HIIT in Football (Soccer) | Vladymyr Kartashov | Skillshare
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16 Lessons (49m)
    • 1. Why HIIT?

      3:05
    • 2. Definition and History

      1:37
    • 3. Training Components

      5:16
    • 4. Rate of Perceived Exertion

      2:03
    • 5. Velocity at VO2max

      2:41
    • 6. Heart Rate

      4:58
    • 7. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test

      2:49
    • 8. First Part Summary

      2:36
    • 9. Physiological Params and HIIT target Types

      3:07
    • 10. Long Intervals

      2:19
    • 11. Short Intervals

      5:09
    • 12. Repeated-Sprint Sequence (RSS)

      2:48
    • 13. Sprint Interval Training (SIT)

      1:11
    • 14. Game-Based HIIT

      3:42
    • 15. Game-Based HIIT Recap

      3:53
    • 16. Conclusion

      1:21
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About This Class

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Professional Introduction into the Science behind High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) in the context of Football (Soccer).

The first part of the course includes the overview of the following Methods for measuring HIIT intensities:

  • RPE

  • vVO2max

  • Heart Rate

  • Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT)

In the second part, you will cover five major HIIT Formats, including:

  • Long Intervals

  • Short Intervals

  • Repeated-Sprint Sequence (RSS)

  • Sprint Interval Training (SIT)

  • Game-Based HIIT (GBHIIT)

There is no prior scientific knowledge required as the information is processed and presented in an easily understandable way.

