okay. And then this is gonna connect in a tapered way, top part of the island, ZZ Top, and under playing, and then that lower lids gonna come out from you're up early, that's gonna pull around. So that's also gonna have top plane. It's gonna come around like that. That's gonna have a thickness. So it's gonna have a top playing here cycling here or front plane. Okay, that's gonna hit the the bottom part of the eye socket and go on to that part of the cheek . Okay, so this is gonna be get some shadow here. This is gonna get some shadow there, and we'll have some. Probably some shadow here as it turns away from the light. If it's coming from the top, right, have some shadow here, right? And this is an under plain facing away from the light, and then we'll probably, you know, have some my brow bone in there. All right, so that's possibly that play, depending on person, and then we've got a little bit of highlight there, okay? And we'll also get a shadow on this Clara, because that is a ball. Remember to ball. It's turning away from the direction of the light. We'll get that dark and then soften up the edge, right, and then the top eyelid will be casting a shadow. I went to the eyeballs well, so that comes into play, and that's really important. If you get that in there, it's real good, cause that kind of depth to the I be the deep set, moody eyes that you're looking into the soul of that person trying to lead their character or connect with them. Okay, and then you have your eye lashes and I basically draw those in groups. Uh, I don't draw like singular lashes coming off all over the place. I don't do that. I'll just drop the shape and a thickness, and that's about it. Okay for that. And then, if you're drawing lower lid lashes, they come in pairs, all right, and so you can put repairs on there like that, and that tends to worked pretty where you can also just thicken it up like it's kind of like eyeliner, and you could group them. I don't like I said, I don't go off on that too much, cause it tends to look a little weird, but if I just think it up the line, then it looks pretty good to me. Get enough, You. You might have a couple of straight lines. Otherwise, that's pretty cool. Kate has kind of quickly wanted to do a thing. Ah, of the side of the eyeball. Let's see if we can, um, just do that real quick. Okay, so now I just wanted to draw basically from the side the idea of the cornea that's there. So it's there will be that highlight. This is paint that out and put a highlight on the actual surface right there. You might have. You could have, you know, a couple of them, right? Depending on what's out there, you could have a few different speculum highlights, but one will suffice. And so that's the cornea there. So we got the cornea. OK, that's it for our anatomical analysis of the eye. Next up is charcoal drawing demo 30. Eyes 3 photoshop demo: Okay, let's do some charcoal style eyes. In Photoshop. When I was a kid, I always wore glasses since I was maybe six years old. And I remember I had a patch. And that was like, you know, totally weird, really humiliating. And that was supposed to help my week I because I had a weak AI. So the fix for that was to wear a patch over the good eye to make the other I do some more work. And so that's kinda what it what it did. I guess if you persisted with that, it might have worked because they have those pinhole glasses. You've seen pinhole glasses. Glasses with a bunch of pinholes. And then just where that and it makes things clearer because it closes down the aperture, like on a camera, right? If you close down that aperture, things are going to get, you're going to have a wider depth of field, then things are going to be crisper and clearer over a greater distance, right? So it's kinda like that if you put on those pinhole glasses, it's actually pretty amazing. Things do get clear. Without wearing your glasses. You're just wearing this lenses that have a bunch of pinholes and, um, and that's pretty cool. Looks like exercising your eye here. If you do that long enough. So we're just doing John some eyes. Instead of, you know, we've been sort of analyzing these eyes. But now we're going to draw it and put all that knowledge to use. Otherwise it's it's just technical knowledge. And that's okay. But then you've gotta make beautiful art out of what you, you know. All right, isn't that the point of it is to kind of draw once you know how to get little shadow going over here. There we go. And then I have that upper lower lid. It's in there. A little tighter line. These pencil tools in Photoshop there, little clunky. They're not as good, let's say as precise as a digital round. Brush in Photoshop, but the digital round is just so digital, right? It just looks like a technical machine. Sometimes it's to clean, but it's really good for tight small line, whereas the it's not so much with the pencil tool in Photoshop. It's you can't get too small with it. Once you get the start codons smaller than it just goes away. It's like not there. So I'm using this blender, a couple of different blenders. So those are pretty, those are pretty cool. They, they really kinda make it, you know, go to the next level. So it looks okay with the, you know, the Pradesh looking like a pencil or, or charcoal. But once when I use the blender, really goes to the next level. And it actually makes it look like it's charcoals smudging beautifully onto that charcoal paper, Canson paper or whatever. Okay, so now I'm just going to tighten up a little. I've done my first pass of kinda the big shapes, spacing, placing stuff. And I'm going to go for it with a nice tighter line. So we see that upper lid and we see the underside of the upper lid there. And then we've got the iris here. And I can draw around circle, drawn oval because I'm looking up at it. There's going to be ovoid and little, it's a distorted circle. And then I'm gonna put my black highlights right there where it will actually look, you know, I don't wanna put them over here on the outside or overhear. Want to put it right there in that spot. Because that's where the window of the soul is. And now I'm going to grab that. Well, let me see. I'm going to bring that shadow over that lid, lower lid and then into the tear duct and continue this just a little bit. Just crosshatching into this the shadow side of the brow bone. And then I'm going to hit my digital hard brush in pop and that highlight. And I may have to go to another layer for that because I'm using the mixer brush tool and it's just it's mixing and it's doing some weird stuff. It's like it can't go over it the way you want. I'm going to put the dark part of the pupil right next to that. Highlight, that specular highlight that that'll make you look right there pretty much. Now go back to that lower layer and just kinda This fade out that I've got to use my fade out that shadow just a little bit. Okay, Let's go on to another I so usually, you know, kinda draw something like an eyeball in there. Right. Just really loose and light. And then I'll pull the top laid over and then I'll bring it, you know, this is kind of a three-quarter. I saw this bring it into There's some getting that nice under plane. And I'm getting the angle of that upper lead. The eye brown there. The iris pupil. I usually put the pupil in last because it just looks too weird. If I put it in, I have to kinda like sneak up on it and let it emerge. Otherwise it looks funky. I'm going to use some straight lines here on that outer edge of the lower leg because it's two parallel curved lines are hard to get. But if you have a curve against some straights, it actually works pretty well to get around a curved surface. And that's what I kinda think design wise. You know. He's so I'm going to hit that side of the upper lid. I'm going to hit little bit of that determinists. One of the upper lid kinda converges and tapers. And then we've got maybe a ridge here, soften it up. And then what do we got? We got a lower level. So hit that. Right. So I'm usually trying to use a big brush or big charcoal and then I'll hit it and then go to the next smallest brush or charcoal. Just because I like to let the tool do the work for me. I'm going to get in here and put a shadow there on the eyeball. So it looks like it's 3D and turning away from the light, I'm going to give it a stop then there, give this one a soft edge. And then let's put in the pupil. The CFR pencil tool can do that. And that's okay. I want to put that pirates into and I'm going to need a timeline. And there's the shadow over the eyeball, over the iris. And let's get some of that pirates defined here. It says can be like a kind of a strange thing, darker next to the lead that's casting the shadow. And then kind of a gradation, right, that comes out. Then it's lighter in the lower part of the iris. And then I'm going to strengthen up that was going to my digital hard round. Just strengthen that up right there. Because that's why I'm going to want you to be looking kinda right in there. And then go right into the ball or the sclera. And then we'll pull that right into the tear duct and it'll pull the outer part of that upper lid. So we get some thickness, right? So we got front part I let out of the eyelid here. And then we've got under parts was prime. And then it goes on to write little bit off here, squeeze out a little more dimension. We've got those tight crevices where the eyelid backs up against part of the bone of the eyebrow. And I can give this just a little hint because that's where the eyelashes would be. Right? And a little more shadow. And to hear some of that, go back to my pencil and hit it right in there. This thicken that up. So it's kinda yeah, that's where eyelashes would be in, so on. That's kinda what I do. Instead of John budget IN ashes. Right now we can go really go focus in on that pupil. Here. I'm just going to hit, right? Because that's kinda be showing that it's moving away from us just with a modelling tone. They call it. Hit that again, are there and pop in a nice highlight. This highlight to put them in. Especially if your oil painting is put it in and leave it. Don't mess with it because when you mess with it, starts to miss, get messed up. Put it in, leave it good. Trust it. The random going to let the rest of this play out with some music, Enjoy. Hello. Hi. Okay. Hello. Okay. Hello. Okay. Hello. Okay. Hello again. And so on. 31. Eyes 2 charcoal demo: okay. Drawing the eye can seem intimidating and complex, but I'm going to simplify the process for you with five pretty easy steps done one after another. Well, build a nice finish drawing for you. So let's get started. First step is the block in phase. Good rule of thumb is to go from the general to the specific. So when I look at this, I I see a big triangle shape and I'll try to fit everything into that overall big impression. That includes the eyebrow, the eye lids, three eyeball all together. And I'll use a basically a very light pencil line to do this. And I'm trying to block in the average angles, the overall big impression of whatever it ISS and what I'm drawing that upper eyelid. I draw the bottom plane of the upper eyelid because it really helps to show, um, architectural kind of three d volume when I do that. And so I'm going to try and use everything. I can't squeeze architecture out of these flat shapes on a piece of paper and a really good reference for you and for me was the bark plates of the eye. And they're so clear, and they're so well done that I would recommend doing your studies based on those plates until you're familiar with the complexities of the eye at many different angles. Now you can see the eyes and almond shaped, but it's asymmetrical. So I found that diagonal that shows the peak of the upper lid in the peak of the bottom lid , and it is at an angle. So there I'm sculpting out the lower lid, the top plane of the lower lid and all you again really simple shapes like ovals, squares, triangles just to space and place. The elements get their proportions going from the biggest shape to the next smallest shape and ever smaller refining facets until the drawing is finished, right. The next step is value separation, and I'm going to separate the family of darks from the family of Lights, and I'm going to squint and compare. This is crucial. I'm going to squint down and by doing so, separate out the dark values from the light values. And then I'm going to put those in a posterized way, meaning a very flat, simple shape that it's not completely black. It's about a value of four in a five value scheme. And essentially I'll have