How To Draw Hands | Robert Joyner | Skillshare
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31 Lessons (4h 15m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Two Basic Drawing Ideas

    • 3. Hand And Wrist Connection

    • 4. Forearm Swing And Curve

    • 5. Radius And Ulna Bones

    • 6. Base Of The Hand

    • 7. Basic Hand Anatomy

    • 8. Basic Thumb Ideas

    • 9. The Fingers

    • 10. Finger Tips & Nails

    • 11. Finger Tips & Nails Continued

    • 12. Thumb Characteristics

    • 13. Thumb Characteristics Continued

    • 14. Fingernails In Detail

    • 15. Fingernails In Detail Continued

    • 16. The Hand To Finger Transition

    • 17. The Hand To Finger Transition Continued

    • 18. The Hand To Finger Transition Continued

    • 19. The Wrist To Hand Transition

    • 20. Masters Examples

    • 21. Masters Examples Continued

    • 22. Masters Example Continued

    • 23. Masters Examples

    • 24. Gesture Project Preparation

    • 25. Gesture Project Reel

    • 26. Robert's Take Gesture Project

    • 27. Structure Preparation

    • 28. Structure Project Reel

    • 29. Robert's Structure Project

    • 30. Robert's Structure Project Continued

    • 31. Projects & Recap

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About This Class


In this class you will discover easy methods for how to draw hands. This class is perfect for all levels as we will start from the very beginning and work our way through each stage adding more and more structure.

To help simplify the drawing process I will share my two main drawing tips: gesture & structure. These are the key drawing tools used for all hand parts.

I've also included how to draw the forearm since it attaches to the wrist and hand. It gives the hand more context and meaning.

The class is broken down into three main sections:

  1. Lecture series: Here is where I will share knowledge for drawing all main components of the hand. Again, starting with the forearm and working through the wrist, base of the hand (palm and back of hand), thumb and fingers. Once the basics are covered I will share some intermediate ideas such as fingernails, knuckles, and the transitions from forearm to wrist, wrist to hand, hand to fingers and so on.
  2. Master's examples: We will look at a series of works by the Master's and see how they may have utilized these ideas in their hand drawings.
  3. Projects: There are two projects that include gesture and gesture & structure. It's in the form of a reel so images are timed. You will be asked to draw a series of gestures to begin. Then in the second assignment you will do both gesture and structure. And....I will end the class by doing the same exact projects as you did. So, you can compare your thoughts and approach to my ideas. A GREAT learning tool!

So, what do you say? Ready to draw some amazing hands? Let's get started!

Hey, have you seen my amazing figure drawing class here on SkillShare? It teaches you how to draw some stunning human poses using the same approach as this course; gesture & structure! Check it out here.

Materials used in this course: Student grade paper (print paper works fine), sharpie markers and 4B graphite pencil.

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Meet Your Teacher

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Robert Joyner

Making Art Fun


Hi, I'm Robert Joyner.

I'm a full time paint-slinger from Goochland, Virginia specializing in watercolor, acrylic & mixed media paintings. Best known for my signature loose brushwork and carefree approach to creating abstract style artwork.

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Click HERE To check out my weekly uploads and Live sessions

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Official Artist 2012 Kentucky Derby Arlington Horse Race Track Chicago National Pastime Baseball Museum Art On Carnival Cruise Ships 555 Fahrenheit Restaurants Art on sitcom Modern Family Artwork on sitcom The Odd Couple Artwork in movie Tracers 2013 Mixed Media Instructor Strathmore Papers Shenton Valley Vineyards Wine Label Polo Resort - upscale hotel In Hong Kong

