Go, Baduk, Weiqi, basic rules and fundamentals | Michael Sherman | Skillshare

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Go, Baduk, Weiqi, basic rules and fundamentals

teacher avatar Michael Sherman, Go,Baduk,Weiqi Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (3h 27m)
    • 1. Introduction video

      1:21
    • 2. What is go

      3:21
    • 3. Capture Go

      10:23
    • 4. Examples of Capture Go

      20:52
    • 5. Territory

      5:03
    • 6. Examples of Territory

      25:33
    • 7. Basic Haengma

      19:40
    • 8. Life and Death

      19:12
    • 9. Rule of KO

      13:40
    • 10. Seki, Dual life

      12:32
    • 11. Ponnuki, Ladders, Nets

      15:59
    • 12. Review 1 Owen 20k 5 Starter principles on the 9 x 9

      21:57
    • 13. Lessons from Aulavik be aggressive, but read first

      18:46
    • 14. Review 3 cito 20k If your winning play simply

      18:32
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About This Class

This class is designed to teach the basic rules of the Board game Go. It should help players who are just starting at the rank of 30 kyu to reach 20 kyu. Although it's just the basic rules they have good examples of the fundamentals and concepts that can help new players. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Michael Sherman

Go,Baduk,Weiqi Teacher

Teacher

Hello, I'm Michael. 