black and white puzzle pieces, and I'll try to design those shadow shapes of those dark shapes and clarify my drawing but keeping it really simple. So that should be very clear. Step here, right? The next step is add the dark accents in my shadow shapes, which again every mark that I make should help clarify the overall statement that I'm trying to make son getting in there and really going for the dark stuff, like in the shadows in the creases where folds of skin meat and you can see. I'm pulling that pencil with an overhand grip to allow myself to get a really nice chiseled buying line. And I have control over the pencil. Sometimes out hold the pencil like I'm writing my name, but that wears out the tip quite quickly, so I try to use that overhand grip and drag the pencil. So now I'm just adding one tone in the darks, and so now I have two values in the darks and I have a five value scheme, so that's keeping it really simple for me. Now I'm going to add 1/2 tone in the next step. The half tone is in the lights. It's closer toe, the lightest light that it is to any of the darks. And it occurs where the form starts turning away from the light and going towards that core shadow. So it's just before it turns into the core shadow. It's the place where you're going to see most of the texture, most of the color and detail and so on in that area. It's very effective in making the form turn. So just using my finger there last step is a just refined and finish. So we're almost there. Let's take this thing home. So I'm gonna clarify again, work the darks, work the lights. I'll be working, uh, both the dark and light areas back and forth, kind of like cooking in the kitchen, finding so using to taste refining, fixing mistakes always adjustments through the whole piece, and I often think of drawing is fixing mistakes now. One simple but crucial thing that people miss here is adjusting the edges. When I just my edges between hard and soft and make that distinction, it takes this drawing so far down the road it's not even funny, and it's so simple to do, we'll make sure you look at your edges and adjust them accordingly. Now the pupil is something like like this sneak up on and develop very gradually because of such a dark shape, a definite shape elect. I worked my way up to that, and the iris just emerges out from the shadow of the upper lid. So I'm putting in a gradation there in the upper lid onto the iris and the pupil, and that seems to create depths, and they kind of moody sense of the personality of the person. Let's say, because you're looking into the into their soul through their high there, so you want to have some debt? Uh, the eyelashes. I do maybe one or two, but I tend to group them together. They don't look that good when I do each individual one, and you can see that the eyebrows also just basically shape with some edge work that's characteristic of, um, eyebrow hair. And so on the eyelashes. Same thing I'll have usually a taper dark shape with just some lashes. Now I'm using the electric eraser to pull out those really bright speculate highlights. Reflecting the room around the eye and just pulling some of those lines that are confined in the iris. Fixing the tear duct. You're finding details. So I've spent this thing up, But you can see in just five steps you can get a pretty realistic nice results of an eye. And this is something you can work on. And if you follow these steps, you will definitely get better and better. Okay. I hope this was helpful for you. I'll see you in the next module. 32. Mouth part 1: Okay. Hey there. Let's do Ah, quick anatomical breakdown mouth, and it can help us understand it a little bit better. So the head is split right down the middle. It's bilaterally symmetrical so that that means that the eyes are on one side there, the same on each side, the nose, the mouth and look how it's connected. That's one of the main things that I want to point out is that? And I talked about this a lot about connections, that it's just connected by all these muscles that go off in a kind of array on both sides . Right? So these muscles, like the Cycle Matic major here, connects the mouth to basically the side of the head. Okay, it's also connected to the knows that we can look at. Look at this right here. Oops, look at that all the way down, right to the no. So this is a muscle that lifts up, and so you can imagine how important that is in expressions. So the nose connected to all the way up to just about the forehead. Okay, and that's the Levinger Leiby I superior. It's OK. So it's 11 tore muscle. It's pulling up, and they have other muscles that air depressors that, uh, hold down like the depressor. Angrily, there's a depress er, Leiby. I inferior Horace Mann Tallis. And so this mouth is capable of almost an infinite variety of expressions and positions that it can have. Now. This is, uh, the orbit. Hilarious. Oris is the tech technical name. It's the red lipped portion of the mouth. So our lips, the red part, the part that, no, it looks like this. That's hard of the muscle. Okay, isn't that interesting? So I I think that's really during interesting myself, so the connections are really important. The suitors of the mouth I wanted to point out here something called the Masculine. Her node. Some said. It's like a little little kidney being kind of thing, right? That's there. It's easy to miss, but it's there. There's a place for it, and you can see again. The muscles radiate out from that place, and it's the only place on the body where muscle is not connected to bone. It's it's like free floating there, so that's unique to the human body right there. Notice the positioning of the mouth as we turn away. All right. The lips start to crowd out on that far side, crowd out the far side of the face, and you can see that the that characteristic shape right? C curve on top. C curve on bottom. That curve is going to start to accelerate, so it's going to get more severe as we turn away. So there's a little bit. There's 3/4 and then side. We can't see anything, so it's kind of like that. Think of it you can think of. This is like a band, a kind of rubber band that's thick right, and it even can have thickness here. And if you just think about it like that, then it's not that hard to figure out what it might be doing in different positions. Okay, here's the front. It's more about, like, this kind of band and even the lower lip. Same thing, its current around. So it's It could be a flat band. It could be slightly curved because the let lips are slightly curved. Okay, so there there's the lip from the side position and this outer part of the wing. Let's say the wing of the lip overlaps to Burkle there. The two Pirkle is right here. Okay, So, as I was saying a sui watch watch this thing turn. You can see the curve start to really accelerate. Okay? And you got this space right here. Created. There's a distance between the inside contour of the mouth and the teeth. All right, so it's almost like a little triangle in there. So we've got that the lift here. That little dark shadow there. If you look deeply in the field, if you look often enough, you'll see this. All right, There's that little shadow. So in other words, the teeth are not Ah, they're not right up against the lips. Okay, Don't do that right. It's more like this. Yes. Create that shadow that's in there. Okay, so let's move on to doing some quick drawings of eight different positions of the mouth. I'll give you the step step by step set up that works like a charm. Okay, let's start with the mouth straight on. I've got the crosshairs in the circle representing the two cylinder. The upper and lower lip are to see curves, the chin rhythm and true's on the rhythm of mouth. The nose also intrudes on that tooth cylinder or barrel in the mouth, Uh, putting in the tube, Urkal on the upper lip and swinging out curves for the lower part of the upper lip, and it looks like a Cupid's bow. Then I've got to either side the masculine node at the, uh, suitors of the mouth and the modified W at the bottom. And the lower lip has too little distinct areas like pillows that kind of billow out. Give it its fullness. All the setups on these are exactly the same. So that's the, um, benefit of working this way. But I've got to, um, medium sized lips at 3/4 view, and I've drawn a contour from top to bottom, signifying the two cylinder that it, um, is a way it pulls away from the front plane of the face, and that's how I can set that up and get the dimension again. We've got the nose and the rhythm of the chin intruding on the two cylinder, which is also called the Laugh Lines or the barrel of the mouth. So that's 3/4 view won't just go through these pretty rapidly. Now I've got a big lip set against a very small lip. So in your character designs in your stories, in the motivation of the characters, all these things will, um, all the parts will conspire to make your character who they are. Now we've got the reverse, a small upper lip against a very big lower lip. And as you observe people around, you'll start to see all this variety. And there's not much you have to do to get all that variety, which is the great thing. Once you study down and drill down just a little bit, thats stuff becomes pretty elementary to you, given a tone to that, um, upper lip and some lower lip to show the plane changes that modified W on the bottom. So the lip is great, it's full of expression, and when you're doing your expressions, most of that will occur with the mouth and the eyebrows of the mouth. This group, crucial in conveying emotion, do you want to do your studies on that? This is, ah, biting the lower lip so you can see two little run teeth compressing, biting down on that lower lip and really hiding it so you don't see it. You see the compression folds as three separate lines there, and that seems to work for that position. And that's a seemingly a tough position. But it's not too bad. Actually, that line line just above the upper lip. It's an oval. That's the filter, Um, and it connects the mouth to the nose and everything needs to be connected. It just looks better. Looks more valid, looks more real when the mouth is connected to the nose to the filter room in the mouth touches, um, the chin rhythm of the chin with the lower lip. Can I have got two big thick lips, and each of the the upper lip has three distinct areas the two sides and the middle to Burkle. The bottom lip has the two pillow areas. Now this is This is like a little baby's mouth. Little kids mouth. Almost. If you look, it's very trappers idol in shape, and it's really acute, expressive mouth. And I remember looking and looking at people on the subway and trying to figure out what made that kind of cute, innocent baby look or cute, cute girl kind of look. And it's that trap is a little shape and the big upper lip played against the small lower lip. Okay, here we go. With the next one. This one is definitely a challenge. Can you guess what it is already? You guessed it. It's a low camera angle. Looking up. Can you see it? If so, what gives it away? This is not hard. If his lies, you draw your crosshairs over the sphere of the two cylinder it you can convey that pretty easily, and you'll see more upper lip than you'll see lower lip in this position. So you've got a low camera angle looking up and as long as you overlapped the chin overlapping a bit of that lower lip. Um, the lower lip is still, um, inferior to the upper lip and coming out of it. But you can also overlap, take advantage of some overlaps, and then the filter. I'm connecting to nose and you'll see, of course, more of the nasal passages from this, um, position. Okay, so not bad, as long as you just set it up with your crosshairs on the sphere to wear. Yeah, So it conveys that we're looking up now. We'll be looking down. So we set the crosshairs opposite. Two. How is if we're looking up? And so this is a high camera angle. Looking down, you'll see more lower lip, less upper lip. That horizontal cross hair will tend to swing up like a smile. And then the masculine owns set the terminus of each side of the mouth came just getting the rhythm of the chin there and how the chin fits in. Everything fits. You can get everything to fit. That's also another key component and making things look valid in your construction and looking riel. People won't question it. We'll get a sense of the nose in there from this angle. Less of the nasal passages, um, less of the lower plane of the nose. All right, we've done eight mouth positions. All the setups were exactly the same. So if you get that process, it should be really no