Graphic Design for Beginners Part 4 - Learn and Apply Effective Typography | Chad Neuman, Ph.D. | Skillshare

Graphic Design for Beginners Part 4 - Learn and Apply Effective Typography

Chad Neuman, Ph.D., Professor, Graphic Designer, Digital Media Expert

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4 Lessons (23m)
    • 1. Introduction to Typography in Graphic Design

    • 2. Type Terminology in Graphic Design

    • 3. Type Principles in Graphic Design

    • 4. [PROJECT] Quote Design Type Adjustment


About This Class

In this fourth course of the Graphic Design for Beginners Series, you will learn and apply effective typography and design a quote design as the project. Note: Please enroll in part 1 of this series by clicking on my profile and finding Graphic Design for Beginners Part 1 in order to download the support files or navigate to


1. Introduction to Typography in Graphic Design: congratulations on completing the color section of this course in this section you're gonna be learned all about. Topography will be going over industry standard type terminology so you know what these terms mean and when. To apply these certain techniques. You'll learn when to use Sarah fonts, as opposed to censor funds, and you'll learn best practices when it comes to topography. Finally, for the hands on Practical Project part of this section, you'll create a design using type as a design element in Adobe Illustrator by using one of your favorite quotes and creating a design with a complimentary color scheme again. Remember to post your work as a JPEG or a PNG in the course discussion board for peer critique and critique from me Thanks. 2. Type Terminology in Graphic Design: In this lesson, you'll learn type terminology for creating and adjusting type. The first term is typeface. Typeface is basically a family of fonts with some kind of common design aspect. The font is a historical term from the old days of type, and many people use it interchangeably with typeface. A typeface, however, is a family of fonts, so a couple different types of funds that have common characteristics. Now, one thing to look at when we're looking at fonts or a whole family of funds for size. So in photo shop, if you go to file new and then just create some kind of document where you have some room to work with and then choose the type twill here, it's horizontal type tool in Photoshopped, and if you click and drag out and type in some text, it will just stay within that text frame. And then if you click and drag the side of it, it will adjust it similar to how in in design, you can click and drag the side of a text frame and resize where that Texas located. And if you hold control on the PC or command on the Mac, just like an in design. If you click and drag the corner an old shifted maintain that proportion, it will resize the text as well. So every time you add some text in Photoshopped, it adds a text layer right over here and by default, it's vector, meaning I can zoom in, and eventually you will get to the pixel size. But if you make it larger, it's not going to pixel ate at 100% view. So if I took this, made it larger clicking, drive the corner to make it larger and then press enter, it will not pixelated. Now you can right click over the name of it and go to Rast arise type, and that will turn it into actual pixels. So then, if I click and drag, it doesn't act like vector layer anymore. It will be a raster layer. So eventually, as I resize it to be larger, it's going to start to kind of pixel ate have not a quite crisp edge to the edge of it. There you can kind of see it right there, though I'll delete that out another way to insert, type and adjust the size in photo shop is to select the horizontal type two again and just clicking. Let go then. If you type in subtext and shoes, the move tool right away, you can resize it enough. You don't see the edges there, though. Just make sure show transform. Controls is selected up at the top. Make sure that's checked. Then you can move it around and click and drag the corner and not have to hold control or command to resize it. Now you can distort it. So hold shift to maintain that original with the height proportion, and then either click this check mark here or press enter to apply that resize. Now an illustrator. If you go to file new and create some kind of file, I'm just going to a letter size here. And then if you click and hold on here, there's a lot more options on type. It's a very good at creating custom type adjusting type in terms of illustration and logos . If you select the type to one click and drag and just type in some words here it's going to go to the next line just like a text frame. And if you click and drag the corner, it will move it around just like a text frame. You can change the size here if you click and drag over to select it all with the type tool and changes size right up here, right and you'll need to resize it because it will not fit within that text frame when we re size it, Just like back in photo shop, you can also resize. Let me add a new text layer here. And of course, we can resize that manual lee with the move tool. Or you can click and drag over it and then get a window and then you have paragraph in character. So if you get a character, that's where you can change the size as well. So go back to illustrator now. We clicked and dragged the first time, if you just clicking. Let go now. If I choose the selection, tool the black arrow up at the top and click and drag the corner hold shift to maintain the right proportion. We can resize that pretty quickly, and you'll see that it changes the point size right here. So the this, by default, is measured in points. If you go to in design and open up practice. Stott i n d d You have some text here, and this is pretty easy to resize text. If you just selected some text or if you press controlling on the PC or command A on the