Transcripts

1. Why HIIT?: Hello and welcome to the high-intensity interval training course. In this course, we are going to study the science behind the high-intensity interval training and its particular application in the wonderful game of football. First of all, I want to introduce is the two main characters. As you've already recognized. The first one is and the second one is your tissue Sam, who will guide you throughout the whole course. Why should we study hit and how it can help us to improve our football performance? Let's first top on football. More than football is a combination of technical, tactical, and physical components. And altogether they form performance. Let's take a look at how they distributed. The most important component is the technical one, which comprises 45% of the whole performance. Then goes tactical one, visit 30%, and the physical one comprises just 25%. And here was the heat comes in. Does the help of heat, we can improve just a quarter of the whole performance. It's not that bad actually, but if it compared to try out lawn, for example. Whereas a physical component comprises eighty-five percent. Application of heat methods would be one of great importance. But football practitioners aren't. Physical component itself is subdivided into speed, strength, and endurance. Endurance being the primary target of density interval training. Let's take a look at different spots and most importantly, football allocated on the diagram. In weightlifting strengths is obviously being the most important component. Violence printing speed appears to be of primary importance. As you can see, there is not much we can do this hit in this putouts. Cyclin is one of the most appropriate heat spots where the endurance is a crucial component. So where do we think is football located? Well, it's here because endurance and speed being of great significance. Now I hope you definitely sees the reason for studying heat. In this course, we're going to study the following heat formats. Lawn intervals, short intervals. You repeated sprint sequence, sprint interval training, and game-based heat, which is the most appropriate for football. And we will also consider the methods for measuring heat intensity, including the rate of perceived exertion, maximal aerobic speed, heart-rate, and 3015 intermediate fitness test. But first of all, we'll start with a definition and a short overview of the history. See you in the next videos. 2. Definition and History: Let's start with the definition. Heat is usually defined as an exercise consisting of repeated bouts of high intensity walk interspersed by periods of recovery. Nowadays spot scientists have justified that performance such high-intensity walk intermittently instead of continuously causes more beneficial physiological adaptations. Now we are going to make a short drive in the history of heat signs. In the early 19 hundreds long distance runners were documented performing high-intensity repetitions on the track just prior to win Olympic medals. But it wasn't until the 19 fifties when physiologists began describing heat response in scientific journals. Team spots to call it of the heat method. In 19 seventies, where successful football coaches go witnessed using various forms of heat to prepare players. Today, many top European football clubs have their own scientific labs, like the famous mill and L0 Training Center, which was the first institution fully devoted to sports science in football. That's where heat is being studied by various physiologists, biomechanists, statisticians, and even technology support experts. They all studies the science behind heat. And we're going to do just the same by starting with the methods for measuring heat intensities. See you in the next videos. 3. Training Components: Before we proceed to the methods for measuring heat intensities, I would like to dive a bit into human physiology. Physiology is important in order to understand how players by the response to a certain type of training. That are three training components. The first one is the iRobot component, which shows how efficiently players muscles can use the energy from the oxygen he gets from the air. Improvements in the aerobic component helped football players to be able to sustain Jorgen and running throughout the whole duration of the game. The second one is the anaerobic component, which shows how much energy Blair's muscles are able to store from the food he eats. Improvements in the anaerobic component helped football players to perform a great amount of sprints during the game. Both aerobic and anaerobic components can be classified as a so-called endurance components. The third component is a neuromuscular Lord, which corresponds to the strength and power of players. Muscles. Improvements and strengths help layers to perform at their best. Such actions is jumping or shots on goal. Walking on strength strain is the same as going to a gym. Unfortunately, as trans component is almost outside the scope of this course. Let's now take a closer look at anaerobic and aerobic components. Here below, because the action duration and on the y-axis is the percentage of total energy production. The red curve corresponds to the aerobic component, whereas the blue curve to anaerobic one. That being said for shutting duration and high-intensity auctions like sprints, anerobic component plays a major role. For longer actions like moderate Iranian or Jorgen throughout the game, the aerobic component appears to be important. Remembers it for enhancement in the iRobot component. Football players will need specific cardiovascular adaptations in order to utilize oxygen more efficiently. This will help them to sustains him ordinary training activities during the whole game. In order to improve the anerobic component, players