problem. And make sure to connect everything and you'll be in really good shape. So when you're conceiving forms for your character designs, remember, you can play the upper lip against the lower lip. You have all that flexibility with this approach. Okay, we'll see you in the next module 33. Mouth part 2: today, we're gonna do part two of drawing the mouth. I'm gonna be doing it in chalk Digital chock. And I'm using John Vanderpool mouths as reference from his book The Human Figure. An awesome book that I had a small copy of 20 years ago. And the reproductions weren't that great. So I couldn't really see what was going on and I assumed, is putting on his chock in a certain way. And I found out differently recently. Um, but basically, I'm starting with the two cylinder, just basic cell a circle. And then I'm building the lips, the chin and nose on top of that as I did in the first video. So check that out. Yeah, I have my favorite tools here for drawing and pastel and like blender tools. Have those their second get tomb pretty easy. And they worked pretty well, So the processes start on a great tone or wash. You can do this with any medium watercolor charcoal oil paint. Just put a wash down a 50% gray or so just local value, and then put your dark shadow shapes on and put your light shapes on and blend your edges so That's like a standard, uh, workflow that works pretty well. That upper lip talking about a bit of the structure has an overlap. As you could see, the wings of the lips overlap the two Burkle from the side, and that to Burkle, is that triangular shield shape in the front that gives it the lips top lip of the shape of a Cupid's bow, and then the bottom lip emerges out from under the top lip. Ah, right. So again, starting with a simple circle, constructing the upper lip with C curve to Burkle instant lip and then looks kind of like a bow and arrow right on the top. Um, the rhythm of the nose and the chin intrudes upon the rhythm of the mouth. And when I connect the lips to the nose the, uh Phil trim and the rhythm of the chin on the lower part of the lips. Yeah, it has a kind of a a connected and authentic look. Instead of the lips just floating in space by themselves or the nose. Whether years just by itself on a page, it looks a little awkward. It's never looks right. I find that when I connect it to another feature near it. It looks way better. So again I put the dark shadow shapes on. You know, I squint down and compare. I see my dark shadow shapes or dark puzzle pieces that I moved to the light puzzle pieces, and then I just my edges. The lower lip has a top plane in the front plane, and that catches the light usually if the light is coming from the top, so you'll have light on the top part of the lip, then that lip on the top side. That plane turns away, so it's dark in the lower lip is light and then under the lower lip between the chin is dark, so you have a light, dark, light, dark light pattern typical from a light source that's overhead. And when that the lights get into the suit, your part the tapering part of the upper lip it gets really dark in there. It can be. It's like an occlusion. Shadow light is occluded from getting into there, and it just really dark. And then that middle line dividing both upper and lower lip can be can be dark. But everything else is middle middle, dark and light can even be. Lips could be wet and glassy, so they can have really fine highlight or speculate highlights on both lower and upper lips from that red portion of the lips. It's a muscle, and, um, it's got less the texture to it, too. You can see lots of kind of under undulations of that. That muscle surface, which is very interesting indeed. That upper lip has ridges very crisp ridge on the top part of the lip, and then, as it goes towards the edges towards the masculine note, that edge can be very lost edge, very blurry, especially on women. And that tends to make the lips like they're emerging off of your painting, just like beautiful rose petals. You know, something to behold, right At that phase, I'm using the blender to world tool to smear the edges and make it all come together, which adjusting your edge is definitely does. Do you have a combination of hard and soft edges and definitely love. I'm kind of a tonal person. I'm not too much of a lying person, so I love drawing this way, and I I love sneaking up on the drawing and as if it was being developed in the dark room with film and just watching it emerge off on all the values come into play. It's just amazing stuff. It's always a treat that magic is always special, and there's a rush from that that I still get. - I was mentioning earlier. The reproductions I had of John Vanderpool were pretty low in that small book that I had about 20 years ago. And so I found on the Internets really good reproductions of stuff showed me what it was. His technique really was, and what he was doing was making small credit, cross hatching lines, basically vertical lines with a sharpened past, al or new past now, or even a colored pencil. And they were very meticulous and very pored over. And so you could see, you know, you could see everything, but it was deplaned very clearly, but it was very delicate, and so I tried to do that here, and I didn't think that was how it was done. But it waas so great to be able to see good reproductions of art if not be able to see the original artwork itself because it unlocks so many clues for you withdrawing many times. It's a pushing poll. It's adjusting the drawing, its reestablishing the drawing. It's going over and refining the joints or every thing that you do. The drawing make sure idea more and more clear, more and more realize more and more realistic, if you will, if that's what you're going for. And so you go back and forth, reestablishing the drilling where you lost it, darkening Chris, spinning up edges, darkening lines and you'll see me doing that back and forth over and over. And that's what it takes to make you know A drawing really true, really come to life. And it takes some persistence and patience and, um, but in the end that that illusion of something popping off the page that you created is worth doing. It's pretty special. It's magic. - The last part is a little diagram that's pretty helpful. It shows the front plane of the mouth basically from the nose to the chin. So what you do is you take to straight line two diagonal lines, drawing one from each nostril, basically from the septum of the nose. Don't straight out at an angle and It's the peaks of the upper lips, the peaks of the lower lips. And then it divides the front part of the chin from the side part of the chin when you can see it there hitting that the Cupid's bow. So it just shows you that what's a true front and front plane of the face or the mouth? And then what is not? And this one is just showing the angle of the lips upper lip relative to the lower lip and the chin. So that's about it. Guys, I really hope you enjoyed that as much as I did, and I will see you in the next video. 34. Nose Anatomy: Okay, We got to talk about the anatomy of the nose. You know, the nose sits right in front of the face. You can't ignore it, and it connects the features on the face. All of them that connects the forehead, connects the eyes. It's connected to the cheeks and amount, so it's pretty important, and we have to get our her hands and arms around it. Teoh draw decent one. So let's look it. What are the main features of the nose? So basically it's got bones, cartilage and some fatty tissue, so it's got the nasal bones. Here. There's the triangular portions of the cartilage and the wing of the nose, which is called the Allah. Okay, there was a carnage. Now the bone part. Some of that anatomy here that we need to know is this area here. It's the keystone. We call it the Globe. Ella. That's the anatomical name for it. The global. That's important, right? And you can see how it connects the eyes to the nose and the forehead to the eyes, into the no. So the bobela is pretty important. Then we've got the nasal bone here, right? All this stuff here and you could see where it cuts off right there. And all this stuff here is cartilage. Okay, We'll get into that. But we've got the nasal bone coming out extending out from the globe, Ella. And then we've got these cartilage processes, So lateral process of cartilage. So lateral just means on the side. Right? And you can see there. He's kind of triangular pieces to it. And we've got the all our cartilage here rights you can think of these is certain kinds of shapes and connected to that right here. This next little piece that's the fatty part of the wing of the nose. Right? So that's the wing of the nose right here, right here. So it's part cartilage and in part fatty. So this is the ball of the nose right here. If we're looking underneath is the septum, right? So that's separating the two nostrils you got in blue and you can see that the nose itself , the nose holes are like little kind of like little kidney being shapes, right? They kind of come in like this. The way we see him, a lot of times, there's a bump here, depending on the lighting. They're like they could be like a little comma. Okay? Or you might see it more heavily shaded on the bottom part than the top. Here. It's heavily shaded on the top, so it's thicker here, this one, it's more heavily shaded on the bottom. Okay, so it all depends on the light, but they're little commas. You can think of him like that. This part right here, where the nasal bone connects to Well, it's the side of the nose, and this is the hardest parts we're going to explore This put it goes into this area here, which is the Max Illah right. And then you have this bump, and that's part of that lower part of the or vehicular Zaki alights. So that's where the eye socket is, and you can see there's this is kind of bump here, and then it connects to the side of the nose here. So let's explore that cause that's oftentimes doesn't jump out at you. It's not real clear. And so let's explore that. Here's how it looks on a regular face, right? You've got these Carla Jenness parts here on the lateral side, and you have the septum also cartilaginous in the middle, separating the two lateral parts of the upper cartilage. So that's called the septum, right? And then it also divides this lower all our Karl cartilage, right? And so on the ball of the knows. A lot of times you get this kind of division or bifurcation and that, you know, a lot of Europeans have this. Mostly Asians don't have it so much. And then here you've got the fatty part of the wing of the nose. Must do that in red. That's the fatty part. Then here you've got the septum here and then the fatty part on the right side. Okay, here's the nasal bone, right, and you can see it's divided right down the middle. And then it's got You know, that separation right here almost looks like a fracture between the top, where the front of the nasal bones and the side comes aside. Plane. Then it steps almost kind of to a front again and then, like a little corner piece. And that's the part that's has the most questions in it because it's not clear. Like I said, it's not clear where the front of the nose becomes the side of the nose. And where does it become? The front part of the cheek front. Part of the face again. Just where is that? Okay, so let's keep looking here. Well, look on some real people. This part, Here's what we're talking about. Front part of the nose, front planes stepped down side plane. And then there's this right here. Right. That's that inner part of the orbital eye socket. Okay. And here's on the far side. We see the nasal passage. So, um, that's accommodating the air flow right into the nose, into the nostrils, and it goes through these passages here. So you see that little bump out there? Okay. On this guy, we see it really clear. Front plane, side plane, and you can see the cash shadow describes it. Well, right. Is that real? Clear corner. But here it's not so much. It's a lot smoother. And so if we know where the rhythm of the noses that really helps define you know this area for us, right? Cause there's front plane, front point of the cheek side plane of the nose, front plane of the notes. Okay, Okay. Let's check it out here. you can see it on here pretty good. She's got a riel kind of bumpy part of that neighs, Alice, or the nasal bone going into that Max Illah, right? And then you see the eye socket. So there's nasal bone right here. That's one than to as this part here, which is that Max Illah and then three is the eye socket. So that stuff we should get familiar