Mac, it'll select it all. And you can change the size right here. And every day we change the size press control or command Zito undo. There is a shortcut here in in design. If you hold control, shift on the PC or command shift on the Mac and then press the greater than or less than sign it will resize along those increments right here. These default increments that we see here. You can also add all on the PC or option on the Mac to that. So it's control all shift on the PC or command option shift, and then the greater than or less than sign it will actually jump 10 points to 12 to 22 to 32 to 42 so on have besides size. There's also various formatting and style considerations. For example, the weight of a font style. If you click and drag over some text and photo shop and go over here about the top. Make sure you have the options panel selected and check. You can change this one just a regular and bold so the weight you have just some basic options here. You can also go over here, though, and you have a couple different added options and photo shopped. For example. Chris Sharp, strong, smooth. It's a little bit different from the weight if you go to the in design file and click and drag over some paragraph a text there. This times Norman has regular italic, bold, bold italic to some pretty basic options as well. Experiment with your different fonts, though, because if you find one like I have Minion Pro, you might not have it on your computer. But you should have some that have more options, like regular, bold, semi bold medium bold. So these air varying degrees of weight as far as bold or semi bold. For example, you want to go to illustrator, click and drag over some text and right up here, make sure you have the control panel selected and you've got regular and I also have against semi bold, bold and so on. You can also go toe window and then type and then character, and you have the same options as far as regular, bold and so on. It's just a short cut up there on the control panel. Another formatting type to consider. It's a Tallix. You know what Tallis eyes all text in a body copy of a story, for example, but it can be useful to emphasize certain words. So if you click and drag over her word and illustrator, you can go appear and go toe Talic. You can also go to photo shop, and this one doesn't have a talent. But if you choose another one, go to regular and then you can find one that does have a talent as an option and, of course, an in design. We can click up on the control panel and select italic or get a window type and tables character and change it there as well. Another set of formatting terms to know our current ing and tracking the 1st 1 is Kern Ing Soak. Earning is a space between two letters, so this is particularly useful in larger text, like a title. One letter just looks a little bit too close or far away compared to another letter right next to it. So an illustrator you can goto window type and then character. And then if you hover over here, there's Kern ing and then tracking. So with this Kernan here, if I reduce that saying Negative 50 you can see that's a lot closer. And if you go up to plus 50 then it's a lot further away. Some fonts will just be too close together. Particular certain parts of the letters and certain letters when, especially in larger texts occurring, can be useful in photo shop. If we just got a window and then character and then you have the same options here, you can see it there. There's Koerting, and if you click and drag, you can actually click and drag left and right by hovering over the symbol there. Or you can manually enter in specific number. And it's also an in design right here in the character panel. Now, tracking is a little bit different. If you click and drag around entire paragraph or story or sentence or word and adjust the tracking, it's right next to the current ing on the character panel it's right there. If you click in on this value here and I just do plus 100 it stretches the text a lot more . It makes it less readable than in this context. If you do negative 100 it makes it less readable as well. It's best practices here just to make it just slightly off from zero. If you just need to stress some text out or it's just a little bit too condensed, you can adjust it there in the default zero. Now, justification is how the text is flowed throughout a page. Now we do have this in photo shop. Of course, we have left center right, you can see right there, and you can also go to a window and then paragraph and an illustrator, of course, up at the top. We have left right center. Justify now. Your default, if you're used to a word processing program, was probably aligned left. What that is is it's aligned flush, left and then ragged right, meaning if the word is too long. In the end, it just goes to the next line. It has a ragged edge on the right. Ah, flush edge on the left and then their center, of course, and then write a line is the opposite of left aligned. You have a flush right and then left ragged, you goto window and then type and then paragraph and see the same options as well as we have full justify. So the entire paragraph is flush, left and flush right, like a magazine format. But then the last line is left, aligned and the same options with centred for the last line, right, a line from last line and then justify all lines. Your default for magazines and other publications and online publications to that air gonna have justify are gonna have full justify for all text except the last line is a line left. If you go to in design. It's really made for this type of publication, whether it's online or print, and this more advanced story editing as faras topography. So if you look up at the top, we have the shortcuts here on the control panel, left the line center right and then full dressed. If I so if I selected all the steaks right now, it's left aligned and then it's