HIIT in Football (Soccer) | Vladimir Kartashov | Skillshare

HIIT in Football (Soccer)

Vladimir Kartashov, Football Coach

HIIT in Football (Soccer)

Vladimir Kartashov, Football Coach

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16 Lessons (49m)
    • 1. Why HIIT?

      3:05
    • 2. Definition and History

      1:37
    • 3. Training Components

      5:16
    • 4. Rate of Perceived Exertion

      2:03
    • 5. Velocity at VO2max

      2:41
    • 6. Heart Rate

      4:58
    • 7. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test

      2:49
    • 8. First Part Summary

      2:36
    • 9. Physiological Params and HIIT Target Types

      3:07
    • 10. Long Intervals

      2:19
    • 11. Short Intervals

      5:09
    • 12. Repeated-Sprint Sequence (RSS)

      2:48
    • 13. Sprint Interval Training (SIT)

      1:11
    • 14. Game-Based HIIT

      3:42
    • 15. Game-Based HIIT Recap

      3:53
    • 16. Conclusion

      1:21
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About This Class

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Professional Introduction into the Science behind High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) in the context of Football (Soccer).

The first part of the course includes the overview of the following Methods for measuring HIIT intensities:

  • RPE

  • vVO2max

  • Heart Rate

  • Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT)

In the second part, you will cover five major HIIT Formats, including:

  • Long Intervals

  • Short Intervals

  • Repeated-Sprint Sequence (RSS)

  • Sprint Interval Training (SIT)

  • Game-Based HIIT (GBHIIT)

There is no prior scientific knowledge required as the information is processed and presented in an easily understandable way.

Meet Your Teacher

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Vladimir Kartashov

Football Coach

Teacher

Dear Football Lover,

My name is Vladimir and I live in Germany.

I have degrees in both Computer and Sport Science and try to do my best to expand and share my football knowledge with others.

Being the owner of the UEFA B License I work as an Academy Coach and Opponent Video Analyst.

The main area of interest is to connect Football Game with Science in order to improve the quality of modern approaches in Football Coaching and Development.

The classes I produce are based exceptionally on scientific sports knowledge and are considered to be concise and engaging. I hope you find them useful and look forward to meeting you inside the one or several of your choice!