with, otherwise our noses just look like they're stuck on or the connection between the eye and the nose and the the globe. Ella doesn't look valid or authentic, and people start to question it, and we question it. Right, So we see here the eye socket. All right. And then we got the front plane step down to side, playing right into their nasal passage here, held in check by the Ala Wing or that the fatty tissue of the nose. And then here, the globe, Ella the keystone, which you know, that little keystone and how that connects the brown connects the nose. And this this area in here, you've got it figured out, okay? And the mysteries over problem solved. Right? Okay, so let's go over here I would just look at it real quick again. You can see Glow Bella, which is kind of a down plane downturn plane, and then you've got the front nasal bone. And it's not the whole piece here. It's just this part, all right. Here's the cavity of the nasal bone that's covered by cartilage. Okay, there's that piece of cartilage that fits groups right in here. It's like a triangular piece of Carly's that septum. All right, that's in there. That thin piece of cartilage, all right, and then the that eye socket. It's a tricky part. Can you zoom in here a little bit? Nasal bone, nasal bone, eye socket? Right? That's that little bump. Oftentimes it shows up in shadow. It's like a corner corner piece, a molding like connecting this wall to the ceiling. You'll see those old molding, right? So there's a bump right here, and then it goes into the eye socket. And of course, the eyeball is here covering a lot of that. But you will see a little bit in here, okay? And you'll see all this stuff. Another part. There's that rhythm of the nose. Let's see, let's go from Bring this out. That rhythm of the nose is so good to know here like this, you can see how the nasal passages following along here on the far side, right, and then on this side, right adjacent to the nasal bone. Okay. And that's part of the maxillary. So rhythm of the nose from side to side, Good to know. So there's your max Illah, and it extends all the way down side of the nose, all the way down to the teeth, the upper teeth. Okay. And this is the zygomatic arch right there. Okay, Front Alice or the frontal bone. And that's pretty much all we need to know. You can see that that cartilage just going to come out and then you'll have the fatty tissue of all our wing going into the cartilaginous part. Uh under here's the septum of the nose dividing the two air holes. Right. And then here we get to front position. Here is where the fill trim iss the filter. Um, it's kind of that teardrop shape. It's got to creases on left and right, and it's nestled in to the upper lip. All right, so the red portion of lip there. So there's the red muscle portion of the lips, and yes, the don't Trump is right in there. All right, so we've connected the forehead, the eyes, right, forehead, eyes, nose and mouth areas altogether. All right, so they're all connected to each other, and that's gonna make for a really good solid drawing. Okay, so let's go ahead and do the nose drawing demo. 35. Nose front charcoal demo: Okay, let's do the nose from the front point of view. So the first step is to block in the Plains with buying charcoal. Basically, I'm blocking in and delineating the planes and the air. Basic book boundaries between dark and light, so that's what you're seeing here. The buying charcoal is really easy to use because it's you can erase it with your finger, so it's a little tricky to use. But it's really easy in the sense that you can fix mistakes. Just wipe them away so, you know, committing yet anything. Then the second step is to take up like a to B or four B charcoal pencil and then reinforce the planes and boundaries between the dark and light families. Right, so that it doesn't just wipe away. We're gonna go ahead and commit to what we have laid out here. I'm just looking for the shapes and proportions, and then this third step is to lay in kind of a flat wash, so to speak. I'm almost thinking about it like like we're painting and I'll do that in vine. Charcoal just laid out maybe a 30 to 50% gray. Okay, and that's, um kind of a prep for painting because you're paint out of the gray, which is, um, a recommended technique. Okay. And this fourth step, I'm going ahead and putting in my darks. Not completely black, right? I'll save black accents for the end. But again, with the buying charcoal just filling in my darks and just seeing my design, designing my shapes, seeing it, the proportions are correct and so on. And so from here on out, the the drawing is established. I'm not gonna do any major changes. Another step here is putting it 1/2 tone in the light side. And it's just another value in the lights. So I've got three values now, right? Have a value for the darks and two in the lights. And now I'm going to go into the shadow and start to sculpt out the air passageways, the septum, the shadow and kind of start making things three D And I'm using my black accents now in the shadows you can use your finger just toe wipe away that fine charcoal and I'm picking out the highlight just to see how that looks. That's the funnest part. So I try to hold back until the end to do that. Mixing the vine charcoal with the charcoal pencil is really, really like paint. To me, it's close to being paint, so it's fun. If you're a little hesitant about painting, just work this way without the really the bother, the trouble of color figuring that out and just work with values and think of your charcoal as, uh, paintbrushes. Your finger is a cheap paintbrush. Eraser is white and, uh, just start kind of sneaking up on painting or the idea of painting if you're interested in that Tim going back and forth. Um, always establishing something gets wiped away, So I have to really re establish it, especially the, um, the planes, the boundaries between the planes. I'll have to darken those up numerous times as the as the drawing builds up, and then I'll use that trickle pencil to crosshatch and refine some of these shapes now, or some of these forms actually refined the forms, the subtle changes and definitely in the in the darks and in the half tones and the lights will try toe really start to work the subtleties so that it looks like a nose. You can see I did. The root of the nose comes out of the club. Ella. I also hinted at the eye sockets. So it's connected. Connection is the is your friend. Connection is what we're all looking for, right in life, in science, in art, in music. It's the connection that really gives it. Meaning Didn't see there's that side plane that connects the notes to cheek where the air passages are. That's very subtle in Tricky. So I kind of have to look at it a lot and wait during the course of the painting, just kind of wait until I feel like a stat, really bringing that part home, making it clear it's the hardest thing to do because it's not very clear in general, on the human face or in photos, you can see that just the needed rubber racers great for picking out highlights, Um, kind of really reforming shapes, getting the ball of the nose so it starts to turn more. That hot tone is crucial for that in the course shadows crucial for that as well. Like I said, the nose connects everything. It's right in the middle of the face, connects the forehead eyes, cheeks and mouth. Together, you'll have all kinds of different shapes and sizes, and nose is different. Nostrils straits curves, broken nose is crooked noses, noses that tilt up. I like, uh, cute little girl. Kind of knows. Then you could have The wicked Witch knows that we don't know what that is. The Italian nose that I'm using, the torture Leone to. That's that paper wrap to a tapered, and that looks like a, you know, kind of looks like a pencil that has no lead, but it's paper you can smear around the charcoal really good with that. Get some subtle effects doing there and then cross hatching with the with usually, ah, hard charcoal pencil like a bee. HB is a little bit too hard, but be is really good. And then there's some bounce light in the shadow, a little too flat and, uh, a little too dark and flat. So it just looked a little dad in there can. Here's my three D form analysis again. We sculpted out the boundary between the darks and the lights and the plane changes, and then you've got the wings of the nose, which would just reduced down to circles and the ball the nose again, which is a circle. And the septum extends off of that. All right, let's move on to a 3/4 knows you. 36. Nose three quarter charcoal demo (1): All right. Let's do the nose and three-quarter. Again, I'm going to start with the vine charcoal, which is really soft and really easy to erase. And I'm just going to go ahead thinking like a sculpting drawer. I'm going to plan out my plane changes and the boundaries between light and dark. As I mentioned in the anatomy tutorial, the nose is two parts, cartilage and fatty tissue and one part bone. Now this method really emphasizes the structure because the structure is really the hardest thing to maintain throughout the drawing. So I'm stating it clearly at the very beginning. And that way I'll be able most likely to keep that clear simple statement all the way through the drawing. If I go ahead and put the foundation and now it's like putting the foundation of a house in, then putting the plumbing. All right. And then putting all that all that structure in there that makes the house stand up. If you didn't put it in, the house, would blow over in any gust of wind. All right. And then I just established, reestablished those marks that I made with a charcoal pencil so that they won't just be wiped away. And now I'm going to give it a tone that I could sort of draw out of or paint out of. My nose, emerges off the page from the from the fog. And then I go ahead and fill in my darks just to see if my design looks good. And is separate out the family of darks from the family of lights. And still keeping things flat and 2D, right? Keep it flat. Don't go all the way black. Save that free black accents and then check it out and see if the proportions are good. And then I'm going back to my vine charcoal to do, to fill in those blanks. And again, it's easy to erase out of those with the buying charcoal. And then I'll use my finger to smudge things to get edge control between hard and soft edges. And then I'll go back and forth between a charcoal pencil and fine charcoal. And the vine charcoal with the charcoal compressed is an awesome combination. So now I'm just going ahead and getting that side plane of the nose that's there. It's in the lights really. So I'm in the lengths and putting another tone down, a half tone just before it goes into a core shadow. And so now I have three values, light middle and dark. All right, So my, I kept my shadow shapes very flat. And then starting to turn the form and the lights, just putting that half tone, the modelling tone and get this thing to turn a little bit. And with the charcoal pencil I can cross hatch. And just again, keep the structural ideas going. Otherwise it's too easy for it to turn into smudging. And smudging turns into smearing. And then smearing. Looks like dirt and mud, and the drawing overall looks messy and dirty. So if I've got my structure there, I'll know where to shade and where to smudge and it just holds it up much better. There's that root of the nose where the bone is kind of a bony landmark for the nose. And then you've got the ball of the nose or the dome with a nose that's often divided. In the Caucasian knows I put a little hint of that. And that charcoal pencil sharpened up allows me for real subtle transitions through crosshatching very lightly in building it up. Then I'll use the tortilla Leone to flatten out any areas that look a little noisy and a little too much contrast with light and dark just to flatten things out in the light side. You can take charcoal off with an eraser, but also the tortellini. One can remove loose charcoal and create nice subtle effects and a lot less destructive than an eraser. Okay, and the darks noun at introducing a one-step darker tone. And that starts to develop, define for me the reflected light in the dark shadow side. Right? So I've got the nose hole, the shadow under the septum. And you can see now the bounce light and reflected light emerge. You don't need a lot going on in there, right? It's the shadows. So keep it subtle. Don't confuse your values by letting the, the stuff and the darks get to light. And the stuff in the lights get too dark. Because then you'll get mode