you'll need to exercise at high intensities and consume a lot of carbohydrates. Let's now take a closer look at the aerobic component. Here players muscles use the energy from the oxygen, from the air. Play every seen in the oxygen gets delivered to the lungs. Then oxygen travels to the heart, which pumps the oxygenated blood to the arteries. Finally, arteries deliver oxygen to the active muscles that are ready to utilize. The beta's a fitness level or a player is a greater amount of oxygen consumed by his muscles. The measure of oxygen consumption is called VO2 max. And average football player has a VO2 max of approximately 40 milliliters on kilogram of body mass per minute. Whereas elite players have VO2 max of around 70. Back to our graph on the back route to deoxygenated blood goes back to the heart to reserve rains. And finally, is it deoxygenated? Air is breathed out. As a reminder, in a practical sense, the aerobic component helps our players to sustain the whole game. Enhancement in this component is achieved by specific cardiovascular adaptations in heart arteries at the muscle capillaries. Regarding the anaerobic component, players need to exercise at high densities in order to improve the capacity of their muscles to store energy from food in the form of glycogen. In addition to exercise in players need to eat a lot of carbohydrate rich foods. This probably some extra supplements like creatine or better alanine. In a practical sense, enhancement in the anaerobic component helps our players to perform more sprinting shrouds 90 minutes of the march. Regarding the neuromuscular lot component, players do need to perform strengths exercises in order to produce powerful instantaneous actions like shots on target or jumping. Do you remember that famous Ronaldo's girl against some dora in December 2019. He was only able to do that because he goes to the gym and has very strong quadriceps. Muscles. Do not forget to consume proteins such as strength train and do not exaggerate. A lot of extra muscle mass will result in football specific overweight is a consequent loss in players speed. Football players should be strong but lean. If you'd like to get filled the insights about human physiology, I would recommend the exercise physiology book by McCardle kitchen catch. Okay, that's it for physiology. Let's now finally proceed to the methods for measuring heat intensities. Keep going and see you soon. 4. Rate of Perceived Exertion: Rate of perceived exertion or API, it's Renzi coach can simply instruct to his player. Now you are uninformed minutes hard with terminates recovery intervals. The main word here is hard. If you want to be more precise, you can use the CR ten Borg scale. Russia has nothing to do with Cristiano Ronaldo. So here, if you want your player to run hot, you can instruct him to run with 70% of his maximum power output. And then it's up to him to decide on z velocity. There is also another one popular scale called 6-20 scale, where hot equals to 15 or higher. It doesn't really matter which scale you use. You can choose either of them. Let's now take a look at the pros and cons of RPE. Regarding the advantages. As you probably noticed, it's very simple to use methods that doesn't require any extra equipment. It can be of great advantage, especially for non-professional football clubs. Secondly, there is no need to pretest the players fitness level because he regulates the intensity based on his own feelings. What about the disadvantages? By using API e rely exclusively on player sincerity. Even so the majority of players are honest, there can be exceptions. But the main drawback is that sometimes high p-values reported by players are not relevant to the physiological outcome of an exercise. For example, during all out to a 100 meters run, play will probably report that it was very hard for him, whereas the physiological response of such exercise remains very low. Okay, that's enough for RPE. Next, we are going to review more precise methods for measuring heat intensities. See you in the next video. 5. Velocity at VO2max: In this lecture we are going to talk about VO2 max. It's basically just the speed associated with bodies maximal oxygen uptake. Oxygen is the cheapest energy we can spend exercising. We get it from the outside air with the help of our lungs, where the oxygen is transmitted to the blood arteries. And the other is transmit oxygen-rich blood to the muscles. V VO2 max measurement is usually conducted in a lab where the player runs on a treadmill and he's running speed is constantly getting increased. Players oxygen, uptake is being measured everytime he's running speed increases. Let's take a look at the example. The players that's running on a treadmill at the velocity of 11 kilometers per hour. After some time, we increase the velocity at 12 kilometers per hour, then to certain kilometers. Every time we increase the velocity, we keep measuring the players oxygen uptake. Units of measurement are milliliters on kilogram of body mass per minute. And at some point to be notice that there is no increase in oxygen uptake between the last two running velocities. In this case, the last running velocity is going to be V VO2 max, which equals to 15 kilometers per hour for our first player. Let's say for our second players, the maximum oxygen consumption and V VO2 max are higher. It would mean that our second player is of a better fitness level than the first one. If you take another example where both players kids the same oxygen consumption but different VO2 max values. Then the play of his great divi VO2 max is considered to be more efficient and economic because it is the same level of oxygen consumption here ans faster. Let's now consider the pros and cons of VO2 max method. First of all, this is a valid method which