I have been playing Go for over 16 years. And teaching it ever since. I work hard not only to improve my skills by entering tournaments and leagues, but i also study under professional players, and read usually 4 hours a day. Other then my own studies i also enjoy teaching and raising others to a stronger rank. On sundays i teach beginners over discord in the Philippines Go Association.  And now i'm working on creating lessons and tips on youtube, here, and other outlets.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction video: Hello everyone. My name is Michael Sherman, and today I'll be introducing you to my new class, the basic rules and fundamentals of go. Also known as Paducah and Korea or Witchy in China. When you start playing, you start at Level 30 or 30. Q and you work your way down to one Q. After that, you can if you can get past that, you can actually earn your mastery as like a one done. But this class will focus on new people who are starting at 30 queue and don't know the rules or doesn't have a basic fundamental start yet. And so I'll be teaching the rules, and I'll be teaching good fundamentals that will get you past 30 Q very quickly. Once you reach 20 que yo be able to play efficiently on a nine by nine and start learning the game overtime. For now, I have classes setup that teach the basic rules of capturing, building territory, basic movement, life-and-death, the rule of CO Secchi slash doorway, capturing techniques. And there'll be a few more classes I'll be adding over time. I hope you join me on this journey of me trying to spread go. Thank you for joining me. Have a good one. 2. What is go: Hello class. My name is Michael or Makita. And today I'm going to introduce everyone to my first lesson. What is Go or paddock or weighty? And all three of those away to name this game. In Korea, it's paddock and Japan, it's go and in China, it's wha t. The reason I named the class for UHC is because when I search up go, normally, it'll show me Pokemon Go or GoPro cameras there if I search it up on YouTube or any other outlets. So use the Korean term paddock. But usually through these lessons, because I spend so much time reading Japanese books, I will be calling it go. So let me just explain or give a small introduction to go. Right now we're looking at two strangers. I don't know either of them. I just want something in the background of them playing the game. But let me just explain, you know, give a little introduction. The game of Go originated over 4 thousand years ago in ancient China, when it was considered one of the four activities a person had to master in order to be truly civilized. The other three being poetry, music, and painting. The game was popular with Buddhist monks. And That's actually how I believe most of the game was spread out to Japan and Korea from China. But it was popularized with Buddhist culture and monks because it helps cultivate its teachings, Buddha's teachings by instilling good virtues, such as overcoming fear, greed, and anger. It's ability to make its players better. People is part of the reason why goes still wildly popular in Japan, Korea, and China, where millions of people play regularly. Go continues to increase in popularity and America in Europe. Which to me is just very impressive considering how ancient This game is. One of the oldest games that are played today. I'm pretty sure it's a lot older than chess and other hurricanes like risk or monopoly. But that's my introduction to the game. And the backgrounds. You can see something playing. Hope you maybe you already know how to play so you understand what's going on. I'm assuming some of you have an idea, but I'll definitely be going in depth through many, many games, lessons, lectures, reviews. And my goal is to help spread and go and to help strengthen people, just getting into it. I absolutely love this game and I look forward to teaching it. So I hope you all have a good day signing up. 3. Capture Go: Hello class. Today I'll be teaching you about placing stones on how to move in the game. To count liberties, to essentially see how strong or weak your moves on. And then how to capture, which is a big thing and go. First, I'll teach you capture go. Which means that our law only rules that you really have to focus on is who can capture stone First. You can play this with a friend, or if you have somebody with you, then wants to learn how to play or is willing to play with him. This wouldn't, this is usually what I teach people when they first see the game and they show some interests. In checkers and chess. You playing inside the squares. But in Go, you play on the intersections instead of the squares. Once you place this stone, you have life points or HP NGO, they call it liberties. And what these liberties are is the intersections that are directly connected to your stone. The diagonals, as you see, don't count. So if you count how many intersections and with this stone it will be 1234. So black here has four liberties. When white places a stone that isn't anywhere near the center and plays against the wall. The wall doesn't count as your friend or as your liberties. So you're actually short. One liberty 123. So in essence, playing against the wall, or even worse, playing in the corner is not a winning strategy. In capture go or in usually in regular go. Because it's very easy to capture your opponent because they're shorter liberties. So as you can see, this Blackstone is, has more liberties, meaning that it's stronger than these stones. So I'll show you why and how to kill or capture an opponent, you have to take away all