again. That's a value thing. If you know your values and can control them, you know, likely you're going to have a good outcome. And that's why I developed the drawing the way I do step-by-step because it allows me to control each stage. And that is what navies control. Okay, tortellini onto this gets real subtle T's subtleties in there plus my cheap eraser or a paintbrush with my finger. And then just lightening up the area next to the ball of the nose so that it pops out a little bit and then go in for the Kremlin cram, the highlight, that's the icing on the cake, that's the funnest part. And it really starts to complete the drawing, the illusion starts to emerge. And all that hard work is for, not for, not for something. And that's good. Okay, a smaller eraser just to find the highlight. And now I'm just going to work around and look for edges, hard and soft. Refine the forms. Try to bring this thing home. Noses aren't too easy. You know, they're kind of they're not the funnest thing to do. So I suppose people don't study the nose or gravitate to the nose first. But it's definitely important. As I mentioned. So the process is sculpt out the plains. Fill in, InDesign your dark shadow shapes. Put half tone to the light, and then put a step darker in the, in the shadows. So at first everything is flattened 2D, and then you start to sculpt it out with introducing the half tone and the lights and the darker darks and the shadows. And then that's four values. And if you add a highlight, that's five values. So now we got our kinda 3D analysis here. And basically that is what I kinda already recapped there. But you can see me doing that. There's the rhythm of the nose, that subtle one if you know that you can really connect the nodes to the cheek and it'll look really spot on the ball of the nose, a circle, the wing of the nose or the circles. And that is it. We got a good nose and three-quarter view. All right. 37. Ears digital drawing painting demo: All right, let's get into this. So the ear is quite a little complex. Oregon on the body. Um, and so what I found work for me was that I just memorized the parts finally, because I had to correct a lot of ears throughout the years and draw a lot of years. And so it just became obvious to me that I should commit this to memory, and so that might help you to. So if we kind of break down the ear, you can think of it as, um something like the letter c. All right. With a y inside, let her Why, Okay. Or you can think of it as a letter c with another letter, seeinit, and then a little bump right there. So those are the major moves in the anatomy of the ear. This one is a little bit more cartoony. Okay, so you could use it like that. So, you know, it could be you could think of it as a letter e and then let her see something like that or the letter C with Hawaii inside. That's a little bit more realistic with a bump right there. So you've got letter c You got the letter? Why? And then you have, like, a little bump. Okay, that's called the Travis right there. This thing. So let us, uh, kind of move on here and draw the ear from, you know, beside the front, in the back. Okay. So you can chunk in the ear. Kind of like this the first time I did it. I use smooth curves. Right. So you're gonna have this 1st 3rd iss, the ah helix and anti helix. The middle third is gonna be where the conscious the Contra of the Year is. That's the opening. Okay? And then the last there is gonna be just the cartilage right here in the year lobe right there. Okay, So that idea of the letter why, OK, I would just take this. Why Come out? Hit the bump of the Travis anti Travis, and that's it. Okay, let's do that again. I'm gonna take these lines out of here. Bring up another layer. Okay, so we've got this letter c with a letter. Why inside? Kind of like that. There's a bump here, and then there's a bump there, and that here is where the actual ear hole is, and they're the bowl of the ear. Contains that. Your whole okay. And this helix and anti helix. Okay, this has a thickness here around the outer edge of the ear, that helix and does a little dick d do Right there. Okay, this right here, It's usually there's little depression right there. Okay? And there is a dark depression here, Dark value with the folds of the track. It's an anti Travis kind of inner lock. There, this tapers in. Okay. And then there, stat, basically that your whole there And of course, years come in all different shapes and sizes, right? Some are gonna be long, thin, Some. We're gonna be a lot more circular, so some will be, you know, a lot longer. And defender some will be a lot more round. All right, So you with letter? Why inside some will have a big ear lobe, okay. And some are gonna have, you know, no, your love, it all in. Just taper right into the into the jaw. Basically. Okay. So let's see, What else could we do here? Just give this a sense of ah, shadow being cast right here. Let's assume that lights coming from above. So we've got a shadow of the Travis trying to get to go a little thinner. The paint. Let's just make it a little bit lighter, okay? And then here is gonna be dark as well. Just want to go a little bit. Bite it in that we've got the edge of the year low. Kind of like a tube. So I'm gonna just put a modeling tone on it. So it turns away from us, and that appears to turn away from us, and this is gonna go inside, and then we've got a little shadow down here, and then we could just lighten this stuff up little bit. That's African do that. That's too light. Okay, right there. So just put a little kind of, ah, highlight certain certain areas just to kind of get this thing to turn a little bit more. This could be so once he memorized some of these basic moves. That year is not gonna be a problem for you anymore. And that's gonna be a relief, Let me tell you, because ears, if you're struggling with, um, you don't have to that's the good news here. And so the ear sits. Ah, basically, it's orientation. It's It's behind the jaw. So the jaw is here in front, and the ear sits behind the jaw. OK? It didn't. It was in front of the jail. Your ears would be flapping every time you talked, right? So you don't want that? There's the job, okay? And the ear is kind of like a little, uh, you could think of it as maybe, like, a slice off of, ah, tube. Maybe think of this is like a tube. If you kind of If you sliced off the end here, right, that's supposed to be a slice. And you would get you could get something like an ear out of that so that it has a thickness here. All right, So is thick. And that brings up Well, how do you draw the here from the top of the bottom? Basically, simply I just think of the ear. If I'm drawing from the top, I draw like that kind of slice there. This turns in. I make this part thicker than this part. So this parts a lot thicker, and it kind of sells the illusion. Ah, you're looking. You're looking down on the year, Okay? And if you're looking up that I just do the exact opposite. So I draw my kind of sea or even like a letter D. And I just make this part the bottom part a lot thicker. That the top part and that gets me started gets me kind of in the ballpark, and so this I could probably even do it even more. And it might even have a bottom plane that you see more of. Okay. And so this is if you're looking up on this thing, Okay, so that could kind of I could help with that. All right, so let's take the ear from Hey, another angle. Let's take it from take it from the front. All right. See if we can handle that. Um, where's my tools? Here. So I was gonna put on some How you here. Now, let's not do that. Oh, here. Okay. So from the front, you've got the angle of the head right in there, OK? And the ear is gonna come off that, um, at an angle at about the same angle. Okay, so it's gonna just come out like that. Well, simple. Like a disk okay. Almost like a letter D and I italicized let it be right there. Okay. And then it's gonna connect right to the side of the head. So I'm gonna have the Travis right there, okay? And it's thick and it's gonna turn under. That's gonna be in the 1st 3rd the upper third of the bigger lips, and we set that, Okay. And then that's gonna tend to really kind of be overlapped by the anti track it. So we got Travis that anti Travis a lot of times this could pop out right there. You're gonna see it overlap the back part of the ear. So it's overlapping, then coming back in, right? And then we go to the helix anti helix, which makes up the, um, cartilage of that year. Okay. And then you're gonna get this in here, The kind of complete. Okay, so let's let's do that again. Maybe that wasn't super clear, but this is gonna overlap, okay. And then come into the ear lobe. The other part of this that letter, why? Or anti Travis is gonna come in like this and then do the helix anti are Yeah, I think this was This is the helix up here, anyway, Lots of complicated names. And so we got this tapering into the ear, and we've got and oh, your whole right in here. And this area is the conscious of beards, like the bowl of the ear. Right. So that'll tend to be darker. Can be done. Uh, too dark. Okay, so then we're gonna have little shape right in there, and we're gonna have the shadow creating kind of that ridge or that rim of the year from cop. Okay, this is also gonna get some shadow in here. Definitely gonna be dark in there. And this steps going to kind of come out gonna be a little bit lighter. We can sell that illusion, but this is coming in front by the overlaps and also by the value. Okay. I hope so. A little more value in here. Start sculpting this thing out. Okay. So far, so good. Where is that little want to get that bump in there right there. Dragons. Anti Travis relationship. And then let's go. Uh, turn the years that your loves moving away from us going away from us, and a lot of times what I look for in the ear is just that, uh, What's really cool is when you see the ear that's backlit and the light is doing kind of a subsurface scattered thing, it's entering into the tissue, the cartilage of the ear and just lighting it up. Sometimes it looks like fire. I'm sure you've noticed that if you haven't looked for it really, really cool. You just see almost pure orange of pure pink, depending on the light source behind it. And that's that's really cool. We love that. That's a little highlight here. Kind of highlight right there along the ridge, showing you kind of where the corner is. It's got one here on the anti Travis. I hope that's what it is in here. He's kind of form that. Well, look, conscience, it's coming along here, Here. Okay, get that little lighter. Okay, then. We've got that really dark. Hold here. I want to clarify that shape right there. Okay. Looking good. Second. All right. Come O Okay. Palette knife. Okay, some hair right there. Shadow underneath. Really dark there. And bring that your whole out. So it's really obvious in this stuff. Get this thing some color Oh, about that. But I like that pink kind of. Well, let's make a little darker. No, that, but from the front, it's that definitely this this part sticking out. All right, Overlapping. Okay, so let's do the ear from the back. No. Okay. Here from the back, you're going to draw this more. You kind of think of the ear from the back as almost like, uh, like an infinity. Grant comes around and goes in this way. So roughly, it's like an infinity. Okay, it has a thickness. All right. And in here is the the bowl of the ear. Right. Connects to the head. That's just like a dish or cylinder. This is dark in here, right? And something like that. You think of it like that. That's kind of you know how I like to think of it. So you get this, uh, thickness here a lot. The edge of the year. It's picking up at the bottom. And then there's the bowl, the bowl of the ear, or the conscious right there connecting to the side of the head. Okay. And let's make room for that bowl. That bullet right in here and then we've got the top of the bowl the year connecting to the head, and sometimes you can see a little folds of skin there. Okay, Some hair here. It's good stuff, Okay? And then sometimes you can see the parts of the anatomy and stuff, Just like a little V shape right there might see it. This is good. Come back. We're painting and drawing at the same time. Sometimes. That's not easy. See, right now, pull it off. Time to get the best things up. Bring it back again. All right, so it's gonna be in light. It's gonna move way from the leg. - Paint's not mixing. Why is it not mixing cats fixing a little bit better? Try to bang this thing into shape. Here. No. Get this thing to blend. Not like