represents not only players fitness level, but also he's running economy. Regarding the disadvantages V VO2 max measurement should be conducted in the lab setting, which is not of a great convenience. This method is only suited for long intervals lasting more than two minutes, with no consideration of anaerobic energy. Okay, that's enough for VEVO to Marx, I think in the next video we're going to talk about the heart rate. 6. Heart Rate: Heart rate is the most commonly measured physiological marker used to control or measure exercise intensity in the field. Generally we can say is that it allows the heart rate, the higher players fitness level, because stronger heart pumps more blood with one beat, so it needs fewer bits per minute to circulate the blood told tissues in our body. And there are several types of heart-rate measurements. We can measure the heart rate during rest, or we can measure it directly during exercise. Let's take a look at some examples. If a player decreases his resting heart rate from 70 to 60 beats per minute, that would mean that he became feta. If two players of the same age are exercising at a given velocity, Zenzele slave is lower exercise heart rate is considered to have a better fitness level. I set up the same age because we should always consider exercise heart-rate relative to maximal heart-rate for 20-year-old players. And maximum heart rate will not be the same as for 30-year-old player. Z formula to define a person's maximum heart rate is the following. Maximum heart rate equals 220 minus h. Remember not to forget this formula when considering players fitness level based on his heart rate. Heart rate should be collected and analyzed regularly throughout the season in order to get a good insight into zip layers, health status, and function. There are several factors to consider when measuring heart rate. First of all, heart-rate tends to increase it altitude. So measuring heart rate in mountains is not the same as measured at the sea level. Secondly, we need to consider the visa. Because heart rates tends to be high in hot conditions, then percent drift in temperature roughly equals to 1% shift in heart rate. And other important physiological markers, heart-rate variants, which can be defined as the amount of variation in intervals between heartbeats. If your resting heart rate is 60 beats per minute, it doesn't mean that your heart beats at 1 second intervals like a clock. It can be slightly less than a second between some 216 bits and more than a second between some other two. Let's take a look at the example. Imagine we have four consecutive heartbeats and three intervals between them, as shown on the figure. Heart-rate variants will be calculated as the average difference between the values of the intervals. And that will equal to 85 milliseconds in this particular case. In general is a high HIV values. The beta's a physiological state of a player. Such disturbances as illness, stress, or bad sleep. Only to law HRV values. Now we are going to take a look at the so-called heart-rate lock phenomenon, where heart-rate lacks veil behind body's oxygen uptake response and current place velocity. Let's say we have a graph with heart rate, speed, and time axis. Imagines a player and steadily at a speed of 13 kilometers per hour. And his heart rate is 110 beats per minute. Then he increases his speed to 17 kilometers per hour and continues to run steadily with the new speed. In this case, the heart-rate will not respond immediately, and it will take some time for it to be adjusted to a new run in speed. This is in contrast to body's oxygen uptake response we studied previously, which increases immediately with increasing players running velocity. The time it takes for heart-rate to adjust to a neuron in speed is called the heart-rate lack phenomenon. And we should always take this into consideration when analyzing the physiological profiles of our players. Regarding the heart-rate measuring techniques, the wide availability of valid and portable heart-rate monitors, specifically designed systems and smart phone applications can substantially boosted the heart rate monitoring in football. Let's take a final look at the pros and cons of this method. Heart-rate is a valid method that considers both aerobic and anaerobic contribution. And it's easy to use nowadays because of the availability of above-mentioned measurement techniques. Regarding the drawbacks is a minor one, is that it should be considered relative to the age. And the beacon is that there is a heart-rate lock response which can put surreal exercise intensity out of Allah side. It's especially noticeable during short intervals training session. Okay, that's it for heart rate. In the next video we are going to take a look at our first field test method. See you in a while. 7. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test: Vo2 max we studied previously, doesn't capture all physiological variables during football specific heat sessions because it plays run and steadily on a treadmill, VEVO to Marx doesn't consider players recovery capacity between intervals, his change of direction ability, and he's acceleration deceleration. To overcome these limitations, a so-called intermediate fitness test was developed specifically for football based hip prescription. Definition is the following. Repeated 40 meters shuttle run server thirty-seconds interspersed with 15 seconds of walking recovery and v speed increments of half kilometer per hour per stage. The test was developed by Martin book White, who is walking as a conditioning coach and the head of performance at PSG football club. Let's now take a look on how the IFFT is carried out. We have three lines, a, B, and C being located at 20 meter distance apart from each other, so that the distance between