their liberties or HP points. So we agreed that black hair had four. But now, when it comes to Blackstone, why it has covered up three of flax liberties, leaving only one liberty left. If white gets to move here, black gets killed. And that would be a win for y when y would win the capturing Go game. Because, why captured first? So the question is, how does black save Blackstone's? Excuse me. If the game was like this and it was black's turn, black would be able to move here. So in Go you cannot pick up a stone. You can't shift the stone. You can't move a stone. The only time they get picked up is when it's killed. So when you play a stone, it's going to be there and for the rest of the game unless taken out. So in order to save your stone, You can't just shift this stone over 1 and pull it out. You have to link a stone to it. So by linking to stones are the same color. You actually obtain three more liberties. One, 23. If white wasn't here. You could see all the liberties that two stones connected share, which is 6123456. So in order to capture all these stones would need at least six moves. So the idea is that if you connect together you stay stronger. So we'll do a counting exercise and a capturing exercise. Actually, I'll set it up this way. If you want, pause the video and try and learning, testing what I've taught you. You couldn't try and count all the liberties of each group. A, B, C, D, E. I'll go over the answers in just a moment. I'll let you pause the video if you want to try it on your own ears, probably the trickiest one to count liberties. Okay, so let's test your answers. First, we'll start with a. A only has two liberties. One 212. So if you got the good job. And then the idea is if white was to, I'll show you how to capture him too. But essentially, black can't get away now, no matter excuse me, no matter what black does. When he can't escape being captured. Unfortunately, when black, if you look here, black only has two liberties. But now, when black plays this, black still only has two liberties. So with that in mind, now, black only has one liberty. And even if black plays here, black still only has one liberty. So that'll be the death of black here. Will go on to the stone one to four. So if you counted for, for this stone, you know, good job. I'm glad you're not counting the diagonals. So light only needs three turns to kill this stone, and vice versa. When no way is in, sorry, Black is an Atari. And if I haven't explained Natalia, attire means that when your stone only has one liberty, your n Atari, White has placed black and Atari and retirees pretty bad. But now to save Blackstone, black must extend and then won't. Black will gain three liberties. I've already put this in the lesson. But I like to not only tests you guys, but also too, you know, review. So that way we'll get it down because counting liberties is like one of the most important skills you can learn no matter what level you are, from beginner to master. Your always eyeballing, counting liberties. For this group. It is three liberties, 123. So I think you understand at this point how to count liberties and how to capture. Let's see. So we'll continue on from here. This one has six. So it takes six tens. And black can extend, although in this case eventually, why do so strong here? I think black will get captured eventually. But at this moment, Black won't get captured. Tell at least take the returns. But no matter honestly what black tries to do. And he's going to get messed up. The flag would have play here. It's instinct capture because of, it's an Atari, so only has one memory and black only has two liberties here. So kinda doesn't, doesn't matter at this point. So now, for this group, this L shape looking group or triangle has 123456. And what I want to point out with this one, this Blackstone is touching this liberty. In this Blackstone is touching this liberty. But it doesn't count as two liberties and it's only one. As soon as white place here. There's no liberty here. So I just wanted to make that abundantly clear. So to capture these stones, you'd have to play seven moves. That's how many you'd have to play. So that's capturing go. I hope you guys got the concept down. I think we've done a lot of examples and a lot of counting. So if you're able to play with somebody, it's good to play like two or three games of capture. Go to really kinda, I like learned to count liberties into see how good your thinking is on surrounding, out, surrounding your opponent. But I'll end it here for now. And in the next lesson, I'll actually show examples of when I was teaching my niece. So you can see how a beginner used the game and how well she did. 4. Examples of Capture Go: Hello class. Today I'll be making a companion video to for the capturing DO lessons. So this would be a lesson to be, I suppose. I've been teaching my niece how to play Go. And this is her account. We've probably played like a games or so. Three or four of them were captured go, and three of them were actual girl games. But today, we're going to discuss how to capture, how to defend. And you know, you guys can see somebody who's fresh to the game, somebody whose brand new and how they played and think. So, let's see, I was playing in black in the scheme. When black plays, he can already count that black has four liberties. And I'd play in the center because its furthest away from the walls, giving it the most amount of running space if it starts getting attacked. White attach. So one thing you want to know is when your opponent attaches to you, one, you lose a liberty. But as you can see, they