ragged, right? So should this one right here. If I press control a on the PC or command down the Mac and then select center, you can see it centers everything which you would not want to do with the story in a publication. Then there's right and then there's full. Just if I would just find one thing to look out for, though, is what. If you have skinnier columns or there's only a few words on the line, which is not best practices, you might have instances where words are just stretched out, so I'll show you an example. If I just move this over, you start to see it happen a little bit. If you have wider columns, it's a lot easier to do full justify without having any errors like this. We have large spaces in the middle of the line. You could try tracking to just it, maybe plus 10 or minus 10 to pull words to the previous or next line. But really just make those columns wider and you won't run into that problem with full justification. So I show you what the difference looks like here. This is full justified and then left justified. And finally there's in dent. So if you have a story like this where you don't have lines before or after every paragraph , if you wanted to do that, you could go to the paragraph panel, you know, in design window type in tables and then paragraph. And then you've got space after or space before, and you could just add some space between to delineate the paragraphs from each other or the other option is to add an indented to the first line. So if you hover over this on the paragraph panel, we've got some options for an indent. So if you press one Pia's in one piker in press enter, it will indent the first line in his paragraph, and now it's more easily readable. You can also do that illustrator. If you get a paragraph and just like an in design, you have a left and Dent. It'll just inventing the entire paragraph or just inventing the first line and a photo shop is, well, window and then paragraph and you've got left and then right and then and then first line indent. So there's the terms you need to know to create a just apply and use text in Photoshop and design and illustrator never kind of graphic design. When you're dealing with tight those air foundational terms to know, I'll see in the next lecture where we will be going over to primary types of fonts and then best practices when we're applying type thanks. 3. Type Principles in Graphic Design: There are many different types of fonts, but two primary categories to know our serif and san surf. So serif are those little embellishments on the edge of serif fonts, for example, Times New Roman and Jaermann. The sands is French for without, so a sensor fund. An example would be aerial or verdana. They don't have that added embellishment. So it's good to use Sarah fonts and body copy because it leads the eye to the next letter. San Serif are meant for sidebars, large text titles, things like that. However, in Web design, well, you're dealing with small, chunky paragraph sent away, But you often use something like Ariel, you know, a sans serif font in body copy and Web design on Web pages, as mentioned earlier. If you use a serif font as body copy, then don't use the slightly different Sarah fun for the title You something completely different, like serif and sans serif, or use different modifications of the same fund. You don't want to use something that's just slightly different. A couple other principles to know are looking at contrast and type, and that's not just, you know, color. We've already won over color government or color analogous color. I'm talking about contrast from the background, so you want your text to be readable. Here's an example where Texas not readable in in design file. So if you're creating ah, advertisement or annual report and you've got some text on top of photo like this, will dark text on a dark background is not readable. What can you do? Well, you could try changing the color of that type to you. Say, for example, let's just make it white, and it's still not quite readable, cause then it's white text on a lighter background down here. So the best thing to do there? Well, there's a couple of possibilities. You can make the textures flow around the photo. You know, if you select the photo and goto window and then text rap and add some kind of textract the second or third, depending on if you want it to wrap around the frame or the actual photo, it'll have the same effect in this example, but so you can have text wrap around an image, and you can bump up the tech traps. You have a little spatial proximity. He want at least one Pike. In between elements like that, you would not want this comment if he that small this you want to bring this in over so something like that, That's one possibility. Another possibility would be to add some kind of shape that's on top of the photo but behind the text. For example, if I did a rectangle tool right here and click and drag this out and you could see at least this column at some kind of Phil like, say, you could even do something like white and then you just adjust the transparency if you got a window and then effects and bring the opacity down and you also need to bring it behind that textile goto object, arrange send backward so offsets a little bit. But it's still not the best. So, really, if you have something, you really need to bring that text down, so it's not on top of a vital part of a photo, and then you could add something to delineate from it as prime. Not opaque enough, So I need to bring that up. So we're getting there, you know? So we're offsetting the text more so as far as contrast with the background text needs to have a high contrast compared to the background that it's on top of next principle is looking at scaling of text, and we can resize text 50 make. I'll text large. It's going to indicate hierarchies, so make sure it's like a title or something you want to call attention