a and C is 40 meters. Player started line a at the velocity of 8.5 kilometers per hour. They run line C, cross in line B and then return after 30 seconds effective running phase. Glass walk to the line AD or in 15 seconds of recovery phase to be ready for the next stage. The second stage starts at a speed of nine kilometers per hour and Surin in repeated, we keep increasing the running speed until the player feels he's not able to run anymore. Players last bit is then recorded as his VI of t and will be used throughout the season as a reference for future heat sessions. Let's now consider the common usage of IFTA in modern professional football practice in a precise and rerun the test once in order to define the VI of t for each player. During the season, we prescribe heat sessions individually to each player. Does intensities ranging from 85 to 105% of players to VI of t. In a post-season. We carry out the test once again in order to check out if players be IRT has been improved since the last measurement. In general, I have t is valid and reliable method which is used for the definition of players fitness level and as a reference for future heats session. The velocity defined by IFFT is also considered to be more football specific, then the VO2 max we described previously. Okay, it was the last message on measuring heat intensities and players fitness level. In the next part we are going to start covering heat formats, which is going to be the most interesting part of the course. See you in the next videos. 8. First Part Summary: Okay guys, now we are going to briefly overuse the methods of physiological demands measurement we have studied so far. Please note here as a physiological demands means the intensity which is perceived by a player. So we started with the rate of exertion, a very simple method that is mainly used in amateur football. Vo2 max, or the maximum amount of oxygen a player can uptake during exercise is the most accurate measure. Physiological demands. That speed associated with VO2 max is a very precise measure of players fitness level. Nowadays it is used by professional football clubs, but very occasionally. In particular, VO2 max is measured when a player joints in new football coach. It would be great to have VO2 max measured infilled during practice. Unfortunately, there are no such devices available today. That's why football clubs use heart-rate monitors during in-field practices in order to measure the demands put on their players. Here, heart-rate is used as an approximation of VO2 max. P i of t is a good football specific method, but not very popular yet and is used by very few football teams. This method is good at defining players progress throughout several seasons. Physiological demands is not the same as the total work. Total walk is measured by GPS devices with built-in accelerometers. Such devices help us to measure the actual walked performed by a player during one training session. Namely the number of high density actions and the total distance covered. Knowing the physiological demand put upon a player and the total work done by that player. We can calculate the players fitness level, which is defined as the ratio of the total work done to physiological demands measured by heart-rate monitors. Saas, noisy measurements from heart-rate monitors and GPS devices. After any given training session, we can easily define players current fitness level. Of course, we can also do it by measuring players VI of t, but this will need a dedicated training session to be carried out. Okay, that's it for the first part. Now go ahead and proceed to the first quiz. 9. Physiological Params and HIIT target Types: In order to correctly prescribe heat sessions, we need to consider the basic physiological parameters. The first one is the metabolism, which is the process responsible for transforming food into energy. The highest metabolic rate, the better, because healthy body has high metabolism then unhealthy one. Therefore, in order to speed up your metabolism, you would need to exercise. Metabolism can be subdivided into aerobic and anaerobic. Players. Iraq takes time and it can be defined as his ability to sustain exercise intensity with the use of oxygen from the air. Zedekiah players maximal oxygen uptake the hierarchies, aerobic stamina, walking and jogging during a game are good examples of players I aerobic metabolism. Players anerobic stamina can be defined as for how long the player is able to sustain the exercise intensity, which is the bulk, is maximal oxygen uptake. Here's the player should rely not on the air, but rather on the Energy which was obtained from the food and stored in his organism. Here, the conversion of food into energy occurs result oxygen. That's why it's so important to eat well before exercising at high intensities. Allowed sprinting is a good example of players on aerobic stamina. The second parameter we need to consider is a neuromuscular lot, features attention applied dollar muscles. This tension should be neither too small nor too high. Neuromuscular load should be appropriate and represents the specificity of the game. If it's too small, it won't be relevant to the demands of a real game. And extremely high lot can cause muscle fatigue or even lead to an injury. There are six types we are going to target when prescribing heat sessions to our players, where each type incorporates specific physiological parameters. Type vine in Kansas I aerobic metabolism by elicit in essentially a logic grammars from the cardiopulmonary system and oxidative muscle fibers. Type two is ironic as per type one, but with a certain degree of neuromuscular strain. Type three targets both aerobic and anaerobic responses. Whereas type four is the same as the type three. But we somewhat degree of neuromuscular strain. Type five targets essentially large anaerobic contribution combined with neuromuscular stream. And Tab six incorporates a large degree of neuromuscular stain and no metabolic contribution. Neizha, aerobic, anaerobic. This diaper refers to a typical strengths training and has nothing to do with heat. That's why we excluded from our hit prescription. All five heat formats we're going to review next. They all are based on either one or several of the five remaining target types. Now we're finally ready to get started with our first heat format. The long intervals. See you in a while. 