Cordially yours,

Vladimir

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Transcripts

1. Why HIIT?: Hello and welcome to the High Intensity Iinterval Training course! In this course we're going to study the science behind the high intensity interval training and its particular application in the wonderful game of football. Why should we study HIIT? And how it can help us to improve our football performance? Let us first stop on football. Modern football is a combination of technical, tactical, and physical components. And all together they form performance. Let's take a look at how they're distributed. The most important component is the technical one, which comprises 45 percent of the whole performance Then goes tactical one with its 30 percent, and the physical one comprises just 25 percent. And here where the HIIT comes in. With the help of HIT we can improve just a quarter of the whole performance. It's not that bad actually, but if we compare to Triathlon, for example, where the physical component comprises 85 percent, the application of HIIT methods would be even of greater importance. But we are football practitioners aren't we? :) The physical component itself is subdivided into speed, strength, and endurance with endurance being the primary target of high intensity interval training. Let's take a look where different sports and most importantly football are allocated on the diagram. In weightlifting strength is obviously being the most important component, while in sprinting speed appears to be of the primary importance. As you can see there is not much we can do with HIIT in this sport arts. Cycling is one of the most appropriate HIIT sports with endurance being the crucial component. So where do you think is football located? Well, it's here, with endurance and speed being of great significance. Now I hope you definitely see a reason for studying HIIT. In this course, we are going to study the following HIIT methods: long intervals, short intervals, repeated-sprint sequence Sprint interval training and the game based HIIT, which is the most appropriate for football. And we will also consider the methods for measuring HIIT intensities including the rate of perceived exertion, maximal aerobic speed, heart rate, and 30-15 intermittent fitness test. But first of all, we will start with the definition and a short overview of a history. See in the next videos. 2. Definition and History: Let's start with the definition. HIIT is usually defined as an exercise consisting of repeated bouts of high-intensity work interspersed by periods of recovery. Nowadays sports scientists have justified, that performing such high intensity work intermittently, instead of continuously, causes more beneficial physiological adaptations. Now we are going to make a short dive in the history of HIIT Science. In the early 1900s long-distance runners well-documented performing high- intensity repetitions on the track just prior to winning olympic medals. But it wasn't until the 1950s when physiologists began describing HIIT responses in scientific journals. Team sports took hold of HIIT method in 1970s, where successful football coaches were witnessed using various forms of HIIT to prepare players. Today many top European football clubs have their own scientific labs, like the famous Milanello Training Center, which was the first institution fully devoted to sport-science and football. That's where HIIT is being started by various physiologists, biomechanists, statisticians and even technology support experts. They all study the science behind HIIT and we're going to do just the same by starting with the methods for measuring HIIT intensities. See you in the next videos. 3. Training Components: Before we proceed to the Methods for measuring HIIT intensities, I would like to dive a bit into human physiology. Physiology is important in order to understand how players body responds to a certain type of training. There are three training components. The first one is the aerobic component which shows how efficiently player's muscles can use the energy from the oxygen he gets from the air. Improvements in the aerobic component help football players to be able to sustain jogging and running throughout the whole duration of the game. The second one is the anaerobic component which shows how much energy player's muscles are able to store from the food he eats. Improvements in the anaerobic component help football players to perform a greater amount of sprints during the game. Both aerobic and anaerobic components can be classified as a so-called endurance components. The third component is the neuromuscular load which corresponds to the strength and power of player's muscles. Improvements in strength help players to perform at their best such actions as jumping or shots on goal. Working on strength training is the same as going to a gym. Unfortunately, strength component is almost outside the scope of this course. Let's now take a closer look at anaerobic and aerobic components. Here below we have the action duration and on the y-axis the percentage of total energy production. The red curve corresponds to the aerobic component, whereas the blue curve to anaerobic one. That being said, for short in duration and high-intensity actions like sprints, anaerobic component plays the major role. For longer actions like moderate running or jogging throughout the game, the aerobic component appears to be important. Remember that for enhancement in the aerobic component, football players will need specific cardiovascular adaptations in order to utilize oxygen more efficiently. This will help them to sustain the moderate running activities during the whole game. In order to improve the anaerobic component, players will need to exercise at high