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1. Introduction: Welcome to how to draw the hands. I've put together a series of easy, approachable lessons that anyone can do. And no worries, This class is beginner friendly, so all levels are welcome. You will start at the very beginning for I will discuss the two methods of drawing used in this course. And then we will take it one step at a time. So together, you and me will master drawing the human hand. The step-by-step lessons can be broken down into three sections. It will begin with a series of lectures. I will break down each section of the hand and a very simplistic form and then add a few layers to it so that you get more detail and information. And then we will turn our attention to the masters to see how they approached and used some of these ideas when drawing the hand. Lastly, there is a series of projects and this is where you get to put your knowledge and skills test. Also, I will complete the same exact projects as you are finished, you can kick back and relax and see how I approach drawing the same hands. And if he gets stuck along the way, feel free to ask questions. I'll be glad to respond and help you out in any way that I can. If you're excited about drawing the human hands and when a simple, easy way to do it, this is the course for you. I guarantee you, you will be thrilled at how well you can draw the hands when you are finished with these lessons. So let's get started right now. 2. Two Basic Drawing Ideas: Welcome to Lesson one to drawing ideas, gesture and structure. You will use these two ideas to draw the hands. Now, with structure is basically all parts, both two-dimensional or three-dimensional. For example, you could have the base of the hand. So starting at the wrist to the knuckles, you had the fingers. You could also say that from the wrist upward wouldn't be the forearm. So those could be three structure parts you could use. If we look at the finger, we could break the finger down into 3D structures, the three different sections of the finger. So that is a quick look at structure. Of course, we're going to talk about this in great detail for the hands as we move forward. So if structure is all parts, gesture would be the longest axis curve. So in this example from the wrist all the way to the tip of the index finger would be the longest curve. Notice it's on the outside of the bend. So I'm not going to the inside. If I took the palm to the fingers in this particular example, that would be the longest curve. If we looked at the thumb, How was bent inward? The longest curve would be on the outside. If we looked at the hand here, how was bent? The longest curve would be on the outside as well. The inside would be the shortest curves. We wouldn't want to use that. If we took this hand, the top of the hand over to the tip of the fingers would be the longest gesture curve and the inside would be the shortest. So obviously we would use the top of the hand for our longest axis line. Again, we're going to talk about this in great detail as we move forward. When we are thinking about structure, we always want it to be two things. It needs to be simple, yet characteristic of whatever it is we're drawing. It's important to simplify everything into us. Most simplest form, for example, if I want to draw my index finger, I could easily start with an ellipse. But is that the most simplest and characteristic form? Probably not. And that's because there's a lot of work to do to make that ellipse characteristic of that particular shape of the finger. Perhaps a better alternative would be to use a tube. With a tube, it can be thin and long and we can also create a direct action, which again, we will talk about that a little bit more as we move forward. So using a tube is a much better choice and far better than the ellipse we began with. Now, can we take that even farther? Perhaps so, so if we took a tube, Maybe we can take it and give it a bullet ending. So a bullet ending would be round, much more characteristic of a fingertip. So that is probably a better choice, but perhaps still not the best choice. If we take that tube with a bullet ending like that, maybe we can taper that. So we can take that bullet ending and only use part of that curve. And this would be even better for a finger. So again, structure as all parts. And there's one example was taking the index finger and using a series of shapes to come up with the most simplest form to draw the fingers. Now let's look at gesture again, the longest axis curve. The key thing to understand about gesture is that it can incorporate one part or even better, multiple parts. For example, if we just took the finger, the top of the finger would be the longest axis curve. Now, we can look at the arm, the top of the hand, and the fingers as one long curve. So again, a gesture or a long axis curve can consist of either one part or multiple parts. Again, this is only an outline of these two drawing ideas. We are going to cover this in more details as we move forward. Now remember, curves are fluid, they have a watery sort of look to them and they typically will resemble lifelike forms. So things that are alive tend to curb and have a nice flowing gesture line to them. It's up to us, the artist, to find them and use them for our drawings. So for a quick recap against structure is the parts. We are going to use simple yet characteristic forms to draw the parts of the hand and arm. And then we will use the gesture line as a way to find the flow or movement of the hand and fingers. That's all we need to cover in this lesson. Now let's move on to the next one. 3. Hand And Wrist Connection: In this lesson, we'll look at the hand, wrist and forearm connections. Now, you may not think the forearm is important, but because it connects to the wrist and because the risk connects to the hand, we always have to consider the forearm. A gives the hand context to what it is doing and why. To better explain this, I'm going to draw a curve gesture line. This will also become the fundamental design line. And that's because I'm going to place several parts on that line. So notice I have a forearm and then this pretend this arm is reaching up. So the upper arm would be below that. And then I'm going to place a simple shape for the hand by using one long gesture line. But in this case it would be more of a fundamental design line. I was able to locate and draw several parts. So I didn't have to piecemeal a bunch of parts one at a time. So anytime you can locate and use a gesture line, I highly recommend you do that. I also encourage you to use it more as a starting point as opposed to drawing structure first. Now there are situations where you may have to put in some structure in order to really understand the gesture. Now, the forearm and next to the hand. So we are going to use the forearm as our starting point. But before we do that, I just want to say that the fundamental design line, or fdl, is very important when we start connecting parts. So when we look at the relationship of the forearm and the hand, we want to look for some sort of gesture line, which is also the fundamental design line. Because again, it is going to help you connect parts and to one lovely curved line, which is exactly what I did on the right hand side. So the upper arm for arm and hand, we're all connected using a fundamental design line. If you're a little confused, don't worry, we're going through, again cover this in more detail as we move forward. So now let's look at the forearm. And what we want to do is think about the gesture line of the forearm. When we think about the forearm and its simplest form, you can probably think of a tube. So the tube is wonderful because it has direction. And this case, the tube is heading slightly away from us because we can see the right end of the two. And you have to admit that tube is pretty stiff looking. When we look at the forearm, the forearm has a little bit of a curve to it. So from the elbow to the wrist, the outside towards the pinkie, there is a slight curve. So anytime we can put a curve in this something, it gives it more life. So for this example, I'm going to take that tube and bend it. So now the tube is heading away from us with a slight curve upwards. So that is a better way to draw the forearm because that curve gives it a little bit of life. Also know that it gives us a gesture line. So remember when we talked about gesture earlier, that is the longest curve or axis. So in this case, the bottom of the tube wouldn't be the longest one because the top of the tube would be on the inside of that curve. Now again, don't stress out because we will cover this in more detail. This take that even further. This take the upper forearm and note how it tapers as it reaches the wrist. So if we were to draw a tube that is wider towards the elbow and then tapers as it gets towards the wrist. That would be an even better structure to use for the forearm. So again, we have more volume towards the elbow and less at the wrist. Now let's look at the risks in more detail. The risk tends to get very square as it meets the forearm. It almost has this sort of boxy like form. So if I draw over that with a red marker and I square off the end of it. That may be a better structure to use. Now these are only options. Some artists prefer just to use tapering tubes. Some artists prefer to use a sort of boxy sort of form for the arms and so on. So everything I'm sharing with you now are just simple ideas. As we get towards the elbow or the upper part of the forearm, or the most muscles bulge out. Some artists like to use an X-shaped there. So by boxing the end towards the wrist, we have more of a square sort of structure to it. And then as it approaches the elbow, we can use a sort of egg-like form. And that's going to give us a good indication of the roundness of that part of the arm. So I've got the upper arm put in now. And if we look at that, the gesture would be along the bottom of that forearm because that's the longest one. And then I've used some structure there which is more of a square Cuba for sort of shape at the end. And then I added an egg-shaped. They're towards the upper forearm. Again, these are structure ideas, but it all started with getting the gesture, the curve from the elbow to the wrist. Remember structure is simple, yet characteristic of the particular body part. So by using these simple shapes, which really started with a tapering tube, that gave me a starting point. I added a square ending where it meets the wrist. And then I added an egg shape towards the upper part of the arm. Now there are many ideas for drawing the mean structure of the arm. These are only a few. As you move forward, you may opt to disuse a tapering tube and then add to it as you become more comfortable. In the next lesson, we're going to look a little bit more at the forearm and get some good ideas on how to use gesture to begin our structure drawing. 4. Forearm Swing And Curve: Now let's take a closer look at the forearm and understand the swing and the curve. Now I mentioned from the elbow to the wrist, a lot of times it will curve. So depending on which way the elbow is facing would depend on the type of curve you want to use. Now if you have a figure that is standing there and facing you with the arms down to the side. The upper part of the arm tends to clean and come straight down until it meets the elbow. And from the elbow out towards their wrists and hands. You will notice that the forearms tend to swing outward away from the body. You can test that by standing in the mirror and looking at yourself standing there with your arms to the side. So basically, you need to know that the forearms from the elbow out towards the hand has a swing. So when the LBO was up, the curve is downward towards the wrist, again, elbow up. And then as I flip that and put the elbow down, it will swing upward and outward towards the wrist. So let's have a look at a few models and I'll do a quick sketch while we're doing that. In this first example, I'll start with the upper arm. Notice how the upper arm and the elbow again are facing up. So that means the forearm will sweeping downward. Alright, so LBO is facing up. The model on the left has a very similar position, but I'm going to swing my forearm more downward. So again, when the elbow is facing up like that, the forearm will curve and bend downward. Okay, so you can kinda see how that curve looks. But the forearm in that position. And the second pose, the elbow will be down and then the forearm will swing upwards and it's going to obviously bend as it does that. So we know where the elbow is now and again it is facing down. So from that point on, the forearm is going to swing upward with that subtle gesture curve on the outside or the right hand side. So these are some good tips about drawing the forearm and then using the elbow to determine which way that curve would be going. 5. Radius And Ulna Bones: Okay. This will be a little anatomy for the forearm so that you understand a little bit more about why the forearm is so important and how these bones allow the hand and arm to rotate. And it's also going to change the structure of the arm depending on what the hand is doing. Now, I will start with a basic shape for the elbow. So the upper arm would be on top. And now I have a bone which I just drew for the forearm. And that's going to come down and connect to the hand. I'm going to keep that hand shape very basic at this point. We're going to break that down more later on. On the left hand side will be the thumb side. So that means the pinky obviously would be on the inside of that hand. Now, the bone I just drew is the owner bone. Again, it starts out very wide at the elbow and then tapers as it gets down to the hand and wrist. The next bone I draw will start out very small. And then it will widen up as it connects to the hand. So basically they're similar shape bones, but they are simply rotated so that you have a wide end on each side. So that particular bone I just drew is called the radius bone. The radius bone is what allows the freedom for the hand to rotate. Notice too, that the owner connects to the elbow and then the radius will kinda connect to the hand. So why is this important? Basically, when you rotate your hand back and forth, the radius bone is going to rotate over the owner bone. So when there are side by side like that or the hand is in a regular relaxed position. They are straight up and down or beside each other. But when you rotate your hand, these bones will criss cross or making X sort of position. I will do a quick illustration of how that works on the right-hand side. So again, starting with my radius on the left, I am going to flip that now and bring it over to the right-hand side as it meets the hand. So that is a quick look at how that works. So notice too as the ham rotates, oftentimes, it may create a little bit of swelling in the forearm and that's because the bones are crisscrossing so as having to make room for those bones to cross over each other. So now that I've got the basic illustration end where the hand is turning, the thumb side would be on the right-hand side at this point. So pretty interesting stuff on the forearm and how those bones work. And of course, very important that it does that, that allows us to have a full range of motion so that we can use our hands to survive and do all the things that we need to do. 6. Base Of The Hand: Alright, that brings us to the hand after all, that's what we're here for, right? So we'll look at some basic shapes on how to construct the hand. And then we'll also look at how that joins the forearm. So the hand has a base. So we're just going to work, let's say with the top of the hand and the poem at this point. And then we'll get into the fingers and thumb later. So the basic shape that we can start with is a three by four rectangle. So slightly taller than it is wide. As you can see here. I've got my handout there. You can see that generic shape. For those of you that have taken my figure drawing course, that same shape can be used for the ribcage. So if I quickly draw out the body of the SE of female here, you will notice that the ribcage is a three by four as well. So that is a similar shape to other areas on the body, for example. Now, you know this is only a starting point. So when we started thinking about structure, we're going to start with some simple forms and then build on top of it. So instead of a flat or square corners of a box, we're going to bulge it a little bit. So we're going to swell the top, bottom, and left and right hand sides. So I've got my box and perspective here. And notice how the sides and ends are starting to swell outward. And that's going to give us a little bit better feel for the hand. Now i'm going to swell the bottom. So let's say that is the top of the hand here. And then we have the bottom of the hand. So a bulging box, but perhaps be an even better form to use when drawing the base of the hand. So again, a three by four rectangle is a good starting point, but it's obviously very flat. It doesn't give us any volume. When we start to use a bulging box idea. That's going to give us a volume. Now we have sides, top, bottom, and so on. Now notice that the wrist and the forearm will come in, but it tapers a little bit. So the hand or shall I say the base of the hand is wider, then the wrist and forearm where they connect. And you can see that here by just looking at my hand. So that bulging box idea starts to look a little bit better in terms of using a choice to draw the base of the hand. So again, wrist will come in, taper end and word a little bit as it meets the forearm. And just to give you a little more context, I'll go ahead and illustrate some fingers kind of flowing off the end here. And then we have our thumb coming off to the side, which we will talk about later on. So let's take that one more time. And again, this is just the tube, the tapering tube idea, the forearm coming in. But let's do this one more time. So I will draw out a sort of bulging box and perspective. So that hand is move the fingers would be moving away from us. And notice that I have a nice three by four layout there. So slightly longer than it is wide. And the forearm or the top of the hand has this sort of bulge to it as well. Some illustrating that using those lines that are going across the top, that gives that top of the bulge a little more feel versus being flat. Now you can see that tapering tube coming in of the forearm and then it, it will flare out at the wrist as it joins near the base of the hand. So, you know, very still a boxy, still very stiff at this point. But let's take it further as you look at my hand here, notice how flat it is on the bottom. And then it tapers as it goes towards the fingers where they meet the base of the hand. So if I take a drawing here and say the book, say the palm is facing downward and then it's going to get skinny as it approaches the fingers. And then we'll get a little bit thicker as it approaches the base of the hand where it meets the wrist. So instead of a bulging box that is equal, maybe we can do some sort of wedge. We can also use this idea of a barrel. So if I draw a sort of barrel, a pickle barrel or something like that. And perspective like this. We can take that shape and cut it in half. So if we cut that in half, that would give us this idea of the top of the hand and then this flat feeling of the palm. So that would be perhaps an even better resemblance of what we need for drawing the base of the hand. So again, these are just a stepping stone type of construction ideas that I'm walking you through. So we're starting with his very two-dimensional rectangle, and then we bold it out, and then we'd make a box out of it. And now we're adding to that by getting an even more characteristic quality that resembles more of the flatness of the palm of the hand and then the roundness and fullness of the top of the hand. And then we're also will indicate how that tapers a little bit as it reaches the fingers. Again, I mean, some of these construction ideas may appeal to you. These are only starting points. I'm not saying every hand must be constructed this way, but I think it will open you up, if anything, to the idea of using simple shapes and structure ideas to put your hands together. That's what it's all about. Okay. So again, we've got the, a better form, I believe here with using that slice pickle barrel, there are times I use that quite a bit. There are other times where I may opt to use more of a just a bulging box. So whatever works for you and for me is just fine. There isn't a right or wrong. It's just tossing around some ideas. 