10. Long Intervals: Really it off this section with the first weapon to improve the fitness level of our players. The long intervals format. Long intervals are performed at a duration of three minutes, is two minutes of walking recovery between ran in phases. Usually we use three to five repetitions depending on the player's particular level. Long intervals are typically performed on a running track around the peach and target physiological types 34. In particular, both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism with somewhat degree of neuromuscular lot. Regenerate, implement heat v's long intervals exclusively during the preseason of a 30-meter loops designed around the peach. If there is no running track available, players can simply run across the football pitch from one end to another ends and return back. Long intervals are performed at z velocity, which equals to 80% of VI of t we studied previously. He has the players are typically spread across four groups. Whereas the first group is comprised of the players whose v IRT is around 18 kilometers per hour. Players of the second group have VI of t, of 19 kilometers per hour. Of this third, 120 kilometers per hour. And those players whose VFT is equal or greater than 21 kilometers per hour belong to the last group. This will represent from eight to 1000 meters completed our three minutes running interval. We control the force with the help of special GPS devices we attach in advance on our players. Let's now consider the pros and cons of this format. Lon interference and hence metabolism at high rates without the need for reaching high running speeds. This provides us this little musculoskeletal overload and leaves room for other conditional and tactical sessions. Unfortunately, this format is not really football specific, and thus Pauli represents the demands of a real game. In the next videos, we are going to consider more football specific formats. Go ahead and see very soon. 11. Short Intervals: One of my favorite heat formats is the short intervals format. The format comprises all of the following ten seconds running interspersed to his ten seconds of walking recovery. 15 seconds around. And with 15 seconds of walking recovery, 20 seconds ran in 20 seconds walking and ten seconds running interspersed with 20 seconds of walking. Target types 1234 can all be heat with short intervals. With this format, we can tightly manipulate aerobic and anaerobic contributions as well as a neuromuscular. Lord, let's take a look at how exactly we can do this. We can increase the aerobic contribution by decreasing the running duration. Here we usually apply short intervals with ten seconds of running interspersed with ESA, ten or 20 seconds of walking recovery. In contrast, if you want to increase the anaerobic contribution, we will need to increase the duration of running phase. 20 seconds of running interspersed with 20 seconds of walking recovery is a great example of anaerobic session. We can increase the neuromuscular lot by increasing around in velocity. For example, we can instruct our players to run its velocity of more than 100% of the DFT. Let's take a look at some practical examples. Here we have two examples of short intervals. On the first example at the top, the players go into Karla 65 meters in 15 seconds. This exercise puts a lot of lot on players hamstring muscles located at the back of the psi. And it's very important for improving players maximal high-speed run and output. The second example includes changes of directions at 45 degrees with acceleration and deceleration. The duration here is the same, 15 seconds, but the muscle lot is distributed between hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. The higher the angle, the greatest load applied on quadriceps muscle. For instance, 45-degree turns stress quadriceps muscles at Allow, extends and 90-degree turns. Here's the first example is more appropriate for a full back, whereas the second one is considered to be mid-field. The specific. We usually use short intervals during in-season, whereas the players exercise it's a velocity search engine from 95 to 110% of the VFT. This format is especially good for the player speech require rehabilitation because it's wise to first start by improving players aerobic fitness before progressing to anaerobic and finally, neuromuscular lot components. Short intervals are also a great advantage for substitute players because it is the only format available to compensate for the high-speed running that player Smith's vial not playing. To make heat to a short intervals more appealing to players and more specific in terms of football, the ball is often integrated into Z activity on different occasions. Let's take a look at some examples. As you can see on the left, upper phobic cannot progress because of the dummy opponent in front of him. So he passes the ball to a coach plane is a central defender. Then here answer on the sideline to receive another ball from the second coach. And finally, he shoots into one of two mini goals as if he were crossing. The primary target in this example is to improve players high-speed running, where all the load is applied to his hamstring muscles. Let's now take a