intensities and consume a lot of carbohydrates. Let's take a closer look at the aerobic component. Here player's muscles use the energy from the oxygen from the air. Player breathes in and the oxygen gets delivered to the lungs. Then oxygen travels to the heart which pumps the oxygenated blood to the arteries. Finally, arteries deliver oxygen to active muscles that are ready to utilize it. The better the fitness level of the player - the greater the amount of oxygen consumed by his muscles. The measure of oxygen consumption is called VO2max. An average football player has VO2max of approximately 40 ml/kg/min, whereas elite players have VO2max of around 70. Back to our graph, on the back route the deoxygenated blood goes back to the heart through the veins. And, finally, the deoxygenated air is breathed out. As a reminder, in a practical sense, the aerobic component helps our players to sustain the whole game. Enhancement in this component is achieved by specific cardiovascular adaptations in heart, arteries, and the muscle capillaries. Regarding the anaerobic component, players need to exercise at high intensities in order to improve the capacity of their muscles to store energy from the food in the form of glycogen. In addition to exercising, players need to eat a lot of carbohydrate-rich foods with, probably, some extra supplements like creatine or beta-alanine. In a practical sense, enhancement in the anaerobic component helps our players to perform more sprinting throughout the 90 minutes of a match. Regarding the neuromuscular load component, players do need to perform strength exercises in order to produce powerful instantaneous actions like shots on target or jumping. Do you remember that famous Ronaldo's goal against Sampdoria in December 2019? He was only able to do that because he goes to the gym and has very strong quadriceps muscles. Do not forget to consume protein after strength training and do not exaggerate! A lot of extra muscle mass will result in football-specific overweight and the consequent loss in player's speed. Football players should be strong but lean! If you'd like to get further insights about human physiology, I would recommend the exercise physiology book by McArdle, Katch and Katch. Okay, That's it for physiology! Let's now finally proceed to the Methods for measuring HIIT intensities! Keep going and see soon! 4. Rate of Perceived Exertion: Rate of perceived exertion or RPE, it's when the coach can simply instruct to his player: "now you are 4 min hard, with 2 min recovery intervals. The main word here is "hard". If you want to be more precise you can use the CR-10 Borg scale, where CR has nothing to do with Cristiano Ronaldo ;) So here, if you want your player to run hard, you can instruct him to run with 70 percent of his maximal power output and then it's up to him to decide on the velocity. There is also another one popular scale called 6-20 scale, where hard equals to 15 or higher. It doesn't really matter which scale you use, you can choose either of them. Let's now take a look at the pros and cons of RPE. Regarding the advantages, as you probably noticed, it's very simple to use method, that doesn't require any extra equipment. It can be of great advantage especially for non-professional football clubs. Secondly, there is no need to pre-test the player's fitness level because he regulates the intensity based on his own feelings. What about the disadvantages? By using RPE we rely exclusively on player's sincerity. Even so the majority of players are honest, there can be exceptions. But the main drawback is that sometimes high RPE values reported by players are not relevant to the physiological outcome of an exercise. For example, during all-out 200 meters run, the player will probably report that it was very hard for him, whereas the physiological response of such exercise remains very low. Okay that's enough for RPE. Next, we are going to review more precise methods for measuring HIIT intensities. See you in the next video. 5. Velocity at VO2max: In this lecture we're going to talk about vVO2max. It's basically just the speed associated with body's maximal oxygen uptake. Oxygen is the cheapest energy we can use when exercising. We get it from the outside air with the help of our lungs, where the oxygen is transmitted to the blood arteries. And the arteries transmit oxygen-rich blood to the muscles. vVO2max measurement is usually conducted in a lab, where the player runs on a treadmill and his running speed is constantly getting increased. Player's oxygen uptake is being measured every time he's running speed increases. Let's take a look at the example. The player is running on a treadmill at the velocity of 11 kilometers per hour. After some time we increase the velocity at 12 kilometers per hour. Then to 13 kilometers. Every time we increase the velocity, we keep measuring player's oxygen uptake. Units of measurement are milliliters on kg of body mass per minute. And at some point, we notice, that there is no increase in oxygen uptake between the last two running velocities. In this case the last training velocity is going to be player's vVO2max, which equals to 15 kilometers per hour for our first player. Let's say for our second player the maximum oxygen consumption and vVO2max are higher. It would mean, that our second player is of a better fitness level, than the first one. If you take another example where both players have the same oxygen consumption but vVO2max values, then the player with greater vVO2max is considered to be more efficient and economic because with the same level of oxygen consumption, he runs faster. Let's now consider the pros and cons of vVO2max method. First of all, this is a valid method, which represents not only players fitness level. but also his running