that. Like that? No. A little bit more. Like that number, the way everything fits in, Like the way that you're fits into the side of the head. If you can get it to fit in convincingly you're drawing will be that which more convincing to others, Kate. The way the connections happen, the way things fit together. If you can sell that idea you're drawing will be. Yeah, in a much stronger kind of position to convince people what it iss. That is a fact we'll bump right back here called the chromium process. That's where the stern Oakley Dome asteroid, um, connects in to to the skull. We'll bump right there called the Mastoi process. Okay? No, to find the front of this year, we don't often see the back of the ear, so it's kind of a little tricky to draw right. You get a kind of get used to it somehow. And by drawing it over and over, that's the only way. Repetition, my friend, is the best way to go. So get this back of his ear. Kind of in place. That looks kind of good. So you could see that little bit better for light in the back around a little bit. We can see the silhouette of the year. Apartment's gonna continues. We could see top of here attempts. A little highlight can see if we can make this kind of now we would see maybe part of the back. Uh, he looks coming out a little bit. You might see something like that, depending upon the angle person anatomy and so on another thing to study, we could just hint at it, right? Uh, - or it might even just be the side of the head and something like that. It's like them See the back part of the of a disc, or and so it's a bit thicker. Or maybe you don't even see you see the opposite way where this is is part of the disk and then connects to the head this way. You reached this land here? Que something like that. That's from, uh, from the back back. - Okay . Oh, - okay . So you're gonna see all kinds of different types of years. Some are gonna be long now. Lots of year lobe. Something like that, right? If you memorize it, it's a lot quicker to draw some of this stuff. Some are gonna be really wide out like that, right? With no year load right there. Okay. And that's final. I mean, so you can use this method to draw realistic ears or cartoony years less information you put in there will be cartoony. More will tend to be more realistic, and, uh, might even get some get into some fantasy, you know, kind of pointy years to okay so that he looks anti helix. The helix contains the anti helix. You eat that the anti helix goes in a underneath When the Travis here in the anti Travis there contains the earhole. Once you kind of begin to identify that step, it's gonna just be like like water. Well, sure. Okay. And then the ear just will not bother you any more. I think it's one of those things just committed to memory. And it's Ah, it will come under your control. You will tame the ear and it will yield to you every time. So that's about it. We really covered a lot. We did the ear from the side and from the front from the back. Right. So I hope you enjoyed that. You guys hope that was helpful to you. We'll see you in the next video. 38. ART DIRECTION SECRETS FOR PORTRAITS 1: Today we're going to start talking about objective and we're going to move from drawing techniques per say to content. And if you're drawing your portraits, you're a storyteller, whether you know it or not. So you're communicating by visual means. If you went to portraits to really start standing out, as much fun as it is to just jump in and start drawing thought that excitement. And as good as that is, it's important to do that. It's also important to start becoming a little more thoughtful upfront and do some planning. And it takes a little bit of discipline. The learning never stops. Okay, so let me just tell you that there's always more. So let's dive into this. Basically what we want is people to look at our work. You know, we want to engage the audience and draw them into our work with storytelling, camera work and composition, drawing techniques. Let those things start to do the work for you. Now, what's the problem? Basically, the problem is we need eyes on our work and social media in the gallery or in publication. And so we're trying to draw or paint something that we and others really want to look at, right? Another way to say it, we can't get or keep our viewers attention. So this is a problem. And how are we going to solve that? Well, we're going to find ways to engage viewers and keep them looking and coming back by creating empathy with our characters, with our portraits, with our drawings, somehow engaging the audience. So we need a procedure for that. And I call this Orchestrating your portraits. Imagine that your conductor, or imagine what a conductor does. A stand in the front and they conduct each section of the orchestra. And telling each section when to play, when to stop playing, how loud to play, house off to play. And they're doing this all by auditory means. And you're gonna do the same thing only using visual means. You're the art director, That's the corollary to the conductor in the symphony or the Art Director. And that's your job. So there's four main ways I'd like to suggest to draw the audience in. So if you imagine your portrait in the center here, represented by these puzzle pieces. Each puzzle piece making up that silhouette of a head is one of these four ways that we're going to look at. The first one is to know your why. And you could say, maybe that's 40% of what you need to consider that berries, but we'll just go with 40 percent. Number 2, it's art direction. And where are you going to use camera angle and composition techniques to do the work for you? Then there's drawling techniques, maybe that's 20 percent. And the final one is posing, maybe 10 percent. It's using body language to convey your message is essentially what that is. Alright, so let's dive into these a little more deeply. Okay, number one, finding your why to set things up for you. You're going to start asking questions to yourself at the beginning. Like, what's my objective? What's my reason for doing this? What do I want to say? What's my message? Is it just pure enjoyment? You're sitting down just drawn Lebanon. Okay, that's fine. That's valid. Is it study? You're taking something like color, anatomy or compensation and focusing on that, on this particular drawing. That's also fine and valid and necessary. Is it a professional commission is at work? Right? Is it something you need to do for someone else? In exchange for money also needed an essential, is it a portrait for a loved one, right? It's a gift, it's a card and something that is close to your heart, closer than, let's say a professional commission piece could be just pure creative exploration. All these things are really important in something to consider and each one has a different objective. And depending on what that is, you'll be able to achieve that objective a little bit better. Okay, so if we're visual storytellers, we have to tackle this question. What story am I trying to tell? The first thing you gotta do is create a backstory and narrative. You've probably heard of some of these words maybe like backstory. It doesn't have to be anything big like writing a novel, but it's just some things that you can use for yourself to springboard off of to start creating and being creative with your portraits. So asking who, what, where, when, and why. We're just who is this character? What does this character like? What's their personality, right? And where are they? What are they wearing? What's the environment than that they're in? Because your portrait will have some kind of background. And you can give a hint of that. And mind you a lot of these things. They there for creative artists as well, a concept artists doing character designs. So this can be good for just straight up traditional portraiture or something like concept art. You can add accessories and props. So for example, you might have your traditional painting there. Something looks very traditional and you add a sci-fi helmet to it and give it a twist and give it some interest. So something like a helmet, a gun, and earring, a scarf, a scar, just adding props, start to engage the audience in a meaningful way. Thank you guys. I hope you enjoyed this video on our direction secrets. It's the first installment. There will be more. And I cover all this and much more in my portrait drawing course called mastering the art of the portrait. You can find it here on drawed And I created the course to help people become better artists that are portrait artists all the way around. So it's an excellent course, excellent resource. So go check it out also, if you wouldn't mind, like and subscribe to the channel if you'd like what you heard, ring the bell, so you won't miss a thing. And I will see you in the next video. 39. ART DIRECTION SECRETS FOR PORTRAITS part 2: I'm Chris Petroski and this is drawed use all things aren't quick reminder to subscribe to my YouTube channel. Give it a like so the YouTube masters rank it and click the bell. Today we're going to continue on from last week's video where we talk about improving your portraits through art direction. So let's jump in. All right, this is art direction part two. And we just talked about the problem of getting people to look at your piece and staying there and coming back to it. And how did we do that? And we came up with his idea that you're the conductor, you're orchestrating your piece like a conductor in a symphony, only you're the art director and you have total control over what you put down on paper. And the idea that it's not so much rendering a bunch of detail, but it's using camera work and composition and storytelling to do that work for you to engage the viewer and keep them coming back. Now you don't need a bunch of animation and actors and movement to do this. And this is the second part of art direction part 2. So we want to create a focal point. And so we'll talk about the mechanics of eye movement. This is really important. So in this painting, unexpected visitors done in the 1800s, watch what happens here. Back in the 1960s and 70s, scientists were able to come up with some ways to measure eye movement and look at this. This is what they found when they tracked the eye movement of someone looking at this picture. And you can kinda see their centers of areas of detail where the eye spends most of the time looking, but it's tracing, it's jumping, it's going all over the place. What's happening here? Well, if we go back to the original painting, if you think of it like a photo, a lot of times a photo, it will just present all the information to us in high clarity from front to back, left to right. And our eyes don't really see like that. And they don't really take in information like that. But we tend to think that's how it is. So we just draw the picture. Everything's in detail all over the place, everything's clear. Let's dig into that a little bit more. And because there are some mysteries here that we can take advantage of. So let's look at this, how, this is what maybe a camera sees. Like I said, everything's clear from front to back, left to right. But this is how we actually see. We'll focus on, let's say, the man coming in in the trench coat. And then r, I will jump to the lady in the foreground. And you can see how there's this cone of vision at 60 degrees. And in the brighten the middle of that, everything is crystal clear in our central vision is very powerful. But everything outside the cone of 60 degrees starts to get blurry. Right? That kids on the right, the chair in the foreground. That's how we actually see. We don't see everything as in the first one I'll presented to us at once. So look at how this goes down here. Our eyes are kind of really trying to create a narrative. It's assessing the painting. It's jumping from here to there and everywhere. And we're visually constructing a story in our mind as our eyes jumping around. So it's blue layer by layer building, meaning that's what our brain is trying to get us to do one way or another is to find meaning in something. And so it might first look at the people's faces and good for information and put that layer down and it might look at their clothes, might look at the room, the lighting, and start to put the pieces together. So our interpretations might feel somewhat instantaneous. I mean, they do feel instantaneous. You see something. All this happened so fast. It's as if it's all presented at one, at one time. But, but even though it may feel instantaneous, actually, it's composed of smaller units that make up