look at midfielder specific example. Here we start again from the left. Whereas a midfielder comes close to the center vector receives a ball. Then in order to eliminate the opponent, he passes in receives from the full big situated on the sideline. Here's the roles of center back and full big belong to either assistant coaches or to some additional players. Finally, our material, their hands forward way he passes to distort coach and finishes his or ontology penalty box. The primary target here is to improve players ability to change the direction, accelerate, and decelerate. In this example, the load is distributed between hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Okay, let's finally discuss the advantages and considerations of this format. Short intervals let us to precisely manipulate and target physiological responses, which is a great advantage for substitute and rehabilitation players. Short intervals are also adjustable to be football specific, which requires some extra thoughts and considerations from football coaches. Okay, that's it for short intervals. And now we are going further to what repeated sprint training. See you very soon. 12. Repeated-Sprint Sequence (RSS): Repeated sprint training or repeated sprint sequence is the cost format phase running is performed all out and not in relation to VI of t or loud means with the maximum possible speeds the player can produce during running. Iss is usually implemented as five seconds run. Any thoughts interspersed with periods of passive recovery ranging from 15 to 25 seconds. This format is comprised of two sets, lasted four minutes. Each. Iss is used to target physiological responses of type 45. This a small degree of aerobic contribution because our players don't always search the VO2 max with this format. Nonetheless, ISS is very useful because it elicits a latch anaerobic contribution due to its allowed sprint nature. This format also elicits an extremely large degree of neuromuscular load, which is very similar to strength training. For the whole team. Iss is usually implemented during the last stages of pre-season. For substitute players, this format can also be used during the season. Whereas for rehabilitation players, ISS should be implemented at the end of the region to play process. Iss that involve changes of direction at 45 degrees is considered to be an effective way to reduce a neuromuscular lot imposed by this format. Saas in order to reduce the injury codes in factor changes of direction should be almost always integrated into repeated sprint training. There should be no straight line running. I says that includes very sharp changes of direction might expose our players to high-risk of knee and ankle injuries, especially those players who are not used to perform such high-speed maneuvers. Let's now consider the pros and cons of this format. Iss is our best weapon for improving players are anaerobic stamina. This format is also football specific due to its all out nature and can cause positive long-term physiological adaptations to the high lots posed by competitive modern football demands. Nevertheless, because of high neuromuscular loads, we should be always available when injury cause in factor, we can reduce this factor is integration of changes of direction, which might be an effective way to promote long-term neuromuscular adaptations. Or k's at sit for repeated sprint training. I'm ready for the next format. 13. Sprint Interval Training (SIT): Sprint interval training is another form of heat that involves all out run any thoughts compared to repeat its print sequence. And period in sprint, interval training is typically longer. We usually implements print interval training as thirty-seconds sprints, interspersed with 24 minutes of walking recovery. Sit targets exclusively physiological type five response where anaerobic contribution is combined with an extremely large degree of neuromuscular load. This format incorporates very limited iRobot contribution and is very similar to the strength training because of high neuromuscular strain. That's the main reason why we don't incorporate sprint interval training in our heat session. You can easily forget about this lecture. I just wanted you to know this format as well. Even SUV, don't apply it in the context of football. Don't worry as the next format we are going to review is of primary importance for football. Standby and see you soon. 14. Game-Based HIIT: Game-based heat is the best format when it comes to condition on the overall group of players. It targets various types of physiological responses, ranging from one to four. They can be manipulated by implementing different game-based types. The most popular one is four versus four small sided game, or SSG. The other common types include six versus six multi-sided game, eight verses eight, lopsided game, or ls g. And the less common ten versus ten allergy. Some authors just call everything SSG, no matter how many players involved. Let's take a look at the pros and cons of game-based heat in comparison to other formats we studied previously. First of all, this format involves a high motivation for our players because there is no player who doesn't enjoy playing football. Secondly, in addition to the conditioning, players keep improving their technical and tactical abilities when playing small sided games. There are some disadvantages. Of course. The precise intensity of the game is very difficult to control. And multiple players I needed in order to carry out the format. Let's now take a closer look at different types of SSG and allergy. We usually implement four versus four SSG as four sets each last in four minutes was totally passive recovery periods of 24 minutes. This type of SSG targets physiological response of type four and represents football