economy. Regarding the disadvantages, vVO2max measurement should be conducted in the lab setting, which is not of a great convenience. This method is only suited for long intervals lasting more than two minutes with no consideration of anaerobic energy. Okay that's enough for vVO2max, I think. In the next video we are going to talk about the heart rate. 6. Heart Rate: Heart rate is the most commonly measured physiological marker used to control a measure exercise intensity in the field. Generally, we can say that the lower the heart rate - the higher player's fitness level, because stronger heart pumps more blood with one beat, so it needs fewer beats per minute to circulate the blood to all tissues in our body. There are several types of heart rate measurements: we can measure the heart rate during rest or we can measure it directly during exercise. Let's take a look at some examples. If a player decreases his resting heart rate from 70 to 60 beats per minute, that would mean, that he became fitter. If two players of the same age are exercising at a given velocity then the player with lower exercise heart rate is considered to have a better fitness level. I said of the same age, because we should always consider the exercise heart rate relative to maximal heart rate. For 20-year-old player the maximal heart rate will not be the same as for 30-year-old player. The formula to define a person's maximal heart rate is the following: maximal heart rate equals 220 minus age. Remember not to forget this formula when considering player's fitness level based on his heart rate. The heart rate should be collected and analyzed regularly throughout the season, in order to get a good insight into the player's health status and function. There are several factors to consider when measuring heart rate. First of all heart rate tends to increase at altitude. So measuring heart rate in mountains is not the same as measuring at the sea level. Secondly, we need to consider the weather, because heart rate tends to be higher in hot conditions. 10 percent drift in temperature roughly equal to 1 percent shift heart rate Another important physiological marker is heart rate variance, which can be defined as the amount of variation in intervals between heartbeats. If your resting heart rate is 60 beats per minute, it doesn't mean that your heart beats at one second intervals like a clock. It can be slightly less than a second between some two succeeding beats, and more than a second between some other two. Let's take a look at the example. Imagine we have four consecutive heart beats and three intervals between them, as shwon on the figure. Heart rate variance will be calculated as the average difference between the values of the intervals and will equal to 85 milliseconds in this particular case. In general, the higher HRV values - the better the physiological state of a player. Such disturbances as illness, stress or bad sleep all lead to low HRV values. Now we are going to take a look at the so-called heart rate lag phenomenon, where heart rate lags well behind the oxygen uptake response and current player's velocity. Let's say we have a graph with heart rate, speed, and time access. Imagine our player runs steadily at the speed of 13 kilometers per hour and his heart rate is 110 beats per minute. Then he increases his speed to 17 kilometers per hour and continues to run steadily with the new speed. In this case, the heart rate will not respond immediately and it will take some time for it to be adjusted to a new running in speed. This is in contrast to body's oxygen uptake response we studied previously, which increases immediately with the increase in players running velocity. The time it takes for heart rate to adjust to a new running speed is called the heart rate lag phenomenon and we should always take this into consideration when analysing the physiological profiles of our players. Regarding the heart rate measuring techniques, the wide availability of valid and portable heart rate monitors, specifically designed systems, and smartphone applications has substantially boosted the heart rate monitoring in football. Let's take a final look at the pros and cons of this method. Heart rate is a valid method that considers both aerobic and anaerobic contribution and it's easy to use nowadays, because of the availability of above mentioned measuring techniques. Regarding the drawbacks.. The minor one is that it should be considered relative to the Age. And the big one is that there is a heart rate lag response, which can put the real exercise intensity out of our sight. It is especially noticeable during short interval training session. Okay, that's it for heart rate! iIn the next video we are going to take a look at our first field test method. See you in a while. 7. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test: vVO2max we studied previously doesn't capture all physiological variables during football-specific HIIT sessions. Because the player is running steadily on a treadmill, vVO2max doesn't consider player's recovery capacity between intervals, his change of direction ability, and his acceleration/deceleration ability. To overcome these limitations as so-called intermittent fitness test was developed specifically for football-based HIIT prescription. Definition is the following: repeated 40 meter shuttle runs over 30 seconds interspersed with 15 seconds of walking recovery and with speed increments of 0.5 km per hour per stage. The test was developed by Martin Buchheit, who is working as the conditioning coach and the head of performance at PSG football club. Let's now take a look on how the IFT is carried out. We have three lines: A, B, and C being located at 20 meters distance apart from each other so that the distance