also lose their liberty as well. So we both have three, and it is my turn. In essence, when you attach to your opponent, you actually are giving them the opportunity to get stronger and which makes you weaker. And so it's not exactly the best idea. Consider attaching right away whether it's captured go or full Go game. For black, This might be a new term. This is called, this type of move is called the honey. That's the Japanese turn, which means to turn the corner. So as you can see, if you thought of this maybe as a moving car or carrot horse carriage. You'd see that it turns around this stone. Essentially that's what's called a honey. And white now is, has lost two liberties, making it very weak. White attached again on this side. Now, although black has won two liberties, so doesn't white. So this stone is still technically weaker because it's black's turn. Usually this formation of this would be called the clamp. As you can see, this is like clamping down on this mark stone here. It depends on the situation, but a lot of times I wouldn't advise using it, especially in capture go. Because now I can easily attack this white stone and I have two ways of connecting to my stones to make myself stronger. So now this stone, I think I've brought up Atari before, but I'll just explain one more time. Whenever you place a stone into danger where they only have one liberty. The stone is call or would be considered an Atari, meaning that it only has one liberty, so it's only one turn away from dying. So why is an Atari? If you know how to increase your liberties, then you should know that E7 is the correct move. But unfortunately, she didn't notice that she was. One move away from death. So she clamped again. And I was able to finish the match here. So this was her first time ever playing. In Go, or at least when you start playing, you're not used to counting liberties and you're not used to looking at shapes. And so I can see why she messed up here. When you start playing, it's almost like you're playing in a mess, right? Like you can't see everything. But the more you play and the more you study and the more you listen to me, be able to see better and count better and make better shapes. So this was the first game. This was the first example of capture go. I will go on to the next one. So we play a second game. I was playing as black again. This time I've played F4 instead of the middle. And then white attached again. So just remember when your opponent attaches to this gives you the opportunity to either hon a which weakens them or to extend, which strengthens you. So you don't want to ignore when somebody attached as you, you, there's a proverb that says you should always on a, but that's not always true. But I think it says When stone attaches to you honey. But the idea is that you want to think about either or either honey or extension. And in the game, I hammered on this side at e5. Now, in reality, I have two places to go. And I think the reason I picked the center one is because when I play on the bottom, I'm only two lines away from the edge of the board. And you'll find that if you're surrounding your opponent and pushing them to the end of the board, it's kinda like hitting a wall. They'll run our spaces to go and they'll get killed more easily. So I played on outside because a much further away from the wall on all sides, making allowing white sari black to have more strength, more places to run, way extended. This is actually the proper shape. Hunting is a Japanese term meaning an honest moves or proper move. When black, I mean when, why? When black kinase in white becomes weaker? So the idea is that extending makes white a lot stronger. She gains 12344 liberties compared to the two that she had just a second ago. So this was a very good move. This is actually, I would consider a bad move. In most cases. If there was if there was more stones over here that were black, this would be fine. But I did it on purpose because I want obviously guide her into teaching moments and better moves to see what she'll do in the game she played here, which has the idea. So it has a right idea, but there's a better move in. The better move is here. So let me explain why. So let me explain some other things to you. Look at a, B and C. A has three liberties. B has three liberties in c has three liberties. But there's one that's significantly weaker than the other stones, even though they have the same liberties. And that group is C. C is weaker than a and b. And the reason is, is because a and B are close to each other. And so if they need to connect, they have ways of connecting or fighting which helps each other. Whereas C has a lot more work to connect to his friends because of this mark stones here. So see you specifically weaker and NGO you want to attack the weaker stones, you don't want to attack the stronger stones. So I liked her strategy of running here to take away liberties from this one. But in the game I was able to cut crosscut. So now you can see that there's a crosscut here. So now white is weak on both sides, and black is weak on this side, but not weak on this side. So because this stone is detached or can be cut from its group, it's actually, I would say the best MOOC. White should play here. Now you can see white is very solid white and has four liberties. And they're disconnecting this S4 stone from the rest of his friends. This split happens a lot, especially in early games from 30 to 15 Q and what I've I've heard this name before. I don't know where I got it, but I call it, it's called the Romeo Juliet split. Essentially, these are two