specific strength training. This is because four versus four over lots of players muscles essentially high degree than other types of small sided games. Let's take a look at the example above. Here we keep improving the technical skills of our players because each player makes a large number of ball contacts. At the very same time, our players are performing moderate football specific strength exercises. Implement fervor says four SSG during midweek and never before zimmer HD because of muscles fatigue. V group six versus seeks SSG and eight versus eight LOG together because they both target physiological response of Type two. We implement six versus six SSG estate minutes of play, whereas eight versus eight allergy should have a duration of at least 15 minutes. The recovery period is approximately four minutes. Six versus 68. Verses eight represent football specific endurance training. Because such training improves the player's ability to maintains image demands. Example above, we set up a reverse eight verses eight allergy in order to improve the tactical understanding of transition in play. And additionally, due improves the endurance of our players. In ten versus ten large sided games, the duration should last from 15 to 20 minutes. It's a so-called speed type because it helps our players to improve their sprinting ability over large distances. On the example above, we use enemas the full size of the beach, whereas the players have to dribble through the goals as shown in the figure. This additionally facilitates their sprinting ability, as well as their tactical ability to switches again from one side to another. Okay, that's it for game-based heat. See you very soon. 15. Game-Based HIIT Recap: Let's now quickly summarize what we've studied so far in relation to game-based heat. I am going to repeat myself a bit, but I really believe this section is important to understand. Four versus four. Ssg format is very similar to go into a gym. It's a light version of strength training is a greatest muscle soreness happens exactly after this format. That's why we should not carry out four versus four SSG right after the game. Six versus six or eight verses eight format is a so-called endurance format that helps our players to be able to sustain the whole 90 minutes. This format is less demand ins and fibrosis for format and can be used right, Dr. Z. Recovery the ten versus ten is the speed format. Modern football requires a large amount of high-intensity runs throughout the game. In such your answer Incorporated and done versus ten format. This format is often used as a team's tactical preparation for the upcoming opponent, where the team tries to apply certain tactics in order to exploit the weaknesses of their future rivals. Let's now take a look at how does the player's number in each size influenza training session. Usually small fields are used if you want to walk into technical skills and strengths of our players. When playing on a small fields, players perform a way more technical actions like buses, dribbles, and short-term goal. Then when a plane on a larger fields, that's my small fields are especially good for USA carding players, whereas stimulation of strengths and technical skills is of primary importance. Small fields are best suited for, for bots and midfielders because these players demand more technical skills in comparison to defensive players. Large fields are very good for tactical into endurance training sessions. Playing on a large field is considered to be a more game-specific type of training piece. Great Dane Corp of tactical understanding and high-speed running. Large fields are better suited for vinegars and defensive players. Could you demand a lot of tactical coaching and high-speed driving respectively? In other questions that comes up is whether our players should play on goals or just to maintain possession. As Chicago Leon said, the most important thing in today's game is Benzer ball is won or lost. That's probably due to the fact that in modern football, around 70% of all goals are scored within contact. Ok. Let's my play an on goals during training is generally preferred. Yet more research is required here. Should be trained vis a vis our goal keepers. Training viscal keepers is considered to be more tactical in game-specific. Whereas Training result goal keepers, prologues greater physiological response, which is very beneficial for endurance. Because of high physiological demands, training v's out. Goal keepers should not be carried out before the game in order to prevent the feeling of tiredness. What about Coach encouragement through the coach, motivate his players from the sideline and provide them with some instructions. The answer is yes. This will provide players with extra motivation in greater physiological gains afterwards. But do not exaggerate. As the art of coaching comes useful. Ok, that's enough for now. See you soon. 16. Conclusion: Let's now take a look at the percentage use throughout the season for every heat format. Long intervals comprised just 5% of the overall heat sessions and I used exclusively during the preseason. The same five percents makes a contribution of ISS format, which is used both pre and in Season. Shot interests training is one of our favorite heat formats, which comprises 20% of the annual heat prescription and is used both pre and in-season. Remember that this format is especially good for substitute and rehabilitation players. And of course, our main and the most football specific heat format is game-based heat, which comprises 70% of the annual heat prescription and read the majority of sessions being played as small sided games. Game-based heat is also used both pre and in season. Okay, it was our last lecture in this course. There is one small quiz left, and you're done.