7. Basic Hand Anatomy: Alright, let's look at some basic hand anatomy. This is going to help us construct and provide some structure. Later on. I will begin by drawing some bones you are already familiar with. And that would be the radius and the ulna. So the radius would be on the left-hand side. That is what it connects to the wrist out while the large side anyway. And then the owner on the right, the radius psi where meets the wrist will always be the thumb side. And here I'm putting a bowl sort of shape too loosely, indicate the wrist volume. Now I'm going to talk about that a little bit more in a minute. But for now, just keep it very, very simple. And for the hand, we have four fingers, okay. Now, underneath all the skin and everything, there are some there's some bone structure that we want to know about. Again, as I mentioned before, the thumb will be on the radius side or the left-hand side. So again, let's look at this hand. And the radius left. Oh, not on the right. And then the wrist, the bowl shape would be in here. And then we have our fingers which start way down or shut, say beneath the skin or in the base of the hand. So we're going to draw these bones using a, something you may be familiar with, which is kind of like a dog bone. Alright, so again, we're not going to do anatomical exact drawings here. We're just going to use very simple ideas so that we can construct the hand. Now, there are four of these obviously, and there's a certain pattern to him, or he could even think about it as a gesture, right? That go as curved. So they, they tend to get longer. And the longest one would be the middle finger. So you can just put your hand out flat in your fingers stretched and you'll see the middle finger, which is the second one from the thumb, is going to be the longest. And then the index ring or the middle, middle size or length phalanges. And then we've got the pinky. I'll also indicated the thumb off to the left. Now remember this three by four idea. So that would fit right in here. So when we think about that three by four base of the hand bulging box, right? That's going to encompass this structure. So we include that wrist, the wrist bones and everything that entails plus the beginning of the fingers. And that particular box, at this point, we can look at the base of the hand, alright? And say that the middle finger from the base to the fingertip is the same length as from the where the middle finger stars to the base of the wrist. So that's a really good measuring tool to use sometimes especially when you're drawing this very generic flat hand. Typically hands are bent, curled, flexed, and some sort of position where we can't, we don't often draw them and this sort of stage, but for anatomical drawings and trying to understand bone structure worksheets fine. Now, the bones tend to get a little shorter as they go out. So I'm starting with the middle finger. So the first bone that extends from the base of the hand out to the knuckle will be the longest. The next one will be a little bit shorter in the fingertip is kind of like this little nipple of a big baby bottle type of thing. And that's going to indicate the tip. So notice the gesture, those curves that make up the knuckles and the fingertips. So if OP pencil that in, that will help me draw and get a relative relatively correct length on the rest of the fingers. So starting with my pointer finger there, I can lay in the dog bones sort of shape, and then move on to my ring finger. And again, that dissent slight curve gesture is all we need to indicate and help us to understand the length of the fingers, especially when we have a middle finger there that we used as a guide for the overall length of the finger. So again, dog bones for the first two things get shorter as it go towards the fingertips. And you'll notice that the bones on the fingertips are shaped quite differently than the rest of them. So now the bones that we don't see on the inside of the base of the hand. Those are called the metacarpals. And even though I didn't color it green, the first bone on the thumb there will be the metacarpal as well. I'll kinda circle back later on and finish up that mess or the unfinished business there. And now everything I'm shading or coloring and blue here would be the actual fingers that we can see. So was visible from the base of our hand out to the fingertips. Now, going to clean up our mess here. So I've got everything in order. So these particular bones are called the phalanges. Again, we have three for the main fingers. And then for the thumb though, we're only going to have to sew on that. She is some bone structure that I think is important for the fingers. And then this, can I go now to the wrist and think of like cobblestones. So if you ever like visited downtown and you get those little side shrieks, I had the kind of irregular, sort of shaped stones. That's kinda what we're dealing with here. None of these are really visible. And hand drawings, because they're, they're padded pretty well and you have skin over top so that they're never really prominent. But now there, there are eight of those sort of bones that make up the wrist. And they all kind of know fit right in this little bowl sort of shape. So at this point on that covers most of what you need to know about basic hand anatomy. Again, the thumb will always be on the radius side. The owner will be the opposite side. I'm going to fall back now and add the two phalanges for the thumb. So you're going to get that sort of nipple sort of shape for the tip as well. But that's pretty much all you need to know again, of a very generic basic idea for constructing the anatomy of the hand. But a lot of this is, will be useful as we move forward, especially when we start talking about knuckles and things of that nature. So there you go. And let's move on to the next lesson. 8. Basic Thumb Ideas: Alright, let's look at some basic thumb ideas. So we have the base of the hand, but we have this sort of triangle, a webbing going on that extends out towards the thumb. So the base of the hand, we know a goes along here and then there's our triangle for the thumb. So basically, well, what you wanna do is take a triangle extended out, you know, obviously on the thumb side, and then attach it back to the base of the wrist where the forearm meets. Now I'm going to do that again, but we're going to put this hand and perspective. So obviously you, you're rarely going to draw a hand that's flat, like the bone structure on the left. Things tend to be more in perspective. So here we had the thumb side, which will be on the left-hand side. And I've got the triangle extending outs. Just for context, I will add a finger extending outward on just so we again have something to relate and compare our thumb to. So there's our little pointer finger and now the thumb bone here, the first section is a little bit wider so it can be a little bit Meteor and thicker than your fingers also noticed this curve on the underside of that thumb. How it kind of bends a little bit backwards, even in a relaxed state. And we get that sort of bending out away from the fingers. I'm sort of look. So now I'll go around the base of the hand here with my red marker just so we can feel that structure a little bit better. And I'll just take a Sharpie here. My larger Sharpie, go around some of these contours and shapes, just so we can really feel how this sort of connection works. And then what we will do is look at how this thumb appears from a side view. So we take this bulging box idea for the, say, the base of the hand. And then we can extend a forearm from that. And now I can add the finger, so I'll just kinda extend one out. But notice how the thumb is below the base of the hand. So you had the base of the hand that's on top here. And then the thumb is, is kinda egg shape that really is more of a part of the palm of the hand, then it is the top of the hand. So I'll add this egg shape for the kind of the base of that thumb so that triangle sort of shape and this perspective is a little bit different. So I'm going to represent that with more of an egg shape. And then I can extend that webbing over to it. So we get this sort of look. When the hand is assigned to us like that with a thumb facing us. Again, that first bone structure coming out from the webbing, a little bit thicker than what you would have with a finger. And then the tip of the thumb tends to bend outward, yet it can articulate that joint and bend the fingernail towards the fingers are towards the inside of the hand, but in a relaxed position, it attends to flare outwards. And that's where I'm trying to represent and this drawing. So again, using a sharp or a thick dark mark, Sharpie here, I'll go around those edges and contours just so we can see how that perspective is quite a bit different than when, where drawing the thumb from other angles. Let's do a, another example here. So starting with this bulging idea. So three by four, so that is the base of the hand. And what we will do is look at the palm of the hand. So notice how no, that padding and that kind of the meat of the thumb, their extends outwards. And then of course we get a little bit of that triangular action coming out that wedge to attach the thumb. So again, there's that webbing Now when the thumb is n, like that, we don't really see it. But when the thumb is out, then we'll see that webbing. So there's the the meat of that. Paul, I'm talking about the base of the thumb. Very much an egg shape. And then on the right-hand side, the opposite side of the thumb, we get this almost kidney shaped or almost maybe a teardrop sort of the shape of padding on the edge of the hand. And then there's also a padding right where the hand ends and we meet the ends of the fingers. So there's these three sections of padding on the palm of the hand that we need to consider. So if you were an ant, you would kinda travel over that, over that contour. There are the padding go down into the middle of the hand. And if you were heading towards the thumb, you will go up and over that area of the thumb and then up and over the edge of the hand as well. So important to understand that the underneath the hand has this sort of padding went on. I talked about that a little bit when we did the fingers, how the fingers have a certain amount of padding or I will talk about that rather when we get into the fingers. But that padding is there again to protect some of the bone structure is also two, help us pick things up without a lot of pain and direct impact on our bones. So BAD design. And here you can see I'm extending the thumb outward. Notice how it bends out a little bit at the tip. And we get that sort of curve outwards, which is very characteristic of the thumb. From here, I can attach it to the risks. Remember the wrist, the forearm comes in and it starts to attach to the wrist and the base of the hand is going to be wider. So you'll get that that turn in right there. So I'll come down the thumb side will turn in and then go down towards the forearm. And then on the opposite side will turn out and go upwards towards the right-hand side of the palm of the hand. So very important to understand the palm, especially the thumb. The thumb is very much a big part of the inside palm of the hand. And something we're going to talk about as we move forward and something you need to know as you begin to draw hands. 9. The Fingers: All right, we're going to look at the fingers and a little more detail here. So just basically working with where they attached to the base of the hand and extend outwards. So we're not gonna do the metacarpals and phalanges. So what we'll do is represent the three sections of the finger with some rectangles. So I will draw one, larger one, and then I will draw a slightly smaller version. And then the third, which would be the fingertip, will be a little bit shorter. So if the large rectangle represents one unit, the second, or the unit and the middle will be three quarters the length of the first one. And if the second one in the middle is one unit, then the finger tip would be three-quarters of that. So basically, they will get slightly smaller as they extend outwards. Now, the other thing you need to know is that the tend to also taper and volume. So even though the length of the metacarpals will get shorter as a extend outwards. There's also a certain thickness that we lose as we step out towards the fingertips. So again, there is the basic idea of the length. And now let's look at this other idea of the overall volume. So look how thick it is at the first section or the larger rectangle. And then look how shorter that is as we reach out. Again, a slight tapering of the fingers as a extend outwards. And the next thing we're going to look at is the overall shape of the top of the finger. So the top of the finger tends to be a little bit flatter, where underneath the palm side of the fingers tend to be a little bit puffy. And that's because the fingers are designed to grab things. And there's a little bit of padding there underneath on the palm side that protects the bones. So if I were to draw the same rectangles here, what I'm going to do is draw the top of the finger a little more flat. So this would, what I'm drawing is obviously a side view. And there you can see it. And things tend to line up on top and then on the bottom. They can to decrease a little bit and volume. So here you can see the padding underneath the finger. And then as we bend that padding will get bunched up a little bit. So things will wrinkle as it contracts there in the middle. Kind of to know that the extra skin around her knuckles, lab times we can just take your two fingers and pinch extra skin around your knuckles. And of course that's there because we have to bend our fingers at that extra skin wasn't there then we wouldn't have the room to bend them. So here I've added a little bit of padding, puffiness on the bottom of the fingers. Again, that's that's a design to give us a little more comfort and safety for the bone structures. And if I draw that again and I'm going to extend this time upwards, I will. And a fingernail. So there we can kinda get a little bit different perspective of it. But notice how things get slightly shorter or again. And then also they, they tend to sort of taper and a little bit. So there is a slightly larger view of the fingertip. And you see that bullet end, but it's more flat on top where their fingernail is and then as rounded towards the bottom. Again, that bone structure inside the fingertips is quite a bit different than the rest of the finger. So it tends to be a little bit skinny towards the tip and then it'll flare out a little bit. And so that sort of a bone structure allows also for a little more room for that padding underneath the bone structure. So if I were to add that little bit of puffiness there, that kind of fatty tissue that's going to be underneath it would look something like that. And then over top of that are around it. I can add this basic shape or structure for the finger. But anyway, just some tips and things you need to know about drawing the fingers so the length of the phalanges tends to get smaller as it extends towards the fingertips. They also get slightly wider towards the base of the hand and they get a little more narrow towards the fingertips. And then we had that little extra fatty tissue or pads underneath. 10. Finger Tips & Nails: In this lesson, we'll look at the characteristics of the fingertips and nails, very similar to what we did in the last lesson with the thumb tip in the nails were going to break it down a little bit more. Now remember the finger has that padding underneath. We had this sort of bullet round ending from the top. And when I say top, of course, I mean top few. Alright, so I'll start out with this sort of tube-like structure. Again, a bullet ending for a top view of the finger works fine. So there's our knuckle and then I will place a fingernail. So we have most of the parts for the tip of the finger. Now, a side view of the finger is going to be slightly different obviously. So instead of a bullet ending, remember as stages down towards the fingernail and there's a drop-off. So then we can get more of that tapering tube idea. So instead of using a complete bullet ending, I think it's best to only use sort of like half a bullet for the fingertip. So that would be a better structure idea for the fingertips. Again, we can look at that one more time. You can kind of see how that drops off. Now a finger in perspective, again, let's go back to that tube idea. So if you're drawing a simple tube and perspective, one end of the tube will be an ellipse. So that's going to give it direction. So if I'll put rings around that tube, you will see how that works. And here you can see we had tubes that are heading away from us. And as you look at my finger, that's basically what we want to try to envision. So we're going to find the angle of which that finger is moving and then draw a simple tube and perspective. Again, this is a good structure idea to begin to draw the fingers. And then we talked about that earlier on and a lesson. But for now we're going to just kinda go into it with a little more detail and add more structure to it. At this point, we want to start to think about how that finger kipp is shaped. So as it moves towards the finger nail, remember, there's a drop-off, a subtle or slight ski slopes sort of feeling that happens as you get down towards the fingernail. So I created that little bit of a drop-off. But again, that tube is what set everything up so that tube heading away from us. And notice how everything moves in the direction of the tube. So even as I did those contours, and I drew around the volume of that tube. Those lines would maybe indicate a wrinkle or something in the finger, but it all moves in the direction that I want to take the viewer. In this case, I will do a finger heading away from me in the opposite direction. But notice how the, the, the, the curl, the curves that go around the finger, the fingertip, everything moves in the same direction as i want the tube to move. So again, when you're using this idea of a tube and of course when you're drawing perspective, it's so important to understand and knew the movement of the direction of things. And that's going to help you better illustrate the direction of your fingers because they're always moving probably away from you or towards you. And prospective rarely are they just flat. So this is a good starting point for the structure of the finger. But of course we can do quite a few variations as well. But for now, this call these more of a round tube idea. So I didn't really Box anything out too much at this point. For this next one, I'm going to use a box like structure. So, but I'm going to start out with a tube. So think of a tube heading in towards the fingertip. And then as we get towards the end of the finger, the fingernail, I'm going to square it off a little bit. So I'm going to draw a box and perspective for that fingernail. And then for the trip, I can even round that off a little bit more. So basically, instead of using a roundish sort of fingernail, I opted to square at all. And sometimes we use square things off like that. It just gives it a little more direction so you can really feel where that finger is moving. And we compare that to a fingernail that's maybe no more rounded towards the end. And then it just has a different look to it. But in any case I, again, this is just all about giving you some options. Now for this one, instead of using a tube like structure for the fingertips, I'm going to think more of a box. So you can see I started with a square and everything has corners all the way through. So again, you may opt to use something like this because you like the way it feels, maybe it helps you draw it a little bit better. You could use an idea like that just for a rendering or getting your ideas down. And then maybe want to paint over that. And in any case, both of them work really well. It's really about showing you some variety more than anything else. Now remember, we can take that pickle barrel or some sort of tube and we can slice it in half. We did that for the hand. So when we're thinking about a simple structure for the hand. We use that sort of thing. When we look at the finger, we can use that idea to. So if we took that and slice it in half, the top would be very flat. So we're going to use the bottom half of it obviously. And then the bottom of the structure is more rounded. And that's very characteristic of a fingertip in, even really of a finger in general. So the top of the finger tends to be more flat or the bottom is more curved and rounded. And that's because of the padding that we have. So if we took that idea and did a fingertip, we can start out with some basic construction lines here and then lay in our kind of half tube, if you will. And the same perspective as the finger above it. And from there, we can get the drop-off or that sort of ski slope idea as it heads down towards the fingernail and then underneath is still going to curve. So we still had that padding underneath the fingertip. So I can get that sort of drop off at the fingernail. And I'm going to box that out a little bit and then round it. Kind of that half bullet ending sort of for the four underneath. So that's very characteristic of the tip of a finger. So sometimes you can interpret things differently. So with all these variations that just gives you some different ways you can interpret things. And that's having options is what it's all about that way you're not stuck. One way to do things. But notice how that really gives you that character of the staging down of the finger. So like from the knuckle down and then down again to the fingernail. So that's kinda the character of the top of that finger. And you can see it from the knuckle head down and then to the fingernail heading down again as I showed you there on my own fingers. So some things to keep in mind. Now in this diagram, I'm going to draw the finger again. I'll use more of a tube sort of structure. Again, just bouncing back and forth between these different ideas. I will use more of a box ending for the nail. So we get that sort of a hybrid thing where it's more rounded and then the fingertip, I'm going to round out a little bit. So just kinda again mixing it up. But notice too as I draw this red line, one over top and then down the slope and then over the fingernail. So if you are an ant crawling on the tip of my finger, that's the journey you would take and that's also the journey you need to consider when you're drawing. Now let's look a little bit closer at that fingernail. So when we go over the fingernail, there is a slight curve to it and there's a little bit of meat on the side of the fingernail. So I'm going to indicate that here by drawing those little lines. So again, if you were an ant, crawl over it and then across the nail and then over that little tip again. If I wanted to add a fingernail to any of these, I could do that as well. And so, you know, you may have a female or a person that has a little bit longer fingernails and they can, you can simply add those to any of these sort of options of giving you. But anyhow, that's some good tips on how to draw the finger. We're going to look at this in more detail in the next lesson. 