to. I take some text here in illustrator and scale it up. Well, you can distort it pretty easily, vertically or horizontally like that, and that's not best practice. Its better to hold shift and click and drag, and then it keeps the same with to height ratio when you're scaling text. When I was at a magazine company, some of the people in production made the type of the body copies. It was about nine points, and even though this was a younger demographic for the audience, it was still too small. So they actually had to go back and re flow all the text with a larger typeface, something like, I think it was 11 point. So you want to make sure your Texas readable that larger text is pointing the hierarchy, so it's gonna call attention to it. For example, titles and body copy should be readable. None of the thing to look at is line length. So when you have columns, this is a good length to read a on a website or an online. PdF for annual report. If you have a column all the way across a page, it's a lot to read from left to right. So put yourself in the shoes of the reader and you don't want columns to be too small like something like that, where you're just reading one or two words or three words on the line. But you also don't want it super long. Were you just reading all the way across like that and finally, word spacing? We've talked about tracking, So if you have some words here or even letters, and you've just suggested the tracking, say up at the top here and you've just made it too small, it's not as readable. And then, if you make it too large, is not as readable either. So generally keep it at zero. Unless that font just works better, just slightly adjusting it, though that's the key. Thanks. And I'll see in the next lesson 4. [PROJECT] Quote Design Type Adjustment: part of this exercise and project. Go and open up illustrator and find a quote that you like on the Internet. And I want to make it into a quote based design like this and the ideas that were practicing alignment as well as type adjustment. And you can use some kind of color scheme. Look, I'm using a complementary color scheme, and when you're creating this, you can use smart guys to make sure they're aligned on the sides or you go to view and then rulers and say, Show rulers, you're gonna hover over the edge and click and drag an bring the out to the edge really to find. Tune it like that, and you can also use the type tool and click in the different words and adjust the koerting and tracking. So there's an opportunity to practice Kernan and tracking in larger text. So just bring up the character panel again. You just get a window and then type and then character, and this right here is the current. For example, if you wanna make it a little bit smaller, you can bring that down a bit. That's too that's too close. You set it to zero for the default. But just use Kern ing and tracking, possibly as well. Just adjust the spacing in between all of this. You can move these all around individually. These are all individual text frames. And so to create something like this, just go to file new and then goto Okay, And just with your quote, just clicking like go somewhere, type in a word and you can use some kind of fun. I used impact. It just depends on what look you're going for. But if you want a thicker fonts, a common one is impact. And then you would just hold all on the PC or option on the Mac and click and drag it down and then type the next word before want. There's a line up. The key is just using the selection tool and click and drag the corner and hold shift to maintain that proportion again aligned those on the edges and also think about proximity and consistency so inconsistent spacing in between something like this. I'm just making up a quote for this example, but again, all click and drag and hold shift to keep it aligned to like that click and drag like that . You want to change the color, of course. So if you click and drag over this and set some kind of color and then you have the color guide up here, if you get a window than color grad and you can shoot some kind of color schemes if you want some like this because Okay, well, on this one, I want let's say complimentary. So there's air slightly different, especially if those were flush next. Each other you'd want to make those have different colors on their All right, So you just click and drag over it with the type tool and apply that color like so So you can see here the consistency and spacing is not quite there. We want to use the arrows. We can move these up and down. We could measure, but really think if we just move that up a little bit, So we're getting there. So you just create something in this example is in the support files. If you wanted to send this as an illustrator file, you need to right click over it each want to go to create outlines in case the person you're sending him to does not have your same fun. So I'll say this version is well just called outlined in case you don't have the same fund that I do. But the idea is that you're using this as an opportunity to practice Kern ing tracking, applying alignment, consistency and proximity and setting up a color scheme as well. All of this an illustrator When you're done, if you wanna post us to the course discussion board for critique for me and the other students, just goto file and then save for Web, then you want to save it up here, you canoe P and G. J. Peg. If you want to put it in the course discussion board as an embedded image, you could also go to file export and save it as a J peg right there. The support files under topography applications, of course, that's the section were in. So if you want to check my example out, but go ahead and create a custom one, she's your favorite quote or one. Your favorite quotes. Use the type tool. Just create that quote as unique illustration. An illustrator. Thanks, and I'll see in the next lesson