a whole that our brains put together to construct a narrative. So it's a lot like a storyboard or experiencing a scene in a movie. Basically we're painting an editing the painting in our mind. So instead of thinking is a painting or a photo as a static image, what have we thought of it as a series of sequential images? Now that process would be more like how a film director approaches storytelling. The best artists. Really good artists understand how the EIS process visual information and they leveraged that behavior in their own work. In essence, we're recreating what the brain does. That's what we're gonna do. We're gonna recreate what the brain does on the canvas or paper in our portrait. If you think of it, this happens too when you're painting a model. The model will pose for you for 20 minutes. And then they'll get up and take a break and you'll have something down on the canvas or the paper, and then they'll come back your work again, adding another layer of information. They'll get up and take a break and so on. It goes until you've built up this rich piece with all these layers and it's a composite of someone. It's not that person all at once. So it's the same idea. Layer by layer. You're putting down your interpretation of what it is you see in front of you over time. So it's sequential, it's dynamic, it's rich. And photographs cannot often capture that kind of richness, like a drawing or painting can. Again, we're going to leverage this information to create a focal point using the fact that our eyes see what the 60 degree cone of vision. So let's do this. Let's look at how we can use contrast as a tool to create a focal point. We can use contrast values, edges, detail, and color. Let's see how it works. In this charcoal portrait piece that I did, I put the values in a certain place. Now it's maybe 30 percent of the piece. The other 70 percent is not where the details and the values are pumped up, so to speak. So the darkest and lightest values are right there with that. Right eye and nose are in the center of his face. Okay. And then you have less contrast of values in the ER, the mouth side of the head, everywhere else falls down in the hierarchy. And then finally, you have the least amount of value contrast out by the top of the head and the shoulder and elsewhere. The edges, the most crisp, clear edges are right there on the nose where that shadow of the orbit of the eye is cast. And the upper eyelid itself, the lower eyelid, all that stuff is very crisp, chisel hard cast shadows. And then we have some little bit softer edges on the eyebrow itself, the cheek. And you can see this sort of diminishing contrast from crisp edges to firm edges to then completely lost or soft edges. Amount of detail. Again, in between the square here is where I've concentrated on the detail in his eyes, nose, basically. So we've got wrinkles, scan, edge contrast, value contrast, eyelashes and all that sort of stuff. And nowhere in the piece outside of this rectangle will be that much detail. Pretty simple. And then we've got colors. So we've got gentlemen Woo here, awesome drawer painter that I love so much. And you can see he's got the most saturated color there in the nose and in the cheek on the left. And a little less saturated under the eye and the muzzle of the mouth. And then finally in the background. So we've got the most intense color. It's probably 20 percent of the piece. The rest of it starts to become less saturated and then even muted green in the background. So we've got that warm, cool contrast. Maybe most of it's cool and dark, and less of it is warm and light. So not equal 5050. And that creates visual variety and that creates interest for viewers. All right, next step, we're going to talk about drawing techniques, line quality, and there's essentially four different lines I want to talk about that'll help describe your character's personality and capture them on the paper. I'll see you in the next video. Hey guys, I hope you enjoyed this video on our direction secrets. It's the first installment. There will be more. And I cover all this and much more in my portrait drawing course called mastering the art of the portrait. You can find it here on drawed And I created the course to help people become better artists, better portrait artists all the way around. So it's an excellent course, excellent resource. So go check it out also, if you wouldn't mind, like and subscribe to the channel if you'd like what you heard, ring the bell, so you won't miss a thing. And I will see you in the next video. 40. ART DIRECTION SECRETS FOR PORTRAITS part 3: Okay, as we navigate this question of objective, trying to find it and trying to clarify it using questions like, what's my y, What's the reason that I'm doing this using art direction to help us will line quality is one of those drawing techniques that is so easy, but it's so impactful because at least graphically, it can make something pop up the page. Note, I want to talk about a couple of different kinds of lines. Basically, the straight line, the seeker and the S curve. Now these lines are bold. They're the same width from top to middle to bottom. And how can you use them? Well, and the top two drawings, you've got one of the Ramones on the right. And then a character drawing I did of one of my friends on the left you can see the line is pretty bold. That outlines the contour. Also Jay Studio, great artists on Instagram. He's doing that with a white line. So you can do it with a black line. You can do it with a white line. So you can see that nice thick line that makes the character break away the background. So you have this foreground figure ground relationship. And so we're breaking the figure away from the ground. That background is the ground, this stuff here, then this part, right? Obviously that's the figure. So a thick even line around a character can suggest that the character is very approachable. You can break again the character off the page and a very graphic and strong way. So it contains something. It can be a good container. It's solid. Let's say. Let's look at tapered dynamic lines. So what do I mean by tapered? You've got T birds from thin to thick to thin. So it's tapered at the edges thick in the middle, right? So tapered at the edges thick in the middle. Or we've got thick to thin. Where it's thick to thin, or thin to thick, whatever. Those are, the two kinds of lives that we're going to look there. They tend to be dynamic. And take a look at some examples. Right in the middle is Alphonse MOOC. In the late 19th century, this guy was a master draw our draftsman, a painter. He did huge murals. He did beautiful portraits. The line quality is so sensitive and it's so thick and thin and it's so varied. You can see this nice, delicate line work here. And then he does what we did in that first line that we looked at, that bold even line that contains a figure so beautifully and that makes it pop off the page. And then we have some nice tapered. Lines just like tapered and dynamic like we're looking at now in the hands. Right. And that wrist to that forearm. And even in here. So he's got a lot of line variation here happening and it all constantly. It's a beautiful thing to look out. In my opinion. Then moving right top, we have Patrick Nagel and his stuff was still popular in the 80s. His stuff was all over. It would be in college dorms and being friends, apartments and just saturated the market. And what's really sad as he died in his early 30s of a heart attack. And he's got that tapered kinda line that he did so well. In the eyes. In the hair. We've got the eyes, we get the hair. And he's even got kind of that even line that he uses to contain things and separate out the face from this ground of sort of mov, purple and blue green right there. So he's breaking things away and playing the organic shape of the head against the geometric shapes that are part of the background and foreground. He's got the thick to thin hair, Right? These got everything going. Great stuff. And then here's a little character design I did down here and I've got a very thick to thin but overall thick line, breaking the character away from the ground, right? Creating a nice silhouette. That's one of the design things that I'm concerned about. And then inside is a lot of thick to thin lines in the hair and parts of the anatomy in how I model the cheekbone, forehead, neck, and all that stuff. So using, you know, two or three kinds aligns in certain places that hopefully pop it off the page and make it look interesting. But it's combined with silhouette as well as a design element. The next lines are broken lines. Let's check out some broken lines. That's basically this, just what it sounds like. A broken line. We'll check out Egon Schiele again, late 19th century and Gustaf clamped to masters that I love. I don't know if you're familiar with their work, but Egon, she left or chyle, don't know how to pronounce his name, but his figures were awesome. They are very designing and distorted. But just the point here is that broken, kind of scratchy live that can make someone look uneasy and erratic. So if you want a character. And you have one that's you want to convey that they're erratic, they're scattered, right? You can probably think of movie characters like that. You want that broke and kinda broken up live, okay, their mind is jumping around. It's broken. It's not smooth, logical, and consistent. Here with Gustaf Klimt on the right. He's got kind of a wavy, kinda broken line. It's a lot more gentle. But still it's a little bit, there's lines together. It's not just one line, so it's a little nervous. Maybe it's transitory. Maybe there Mercurial and their personality, their mind changes a lot. And it's showing up in that line quality of really kind of there. And then they're not there. They keep moving. That line quality can show a character like that. Okay, Let's keep on moving here. So let's say you have one line. I want to talk to you about atmospheric perspective because you can take that one line and just do a couple of things with it. One, you can make it a little bit thinner and smaller. And you can make it lighter. So you can step the value range. And as you do that, look what happens. That big thick black line looks like it's advancing. The middle gray line. Looks like it's behind the big line on the left is just a little bit behind it. And then that thin light line looks like it's way in the distance. So just by line weight, right? The line weight and the value contrast. Value contrast gives that sense of atmosphere. So they call it most empiric perspective. One of the easiest ways to convey depth in space and depth is one of the elements of design. The other way to do it is linear perspective, and that's kinda mathematical and harder to do. So the atmospheric, this one, they also call it the laws of diminishing contrasts. So contrast comes into play and you can have your value contrast diminish. So we go from dark to middle to light. And that atmosphere that's in-between you and let's say this furthest one, there's a lot of atmosphere. You're looking through, a lot of particles, dust and so on. And it just loses contrast. It also loses edge quality, edge crispiness. So you could lose contrast in your edges. And you'll go from a crisp, hard edge to, let's say, a soft. Or lost edge. And that can make something appear to be further away, creates depth. And other one is color contrast. You lose. Color. Colors get less saturated as they go away from you. Closer they are, the more saturated and the farther away, the more gray they get. Okay, so let's keep moving here and show you an example of Toolkit on Instagram. And it's really nice how they've done this with some of that sort of diminishing contrast and creating the depth. So you've got the dark and figure lines in the front of the face and you get the thin with speed broken, lighter value lines. And of course we look here first because that's where all the contrast is. So the contrast of value is high on the left side of the face. And the contrast value is low on the right side of the face. And so we notice on the left before we noticed the right side of the head. Pretty simple, but pretty effective, right? Okay, couple more quick examples. Casey bought one of my favorite portrait artist. Again, that knows who's the closest thing to us. So that has the Christmas lines, the greatest value contrast and your net left nostril. Then the eye sockets, a little bit less. Crispness of line or an edge. A little bit less, little bit less value contrast. And then it goes back even more. And you can see that atmosphere, that sense of atmosphere that's playing around with creating drama, mood and depth. And then we've got J Martin studio again. And he's got on the right side all the contrast, value. Contrast and line. Thick and thin in contrast in detail. All on that right side of the figure, especially in the face. So that's first and you see the left side of the figure second. So these are all toolkit Casey, Bob, J. Martin Studio using the laws of diminishing contrast. But I wanted to focus in on that line quality of thick and thin and dark, medium light and the edges of hard, firm and SOP. And how it just those simple tools, they're like the DO Re, Mi, on a scale. You can put those together. You can form cords and make music. Well, if you put these few of these tools together with just line quality, you can do amazing things. Alright, that's it for line quality. And I'll see you in the next video. 