between A and C is 40 meters. Players start at line A at the velocity of 8.5 km/h. They run to line C crossing line B and then return. After thirty seconds of active running phase, players walk to line the A during 15 seconds of recovery phase to be ready for the next stage. The second stage starts at a speed of 9 km/h and the running repeated. We keep increasing the running speed until the player feels he is not able to run anymore. Player's last speed is then recorded as his vIFT and will be used throughout the season as the reference for future HIIT sessions. Let us now consider the common usage of vIFT in modern professional football practice. In a pre-season we run the test once in order to define the vIFT for each player. During the season we prescribe HIIT sessions individually to each player with the intensities ranging from 85 to 105 percent of player's vIFT. In the post-season we carry out the test once again in order to check out if player's vIFT has been improved since the last measurement. In general, vIFT is a valid and reliable method which is used for the definition of player's fitness level and as the reference for future HIIT session. The velocity defined by IFT is also considered to be more football-specific than the vVO2max we described previously. Okay. it was the last method on measuring HIIT intensities and player's fitness level. In the next part we are going to start covering HIIT Formats which is going to be the most interesting part of the course. See you in the next videos! 8. First Part Summary: Okay guys, now we are going to briefly overview the Methods of physiological demand measurement we've studied so far. Please note, here a physiological demand means the intensity which is P-E-R-C-E-I-V-E-D by a player. So, we started with the rate of perceived exertion. A very simple method that is mainly used in amateur football. VO2max or the maximal amount of oxygen a player can uptake during exercise is the most accurate measure of physiological demand. The speed associated with VO2max is the very precise measure of player's fitness level. Nowadays it is used by professional football clubs, but very occasionally, in particular, VO2max is measured when a player joins his new football club. It would be great to have VO2max measured in-field, during practice. Unfortunately, there are no such devices available today. That's why football clubs use HR monitors during in-field practices in order to measure the demands put on their players. Here heart rate is used as an approximation of VO2max. vIFT is a good football-specific method, but not very popular yet and is used by very few football teams. This method is good at defining players progress throughout several seasons. Physiological demand is not the same is the total work. Total walk is measured by GPS devices with built-in accelerometers. Such devices help us to measure the actual work performed by a player during one training session, namely the number of high-intensity actions and the total distance covered. Knowing the physiological demand put upon a player and the total work done by that player, we can calculate the player's fitness level, which is defined as the ratio of the total work done to physiological demand measured by heart rate monitors. Thus, knowing the measurements from HR monitors and GPS devices after any given training session, we can easily define player's current fitness level. Of course, we can also do it by measuring players vIFT, but this will need a dedicated training session to be carried out. Okay, that's it for the first part. Now go ahead and proceed to your first quiz! 9. Physiological Params and HIIT Target Types: In order to correctly prescribe HIIT Sessions, we need to consider the basic physiological parameters. The first one is the metabolism, which is the process responsible for transforming food into energy. The higher the metabolic rate - the better! Because healthy body has higher metabolism then unhealthy one, therefore in order to speed up your metabolism, you would need to exercise. Metabolism can be subdivided into aerobic and anaerobic. Players aerobic stamina can be defined as his ability to sustain exercise intensity with the use of oxygen from the air. The higher player's maximal oxygen uptake - the higher his aerobic stamina! Walking and jogging during a game are good examples of players aerobic metabolism. Player's anaerobic stamina can be defined as for how long the player is able to sustain the existence intensity which is above his maximal oxygen uptake. Here. the player should rely not on the air, but rather on the energy which was obtained from the Food and stored in his organism. Here the conversion of food into energy occurs without oxygen, that's why it's so important to eat well before exercising at high intensities. All-out sprinting is a good example of player's anaerobic stamina. The second parameter we need to consider is a neuromuscular load, which is a tension applied to our muscles. This tension should be neither too small, nor too high. Neuromuscular load should be appropriate and represent the specificity of the game. If it's too small it won't be relevant to the demands of a real game, an extremely high load can cause muscle fatigue or even lead to an injury. There are six types we are going to target when prescribing HIIT sessions to our players, where each type incorporates specific physiological parameters. Type one enhances aerobic metabolism by eliciting essentially large requirements from the cardiopulmonary system and oxidative muscle fibers. Type 2 is aerobic as per type 1, but with a certain degree of neuromuscular strain. Type 3 targets both aerobic and anaerobic responses, whereas type 4 is the same as the type 3, but with some degree of neuromuscular strain. Type 5 targets essentially a large anaerobic contribution combined with neuromuscular strain, and type 6 incorporates a large degree of neuromuscular strain and no metabolic contribution. Neither aerobic, nor anaerobic. This type refers to a typical strength training and has nothing to do with HIIT. That's why we excluded from our hit prescription. All five heat formats we are going to review next, they all are based on either one or several of the five remaining target types. Now we are finally ready to get started with our first HIIT format: The Long Intervals! See you in a while. 