crusts, star-crossed lovers that our split apart and will never be attached again, unfortunately. So it's the Romeo Juliet split. If you can do this to your opponent in your games, this is highly advisable. This is a winning strategy. If it happens to you, on the other hand, though, you're in trouble. So keep that in mind. I don't think I have to explain one. But the idea is that, you know, black is going to have a hard time ever trying to reach his friends. In fact, it's just, it's just not going to happen. Like black is in trouble and now on both sides. And why is connected in very strong. Sort of go back to the game, White played here, black cut. And now you can see the groups. There's a group here, we group here, and a week group here. A, B, C, and D and E are pretty strong one The next to each other and to the Avalon liberties. And the game she cut here. But I think the focus should have been on strike when you have weak groups here and see the focus should be to strengthen yourself. So maybe a move like this or like this. Although black has a technique to put this in a ladder and so I think this is the better move. But even then, weight is kinda hurting. This would probably be the best tactic though. Because black has a hard time surrounding white at this point. And white can counter attack. Although white stone might be in trouble. And it's because of this honey. And once again, the romeo juliet split would have been much stronger because it's solidly connected and still splitting. To finish black guitar it here. So now y has only one liberty in one move away from death. She should extend. But she did not see it. So she counter attacked black and so now blacks and Atari. But because they both have only one liberty for each stone, and it's wax. Ten, black takes the wind. Okay, let's move on to the next game. I have two other games, but I think I'm only gonna do one more because I don't want this to be too long. Companion video to the lesson to try and reinforce the lessons. And I'm pretty sure I'm already over stretch this lesson. But let's do one more game. This was the last game we played, and I was very happy. I feel like she learned a lot and used what she was taught in the scheme. So black plays here, and white plays at G7. Now in a normal Go game, I think playing on the star points would be okay. But in capture go, the closer you out of the wall, the weaker you are. So I didn't think this was particularly good move at the time, but it's fun. I even purposely through in a stone to see if she would try and aggressively go after. This stone is much weaker than this one because it's so close the law. Even though they both have four liberties, the idea is that white can surround black, much easier than black could surround white. Why ignored it and put it over here? And now I attached. The difference between this attachment and the other games is that a black has a friend. So this attachment is a bitch draw. Like I said, usually when you attach to your opponent's stone, it gives them the chance to get stronger. But because black has a friend, it's okay. So let's, she played in between here. There are situations where this is good. There's patterns that have us, but especially in capture Go, and especially on a nine by nine board, I don't think it's usually a good strategy to play between two stones. And the reason being is because when you play a stone, normally you have four liberties when it's not touching anything. But when you played between two Blackstone's already, you're shorting yourself two liberties. There's already two Blackstone's taking away whites liberties. So this actually A very weak stone, and I didn't think it was a good idea. I purposely didn't. It's better. I think for black to plan the outside. There's still lots of trouble everywhere. But I played this way because once again, I'm just trying to guide my niece into teachable moments. So Atari. Now, if you remember in the first two games, we've played guitar in similar fashion, and she didn't see it. But now by the fourth game, she was a pro, right now she is able to spot when our liberties are shortened. And so she can extend in mobile. Black again, Atari. And you can see both white stones are very strong now, in both groups of black stones are very weak. Excuse me. When somebody attaches to or a tar is you or is close to a tiring you. I mentioned it before that it's usually good to honey when somebody attaches to or extend. When somebody attaches to you. I did not. Honey or extend I Atari. So I guess you could consider it a holiday, but when you double Atari like this, one and then two, white become stronger and black becomes weaker. So it's better to extend in a crosscut. Excuse me. So I connected, as you can see, these, these groups are weak. A, B, C and D are very weak in E and F are very strong. So I connected one group. And she saw, she messed up here, but it's okay. I think she should have attacked a, to focus on these weak groups because this group is strong now. So it's not the focus anymore of the fight. But let's see. I played a move like this. I could have strengthened here, but once again, I just want to see if she can use what I taught her, what she did. She found the move. So now both these groups are extremely weak. This is an Atari. So on one move away from losing. So I extend, which strengthens my liberties. She Atari this way. And once again, I extended to give myself more liberties, but I only have two. And if you'll find, usually when you only have two liberties here and in a lot of danger, white attired me again, forcing me to either lose or