41. You DON'T have to draw (too much): all right, I'm gonna teach you a couple of principles and a workflow that's going to massively speed up your work process and lessen the amount of work you have to dio. I call it the shape value graphic workflow, And this is gonna free you from the constraints of copying and being limited to photos that you find on Google and Pinterest. All those references they'll be very valuable, but they'll be even more valuable because you'll be able to create your own imagery and use that stuff as source files. So let me show you what I mean. Now you're gonna need basically to tools to make a drawing or painting work their shape and value. So you're gonna be thinking in terms of silhouettes, shape contains the value, and the value informs the shape. So the information that you put inside of a silhouette is going to tell us what it is now. The simple but characteristic silhouettes of what you see is what you're really shooting for. So in the very simple example, in the top you can see the left silhouette is characteristic but simple shape of a spear and how we come back in and mass in the value and create a tonal structure. Says that even more that this is a sphere and it turns away from the light slowly so there's no hard edges, etcetera. You're basically massing in the shapes of value and color and then coming back in and imposing the drawing on it. Just think in terms of broad masses that start out flat and graphic and then start to become forms as you introduce tonal variation within. Got it Good. So this really has more to do with design than drawing, and this is ah, separate issue that people don't think about. The design is just a much a part of it, as the drawing is, and if you can design and draw or do you're designing up front and then do your detail finishing texture work afterwards, you get a much better result in my opinion and a much smoother workflow as a result. So we think, in terms of ah, three value graphic system, keeping it very simple, dark, middle and light, and they're all kept very flat at the beginning, So you've got basically four options when you're considering a portrait or a fit your drawing. You've got a figure against a wall. We could start there. That's almost simple. A statement. Or we could have a light figure on a dark background or the figure is dark and the background is light with a background is middle figure is full value or the figure is middle and the background is light and dark or full value, in other words. All right, so those are your four options. Light figure on a dark background, so you've got light on dark. You've got dark, figure on a light background. You've got a full value figure on a middle background. Middle value. So full value, middle value. And then you've got a middle value figure on a full value background, some just using M V for middle value and F V for full value. Now, before you start rendering anything you can do to more graphic steps, toe find, tune your image and let's go over those. The 1st 1 is gradations, and the 2nd 1 is edges. So let's look at the 1st 1 great ations, right? Let's start with the middle value figure just breaking away from the white background. All right? What if I took a gradation and great dated it from middle dark toe light from the bottom. What happens? You start to notice the head first, some starting to direct your attention here. That's because the gradation at the bottom is similar to value that the bought the body is so you don't notice it first. Where's the contrast? Is there in the head? And what if I took a gradation and great dated from the head down to the body Dark to middle. Now what? You see the head even more powerfully than before? Because the I goes to the area of greatest contrast, Contrast of value, Contrast of edge. And so that head comes out some fine tuning it. You still have a figure breaking away from the background. But now you notice the head first. What if I took it and Gray dated it from bottom? Right, The top left and what happens? You start to notice the left side of the head even more than the right side of the head. So just by adding these great Asians, I'm fine tuning the image, directing your attention to where I want. So I'm wanting to use these things now. you want to use these things to advance your story, so use them in service to the narrative that you're trying to tell. Maybe that character has something they want us to see. Or maybe there's a clue that we need to understand the story or advance in the game if you're playing games. Okay, so what did we have? A first we had character, middle value breaking away from the background, and then we Gray dated that character from bottom to top. So we still have the character breaking away from the background. But we noticed the head before we noticed the body, and then we took the character. Then we grade dated from top of the character's head down into the body. And then we noticed the head even more powerfully than before, right? And then we just gray dated from bottom, right to top left. And then we got you to look at the left shoulder of the left part of the head before you saw the right part of the head. So if there was a window in the background that might start to compete because they have similar value, contrast and edge contrast, the head is coming forward a little bit more than that window. Let Sam wanted to just quiet that window down a little bit. I could just grade eight and soften it up. So now we just pushed back into the background just a little bit. So there's so many possibilities you can great eight from left to right, top to bottom and before you rendered anything. And I'd really recommend doing this because it's so powerful. And if you have reference that doesn't look like this, you can go ahead and start to orchestrate your own original tonal structure into it. So did you notice how we use the power of the silhouette and three values with no detail, no rendering, just flat massing in of the value to do all that work for us? When we got that sense of figure emerging there sitting in space, there's depth in the picture plane, and yet that silhouette tells us it's a person, so it's so powerful. It's so exciting. I love it, Okay, lets him want to the edges. I'm gonna make this one a middle value background and a full value figure. I want to make it a design problem before. I make it a rendering problem, because if you can control the silhouette given you and the gradations make it a silhouette that is, that separates out instead of a detailed rendering that makes it separate, the rendering is optional. You could do it, but you don't have to do it. If I want you to notice something one area more than another area, I'll increase the contrast. And if you render everything and show it all at once, you do run the risk of someone getting bored or overwhelmed. Whereas if you reveal things over time, you can keep someone there longer. Plus, if everything is in high detail and revealed all at once, when people don't know where to look because everything is loud, so to speak, and competing for your attention. For example, to hear the air blower. If it gets louder and louder, you will be able to concentrate on what I'm saying, because we'll be pulling you away and you'll be distracted from what I'm saying. But if it would just shut up that I could talk in your art, what has the starkest separation will be heard first and the attention will go there. In other words, you can pace your storytelling, given the big impact, and then given the layers of revelation over time, and that really draws people in. So once you have your graphic design in your gradations, you have a choice. You can start to render everything, or you can deal with edges. This is what Rembrandt and Rubens were. Total masters off. If you work the edges, things will not only go faster with your workflow, but you'll get the feeling that things are rendered without being rendered and without having to do all that work. That rendering requires of you. So up to this point in this figure, I put the head and legs into shadow with some great nations into the lit area of the mid back so you might see the mid back first. But if I want to knock down the contrast where you don't notice that head so much that can beef up background value so that the head value is close to or the same as the background value, have introduced some full value elements into that light area underneath arm and part where the lower arm touches the hip and then I'm starting to add the edge work now. So near the shoulder, right? I've beefed up the contrast and the contrast edge. So it's a crisp edge and your eye goes there and you can just play these games over and over that possibilities are infinite. Really, If we want to soften up a transition or soften up on edge, I can just take your attention away from an area by softening the contrast of the edge or Aiken beef up areas of contrast or toned them down, depending on where it wants you to look. So I'm making these changes on the fly as I go, kind of still designing and really beefing up the edge, making really crisp down in that lower right area where the arm wraps around the hips and that's where you go first. And then you've got maybe a secondary area where the head is against the background. One wanted to break away from the background a little bit now if I had that highlight right there, that's gonna make that really established that as the first read near that mid back and hips because of the contrast value in the contrast of edges that really crisp edge, and then you'll go to the head where there's kind of descending order of contrasts. The head against the background is not as much value contrast, and the edge isn't as crisp. So here's a simple rule. If I don't want you to see it, I make it the same or similar value toe what's around it. If I do want you to see it, I make it a distinctly different value relative to what's around it. And then, if I give you that highlight, that's a telltale sign that that's the area we want you to look at. It's the most important thing, and everything else will be secondary in importance to that, they can go ahead and render to your heart's content if you want to. But those subtle movements, from dark to light, warm to cool graphic shapes to realistic ones. Hard to soft edges. Those things. Add the subtleties to your posterized design, and that pulls people in. Now, if you render, just remember that if it's a dark area overall, don't let your rendering in your details drag out of it. Information that doesn't make it fit in the design anymore. In other words, if I just rendered every strand of hair and put highlights on there, then it would become more important in the lower half of the drawing, where the hip and where the arm is attached to the hip. And there's that Chris Edge. That's why I wanted you to look. Just make sure you're rendering in the light area. It's overall light. Make it stay light. If it's middle, put detail in there, but keep it middle value. And if it's dark overall, make it be dark and you'll be good. So to sum up, speed up your workflow and make things solve things on a design level with composition, silhouette, value and proportion. And let those things do a lot of work for you. And then you can put your beautiful painting on top, your technical rendering your finishing your detail, your texture, and you're gonna find that you're gonna have to work a lot less hard because you're working smarter and your images will have more impact. It'll draw people in, and that's what you want. Okay, all right. I hope this video was clear and that it helped you and we'll see you in the next video