10. Long Intervals: We lead off this section with the first weapon to improve the fitness level of our players: The Long Intervals Format. Long Intervals are performed at a duration of three minutes with two minutes of walking recovery between running phases. Usually, we use three to five repetitions depending on the player's fatigue level. Long intervals are typically performed on a running track around the pitch and target physiological types 3 and 4, in particular both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism with some degree of neuromuscular load. We generally implement HIIT with long intervals exclusively during the preseason over 30-meter loops designed around the pitch. If there is no running track available, players can simply run across the football pitch from one end to another and then return back. Long intervals are performed at the velocity which equals to 80 percent of vIFT we studied previously. Here the players are typically spread across 4 groups, where the first group is comprised of the players whose vIFT is around 18 kilometers per hour. Players of the second group have vIFT of 19 kilometers per hour, of the third one 20 kilometers per hour, and those players whose vIFT is equal or greater than 21 kilometers per hour belong to the last group. This will represent from 8 to 10 hundred metres completed over three minutes of running intervals. We control the efforts with the help of special GPS devices we attach in advance on our players. Let us now consider the pros and cons of this format. Long intervals enhance metabolism at high rates without the need for reaching high running speeds. This provides us with little musculoskeletal overload and leaves the room for other conditional and tactical sessions. Unfortunately, this format is not really football-specific and does poorly represent the demands of a real game. In the next videos we are going to consider more football-specific formats. Go ahead and see very soon! 11. Short Intervals: One of my favourite HIIT formats is the Short Intervals Format. The format comprises all of the following: 10 seconds running interspersed with 10 seconds of walking recovery, 15 seconds running with 15 seconds of walking recovery, 20 seconds running 20 seconds walking, and 10 seconds running interspersed with 20 seconds of walking. Target types one, two, three and four can all be hit with Short Intervals. With this Format we can tightly manipulate aerobic and anaerobic contributions as well as a neuromuscular load. Let's take a look at how exactly we can do this. We can increase the aerobic contribution by decreasing the running duration. Here we usually apply short intervals with 10 seconds of running interspersed with is either 10 or 20 seconds of walking recovery. In contrast, if you want to increase the anaerobic contribution, we will need to increase the duration of running phase. 20 seconds of running interspersed with 20 seconds of walking recovery is a great example of anaerobic session. We can increase the neuromuscular load by increasing the running velocity. For example, we can instruct our players to run at the velocity of more than 100 percent of their vIFT. Let's take a look at some practical examples. Here we have two examples of Short Intervals. On the first example at the top, the player is going to cover 65 meters in 15 seconds. This exercise puts a lot of load on player's hamstrings muscles located at the back of the thigh and it's very important for improving player's maximal high-speed training output. The second example includes changes of directions at 45 degrees with accelerations and decelerations. The duration here is the same - 15 seconds, but the muscle load is distributed between hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. The higher the angle - the greater the load applied on quadriceps muscle. For instance, 45 degree turns stress quadriceps muscles at the lower extent than 90 degree turns. Here the first example is more appropriate for a fullback, whereas the second one is considered to be midfielder-specific. We usually use Short Intervals during in-season where the players exercise at the velocities ranging from 95 to 110 percent of their vIFT. This Format is especially good for the players which require rehabilitation because it's wise to first start by improving players aerobic fitness before progressing to anaerobic and finally neuromuscular load components. Short Intervals are also of great advantage for substitute players because it is the only format available to compensate for the high-speed training that players miss while not playing. To make HIIT with short intervals more appealing to players and more specific in terms of football, the ball is often integrated into the activity on different occasions. Let's take a look at some examples. As you can see on the left, our fullback cannot progress because of the dummy opponent in front of him, so he passes the ball to a coach playing as a central defender. Then he runs along the sideline to receive another ball from the second coach, and finally he shoots into one of two mini-goals as if he were crossing. The primary target in this example is to improve player's high-speed training