extent. Of course I extended. And then white found that winning move. Now black really has nowhere to go. Black only has one liberty. And if you imagine in your mind's eye, if black moves here, you can try and count how many liberties black will have, which is only one stone. So even moving doesn't grant me a new liberty. So I lost. I was very happy. I feel like she's using her, which is very good. So I will just reiterate on lessen. The idea is there's three, here, three lessons are these videos. When your opponent places a stone, especially if it's connecting onto your stone or attaching to your stone. You should think what they're trying to do. And then make sure to count your liberties in their liberties to find out which group is strong, in which group is weak. So that's less than one. Less than two is the shape of the romeo juliet split. If you ever see this type of splitting move where you could split and an opponent, it's a very good idea to do. You know, if you ever heard the term divide and conquer, that works very well and go, you want to divide your enemy and focus on fighting the weaker won't side. Once you split them apart. This shape, you'll see a lot this particular split. And another way in that the shape will look something like this. So now if it's black's turn and white is threatening to come through and disconnect black. Black could show, should consider connecting. But if it doesn't, you can almost, almost consider this, the romeo juliet split. When black plays here, there's two cutting points. So I can cut on either side. And now you can see the stone is isolated from its group. And then same thing here. And you can see that this group is isolated from this one unless white dies, which white could because of this helper stone, but less than two is the Romeo and Juliet split. The shape, move, shape is important and go and this is a good and shape. And then the third lesson, I guess you can take away from all this is, is consider how close you are to the edge of the board. And the closer you are, the weaker you Stone kinda is. In capture go. I'd say. The other lesson, even though I think it's the first lesson that had brought up, is just to remember to keep your eyes on the weekend. Shrunk groups. That is really, really, really the essence of fighting is counting liberties in judging which is weak and strong and which to attack, in which to defend. If your groups are weak, you should defend them first, that's more urgent. If your enemy is weak, then you should focus on that stone to attack. And that the stronger side. In this game she played here, from which to me was kinda like choose attacking the stronger side. But this was the weaker side here. And then she followed up. So I'll end here. I want to take my nice for helping me with my lessons. Essentially, I asked her if I could teach you to play Go so that I could have a brand new player and watch how she plays to like help you guys learn by anyway, this video has gone on way too long. So thank you for watching. I hope you have a good day. 5. Territory: Hello class. Today I will be teaching you about territory. In a previous lesson, I told you about capturing, which to me as a fun way of gaining points. But it's not practical in comparison to gaining territory. And the idea of capturing that being practical is, is each player gets one term at a time. So if white was to continuously try and chase black to kill black, consider that black gets a turn just as many times as white. So if white continues to surround black this way, black can just keep growing. Now I'd sent Atari. This isn't the ideal way of playing, but I'm trying to show you that capturing is actually much more difficult than you think considering that each player gets the same amount of terms. So it's a lot harder for, it's a lot harder capturing than it is to make a framework for territory. So I'll show you how territory works. Now, black plane on this dot here, which are called Star points on the 19 by 19 there. Very useful, I think any boy, the very useful to help you count how many spaces away things are and like just generally where the corners are. So backends plane in the corner and White has played on the side. Now, to capture territory, you need to surround points, empty intersections. So we'll show Black trying to capture six points on the side of the board, I'm sorry, on the corner of the board. And we'll show White trying to capture six points on the side of the board. Now each player gets one term at a time. And now they both played five stones. So black has played five stones in White has played five stones. As you can see, black has now sealed off, rounded up or blocked off these six intersections here, 123456. So at the end of the game, as long as these Blackstone's don't get killed, these six zones, sorry, six intersections will become black's points. So black has made six points only using five stones were now y has used the same amount of stones, but it hasn't made any point set. And the idea is that the walls aren't closed off yet, whereas blacks walls are. So it takes two gestational turns to be able to create the same amount of territory that black has made in the corner. As you can see, it's more efficient to go for territory starting with the corners and then working on the sides. And if I could shift the Stones more easily, but I'm using computers so I can't really shift them. I can still do easy. The idea is that white now has made in the same amount of points, six points. But it took, why not a fire. So it took like five additional stones in order to make the same points that Black