11. Finger Tips & Nails Continued: Alright, let's look at the characteristics of the fingers a little more closely here. So this revisiting the the staging of the fingers from the top. And then also, we'll remind you here of that bone structure. So again, very simplified dog bone structure. Now along the tops of the fingers there's a tendon and actually runs back over the base of the hand. And that tendon is what allows the finger to bend. So that cable like structure runs over the finger, over the joints and then back up into the arm. So if this diagram here of the dog bones represented a finger joint, then that cable structure runs along the top, again, along the top so it does not at all impact underneath the finger, the pads of the finger. So I've got that little cable like structure highlighted in green. And that again is a tendon that allows the finger to bend. Now, why is that important? Because that tendon will actually help us do a lot of things like connect parts, which we will talk about later. But it also runs along the knuckles. So the knuckles tend to bulge out a little bit. And that bulging is a little bit of extra skin that allows the finger to bend and then also for that tendon to run along the top of it. So as I go over the top view or the side view finger here, I'm going to add a little bit of a bulge upward and over each joint. And that includes the knuckle, the knuckles right there as it meets the base of the hand. So I'll draw that one more time just so we understand that a little more clearly. So here you can see the staging down of the fingernail. So there is our first joint right here and I'll use a tube like structure. I will add the second phalanges here of the finger and then the third. And that end of the third is where it's going to meet the base of the hand. So up and over the joint, up and over the joint and then up and over into the base of the hand. So it's very important that we understand that characteristic. So this, you know, if you wanted to add more detail, more lifelike gesture to your fingers once you get them chiseled in, this would be a good detail to add. Now I'm going to indicate those humps there with a little bit heading. So you'll see the little c that in the diagram there. So again, it allows it to bend and articulate. Now, I will do a diagram where the hand or fingers are slightly bent or curled and moving away from you a little bit. So again, I'll get a tube-like structure, but I'm going to create a gesture which you see here that is flowing over almost like a part of a circle. And now I've got the fingertip in there. And now I'm adding the different sections of the finger that phalanges. Now I'm going to accommodate for those pads underneath, but notice how they overlap a little bit. So when the finger is heading away from us, that paddings going to overlap each other. And then on the top we can indicate the knuckles and that tendon with just a simple slope up and over each one. So if I added another finger here, so perhaps we'll call that the pointer finger that I just drew. This would be the middle finger. So we know the middle finger is going to extend out a little bit more. Again, a ski slope down to the fingernail, up and over the knuckles, and then into the base of the hand. So that is a good way to think about it again, accommodating for the pads and understanding how those pads overlap each other is important and it will help you draw perspective, direction. And then if I add a thumb here, that would hopefully put it in a little more context about what part of the hammer drawing in which fingers they are. So the little curl down the thumb is kind of important. So whenever you're drawing the thumb, remember that the tips, the tip of the thumb tends to curl down. Yeah. It can bend inwards to towards the palm. But I think, you know, you want to accommodate that. So again, just drawing another finger here so you can kinda understand that, especially that padding underneath, how that gives you that nice representational sort of structure you can use when drawing the fingers. So remember the tendon, remember the knuckles, remember that little swelling there above it, kinda up and over a hump speed bump type of thing. And I think that's a good addition to what you already understand about drawing the fingers. 12. Thumb Characteristics: Characteristics of the thumb. We're going to look at this in more detail and figure out how this thumb connects and break it down. As I mentioned before, the thumb is really part of the bottom or the palm of the hand. If we look at the top of the hand, we can see that the fingers overlap the thumb area. That's because the thumb is designed for gripping and doing chores underneath. If we again, look at how the thumb has that webbing, there's a crease and there's a crease that runs down on top towards the wrist. And then there's another crease at runs outwards towards the thumb. So let's talk about that real quick. I'm going to lay out my base of the hand using the structure idea of a bulging box for context. I'll add my pointer finger and then we will revisit this webbing or this overlapping of the base of the hand over the thumb. So this would be a top view. Now let's revisit this base of the hand from the top. Again, we had this overlapping of this finger area over the thumb. So I will indicate that on my diagram, depending on which way the thumb is heading, either inward or outward, would depend on which way that crease moves. So in my diagram, I'm going to extend the thumb outwards a little bit from the base of the hand. So you see I kinda flared that crease out towards it. Now here is the second webbing. See can see that they're pretty much at the corner of the thumb. So we have, again the two creases and then we can start to get that triangle shape for the base of it. So that is something you definitely want to keep in mind when you're drawing the thumb. This kinda revisit the metacarpals for a moment. And the metacarpal is hidden beneath the skin, just like the main fingers. So that's always something you can keep in mind. So knowing that that metacarpal goes down and connects to the lower base of the hand is a good tool because it gives you some idea about what that thumb is actually doing beneath the skin. So there is the metacarpal and then the first phalanges for the thumb. So remember the phalanges for the thumb. What's visible, the two is going to be a little bit wider or thicker than the fingers. Now we also have knuckles, so I indicated that on the fingers. So you have a knuckle at the base of the hand. And then moving along the different joints of the finger. Nose knuckles are important because the fingers tend to swell outward if we're looking at this top view, but then there will small upward to, if you're looking at a side view. We'll talk about that more later on. So here is the main knuckle. For the thumb, see you will see it bulges out at that joint. And that that happens for a variety of reasons, but we won't kinda get into some of the tendons and muscles a little later on. But just know for now that at those joints we have knuckles and then we get the swelling from the skin, the tendons and everything else that's happening. Now also where the base of the thumb meets the wrist, it tends to turn inwards. There's quite a bit of padding there and muscle as well. So whenever you are connecting the base of the thumb to the wrist area, make sure you get that turn. And because that's very important, first of all, there's a knuckle like structure there because that is basically a joint. So it swells outward and then turns back inward. Now let's look at the top of the finger and this focus at the tip of the finger, notice that that last knuckle, how that skin stages down as it meets the fingernail. So there's a little drop-off in that particular area of the finger, I promise we'll go into this in more detail later. The thumb, guess what? It does the same thing, but it does it even more. So you can really see that drop-off from the knuckle and then down to the fingernail. This do a quick diagram of how that works. So we'll first draw a bullet sort of shape for the finger and now starting with the fingertip. So there is the last knuckle as it approaches the fingertip, I will stage it down to the fingernail. So that's basically what we're dealing with when we're looking at fingertips. And there is a lesson on this, I promise we will look at all of this later on, but for now, let's compare that to what the thumb would be done. So if I draw a tube-like structure here that slightly thicker than the finger, and I'm going to stage it down. But again, you're going to see how much greater that drop-off is. So that's something very characteristic of the thumb. And you certainly want to include this when visible in your hand drawings. So another good tip for drawing the thumb. So again, the drop-off to the fingernail is visible on the finger but also more visible on the thumb. From a top view, the thumb has a spoon like a parents OR shape. It starts out a little bit skinnier as it approaches the last knuckle and then rounds off sometimes for the tip, there's also a wedge sort of shape that happens and other thumb, so it just depends on the model and the hand your drawing. So this is a similar shape to what you may see for a thumb. And because there is a knuckle right near the thumbnail, you'll typically see some wrinkling happening in the skin. So that is the gist of what a thumb may look like. From a top view, you'll probably get this view quite a bit. You'll get some three-quarter view too. But just keep that in mind. Here is more of a wedge shaped thumb. I would probably say the wedge shape is more characteristic of what you would see. But again, use discretion. And of course, look at the, the hand you're drawing. But these are just some simple ideas you can think about. So you can see that kind of wedges out a little more and then almost has more of a square or box ending as opposed to the roundness of the first version. So again, things you're going to keep in mind. Now, I will go over some of the contours of the drawings and diagrams we've done just to kinda emphasize some of the lessons we've covered. Something unique about the thumb is it can bend upwards, so the range of movement is far greater than fingers. To illustrate that, I'll draw a cube that is bending upwards or curling up and it's moving slightly away from us. Even when the thumb is in a relaxed position, you'll start to see this curl upward. Sometimes it curls inwards or outwards, but always keep an eye out for it. So there it is, bending upwards, exaggerated, but notice the fingers don't have that same range of movement. And to make the diagram pretty, I'll go over it with my thick Sharpie here, the contour. So you can see that sorta upward and outward movement that we just covered. You also deal with thumbs that are in more of a perspective. So it's moving away from you far greater than what I just drew in the last diagram. In this case, I like to think about a bean bags sort of shape. You can also think about a coffee bean or something like that. But a beanbag as good. Because you get this sort of creasing and overlapping effect, kind of folding in on itself. In this case, the thumb is moving away from us, but visually we're still on top of the thumb. And that's because we can see a little glimpse of that thumbnail here. I'll use my thicker Sharpie to cover some of the contours just so we can have a nice clear diagram. So the thumb would be something like that. For this last diagram, this say the thumb is moving towards you. So the tip of the thumb is pretty much coming at you and good perspective here. So you may see a little top of that thumbnail and then perhaps a little bit of a corner. So the thumb tip, as indicated, using the Save the end of the beanbag. So notice I still use that beanbag idea to create that diagram. I'll do that one more time. So there is our bean bags sort of structure. And there is an easy way to draw thumbs and perspective, a really useful tool, something I use all the time. Now as I get to the tip of it, I'm going to wedge it just a little bit more. So has a little more of a box like ending. Now indicate that now, so it's not quite as round the first thumb that was coming towards us. So again, some good useful tips, some goods shapes and ideas for drawing the thumb and perspective, both moving towards the viewer, moving away from the viewer, you've got that top sort of view that as a spoon like structure. It can be rounded, it can be square. And then of course we've got the overlapping of the skin as it moves out towards a triangle of the thumb. And then we know that the fingernail stages down quite a bit. So there's a look at the diagram and will continue this in the next lesson. 13. Thumb Characteristics Continued: Let's look a little bit more at the tip of the thumb and discuss some variations for structure. Again, this is all about using forms that are simple yet characteristic. But I wanna give you just some ideas, open you up to different ways we can draw the tip of the thumb. Of course, you could use these ideas for the fingertips as well, but we'll discuss that later. We remember that the from the knuckle down to the fingernail, things are going to really staged down towards that nail. So you wanna get that, that's number one. Now this first variation is more tubular, so as very round and its structure. So think about the knuckle of the thumb and where it goes down to the nail and that's the only part of the thumb I'm drawing right now. So here I'm using a different variety. And this is more of a box like structure. And if you really look at the knuckle of your thumb and how it goes down to the fingernail. The top of it's very flat. It's not very tubular and adds it goes out to the side of your thumb. It can be very square looking as well. So using a box-like structure for the tip of the thumb is oftentimes a very good approach. And it could be less feminine, maybe little more masculine. So depending on what you're trying to get out of your drawing. But, you know, you may opt for something like this. Now we can also do a hybrid where we use both so it can start out a little more round. And then as it approaches the of thumbnail, things can get a little more boxy. So we start to use more of those square corners versus round. So those are just some different things to consider when you're drawing the thumb. Notice how it's around and the contour kinda round towards where the thumb tip begins. But then as it gets to the fingernail and it starts to move downward like that kinda ski slope moving down towards the fingernail. I have more of a cornered structure there and then it becomes more square and boxing. So just some things to keep in mind allowed. This comes down to how you want to interpret the thumb, but it also comes down to know which idea works for you. So you may feel the box-like structure better because you have corners as opposed to a tube. You may like the tube better because maybe that rings true to the type of thumb that you want to draw. But any case, those are some variations you can consider when you're drawing the tip of your thumb. Here's a look at the complete diagram of some of the characteristics. See you in the next lesson. 14. Fingernails In Detail: Alright, let's look at the fingernails in detail. A lot of little features here and ideas we can use to indicate perspective. But first let's just break it down so there's our bullet sort of shape. I am drawing the finger from a top view as you see here. Now the fingernail itself is rounded at the tip. Typically that will follow the flow of the roundness of the finger itself, then the bottom of the fingernail will curve the opposite way. Again, this is looking at a finger straight on, not in perspective. So there you had the roundness of the tip of the finger, nail, I should say, and then the roundness of the bottom. And now there's a cuticle that goes the opposite way. And that cuticle at times as good to use other times you may want to leave that out. I will explain that as we move forward. Now if we look at the finger from a top view like this, there is a top of the finger which is visible and then we can also see some of the side of the finger. So if I use an orange marker here to shade the top of the finger, it would look something like this. So again, when you're looking at a finger from the top, you can see the top of it obviously. But you can also see some of the side. And that will be the left and the right hand side. So important to understand that, because the finger isn't a flat object, depending on how you draw, it can be more squarish or can be round or tubular, I should say, which means we can see this side. So if I use a darker line here to indicate the sides and also angle of the size just a little bit. So hopefully it will add a little more impact. What I'm talking about. Now that's going to be important as you move forward, especially once you start shading. So if we look at the finger on dead-on like that, there's a curve a subtle curve over the top of that nail. So the fingernail, even though I've drawn it and illustrate it in a very square, boxy like pattern or style. It does have a curve over. So if you're an ant walking over that nail, it would have that sort of curve to it. There's also that little bit of meat on the left and the right hand side of the nail that belongs to the top of the finger. And then of course it moves down and to the side. So let's do that again. But this time I will take the finger and we'll do a little bit of perspective here. So I'm going to keep it simple by just using a tube, but I will give it a square ending. Alright, so this is again one of the variations for drawing the fingertips that we talked about earlier. Now, instead of a round and I'm going to square it all. And then bring that nail up towards the cuticle. Notice there's a little bit of meat on the right-hand side of that nail. And I indicated again on the left-hand side or the bottom part. Again, that is that little piece that we can see in that top view. And then once it goes beyond there, then it becomes more of the sod of the finger. Then we had that little bit of a ski slope action that goes down into the fingernail. And then I had that sort of flat top of the finger. And then we'd get the kind of the bulging bottom where the padding is. So again, this look at that fingernail and and notice how instead of drawing the curves are kept more squarish. And then giving you that curved underneath that belly, underneath the fingertip that again has that sort of padding that protects the phalanges. So that is basically a square in fingernail. But notice I left out the cuticle in this sort of thing. I just kept this square. Now I'm going to do that again. But I'm going to try to represent something a little more accurate, which is of that fingernail which is at curve. Okay. So if you're someone that is a stickler for details, you may not want to opt for that square ending. So i'm going to curve it, add the tip of the fingernail. Also, notice how we can add that curve to this square ending so you can have a sort of box-like square ending for your fingernail, but then maybe add a curve to it so you don't, even though you may structure it with a squarish ending, it doesn't mean you can't go back over that and give it a curve. So with this second one, I'm going to go ahead and curve it initially from the get-go. And then notice as I get to the end of the fingernail, i'm going to curve it again. But that really isn't true and reality, because the if we look at that top view of the fingernail, it actually curls and curves downward. But I opted to go with the curve that flows with the perspective of the finger as it heads away from us. So think about that as kinda leaning more towards drawing the cuticle versus drawing the actual shape of the nail. So you can get away with these things for a variety of reasons. But the finger gives you enough detail to fingernail gives you enough options there that you can easily choose either one. So that's basically drawing a fingertip in a fingernail using a round approach. So that tubular approach. And again, remember I followed the cuticle which kind of flows with the tip of the fingernail and that tubular action. But notice in that square ending I gave him more of a round ending. But I can also come back over that later if I wanted to render that more roundness to flow with the tip of the fingernail. You can always come back over. But notice I didn't curl it the other way, which would contradict the direction of the finger, which is moving away from us. I kinda follow the cuticle instead. So again, here is another example. Again, a tube-like structure where I'm following the flow of the fingernail. So whenever you do make this sort of choice, it just flows better. You know, it has more harmony. Then if you were trying to render every single detail and the go against, so that little diagram I just drew and circled. Notice how drawing an accurate fingernails disrupts the perspective of the finger. So just some choices that you need to keep in mind when you're drawing fingernails. And the great thing about fingernails is it does give us choices. And we can elect to either follow the cuticle or follow the roundness of the back of the nail. Now what about when the finger is coming at you? So we're talking about the fingertip and the fingernail. So that's a little bit different perspective to consider. So if I start to sketch out a tube that is coming towards you, then notice how it's going to be a little bit different approach. So I went ahead and drew the fingertip and then I have the other section of the fingers behind it. And it's just going to give it a little more perspective so you can see how that fingers coming towards you. Remember the nail curves outward towards a finger tip. The base of the nail curves the opposite way. And then we had the cuticle which flows with the curve of the fingernail. So those, again are three options you have to work with. And of course you had the good ol square fingernail. The square thing on fingernail works just fine. And of course, if you have to render an exact replication of it, then, you know, you may want to just keep with what you see. But for me I like to make my drawings flow and have consistency. So as that finger is coming, as this tube is coming towards you, notice how everything is in harmony. All of the cross contours around that tube all flow together. Now, because I'm drawing a tube is coming at you. I'm may not want to draw a fingertip or a fingernail that curves outwards towards the end. So look how that disrupts the flow of that direction of the tube. So it really contradicts it. I'll be better off to curve that fingernail the opposite way. Which again, is not representational of what's really happening in real life because that nail would actually would curve outwards. But now as an artist we can curl it and curve it the opposite way. So again, remember that the curve of the top of the fingernail goes up and over. So whenever you elect to not curve it outwards and you go inwards up and over like I did with the red line, it works fine because it goes in harmony with the curve of the actual nail, the top of the nail, how it curves up and over the finger. Now I'm going to use that darker marker to go over that. And notice how on the back of the nail I elected to lead the cuticle outs and I actually went with the curve of the back of the nail of that actually exists. So depending on the perspective you're drawing, you may elect to either draw the cuticle or leave it out. But because of the fingers coming towards us, I left out the cuticle and I actually drew the curve of the back of the nail. And then on the front of the nail, I curve that the opposite way. And again, I'm drawing the padding here underneath the fingers. This is show the puffiness and then went up and over the knuckles. We will continue this idea and the next lesson. 