where all the load is applied to his hamstring muscles. But let's now take a look at midfielder-specific example. Here we start again from the left, where the midfielder comes close to the center back to receive the ball. Then, in order to eliminate the opponent, he passes and receives from the fullback situated on the sideline. Here the roles of center back and fullback belong to either assistant coaches or two additional players. Finally, our midfielder runs forward, where he passes to the third coach and finishes his run to the penalty box. The primary target here is to improve player's ability to change the direction, accelerate and decelerate. In this example the load is distributed between hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Okay, let's finally discuss the advantages and considerations of this Format. Short Intervals let us to precisely manipulate and target physiological responses, which is of great advantage for substitute and rehabilitation players. Short Intervals are also adjustable to be football-specific, which requires some extra thoughts and considerations from football coaches. Okay, that's it for Short Intervals. And now we are going further toward Repeated Spring Training! See you very soon. 12. Repeated-Sprint Sequence (RSS): Repeated-Spring Training or Repeated-Spring Sequence is the first format where the running is performed ALL-OUT, and not in relation to vIFT. All-out means with the maximal possible speed the player can produce during running. RSS is usually implemented as 5 seconds running efforts interspersed with periods of passive recovery ranging from 15 to 25 seconds. This format is comprised of two sets lasting 4 min each. RSS is used to target physiological responses of type 4 and 5 with a small degree of aerobic contribution because our players don't always surge the viewer two marks with this format. Nonetheless, RSS is very useful because it elicits a large anaerobic contribution due to its all-out sprint nature. This format also elicits an extremely large degree of neuromuscular load, which is very similar to strength training. For the whole team RSS is usually implemented during the last stages of pre-season, for substitute players this format can also be used during the season, whereas for rehabilitation players RSS should be implemented at the end of their return to play process. RSS that involves changes of direction at 45 degrees is considered to be an effective way to reduce the neuromuscular load imposed by this format. Thus, in order to reduce the injury-causing factor, changes of direction should be almost always integrated into repeated spring training. There should be no straight line running. RSS that include very sharp changes of direction might expose our players to a higher risk of knee and ankle injuries, especially those players who are not used to perform such high-speed maneuvers. Let us now consider the pros and cons of this format. RSS is our best weapon for improving player's anaerobic stamina. This format is also football-specific due to its all-out nature and can cause positive long term physiological adaptations to the high loads posed by competitive modern football demands. Nevertheless, because of high neuromuscular loads, We should be always aware of an injury-causing factor. We can reduce this factor with the integration of changes of direction, which might be an effective way to promote long term neuromuscular adaptations. Okay, that's it for Repeated-Spring Training! Are you ready for the next format? :) 13. Sprint Interval Training (SIT): Sprint Interval Training is another form of HIIT that involves all-out training efforts. Compared to Repeated-Sprint Sequence, the running period in Sprint Interval Training is typically longer. We usually implement Sprint Interval Training as 30-second sprints interspersed with 2-4 minutes of walking recovery. SIT targets exclusively physiological type 5 response, where anaerobic contribution is combined with an extremely large degree of neuromuscular load. This format incorporates very limited aerobic contribution and is very similar to the strength training because of high neuromuscular strain. This is the main reason why we don't incorporate Sprint Interval Training in our HIIT session. You can easily forget about this lecture, I just wanted you to know this format as well, even though we don't apply it in the context of Football. Don't worry, the next format we are going to review is of the primary importance for Football. Stand by and see you soon! 14. Game-Based HIIT: Game-based HIIT is the best format when it comes to conditioning and the overall group of players. It targets various types of physiological responses ranging from one to four. They can be manipulated by implementing different game-based types. The most popular one is 4vs4 Small-Sided Game or SSG. The other common types include 6vs6 small-sided game, 8vs8 large-sided game or LSG, and the less common 10vs10 LSG. Some authors just call everything SSG no matter how many players involved. Let's take a look at the pros and cons of game-based HIIT in comparison to other Formats we studied previously. First of all, this Format involves a high motivation for our players because there is no player who doesn't enjoy playing Football. Secondly, in addition to the conditioning, players keep improving their technical and tactical abilities when playing small-sided games. There are some disadvantages, of course. The precise intensity of the game is very difficult to control and multiple players are needed in order to carry out the Format. Let's now take a closer look at different types of SSG and LSG. We usually implement 4vs4 SSG as four sets, each lasting four minutes with totally passive recovery periods of two-four minutes. This type of SSG targets physiological response of type 4 and represents football-specific strength training. This is because 4vs4 overlords players muscles at an essentially higher degree than other types of small-sided games. Let's take a look at the example above. Here we keep improving the technical skills of our players because each player makes a large number of ball contacts. At the very same time, our players are performing moderate football-specific strength exercises. We should implement 4vs4 SSG during midweek and never before the match-day because of muscles fatigue. We group 6vs6 as SGG and 8 vs8 LSG together because they both target physiological response of type 2. We implement 6vs6 SSG as 8 minutes of play, whereas 8vs 8 LSG should have a duration of at least 15 minutes. The recovery period is approximately 4 minutes. 