did. So as you can see, not using the wall in essentially making territory in the center of the board takes more effort, more turns, and more time to make the seminar points as the corner. So we're making territory. You want to focus on the corners first, then the sides, and then the center last end. To make territory, I'll be teaching lessons about movement on how the stones move in what their motives are called. But that will be in lesson four. And before that lesson, I will show you examples of three games, or a couple of games, at least from my student, who I call a builder type. He's less on fighting and moron direction of play and try and again, as many points as he can with each move. And so we'll look over those games so you can see a full actual goal game and then also how territory works in the actual game. So that'll be the next lesson. I hope you have a good day. 6. Examples of Territory: Hello class. Today I will be showing examples of actual full Go games and also how to count territory. At the end of the games, I won't focus on what's good moves or bad moves because that review will end up taking a long time. So instead, we'll just be focusing on looking through the game and looking at territorial frameworks, and then counting the frameworks at the end. So we'll begin. This was a game between me, myself and my student and good friend Anthony. He is roughly around the 17 queue right now. He doesn't play much, unfortunately, but in the household that we live in, you know, he plays when other people are playing. But anyway, his style of gameplay is the builder type. P mainly see focuses on playing the best moves to get the most amount of territory he can. So he's less on fighting and more on building. And so I think he's the perfect student to show you guys about territory. So we'll begin lesson. Black plays here already. I want you to know that every move you play kinda has like a sort of influence or power or direction that each system carries. In this particular by playing the 33 point, you can see that black is wall. Kind of like saying like hey, this corner is mine with only one move. Now that's not guaranteed that they'll get the corner, but that's the idea behind it. And whereas anthony played on the 3.1231233, building, this many amount of points, white, which was me at the time, was has played on the 44. It's four points away from each side of the board. And as you can tell, by playing higher on the fourth line, I'm actually trying to build more territory than he is in a quicker manner. So we'll move on. Black played the large knight's move, which in the next lesson I'll show you like all these movement names and what they do. But essentially, you can see black is building a territorial framework this way. And White played the two jump. So why supplying to build a framework this way? Black attached, white hominin attacking the Blackstone. And black pulled back. And now already you can see this is becoming really, really close to, at least then definitely this amount is really becoming close to like actual territory. There are only two moves away from putting one wall to the floor. So white undercut saying, you know, maybe an alternative to white will jump and try and take away black's territory. Black did a forcing move, asking to split these two stones and take away all of whites. I call it juice. So these points are possible points. So they're not guaranteed. But I call it and juice and blacks, China take whites juice. So white blocks. And now you can see why it is starting to have a really solid wall to make all these points. White plate over here. And this is where the most amount of points are on the board that it hasn't been claimed it so white plate over here. Black tries to get in but is cut off. And then tries to get him to take whites juice again, but is pushed out. So now you can see there really is like oh, huge wall forming and all these points are looking like whites. So black surrounds White. White doesn't have many liberties left only to. So black goes for the capture, I'm sorry, white goes for the capture on black. A black retirees, forcing White to capture. And then black guy is starting to seal off the rest of his territory. White folks in says, Hey, can I have some juice? And black says, No, these are my points. My juice. And black says, okay, sorry, well he says, okay, I'll Dari and black Kinects. So now white Connects, which puts black and Atari. So why black connects? And then, although this MOOC looks bad, because it is, I wanted to test him. White only has two liberties, but sodas in black here and here. So if he doesn't respond, then white can get, you know, kill something. But he did respond and he swallowed up the white stone. Wage attached here. Because when black plays here, what's going to have to play here anyway? So White played here first. These type of moves I saved for the end of the game. I wouldn't recommend doing them unless you have to. The ideas that way it wants to push in here. So then maybe he can get a double Atari. But black fur sees through the Kinects. So this is the end of the game. And go, the end of the game is when neither player has a beneficial move, so white, if white plays anything in here, he's such a disadvantage because of this huge black fortress that there's no point in giving wife Sari black free points by placing a stone here and then die. So in vice versa, same with black. There's no point in black playing in here. Because this white fortifications, huge white wall. No matter what black does, is gonna get beat up on by white very easily. So. There isn't a, at this