15. Fingernails In Detail Continued: Alright, I'll begin this lesson by just kinda breaking it down one more time here. So we will do that finger curled slightly and then moving towards you again, starting out with a basic structure, just a tube that is moving away from us. Then I can quickly lay in my fingernails. I elected to curb the tip of the fingernail the opposite way that I really does. And then I can go back in and then add the secondary structures, which is like the pads underneath the fingers, do the tendons and the knuckles, how they lump upwards and add a few wrinkles in there as well. Notice how when I curve that finger outwards using that red pen, that fingernail rather how that really is a little bit confusing to the viewer, just something to visually understand. So if you're an ant, you would crawl, walk down that part of the finger, over the nail, and then back and around that fingertip. So if you're drawing a finger, like I'm showing you here, that slightly moving towards you. So the perspective is very subtle. You have to know that there's a little bit of meat to the tip of that finger you need to include I'm just going to look a little bit strange at first, but once I do it accurately and then I show you a way that is somewhat poorly drawn or rendered. Then you'll have something to compare it to. Notice how I'm backing that nail off of the tip of the finger. And that's because when a finger is moving towards you, the fingertip and the fingernail, There is a little bit of meat underneath or the front or yeah. Let me try that again. There's a little bit of meat on the front of that fingernail. And then of course it moves back and under. So we want to make sure we allow an always consider where that fingernail is. So when that finger is moving towards you a little bit, you're going to see a little bit of the front of that tube that's sort of bullet ending. The finger has. So always take that into consideration because it's easy when you see a finger and perspective sometimes. And it's very subtle and is moving towards you to just go ahead and slap that fingernail on the tip of the finger as if you're you know, there's no perspective at all. And then it looks like it's just basically in the wrong spot. Now notice on that first edition, I went ahead and added the cuticle and the curves as they would actually go. And reality. Now on the second version here, I elected to not do that. So I'm going to use a curve on the tip of the fingernail that contradicts what happens. But remember, that curve follows the back of the nail, which gives a harmony, but it also indicates the curve up and over the nail. So remember the top of that nail isn't flat. There is a subtle curve to it. So there there's always something that you can use in the fingers and really everywhere in the body to give you. Options to, to draw so that you can break away from reality a little bit and give the viewer a sense of really what's going on. And sometimes we follow reality. It's a little bit harder to get your ideas down effectively. So notice here on this version I just drew. Again, I didn't compensate for that little bit of meat on the end of the finger like I'm showing you here. I know my camera only focuses at one distance. I know my fingers are a little bit blurry, but I'm showing you that little bit of meat you have to put on the finger in front of the fingernail when it's in this sort of subtle perspective. If you don't allow for it, you don't add it, then it's going to look chopped off. Okay? So you're not going to get the right perspective. So here I'm drawing a little bit of wrinkling, add the knuckle. So there's a little bit of a bulge there. Then we go down the ski slope through the fingernail we got go up and over the fingernail itself and then around that finger tip. So on this second version, notice There's no Around the fingertip. So I didn't allow for that to happen. So again, these are all examples of Fingertips, fingers that are coming towards you. All rights, different perspectives, but hopefully you can understand how the fingernail and different things, ideas we can use to make that happen. I'm taking my orange marker to indicate the top plane of the finger. I did that earlier when we started this lesson, but again, that would be the top plane of the finger. And now I'll will use a green marker to indicate the fingertip. You could also consider that the under plane if you wanted to. But I'm going to separate that does to our fingertips. So notice how that's subtle perspective. You can still see that fingertip. So that would be near the front plane of the finger, the sort of bullet ending, I'll use a red marker to indicate the side plane. So then if I filled in the rest of these diagrams and illustrations, hopefully you can see the separation of planes. So we had that subtle side plane that we can see even own a top view of the finger. And the rest of it will be all top plane. So again, even from a top view, you should be able to see one side or pop possibly two of the finger. And so now I'll go over it with a slightly darker marker here just so you can see it, making sure you fully understand the volume of that tube and of that finger. And of course, seeing that finger tip when the finger is still moving towards you, but in a very subtle perspective. So there's our fingertip on that version. And he got the top plane of that side of the finger here. So this is a low diagram I did for the site of the finger. And then I'll use the red marker to indicate the side plane of the finger. So even from a sod view, you can see a little bit of the top, a little bit of that hip. So just some different things. Uh, keep in mind. What about the good ol thumb? The thumb is the same thing as just shaped a little bit differently. So what I will do is take a thumb and perspective and we'll draw it out and then we'll look at how the fingernail works. And again, these are just ideas, things for you to think about when you're drawing. All right, you can see I have a tube that is moving away from us. And notice remember also that curve of the tip of the thumb, that last phalangeal that curves upwards. So I'm indicating that I'm getting that stage down, that step down to the thumbnail. And then I'm coming across the top and using a sort of tube, round ending. But notice the thumb has the meat on the side of the thumb. So we get the same idea. And of course, we have the curve of the tip of the finger, the thumbnail. And we also had the curve in the opposite direction on the bottom of the thumbnail. And then of course we have our cuticle. But notice on this particular diagram how I elected to think more about the cuticle. So there's a sort of a meat and extra skin, I should say, at the knuckles. And that allows for the fingers to bend. If we didn't have that extra skin there, then our fingers wouldn't be able to bend Norwood our thumb. So again, we're going up and over that. We also had that tendon come and down the top of the fingers and thumb. So that's that sort of staging. But notice how I elected to go again with the cuticle on the thumb as opposed to the actual curve downward on the back of that nail. That would be our side plane of the thumb. So you can kinda see how we can get a good, a good bit of that on the perspective that I'm drawing here. And then we've got the top plane. For the top plane includes the thumbnail, but also a little bit of meat on the left-hand side. So there's our finished diagram. And hopefully these tips helped you in terms of understanding how to use the fingernail to create a better flow and perspective of your fingers and thumbs. 16. The Hand To Finger Transition: Now we're going to look at the hand to finger transitions. Interesting to kinda start putting some of these ideas together and see how everything flows. So I've got the base of the hand, that bulging box idea. It will taper a little bit as we get towards the risks. So our fingers are up top. Risks is towards the bottom. So notice that subtle curve of the knuckles as it goes around that can be used as a gesture line. So if you're drawing the hand and you want to use that knuckle line. The base of the fingers were the attach as a gesture line to understand how things are flowing perfectly fine. And this example, I'm going to put the thumb on the right-hand side. Now the side that has the thumb will have a little more to it. So we divide this base and half vertically. There's going to be a little more on the right than on the left. Those fingers are a little bit bigger, so they need a little more space. So again, when I divide this vertically in half, you want a little more towards the right? Now, when we look at our fingers, again, we had that curve, but on the first knuckle, if I fold my fingers, we have a very similar curve. So if you look along the phalanges here, these first ones, they're different lengths depending on the finger. So I can draw another gesture, a curve that represents that if I wanted to, if we looked at the other knuckles as well, they would all follow a very similar curve. So the peaky is shorter, the ring finger as longer, middle finger is the longest and pointer finger is about similar to the ring. Now, I can easily, once I divide my area and half, I can put another dot in between and then do the same thing on the left. So that is a good way to position your fingers. Now there is a little bit of space in between when the fingers are spread out like that, you have a little gap. When the fingers are together, that gap disappears. So if the fingers are spread out a little bit, allow for that gap. If they are clenched together, then obviously you don't need one. So I can go through as I do this and consider leaving a little space in between. So I'll start with my pointer finger and add my first phalanges, leaving a little gap. There. I'll add the second one which would be the middle finger. And notice I'm just using some simple tube ideas are really just a rectangle with a slight curve on the end. And then we've got already a good beginning to drawing the hand. Now eventually we're going to talk about the transitions, how things flow from one to the other. But it's important to understand these gestures. A gesture lines are critical. You would want to consider gesture before you consider structure. So everything I'm drawing now is pretty much a structure, but the gesture line going across the knuckles, going across the hand itself out towards the thumb. I mean, those things are very useful to add in. Now, sometimes the flow of the gesture on the knuckles can flow into the thumb. If the thumb is clinched, allow Tom's You don't get it. But with the thumb is out like that. You can create the sort of S curve once in a while to include the thumb. So when you're drawing your your arm gesture, perhaps for long your knuckles. Consider how that thumb Ben's owl, so the thumb is bending out. You can do this sort of S curve here. I'm this adding the transitions, basically putting the two main wrinkles or folds and to the thumb. Remember the top of the hand is in front of the thumb and there's an S curve I was talking about. So anytime you can use these sort of ideas, then consider it. The gestures are probably more important, is oftentimes what I see students leave out. They go right for the structure and contours and such. And so they, they miss out on really the overall movement and feeling of it. So whenever you're using gesture line, remember, you're basically taking multiple points and parts and you're connecting them and to one flowing curve line. And that's the beauty of gesture is, is a connecting tool when used correctly. So again, just something to keep in mind. We've talked a lot more about structure and this course. But once we start getting into the assignments and the projects, gesture will be something that comes back to the forefront and it's something we want to consider. So again, going over this basic diagram here, adding the gaps, reminding you of the fingers are clinched together. You don't have them. So I've got my fingers folded. This is what I have at this point. I've only drawn their first set of phalanges. But this particular diagram was just really to get you to understand how the the hand is divided vertically on the base of the hand where you want more space, where you need less. And then to show you the gesture flow, Now I'm going to do a hand and perspective which I have just shown you here. And to do that, I will take my marker and remind you of this idea of a circle or some sort of barrel or looking at it from my top view. And we can slice that in half. So when you're looking at your hand, you have a bulge over the top of the hand, so it's more curved. Where the palm of your hand is more flat. Especially when the fingers are extended and the hand isn't cupped her curl you do have padding underneath. But in general, the top of the hand tends to be more rounded. Alright, so we have a sort of box and perspective. And now I'm going to add this sort of curve, curve up top so we get that sort of half a pickle barrel sort of shape or form, I should say. The thumb will be on the left-hand side as we see it. Remember, the thumb side has a little more to it. So as I divide that in half, I'm going to allow for that extra space on the thumb side. Now. I'm going to adjust the length of it is probably a little bit too long. But also I want to add a few features here. So we have a wrist bone or the owner bone on the pinky side on the other side, if you remember right, that would be the radius bone. We don't really need that because it's not really visible in this particular drawing. Now as the wrist bends and connects with the arm, remember it's going to curve inward. So the forearm base of the form where it connects to the hand is slightly thinner. The tube will go away from us. And I can just kinda indicate a little egg-shaped there for the back of the forearm. So there's the base of our hand. Will continue this in the next lesson. 17. The Hand To Finger Transition Continued: I will begin this section of it by just reminding myself that the base of the hand is roughly a four to three ratio. So what I have drawn out here, it's a little bit too long. I want to make that a little bit shorter and length. And then I think I will be good to go. So I'm going to make that correction here, draw over what I have. And I'll also re-center the middle of the, of the, of the Hannah's self that base of the hand. Now remember the pinky finger. The pinky is closer to us, so we have the owner there and I've got everything kinda situated where I want it. And now remember, we have more on the thumb side, but I can take the space I have already. I can divide those in half. So I already have my areas where I'm going to add my fingers. So I've got that in, I've got a little circle there, an oval to indicate each finger. And now I'm wanna think a little bit about direction. Remember fingers, we can use simple tubes. I think that works well for just getting going. So we can all had these tubes that are coming towards me on the fingers. Now as that tube comes towards me, remember, we only really need to indicate the top of that tube. Because if you start to do the bottom of the tube is going to get confusing. So when you start to look at your drawing, it'll get really hectic and you're not really sure which way things are going. So what I just drew there is very confusing. So if you are looking at that, you would be like, well, I don't really understand what's happening with these tubes because I drew on the ends of them. And again, it kinda conflicts with what you're, what's really happening. So what you wanna do when you're start drawing and connecting phalanges that are bending like this is just draw what's visible solely. See I only drew part of that too. I've got the main curve over top so we understand the direction It's moving so we don't really need anything else. So from there, I can connect the next phalanges or read the knuckle. And again, you can see that starting to read more clearly. And then I can create that top of that to phalangeal or tube and then add the third. So look how much more clearly that reads as opposed to drawing all of the circle. So that gives you good direction, you know, which way is heading. And there's nothing really there that makes, that makes it using two C. So always think about the direction that things are heading. So the top of the tube or the base of the tube from the hand is heading in one direction. And the as the knuckle bends is heading in a different direction and the fingernail would be heading in a different direction too. If in fact you're dealing with a pose that the fingers are bending and most likely fingers, fingers are bending. Now in my diagram, I'm going to indicate and use some of these techniques. Now you'll notice as I'm drawing that to coming out from the pinky. I'm leaving out the underside of that tube, as I just illustrated. And that's going to allow me to connect more clearly. The second set, remember the fingers get longer. So I've got the pinky, I've got the ring finger, and now I'm adding the middle finger. And the middle finger is going to be the longest. So I've got that coming out towards us. And then we'll end up with the pointer finger. So again, notice the tubes, how they're incomplete on that drawing the bottoms of the fronts of those tubes. Know I've said that, but I just want to drill that home. These are things that you'll want to practice on a little bit. On the side, no extra credit type stuff because these are really good structure drawing tips that require a little bit of extra time. But look at the gesture. So we've got that nice gesture flowing, right? We've got the gesture flowing out from those knuckles and then going around. All right. I'm not going to worry about the thumb. At this point. I'm going to connect the next gesture line, which really flows with the first one. So I've got the pinky finger bending down and curling back towards the forearm. Maybe not that extreme, but you can that's what eventually what we know is going to happen. So I'm willing to around that. But notice that the second phalanges, that tube is actually starting to head down and away from us. And a very subtle way. And then the next finger is still moving towards us. So the ring finger and the middle finger is moving towards us. As we get to the the pointer finger that's moving towards us as well. So whenever I'm drawing those tubes, I'm trying to always keep that in mind. So there you go with the peaky kinda heading, really curling and heading down, trying to contort my arm to give you that sort of indication. So there and now we get to the fingertip. So the tips of the fingers are important. If we do these sorta around sausage endings like I just drew, then it gets a little bit confusing. Sometimes having that sort of square ending. As more visually impactful, then using a typical just round sausage ending. So even though we know we've got that sort of bullet roundness on the end of a finger. Sometimes just when you're rendering things and getting your ideas down on the page, remembering they can use that sort of square fingernail boxy sort of ending. And that's really beneficial for showing the structure of the hands. So you can really show the top of the fingernail, the side of the finger, the fingertip, and things like that. I remember also the direction of the fingernails. Do you want to draw the cuticle? Is it better to leave it out? Is it better to round the tip or not? So these are just some of the things, I guess, reminders that we've discussed to this point. So notice here how I'm squaring off the tip of that finger. And then that's going to give me the top and the side, which is much more information. Then no, just doing a sausage sort of ending. So again, finger curling under, I wanna get that squareness for now and the tip of the finger. And then I'm going to angle it towards the side. So notice how that gives it a really good direction as to where that finger tip is pointing. On this one, we can just do these tips that are coming towards us. Again, fingernails. Taking some of those ideas into consideration. Which way are things flow, in which way are things moving? So I'll kind of finish this off by doing the middle finger. Again, bending slightly towards us, squaring that off a little bit just to give you the extra information about where those tips are, which way the fingernail was heading and that sort of thing. So all important to understand. And eventually we're gonna get into how the hand transitions to the fingers and all that stuff. So anyway, we've got this particular hand moving in a good direction. We've got some of, a lot of the ideas that we've covered to this point. You are trying to utilize them and build onto some of these basic structure ideas, bring in some of these secondary things just to give us more context. So I've got the curve of the thumb there moving out. Probably in a perspective like this. You're not gonna get a lot of the side of the thumb, but you may see the tip of the thumb underneath it. So there I've got it. You can see how I've indicated curling outward away from the hand a little bit, which is a characteristic of the thumb. So remember that flow, a gesture line is helpful for connecting multiple parts. And that's what I tried to do in this. So we've got that gesture of the knuckles probably coming around and connecting with the tip of the thumb, the second set of knuckles and then the fingertips. So those are all and you know, gesture lines you want to use. And keep in mind. If I were starting this hand from scratch, I probably would have started with a gesture line, but we will do that quite a bit later on once we get through our projects, you will see that sort of idea, more an action. So this is really about structure, bringing a sense of form, two-dimensional and three-dimensional ideas to the hand rendering. And now you can hopefully have even more ideas to get your ideas on the page more effectively. So we will continue this in the next lesson. 