6vs6 and 8vs8 represent football-specific endurance training because such training improves the player's ability to maintain the match demands. On the example above, we set up a reverse 8vs8 LSG in order to improve the tactical understanding of transitioning play and additionally to improve the endurance of our players. In 10vs10 large-sided games, the duration should last from 15 to 20 minutes. It's a so-called speed type because it helps our players to improve their sprinting ability over large distances. On the example above, we use almost the full size of the pitch, where the players have to dribble through the goals as shown in the figure. This additionally facilitates their sprinting ability as well as their tactical ability to switch the game from one side to another. Okay, that's it for game-based HIIT. See you very soooon! 15. Game-Based HIIT Recap: Let's now quickly summarize what we've studied so far in relation to game-based HIIT. I am going to repeat myself a bit, but I really believe this section is important to understand. 4vs4 SSG Format is very similar to going to a gym. It's a light version of strength training. The greatest muscle soreness happens exactly after this format. That's why we should not carry out 4vs SSG right after the game. 6vs6 or 8vs8 Format is a so-called endurance format that helps our players to be able to sustain the whole 90 minutes. This Format is less demanding than 4vs4 Format and can be used right after the recovery day. 10vs10 is the speed format. Modern football requires a large amount of high intensity runs throughout the game and such runs are incorporated in 10vs10 Format. This format is often used as the team's tactical preparation for the upcoming opponent, where the team tries to apply certain tactics in order to exploit the weaknesses of their future rivals Let's now take a look at how do the players number and pitch size influence training session. Usually small fields are used if you want to work on the technical skills and strengths of our players. When playing on a small fields players perform a way more technical actions like passes, dribbles, and shots on goal, then when playing on a larger fields. That's why small fields are especially good for youth academy players, where stimulation of strengths and technical skills is of the primary importance. Small fields are best suited for forwards and midfielders because these players demand more technical skills in comparison to defensive players. Large fields are very good for tactical and endurance training sessions. Playing on a large field is considered to be more game-specific type of training with greater incorporation of tactical understanding and high-speed running. Large fields are better suited for wingers and defensive players, which demands a lot of tactical coaching and high-speed running respectively. Another question that comes up is whether our players should play on goals or just to maintain possession. As Gerard Houllier once said, "the most important thing in today's game is when the ball is won or lost". That's probably due to the fact that in modern football around 70 percent of all goals are scored within counterattack. That's why playing on goals during training is generally preferred, yet more research is required here. Should we train with or without goalkeepers? Training with goalkeepers is considered to be more tactical and game-specific, whereas training without goalkeepers provokes greater physiological response, which is very beneficial for endurance. Because of high physiological demand, training without goalkeepers should not be carried out before the game in order to prevent the feeling of tiredness. What about coach encouragement?! Should the coach motivate his players from the sideline and provide them with some instructions? The answer is "yes". This will provide players with extra motivation and greater physiological gains afterwards. But do not exaggerate! Here is where the art of coaching comes useful. Okay, that's enough for now. See you sooooon! 16. Conclusion: Let's now take a look at the percentage used throughout the season for every HIIT format. Long Intervals comprise just 5 percent of the overall HIIT sessions and are used exclusively during the preseason. The same 5 percent makes the contribution of RSS Format , which is used both pre- and in- season. Short Interval training is one of our favorite HIIT Formats, which comprises 20 percent of the annual HIIT prescription and is used both pre- and in- season. Remember, that this format is especially good for substitute and rehabilitation players. And, of course, our main and the most football-specific HIIT Format is Game-Based HIIT, which comprises 70 percent of the annual HIIT prescription and where the majority of sessions being played a Small-Sided Games. Game-Based HIIT is also used both pre- and in- season. Okay, it was our last lecture in this course! There is one small quiz left and you are done!