18. The Hand To Finger Transition Continued: Alright, let's continue this hand or finger transitions. So we've got those tendons that move across the top, which we talked about earlier. How they come down, up and over the knuckle and then move down towards the other knuckles and eventually down towards the fingertips. Again, these are very important to consider. There are wonderful for connecting things. So those knuckles are at the base of the hand there or the end of the base. And those tendons roll over that. So those tendons run back down towards the wrist and he eventually up into the forearm. So connecting things. And remember, anytime you have a connecting line, some sort of feature that we can accentuate to connect one thing to the other is what we're looking for. Now, whenever we go from the end of the hand, the base of the hand down to the fingers that notice the how that tendon move. So we had the knuckles which go up and over which we talked about before. And that tendon is going up and over that sort of speed bump as well. So the cool thing is, and what you want to understand is there is a kind of a step down to the fingers. So we go up and over. And then we will go down at an angle to the fingers. Okay, so there is a stage or a layer, a step, I should say. We're taking down to where the fingers start. So I'm going to indicate that by creating a sort of ramp, an angled ramp that goes down from the base to the fingers. And hopefully you'll you'll start to see how that works. So basically, if you look at the tops of your fingers, that's or looked at your hand from a side view. And you follow the top of the hand, the base, and then how they connect to the fingers. You're gonna notice how that stage is down. And we're going to talk about that more as we go forward. But I'm going to put that in shadow a little bit. So you see how there's a little bit of a drop-off. Someone to show you that with my own hand here. Again, look at the base of the hand and then how it steps down and to the tops of the fingers. So something interesting to think about there. So I'll kinda indicate that again with one more diagram and we'll look at the hand from the side so the pinky will be closest to us here. So I've got the base of the hand, which we can only see the side of it. We can't see the top of the hand. And remember that tapers a little bit skinnier and skinnier as it approaches the fingers. And also tapers as it meets the wrist. So I got the palm, the wrist, and then we have our fingers all labeled there to so there is no confusion. And now if we were to try to go back and look at this sort of stepping down or how the layers work. I'm just going to start by putting a green marker over it. The both the fingers and the base of the hand and the wrist, so there's no change here. So everything is one level. Issues basically looks like an arrow or something. And if you look at the whole, but if I go back with a marker now, when we start to really look at how things stage, that is the top of the hand here. And then again, that's going to go up and over the the ulna or the breastbone there and then up into the forearm. Okay. So we there's usually there's some sort of wrist bone you, the owner of the radius. Usually the owner that you can see there. And now look how it goes over that top knuckle that is exaggerating a little bit. That's a pretty big knuckle, but I wanted to show clearly how that steps down and to the fingers. So it goes up and over the knuckle, down into the finger. So I'm gonna go back in with my green now and shade that little area end. So making sure we indicate that now, remember underneath the palm of the hand, the palm of the hand as, as a rule is a much flatter, doesn't, it's not quite as round as the top of the hand, but there is that sort of padding there. So that's going to step up and to the forearm. So we got this sort of interesting shapes happening. And then from the pad of the base of the hand into the pinkie there, it's going to step up and to the fingers as well. So from the top is stepping down, from the bottom, the palm of the hand is stepping up and this sort of perspective into the fingers. So something to keep in mind again, as we move forward drawn and rendering the hands. So these are all layers. So we start with something very basic and then we just keep adding a little bit more to it each time. So here you're seeing this sort of staging again one more time. Stepping down from the base of the hand, down into the fingers and I'll just kinda scribble some lines there, will continue this in the next lesson. 19. The Wrist To Hand Transition: We will continue the hand or finger transitions are willing to work or focus more on how the wrist, the forearm comes down and then wedges into the wrist and connects. All right. So to do that, I will start with the forearm. So if you remember, we can just use that tapering tube. And then there is a wedge that kinda moves down where it meets the wrist and then into the palm of the hand. So that risk, the risk bones, those sort of eight cobblestone sort of bones. They invade the base of the hand, okay, So they don't stop at their wrist where the forearm comes in and it meets the base of the hand. That wrist is sort of a wedge shape, those backbone structure. And it basically moves and to the base of that hand. So I'm kinda showing that a little bit here as we get into it. Now where the palm or the I should say that top comes in, it's going to a wedge, head down a little bit. So there is a step down and to the hand, but now where the palm starts at its fatter, so the poem has a little bit of meat on it, that extra S fatty tissue that protects it. And also we have to think too that when we grab things, we're grabbing it with our fingers are and the base of our hand. And it basically protects all the bones and their keeps it from being too painful. So there's our bulging box. When we do the base of the hand. And you, that bulging box is important to remember, but it also wedges a little bit. So we got that meet again on the side which I will draw here. And then down into the also the sort of bulge where goes into the end of the base of the hand. So again from the top of the hand is going to come down and wedge a little bit. Okay, so remember it's going to taper as we get to the end of the hand as it meets the fingers. So from that point you remember it stages down again to the fingers. So we've talked about that in a previous lesson. So it goes up and over the knuckle and will go up and over the risked here. And then down and to our fingers. Okay. The phalanges. So then underneath the fingers, remember they bulge again. We had that little bit of padding. Underneath our fingers for the same reasons I've already explained. And that continues out towards the fingertips. So that is a kind of a recap, if you will allow those things we've talked about. But in order to, I think, give you an idea of how everything connects the forearm to the hand, the wrist down to the fingers, et cetera. We want to understand the sort of staging that happens when you're dealing with a specially a side profile. You can see it from the top to depending on the lighting. It can be very visible through shadows and light. And other times, it's a little more subtle if you have, you know, light sources coming from multiple angles. Now to get back to the wrist and how this structure connects with the hand, I'm just going to shade that and I'll give it a little bit of tone. And then I'll give you an idea of where that wrist is. No relative to the rest of the hand. So you kinda see how that works now and where it's located more importantly, and then how it stages down, you know, as we get across the top of the hand. So I'll just kinda go over that. A little bit darker will go up and over our knuckles and up and over again and then one more time there. So I'll just repeat that sort of idea all the way down to the next finger and then so on. So that is really a good thing to keep in mind. You'll, you'll certainly want to use this. You'll see it in action as you know, move forward with your hand drawings. But for now, that's just kinda how this works. Again, we've got this wedge-shaped, This is just a side angle. I think to illustrate this, we will even better. We will take it and look at it from a, maybe a slightly different perspective here in a minute. But yeah, just kinda color-coding things. Remember, this is the generic idea that I'm drawing now of what you're going to be dealing with. I know I've repeated a few times in this lesson, but I think it's really worth noting and emphasizing because again, it's very important characteristic when it comes to drawing the hint. So stepping down, stepping down also could be stepping out depending on if you're drawing the top or the bottom of the hand. But I'll just kinda show that to you one more time so you can see it in. But notice them that bend the fingers up, you don't really see it. Ok, so if the fingers are in a relaxed position, you will see it. But when they bend upwards, obviously that staging as gone. And again, you're going to come across all types a hand poses. So those ashes something you'll keep in mind too, so that's only really visible. When the fingers are in a relaxed or curls were a position. So now I will give you a slightly different perspective. So I did a side view for your profile view. And now we can move into a sort of a top view where the form is coming towards you. Remember we had that sort of ramp wedge thing happen in. So that's what we want to understand. And really how it intrudes. On the base of the hand allows for a lot of range of motion really. That that's sort of bone structure. And now getting my my hand, the base of the hand-drawn using that sort of half a pickle barrel structure. Again, this will be a top view. And getting my center line in place. So you can see that center line as favoring one side, so it's not directly in the middle. I can loosely indicate some tubes. Notice how I didn't really draw the bottoms of those ellipses for the the tubes. Really just showing the top. So we've got our thumb moving off there. And now getting that overlapping of the top of the hand, how that goes over the thumb. Very important to get that that shows the, you know, what's, what's on top and what's on bottom. Some eggs shapes to indicate the knuckles. And now I'll finish off the first section of the fingers. Using that sort of gesture we talked about. I can throw some eggs there for the next knuckles and so on. But notice to how the back of the hand, that base of the hand is wider than the forearm. Okay. Remember that's all part of it. So were the forearm comes in and it meets the hand that's going to bulge out a little bit there. So we'll we'll get skinnier as it moves into the forearm. So I've got that as well. And just to indicate that wrist, I'll I'll color-code everything again. So we have a clear visual. The different sections going on here for this particular perspective of the hand. So you can see we're adding layers. We're, we're getting more and more detailed. The yet everything simplified. Do you know what we're getting these basic forms and shapes to help us out. So we've got that own a bone there which is on the pinky side. Remember that radius bone would be on the thumb side. So just gone up and around. So flaring out there as we get to the side of the hand. And we're going to basically, basically go around that tube. So that little curve there would help show the volume of that forearm. And everything I'm doing now is basically trying to show and indicate volume and such. Alright, I think I will add a few more tubes here for the fingers just to again, give it a little more context. And notice the square ending on that little pinky there to really give it that feeling that it's curling and you know the direction of it. Now look at the stagey here. If you are an ant coming down the forearm, walking, there you go. Here's your stage down. Okay, there's our knuckle. So if you're taking that journey, you would go, you would come down, up and over, and then down again. Here we go, we to the finger and then across the finger, up and over and on down with your journey. So very important, I'll do that one more time, moving in to the pinkie. So there we are coming down that tendon over the knuckle, down again to the pinky around the knuckle, peeking around the null. So that's that. So hopefully you have a little more information there about understanding the wrist, how the forearm comes in and attaches. So it doesn't just end abruptly. It actually kinda wedges into it, the base of the hand. And here you can see that journey I'm taking up and over, down around the knuckles and so on. So important to fill the volume of things when you're drawing them because you can't really see them and photos, but there you go. And I will see you in the next one. 20. Masters Examples: First thing I'll point out is we have this idea of the elbow is down. And we can see the curve of the forearm moving up. So we got this sort of gesture with the forearm. Also. Lets have a look at this sort of round tube idea. So we have a tube, a tapering too for that forearms. So if we look at that forearm, and I'm not great handling the digital pen, but I'll do my best here. So we've got this sort of tapering to moving off or the forearm. Okay. So it's not straight because that is a good starting point, but we want it to be similar and get a shape that actually needs less refinement. So that's that tapering tube we're talking about. Now let's look a little bit closer here. This look at this one right here. So remember the overlapping idea. So if we had this forearm that comes down and notice how there's a subtle line right there that indicates in suggests that that hand, this part of the hand is in front of the thumb. So as moving up through here, like so. And then our thumb tapers off this way. So I'm going to remove that real quick. So you can see what I'm talking about. Also. Let's look at this idea of the wedge. So I'm gonna go to a red actually. So remember this forearm comes down. And then the risk starts in here and then moves into the hand. So we have that sort of wedge here. Now I feel like that's all suggested quite a bit in those and some of that shading. So I'm going to just highlight that a little bit more here and then we'll, I'll erase it so you can see what I'm talking about. So wedge coming down and again in here. And that's a really nice flow from an connection from one body part, which is the forearm. The forearm comes down. We had the wrist, but then we know that it steps down and wedges that those wrists, wrist bones into that. Let's remove that now and we'll see that a little more clearly. So again, a lot of this is subjective things and then we can know without talking to the artists, it's difficult, if not impossible, to know. This is a fact, the things I'm sharing with you, but I think we can at least take some of the ideas I've shared with you and we can see how perhaps some of them were applied. And if not, we can still see evidence of some of these ideas and the drawings, whether they use them or not. This liquid, the lumping. So this coming across the same arm here, I'm going to switch to a yellow or yellow, red. I'm actually gonna go more yellow here or green. And then I'm going to go on to change my pen size for just a second. So let's look right along that edge. All those lumps going over the wrist, over the knuckles. We can see that and the other ones as well. So if we look at this hand, we can see it going over the small part of the finger and then over. And now we'll switch to this one. And we get to the risks are up and over and then down. So these are all wonderful reinforcement. And we can take from this and really see some of these things and action and how other artists, perhaps you used them. It's really fascinating. Looked to the shape of this finger. And it just really tapers down into more of a and we get that that sort of tip going on. With that fingerprint, the fingertips I look to down here must switch back to my yellow. And then let me get a slightly bigger brush that we get the lumping lumping going around the media that hand, the thumb, all of these joints and then here and look at how that thumb ended. That thumb projects up. So we're getting up and we're going over, over the the padding right here. That padding, the padding. I'll we can see a golden or that kind of the padding underneath here and then going around that joint there. So again, that's that staging of the hand. That's so important how it goes up and around the knuckles and the different joints. And then how it also, you know, stages from the forearm to the risks to the fingers. There's there's always that getting thinner or thicker depending on which way you go. So that's a good one to learn from this. Go to the next one. 21. Masters Examples Continued: All right, I believe a Michelangelo here, and we're going to focus on the same thing. Look out some of these structures and gestures and see what we can take from it. First thing we'll do is turn our attention to the thumb. So this is a really good example of how boxy some structure option can be. But look how it goes up and over the knuckles, up and over the knuckles. And he elected to use that square ending for the thumb. But look how it kinda goes out like a spoon and heads up given lumps on the palm. Again, how it goes around the meat of it. I think very exaggerated, perhaps not really true to form and a life-like sense. But I think the exaggeration for this particular model is, is good because we know we're getting that sense of the muscles and stuff. So here, just looking at those three sections of padding on the palm of the hand, you can see how prominent they are here and how their structure. But imagine if you're going up and over that structure, you know, up and over the padding down into the palm of the hand. And then back up and over the padding as we get to the thumb. So a feeling that form is what's so important. If you just draw what you see without really paying attention to the form itself and the volume of it, then it's easy to get lost. But if you pay attention to the volume and the feeling of the forum, then you really get a better sense for what's happening. Right now we're going to again, go back to the thumb and look at that squareness and look how it really stages down and to the fingernail. And that's even more prominent when we look at the other drawing, which we will talk about in a second. But for now, just really getting that the meet under the thumbnail and that kind of flaring out is so important, so characteristic of the thumb and V ever hand-drawn feed or a few ever draw feeder Get into that. The big toe is very similar. Just to highlight that shape, I'm going to go around in orange. Just to really show you the form and structure of that. But pretty good stuff here. Now let's go to the other drawing and here's where we see it. You know, it's going to deform, comes down a humps over that wrist and then it goes back down into the hand. But notice how the pointer finger, and this particular example is actually kinda gone up. So a set of the finger kinda dropping down. We get to the base of the hand. Instead of going down into the fingers, the first phalanges, it actually goes up, which contradicts what I've been teaching you, but you have to understand it. The fingers bent, if the finger bends up like that at the end of the base of the hand that you're not going to get it. Now going over some of the padding on the finger. So you really see that lumpy padding. And then notice to that nice squareness and flaring out of the thumb. So now just filling out the contours, filling out the different joints, how they're how they're connecting and coming in. So we get that structure of the forearm coming in, a tube that sort of tennis side to us. But I want to indicate a kind of moving towards us a little bit. And then again, kinda getting the structures in there that we've learned. So sometimes just drawing over these masters works is a great way to reinforce some of the things you're learning to see how other artists use them. So, and now does going around the squareness of the thumb again, going over those big humps at the knuckles, feeling the meat of that thumb as it joins the base of the hand. So good stuff in this one as well. I think there's a lot to take from it, but anyway, that's what I wanted to share with you in this one and now we'll move on to the next one. 22. Masters Example Continued: Okay, so with this one, we can take a lot from this sort of gesture of the right here going over the knuckles. And then we get those tendons that move down and then back over, back over or fess up and over there, that wrist and then back down again, that knuckle there where we're seeing a little bit of a rise. I'll go to the very end here. We're going up and over, up and then back down. So we're getting that little bit of a staging going on. Look at all the padding here underneath, but look at those construction lines to all of those indicate the direction, the direction that tube of the finger is heading. So let's erase that for a moment. And we can see some of that, those construction lines being used. So that's that tube idea. We can see it too and the thumb for certain. So remember that the risks we can see, you know, if you look at that shading and all of these lines here, they all suggest to buy via. But remember, we've got the bone of the thumb starting here and then we get to this knuckle and then there's the second one. And then we'd get this third one. Now that a pointed that out. And let's look at those construction lines and the thumb. And this is interesting because I talked about that fingernail. And the fingernail, we have this and then we had that cuticle would like that. And so with the thumb or any any sort of any of the digits, the fingers or thumb. If the tube is moving away from us. I suggested that we use the cuticle in that particular setup. And because it gives a more of a flow to the direction we need to go. But you can see here that this particular fingernail on the thumb is rounded here. And It comes back up and we flare out a little bit, and then we get to the top of the fingernail. So clearly, the artists chose to do a more realistic rendering, which is fine. But if you look closely, I mean real close, you'll see suggestions of shading and detail that do that. So even though this was there, there's a small little wrinkle and there's shading is, is that stroke is darker than everything else. And that tells me that the artist is trying to reinforce the direction of that thumb that is heading away from us. So again, we can see that construction line here. We can see it moving around the knuckles here. And we can see it a course on the end. And we can even see it right through here, through some of that shading, how that tube is moving away from us. So now let me erase that. And then you can see what I mean by right in here. So that little bit of light on the left-hand side of that fingernail, then looping up and then go on up and around. That way. Again, I think that reinforces the tube idea and we can see that very clearly here. So we have to, we have to, this is all padding underneath as getting bunched up so as wrinkling. And then of course this one's getting hidden. So that is a great, I think, emphasis on using cubes. But also artists chose to do something more realistic. But you see it in this thumb too, but that straight line right there, somos curving this way because that is the direction that tube is heading. So it's almost this moving slightly away from us, slightly away from us. Where this tube, okay. This is moving more towards us. And then it starts to move away. And then it kind of bends Alice. We've got pressure holding something there, so it's the end of the finger is bending out. But even though the fingernails are rendered a little more accurately, there's still a a reminder through the details and shading. Which way that direction is going. Let's look at that forearm, big tapering tube here. So coming in coming in foreshortened obviously. But look at all of these construction lines that emphasize which way that's common. So that's, that's kind of interesting to see how this wrist, how this goes underneath the wrist, and all of this is in front of that. So that is bending around. But, you know, we remember that staging where we go here, step down, across and then up and over. We can see that here too. So we're going around that wrist and then we're going back this way, suggesting gone down into the base of that hand on top of it. And then down into here and then up and over. So all good stuff. You can see this finger. You can see all of that is in front of on top of that thumb. Ok, so the thumbs on, on top of this, all of that suggests and the way this is overlapping that the side of the finger. Okay, so this is our phalanges here. Phalanges and we get into the metacarpal was, but all of this is suggesting, and this is the base of the hand here. So that would be our missing some of that there. That's okay. That would be our base of the hand, which is all in front. We see the side of it, which is in light. And then this is connecting to it, but it is clearly underneath the form. So let's erase that so we can have a look at it. So all good stuff to take here. We can even see through the highlights on this one how the side of the hand is here. Okay, so we're getting errors are bowed, bulging box, moving off this way and perspective. So there it is. And then a wrist joins. And then this triangular shape for the thumb. And then we had that spoon shape. And then it goes like that. So again up and over. So coming down here, up and over, up and over. That's the meat of that thumb right in here coming down. And again, we can see evidence of all of that. And this one. So another great learning tool here with this image. 23. Masters Examples: Let's have a look at Michelangelo here, I believe. And kind of a side note here, maybe a little bit off topic. But Michelangelo was famous and these Renaissance painters and drawers and artists were, they use a lot of these eggs, shape forms, very round features and contours. And even the volume metrics of what they did were, again, very egg-shaped and round look-in. But as we look past that, looked through it and kind of look at the sum of the construction lines and ideas he used. We'll turn our attention here to the one on the right. So no other place to start then probably the forearm. So again, getting past some of the X-shaped forums that are really laid on top of the structure. There is a more of a finishing detail. We can see this tapering tube idea. And it's actually very square towards the end. But we can see that kinda roundness obviously in the and the right side of the forearm. But we had that sort of thing to latch onto. So we've covered that tapering tumor, the forearm. And now let's look at the curvature of the fingernails and then have a look at that thumb rather and see how that stages down. So it starts out at the base, very wide, very thick, and then it will taper with each section of the thumb. So we talked about that. And even the thumb is going to taper down a little bit. To kinda illustrate that. I'll use by a red marker basically. And obviously I'm doing this digitally and go around the contour. So we can see that, that staging effect and notice to the tube, the tube idea of how the, when we look at the, the wrinkles, the fingernails. And really you can see even the artists elected not to draw the cuticle. And it was a very, very much or actually did draw the cuticle and left out the bottom of the thumbnail. But, you know, stages down and those edges and all the way it was drawn, all reinforces the idea that thumb is heading away from us. Now overall enough, basically illustrating the same thing. So this thumb is very, very square. And I think that's squareness. Compliments a lot of the roundness of the muscles and whatnot. So I think there's a good balance between those egg shapes and kinda those hard edges. But here you can see the tapering forearm coming in, the staging down of the thumb wide at the end of the metacarpal and then the two phalanges, how they taper and they, did they taper even more so because the thumb is heading away from us. So we're getting that sort of perspective. Now here notice and that wrist area, how there's a little bit of shading that goes up into it. And that's a connection feature, so that helps connect the forearm to that hand. And rather than stopping abruptly, there is a little bit of shading there and has done very delicately with us a way to connect the two features. So that's, that's a skill that require some time. But then we discussed some of those ideas about using the tendons and things of that nature, but using lightened shadow just any sort of way to bring those connections up. So here we can see it here on the meat of that thumb, how it comes down and then flows into that forearm there. So those are those tendons we talked about in the thumb that help articulated both moving backwards and coupling. So those are again, some of those details are laid on last, you know, after we get that base structure down, light and shadow, we didn't talk much about in this course, but I will introduce an intermediate hand drawing course later on. But for now, we're just covering the basics. So let's look at how that thumb, the wedge of that thumb, flows and overlaps the base of the hand. So it really tells you that thumb as in front. And here you can see the side plane of that thumb. So it knows, it's not obvious. But when I erase this and we start looking at some of the line work and the drawing. You can see how it's very squared off and done so and are probably intentionally because the artists wanted to, first of all, show that there is a side plane to it, a top plane maybe in this case. And then the under plane, and then how it overlaps, it goes in front of those fingers. So remember I talked about the thumb belongs more to the bottom palm of the hand. And where the upper hand or the base of the hand really is, belongs to the fingers. So from this perspective though we can see the thumb is clearly closer to us, so it's over top of those fingers. So I thought the artists did a good job of bringing that forward there. And we can see it a little more on the hand on the right as I add a little bit of shading around that thumb, it's the same thing that thumb is closest to us. There is a line, a contour line. That thumb that GSS goes up and over and in front of the hands. And of course the palm contour, the palm is there as well. Just to give it that perspective, very important, you know, to think about, you know, how, what's in front of the next. And here I'm just squaring off the thumb just to illustrate really what I feel when I look at that in terms of a structure, you know, it's very squared off. And Aki, especially when you start to compare it to the muscle structure. You know, it's very egg-like and round. But anyway, I think those are some really good lessons and ways to look at this particular drawing and to kind of bring forward a lot of the things that we have talked about. So let's look at this tube structure and this up the fingers that are moving from us, getting near this base of the hand, I'm going to draw through the thumb here. So I'm pretending that thumb doesn't exist. And just to get the point across, I'm gonna do it off to the side. And we'll see how I'm interpreting that hand, the base of the hand so that three by four structure that we've talked about. So if I had to draw that in this perspective, you know, the bottom where it connects to the risk would be closest to us. And then the top of that base of the hand is moving away from us in space. So it's starting to kind of narrow and gets smaller. And then those fingers are all kind of bending or knuckles that could be knuckle are bent and then kinda cupping a little bit because we can fingers on the right hand side, but just analyzing that a little bit and trying to just feel the structure of the base of the hand. And that's the hard thing to do. Sometimes when you're in a pose, or you have a pose where there's certain things are hidden because other elements are in front of it. But if you had the knowledge and you understand the basic shape and structure of things, you can still see through the form and visualize what that particular volume is doing. What you know, what does that structure doing? Even though we can't see it? So you get little hints and you use those hints as a starting point. He kinda fill in the blanks. So here I'm gonna go back to this square boxy connection of the forearm and look how that comes up beautifully into that big egg shape of the forearm. But that is the connection point, so important to put the hand and context. And using that forearm is such a valuable resource to do it. That's why I included the forum in this course because you really want a sense of what the forearm is doing. And that's going to help you really get a feel for the hand and the movement through the body. So yeah, here, just fill in that form out again, just going over these ideas a little bit of time, learning as much as I can from, you know, how this artist, Michelangelo, a very, a master at what he did and just, you know, an incredible draftsman. But just feeling his destructure and trying to understand how the knowledge I have and I've shared with you about structure and how these things could have possibly been used for this particular drawn. But, you know, again, there's, there's not much information out there on exactly what happened, but we can kind of look at the drawings and interpret them in a way that makes sense to us. But yeah, just fill in the box easiness of the the the base of the hands, trying to understand how the fingers are working off of that base. And then of course the connections and to the wrist and forearm. So all good stuff there a lot we can take away from this particular drawing. I think studying these masters and doing drawings decided drawing over it. Trying to feel the forms and the shapes are just a great, great learning tool and a way to enhance your knowledge. So I'll do that one more time just kinda starting with the forearm, both sides filling the squareness of it. And knowing that that's, that's the starting point for the hand. And then we move out from there. So that drawing a tube, you know, that sort of box shaped things that are structurally there and then trying to get a feel for how they work. So I definitely feel the tube and the forearm, the upper forearm, I should say, and definitely gets that square box Yunus towards the end. That would do it for this one. And I will see you in the next one. 24. Gesture Project Preparation: We are about to begin your projects. The first one will be gesture. I know this course focused a lot more on structure, which is should, because structure is really about drawing the parts. But gesture is about capturing that big movement, that big idea that hopefully incorporates multiple parts. So I thought before we move into the project for gesture, I wanted to take an image here and go over exactly what I mean by gesture. And hopefully these examples will clear up any confusion you may have. And we'll begin by using the hand on the right. And I'm going to disregard the thumb. I'll pretend that's not even there. And I'm going to use a gesture line that sweeps from the pointer finger all the way down into the forearm. And that connects one to three parts. The forearm, the base of the hand, and the fingers. Again, this is only just one option, but I love it because it captures and incorporates multiple parts with only one line ideal. Another option would be to focus more on the fingertips. So coming from the thumb all the way around to the pinkie. So I could use that as a starting point or a main gesture for drawing the base of the hand and the fingers. Of course, drawing it like this wouldn't incorporate the forearm, but it would be an excellent option if our only again focusing on the base of the hand and the fingers. Another option is to maybe think about the thumb. So using the outside of the thumb as a gesture curve. So a longest axis curve. And then maybe I could come across the top and do another long curve. Those two combined would give me a good starting point for drawing the base of the hand and the fingers and thumb. Again, they don't incorporate the forearm. So let's go back to incorporating the forearm, hand, and finger. So there's our nice sweeping curve and then I can add another one. So the top gesture line going across the fingertips will be the outside curve if our thinking about the base of the hand. So if I looked at the base of the hand where it meets the risk, that will be the inside of that curve. So I'm using two longest axis curves to give me the really good starting point and gesture lines for drawing the hand. But you may feel comfortable doin just one gesture line. So here it is, one gesture line, and that's perhaps all the information you need to start adding your structure over top of it. And that's perfectly fine. Sometimes artists just like one long gesture line. Sometimes they'd like a series of three or four gestures. But again, using one and then starting to add structure over top of it would be perfectly fine. So anyway, that's just a few options to think about in terms of. Finding gesture lines that are functional and work. But now let's talk about a gesture line that perhaps would be incorrect or not ideal. I will begin by drawing a curve, a gesture line, I should say here. So what's wrong with that? It does connect one to three parts. But when we look at what is capturing and how it's turning to the inside. There's another curve on the outside of that, which captures the same thing. And the thing about it is that long sweeping curve is going to be a better option than picking the inside of it. So always try to look for the longest sustain curve and not the shortest. Let's turn our attention to the other hand and arm. So coming along the outside of that arm, again, the left-hand side would be the outside. And because it's curving up and to the right, the Saad on the right would be the inside Dhaka go along the outside of that forearm and then kinda cut through that hand up and to the middle finger. So in that case I'm incorporating the contour or the edge on the left of the forearm, but I'm slicing through the middle of the hand. Now that's not ideal because now you had to go back and figure out how much is on the left-hand and the right-hand side of that curve, but it is certainly doable. So let's say you didn't want to do as much. Maybe you wanna take a smaller chunk and just focus on the base of the hand and the fingers. So you can incorporate the pointer finger all the way down to the wrist, that would be the outside. So you will be getting queued chunks. And then the curve, the inside curve or gesture would be the pinky finger. Obviously you wouldn't want to use that as your gesture line the inside, but the outside will be perfect and that would give you a feel, a great starting point to add the rest of the details. So sometimes working in small chunks, people are more comfortable with other times and it may make more sense, but other times you can incorporate a little bit more. But let's say I go with the original idea. So I'll start with that middle finger. Lead that kinda S down towards the forearm, the al-Assad edge. And then I use an outside gesture for the fingers. So the inside gesture would probably be at the wrist for the fingers. But if I started with something like that, that will be fine. I just have to know what that gesture line represents. So once I get my gesture lines in there, then he can start to render out structure. And the structure would be placed along that fundamental design line. Remember the fdl? The fdl is important because as basically a gesture line that incorporates the main flow of all the other parts. So you're basically taking that fundamental design line and then adding your structure over top of it, using it as a guide to place them. And that's the beauty of gesture. That's the beauty of using fundamental design lines. And in any case, you had to use gesture as a starting point. And that's why we're going to start our first project with gesture. Hopefully this video cleared up any uncertainty you may have had. 25. Gesture Project Reel: Welcome to your first project. And this one we will focus only on gesture. This is not about adding any sort of structure, two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes. You are talking long flowing curve lines. Each pose is 30 seconds long. That's about all the time. You need to take a moment, look at the image, liquid the hand, and try to see if there's a lovely gesture line you can use to include both the forearm, the risks, the hand and possibly some fingers. Now there may be a long gesture line that connects the forearm and hand and fingers, but there may also be other gesture lines that indicate the knuckles, the ends of the fingers, and so on. So you could have potentially 1234 gesture lines for any particular one. The idea is that you only do one hand. So there may be an image that has multiple hands, just pick one only. I will remind you that the gesture line as the longest axis curve. So when you're looking at your hose, your model, be sure to not do the inside of the curve, but the outside, the outside is always going to be the longest unit. And when there are five seconds left, you'll you'll get a notification that sounds like this. So you're about to end and get the next one going. Again, use one gesture only, that's fine. The idea is you want to get used to gesture, understanding that it exists and as basically a starting point, okay, very important that we do that before we consider structure. Here is an example of what a mind. So when you're done with this particular project, I'm going to complete the project. So you have something to compare your work. 26. Robert's Take Gesture Project: Alright, welcome to my take on the gesture project real. The elbow is down, so that means the forearm is going to curve up a little bit as it approaches the wrist. And, or shall I say the wrist, it will curve up towards the knuckles and then back down towards the fingertips. So that's my main gesture line. And then I'm adding a gesture line for the ends of the fingertips. And that's just kind of a little bit of extra on dawn just to give us some context, the elbow is pointed out so that from the forearm down it's going to curve. So I've got that curve. That's going to be the main and gesture line. From there, I'll just add a gesture line for the fingertips. And just to give us some context so you know what's happening. I'll add a little bit here of the thumb. And then you can kinda see where I was at with that one. Alright, so pretty easy stuff. So this forearm is heading up. We can't really see the elbow. I've got it all cropped off but that's okay. So a tapering tube heading up, so gesture line moving up and around the palm of the hand. So that's going to be the outside of the curve. If you look on the right-hand side of the hand, that is a almost a right angle there. So obviously the outside or top of the base of the hand and fingers is going to be your main gesture. For this particular one, I elected to come down the right hand side of the forearm that's going to be on the outside of the curve. You can see the inside of that forearm is almost a right angle, again, a reverse L. And I brought the gesture line down into the fingertips, the pointer finger. So I'm basically cropping off the thumb there. And I felt like that would give me a good gesture line and then I went to the outside of the fingers. So I just did the inside of the forearm to give some context there. For this one, elbow will be down. So that forearm is pretty straight from that angle. But I've got the main gesture line curving slightly up and to the, to the left. And then I've got the gesture line for the fingertips down. And I'm just going to give it a little context here by adding the thumb see kinda see where I'm at with my gesture. Elbow heading up, pointing up. So that curve to the forearm is coming down. That's going to be the outside, the longest axis gesture line. From there it's going to come down and then go right into the pointer finger there. So that is a one sweeping gesture line that captures three parts. Most of my gesture lines all captured. I think two to three, if not, I think three parts. So I'll just add the curl of the fingers there into the thumb. And here's a look at my assignments. So hopefully, you know, my take on this helps you out a little bit, give it gave you a little more insight into gestures. And at least you have something to compare your work too. And there's really no right or wrong. Hopefully we just get that longest curve in there and that will help us add our structure later on. 27. Structure Preparation: For your structure project, I wanted to give you a little preparation here. I've covered a ton of ideas that are gonna help you structure it, but I want to be clear on what you can do. As you think about as you approach this assignment. Now, there are a lot of layers that I've given you in terms of structure. Remember everything starts with a, with a gesture line. So for example, if I were looking at this particular subject and you may want to bring the gesture line down, something like this. And, and then down into that forearm. So maybe a gesture line will be this sort of S curve. Now that S curve, I would, it would be advantageous to, and I'm going to switch colors real quick here. There'll be advantageous to use an edge. So like for this forearm, you've got the edge over here. And then as a S's, maybe it'll be better to bring it up that middle finger like that. Okay. So I will do that one more time. So again, bringing it up the al-Assad gives me a good reference point. And I can just bring it up that the pinky too, I could, I could do something like that. So maybe, you know, doing this sort of thing is a good starting point for my gesture. Again, that's the, that's where we always begin. Now when it comes to structure, I can take this and say, all right, if this is kinda where my wrist is going to begin, I can go ahead and start lean in this sort of tube down here. That's going to represent the forearm. And remember that the forearm of giving you a lot of ideas, I give me the sort of the tapering tube. I also talked about using that to Bob for ending. Sometimes that works pretty good and we get this sort of ball, you know, shape, egg shape at the forearm. But in this case, maybe bringing the forearm down And then maybe do want a little egg shape. I mean, that's pretty good. And then we're going to look at what direction is that forearm going. So in this case, I'm going to say it's hard to tell, but I want to go ahead and say is moving away from me. So as we approach the hand here and the wrist, then we'll structure the base of the hand now with the base of the hand, remember I gave you this idea of a bulging box. So maybe that's a good starting point. So I can take this hand and that bulging box and we're gonna put it in perspective. So it is basically going to go away from us like that. But we got the palm of the hand and it's actually cut a little bit, so it's sort of cut in the middle like that. And then we've got the top of the hand. So looking at that, maybe. I'm just using this idea of a bulging box and perspective is all I need. So I can do something like that as my starting point. And then the member that bulging box has sides, it has a certain depth to it. And then also I talked about how that bulging box can be tapered. So maybe it's a little bit thicker here at the palm. And then it tapers as it moves towards the base of the fingers. So you can use depending on where you're at with this. So if you're a very beginner and you all would recommend, obviously you start with a gesture and just kinda keep it simple at first. Keep it this sort of bulging box. Like so. And then say, all right, well the thumb comes off, but I can't really see that triangle where it comes all because in this perspective that thumb is moving towards us. But gave you that idea of when we draw a hand from the side that we can kind of use this egg shape and the thumb. Noah's moving off this way. And this case is moving the opposite way. But you can easily come in here and do that sort of egg shape. So that egg shape is in this direction. And then you have your two. So you have your two of the thumb heading this way for the finger. And then we had that sort of idea where it gets really big. So we know that thumb kinda curls, remember, like that. And that's what's happening here. So that thumb and maybe I want to curl my fingernails this way to indicate that the tube is heading that way. So that that would be a really good starting point. And then obviously, we can go back to the fingers. Remember the middle finger? It's about the same distance from the base of the hand to here. Now, obviously, this hand is in perspective and then the fingers are curling. C can just estimate really about where that would be. So if I wanted to draw my arc in here, and then I would say, okay, well, this is about the middle of the hand here. And then I can start to lay in my fingers. Whenever I'm laying in a tried to look at what's closest to me in so this finger is closer to me, so I would probably ought to. I'll draw that 1 first because the other ones are overlapping. So you can get in here and then start drawing your tubes to do that. And maybe you want to mark this sort of curve for where the bins are. But anyway, the idea is, start simple. You know, everybody is at a different learning point. Everyone has a certain amount of experience and everything that you're bringing in. But the key is you don't feel alike. You have to render everything and get every single idea down the page. So when you do your assignment, I always recommend start with the basics. You know, start with this idea of the gesture line. So this sweeping sort of thing gets your forearm men, because that's where everything connects. Try to figure out which way that tube is heading. And then from there say, OK, well, you know, there's a lot of information, so I'm just going to sort of try and do everything. I'm going to just focus on this sort of bulging box idea like this. And maybe just focusing on the fingers only maybe in this case that thumb is giving me problems. So I'll just focus on getting these tubes of the fingers going and do that. And remember, with the fingers. We talked about that Pupienus, that padding underneath. And we've talked about a lot of things getting drawing them. So instead of doing all of the circles and kind of left with this kinda confusion about which way the finger is gone. We talked about like studying and only a drawing, what u is actually actually visible. So maybe that's a good starting point for the fingers. So you can really just looking at the wrinkles and the folds in the fingers. So when we look at how these folds are, that'll tell you which way the tube is heading. And that will tell you exactly what you need to know. And then, you know, this is coming up. And then we had this fold in here, and then we had the fingertips. So remember everything stages. So we get a big tube. We get a slightly smaller two, and then we get an even smaller tube for the fingertips. And remember the fingertips can be done in this sort of bullet ending. And then the next stage would be maybe to taper it up. And then if the tube is heading, this direction, may be, you know, Dawn the tip of it, curbing with that direction. And then down, we can square it off a little bit. It comes up a little bit there. So as flat as stages up through, there's a bunch of levels of structure that I have given you. And the key is to not try to do all of it, is to get a simple idea once simple starting point, and then get comfortable with it and then build, build upon it. And then that way you're not overwhelmed because you don't want to get overwhelmed. And then feel like, you know, you have to do everything because you really don't. When I'm doing my exercises and I do my structure assignment, I actually simplify a two. I mean, I can't get through all of these. All of the structure that we've talked about. But the key is to do a little bit and then add to it. So once you start feeling comfortable with this, a particular idea, then add the next thing to it. And then of course, you want to go back on your own and take as much time as you need to follow through and to add the layers of detail and information onto it. So that's just my cake on structure. How you could approach it. And again, if your structure is nothing but this idea of a tube, tapering tube coming up and then maybe you're bulging box for the hand. So something like that. That that's all it needs to be, is just understanding that part of it. And then as you get comfortable, then you can say, okay, well I'm going to now start adding these fingers and really start to break it down. How the padding underneath the fingers work, how they overlap each other, and so on. So, you know, again, don't, don't overwhelm yourself. Take a, take small chunks. And then as you get comfortable, go back, watch a lesson about the hand or the base of the hand, how things connect and then start adding to it. Okay, so that's again my advice. Good luck, and I'll see you in the assignment where I will do the same structure Real is used, so that'll give you something good to compare what your dawn too as well. So I'll walk you through it. 28. Structure Project Reel: Welcome to your assignment. We'll, in this one there are a series of 3-minute poses, focus on gesture and structure only. Basically you don't want to add any details unless you have time. Only focus on one hand, if the actual pose has two, there is a 10-second notification that sounds like this. So we hear that and know that this pose is about who ends. And the next one we'll begin. Don't feel like you have to finish your drawing. This is all about taking time to observe and get the basic idea. This isn't about rendering finished artwork. If you wish to finish some of these, you can always go back later and finish them if you need more time to get your basic gesture instructs your ideas down, then feel free to do so. If you're confused about what I mean, this is a good example of what a gesture and structure drawing may look like. Very little details are rendered. The idea is that you look, observe, and react to what you see. So good luck. And your first pose begins. Now. 29. Robert's Structure Project: Welcome to my structure assignment project. I'm going to start with the same thing I recommend to everyone. And that is my gesture line. Once I've got that gesture of the forearm and there I will indicate the direction of that tube. I've got a little bit of a square ending there at the end of that forearm. And now I'm going to use that gesture line to add my base of the hand. And so that sort of a bulging box idea. But it tapers. Notice how it's a little bit thinner towards the base of the wrist where it meets the risks and then it gets a little bit wider or thinner rather as it comes towards us desk, that'll be a little more prevalent on later on. Now the fingertips, the gesture of the fingers will curve downwards. So the outside of the fingers, that top pointer finger will be the top gesture line for the fingers. And now I'm getting just a, a feeling of a line or gesture around the tips of the fingers. So I've divided that box and half the base of the hand and I can indicate my finger. So I know kinda Now how they're positioned, how they're spaced out, everything is going to fit inside that box. I will get a triangle node coming off the end there for the thumb. I'm not sure how much of that I'll be able to render, but for now, I'm just going to focus on one thing at a time. Remember, this is not about trying to create a finished drawing. This is just simply about focusing on one idea. Now I'm just feeling things out. I'm trying to get a feel for the knuckles, all the different joints where they're going to end, where the others begin. I'm going to start with the tube of the finger, the pinky finger, because that is closest to me. All the other ones will sort of overlap. So there are going to be, and this sort of angle, they're layered a little bit so that one is kind of tucked behind the other in this sort of, I guess, overlapping situation. So I've got the Picky in there and now it's pretty easy to go in and add the ring finger and the rest of the digits. I know that things get a little bit longer. I'm going to indicate a fingernail or two are fingertip. Just to get the direction going. As I get to this middle finger, I'm you can see how it's getting tucked behind the ring finger a little bit. So I'm going to try to pick up on that subtlety. And you see I had the tubes of the fingers heading towards us slightly. And That's going to give that feeling that the, that the fingers and the hand are pointed towards us. So this the simple direction of a tube sometimes and indicating that as all you need to really get a feeling for it. So yeah, that's that's pretty much all working pretty good at that point. So I've got the base of the hand, I've got the fingers coming out. And now you're not going to elect to focus on that a little bit more or I can move on to a thumb. I'm going to go down where the hand meets the wrist and willing to work on that connection. Some kinda get that where bulges down at the palm of the hand. And that's pretty much all the time I'll have there. So that completes that one for now. Again, it's not complete, but that's all the time I have. So I'll stop right there. Gesture line towards the right of the forearm. I'm going to indicate that tube coming towards us slightly. And then we get down to the hand. So you can see my gesture lioness only included the forearm, but now I see how that forearms can sweep down into the fingertips and you'll probably sweep down more into the middle finger than anything else. But I'm going to get the this sort of tuba for ending on the forearm. See, see how a square that off. And if you look at the shadow of that, you can see how boxy the end of that forearm Really. 30. Robert's Structure Project Continued: All right, welcome to my continued structure project here. So for arm coming down, not much of a gesture here. I could have easily taken it down the right-hand side of the forearm and maybe out to the pointer finger. But I decided just to go right with structure and just build off of that. And later on if I see a good gesture line, I can use it, which is like the knuckles. So the main knuckles at the base of the hand. I thought I could use that as a good gesture. So I've got the forearm kinda moving down away from us. That tapering tube structure idea. And now just working with the, you know, the palm of the hand and then out towards the fingers. So I'm feeling that out. I can see we can see the side of that, the base of the hand here. So that's a good opportunity to indicate that the lighting doesn't give us much to work with there. But, you know, if we had that light source coming from the back, that left-hand side of the side closest to us, the base of the hand would be in shadow and that would, that would be a really good indicator. But anyway, with some shading techniques and things like that, you can easily indicate the side. So I'm getting the base or the thumb, the wedge of the thumb. And there you can see I've I went ahead and put in the metacarpal, which is under the skin to say give me a good starting point. And then we're adding the rest or the phalanges there for the thumb as well. We're not seeing much of a curve with that thumb because of its kinda coming towards us or it's more of a top view, then it is a side view. So that's kind of indicated more with a spoon shape. For the thumb. Now a nice gesture line there, or you could think about it as a fundamental design line for the fingertips. And I've got the pointer finger that's closest to us. So that will be a good starting point for the fingers. I'm gonna go ahead and lightly put in the curvature of the knuckles as well. Again, filling out that wedge shapes. You see I've got that tapering going on now. As it gets to the from the wrist out towards the tip of the fingers. I'm gonna feel out that knuckle now and really feel like that those fingers or staging down in a pose like this, in a position like this, you can really see how those, that staging down from the knuckles to the fingers is there. So just some good stuff to work with there. And now getting to the fingertips, fingernails, electing to go with more of a sort of a curve fingernail that's going to help with the direction of that finger and how the tube is heading away from us slightly. And getting that kinda curve. That fingertip has a lot of pressure and at two how it is pressing into the floor. So the other two part of that to the middle finger is hidden. And we can see that sort of overlapping happening. And that's why I think it's so important to start with the finger that's closer to you seek and really include the overlapping action that's happening on goal with more of a square ending for the fingertips too. I think that helps a little more what the direction of things, but that's gonna be it for this one. Let's move on to the next one. As you can see, none of these are finished on. I don't even care about trying to finish these. This is all about doing what I can in the allotted time. If I wanted to do something more finished, then I'll was simply just take a photograph and do it and not be time. And the beauty of being timed is you have to look and think and get your, your idea down quickly. And a lot of times that is good. It's an impulse as you get away from details. And you're only looking at the big picture versus getting stuck on details. All right. So I've gotten the gesture of the forearm coming up and then out towards the fingertips, you can see a circle back to the structure of the base of the hand. That thumb is sort of you can see the overlapping happening mirror, how that index fingers coming down. And then you get that wrinkle or that skin that's over top of the thumb. So this is a really good one to show that overlapping. And how that thumb really, it's home is really underneath the palm of the hand and the palm of the hand region versus on top or joined with the top of the hand. That really isn't how it works, how it's structured. Alright, so we're not getting, we're getting a very, very smooth transition. As this thumb meets the wrist, we're not getting that nice curve where they meet. And that's just because the hand is slightly turned and we can't see that area of the thumb, but we got a nice ONE, a bone that's a really good feature to go up and around. And now I can circle back and start working on next structure, which will be the finger. Finger slightly kinda bet moving towards us from the knuckle to the first or should I say, from the base of the hand to the first knuckle. And then it kinda bends away from us a little bit. So getting that curve to indicate that and now moving up into the middle finger and we can see how that metacarpal phalangeal is much taller than the pointer finger asha and say much taller, but it's definitely taller than the middle and things kinda stage back down from here. So the ring finger is bit a little bit as tucked and curled. So we're not, that one will look even more. A little bit shorter, I should say. And then of course the peaky has completely curled over, so a tremendous arrange of movement. The fingers have and the hand in general, their wrist. So they can, they can contort and Ben And a lot of different directions, pretty amazing. I've got some extra time here, so I'll indicate the knuckles. And then we can see some of those tendons moving down the hand, especially the first two. The other two are in light, straight on so we're not really getting much there. But, you know, connecting connecting the fingers to the knuckles and knuckles to the base of the hand as tendons or such a lovely flowing detail that connect parts. That's that whole gesture idea, the whole fundamental design line idea. Where you get these long sweeping curves and flowing lines that can be used to connect things. But anyway, this was wrapping up and we'll head on to the last one. So Elbow up. Alright, so that forearm is swinging down. So we wanna get that subtle curve down. And then I'm going to, even though we can't see it quite as prominently, I'm going to have that tube heading towards us. And as we get to the end, anytime I can see that own a bone, again, that's on the pinky side. I liked to box it out because there really is very square that juncture. So you can see us, I elected to do that to Bob for sort of ending. And now I can start to join the base of the hand. So as you know now the, the base of the hand is that four to three ratio. But look how lovely we can see that wedge of the hand, how is thicker towards the palm of the hand and then tapers as it gets to the fingers. So we can really see that lovely wedge structure in this particular pose. So just trying to find the end of the base of the hand there. And then the cup that the, the base of the hand is coming. So it's kinda rounding out a little bit as those fingers curl towards us. So all of those, the padding underneath is starting to bunch up. And if I take some contour lines or if I take some lines and like run over some of this padding, like imagine you are an ant and you are kinda like crawling over it. And you would go in the palm of the hand, that cup of it and then back over some of that flesh. And that is protecting the palm of the hand. So if you're, when you're rendering this out and you see those wrinkles in the palm of the hand, you would definitely want to not just add the wrinkle, but know that as going up and around that form. So important to do that. So anyway, I've got the thumb in there. I want to circle back now and show you what I mean. So we're in the palm here and then we're back and over that hand. And then we go off to the side of the hand. So look how those wrinkles aren't just there for detail. They actually do a job. They, they really give you a feel for what's happening in that space. So now I've got a, the thumb in. We can see that even though that thumb is hidden, I drew through the form so pretended those fingers weren't in front of the thumb. And then I'm going to circle back now and then put the fingers back over the thalamus. So sometimes you can draw through your subject. So even though things are hidden or concealed, we can still, if you know a little bit about it, you can just pretend something is not getting obstructed in any way and just draw it out. And that's a good way to feel it out versus only drawing what you see. So we start to get knowledge about how things are constructed, then you don't have to see every single thing because as long as you understand what was what is Dawn and what some of the main structures are something that ICA stowed, put it in without seeing it. And drawing through the form like that sometimes is a great way to connect things. Because sometimes if you only draw what you see, then you get these kinda awkward looking shapes and forms. And they don't really connect to anything. They don't feel like they're joined to the whole they kinda feel very isolated. So that's why I elected to draw that thumb because I wanted to make sure that had a feeling of being connected. And then I knew I could come back over top and just erase it. And once I start putting in, you know, my, my fingers. So anyway, kinda of a complex hand here. It's a complex pose, but it's there for a reason to challenge you and to get you to think a little bit about your technique and how things are going. But anyway, that's going to pretty much wrap up my structure. Take a hopefully you were able to grasp a few things. I know I learned from it. I'm going to get better from it. And anyway, I'll see you guys in the next one. 31. Projects & Recap: Congratulations on making it this far. And no IS a journey to learn these ideas and techniques for drawing the hands. But you have to understand there's a lot to it. Hopefully, the methods I shared with you will simplify the process, brings him enjoyment to it and hopefully breakaway from that rigid, tight thinking. Obviously you want to complete the projects to get the most out of this course. If you do be sure to post them, I would love to see your work. Also, if you want to learn more about drawing the human figure, I have a wonderful course available, that link is in the description, so be sure to check that out. Again, I wanna thank you for your time and interest and what I'm sharing with you here. And if you ever have any questions, if you get stuck, feel free to reach out. That's what I'm here for. Take care and I'll see you next time.