point, there's no more beneficial moves to be played. So the game ends. One player passes, and then the other player passes in, the game's over. So now all the fighting is done, all the game is over and all there is left to do is count. So as you can see, white had got these points. These are all behind whites line of territory. So if you count these, you can see that the board's only nine by nine. So this is essentially nine points, then another nine points. So it's 18. And I'll show you if you if you so you can see it. So 1123456789, right? So then this must be nine as well. So it's 18. And then you'd go 1920 twenty one, twenty two, twenty three, twenty four. So why has 24 points on the board plus one capture, white captured once. So that's an extra point, so that's 25. And then white gets combi. Combi is, It's a free points that white gets for going second, black has such an advantage of going first that white gets a combi rule, meaning that at the end of the game, he gets a free 6.5 points in the actual live Board when we play at my house or in person. We do call me of 5.5 and a lot of times I'll give reverse Comi. So I'll give, my opponent will call me because I'm so much stronger because I'm teaching them. But anyway, this game, I'm pretty sure we played at 5.5 when me and Anthony played together. But in the computer it was 6.5 when I made the demo board. So I'll just count it as is. So you count that all up. It should come out to 31.5. So 25.24 points on the board plus one are the capture. And then 6.5 a calming even the computer shows it this way, which will come out to 31.5. Black. On the other hand, the unesco blank. Apparently the computer's not gonna score blank. But that's okay. I already did it myself. So essentially will now count everything behind black swan. Take this capture off an added term, blacks points at the end as well. So black, the, remember this is nine, so just count nine here. And then I'll go by. I'm just gonna do it in one at a time. Usually I'll count two at a time or make shapes like this is for what? So it's 1234 times three, so that would be 12. And then 1416182022, counting these two, twenty four and twenty six. So I got that as well when I did the count off the screen, 26 points on the board plus one capture equals 27. So this would be a score and the difference would be 4.5. If we were playing reverse, Kwame Anthony would actually win by 1.5. Sees me and my recording, I don't know what I have it labeled under what Call Me We did, but, you know, the idea is just learning how to count territory. And this is how you count, you count the points on the inside. And if you're playing in the real, on a real board, the captures that you get one, got one capture. So instead of adding that to your score, you'd actually place the Blackstone on the board and blackouts and capture. So you'd place the stone on the board. And so as you can see, it actually minuses white 1. So that's what you do with captures. You. You put them on your opponent's side and then it minus gamma point. But for computer counting and teaching, and I'll just add the score to white score. That can be a little confusing and I know, but either way you do it, the score is going to be the same. So I guess it's your preference. But traditionally, if you have a capture, instead of counting it at the end of the game, as your point, you're counted as a negative to your opponent by placing it on their side, so they lose the point by filling the spot. Okay, so we'll talk about the next game. This was a game played by two of my students. One was intonate US playing as black. He's the builder and then CDO. And he is another one of my students in good friends, and he usually plays by fighting. This was actually a bad game for C3PO, but a good game for Black Anthony. And I will just showcase it. But they didn't get to the end. Cdo had to resign because he had no way of coming back at the end. So black played this large, weird-looking jump. But you can see behind black swale, he's making a framework of this territory. White tried to attack it. And, you know, I could go into reviewing the game. White should have played here. But he didn't. So, and I don't wanna go through the whole review on just focusing on territory right now. Black realizes where white should Agon. So black actually goes there. And now you can see the wall has really shaped. And now you can see blacks points. Whereas whites influence is larger but less secure. It's less of a wall and more of stones that I like. Projecting influence over here. Whereas this is an actual wall that looks like it's really starting to make some points. Black has to cutting points, so he protected. And now this is pretty much guaranteed points. At this point. This move played too much inward. Which play somewhere over here are here to make more territory. So this moves didn't make too much territory. It just projected himself from black playing here. But anyway, as you can see, black has made a wall here for these points. And actually came over here because there was more points to be made over here. Then finishing this wall. Weight did not recognize that though and started attacking. And once again, this is the difference between the attacking mentality versus getting territory mentality. C2 is focused on fighting. Here. Playing, actually moved that didn't really get a much. Versus Anthony who played a move here, which is taking away from a lot of white potential and then adding to his own potential. So the builder verse though, the fighter, it depends on each game of course. But in this game that worked well for Anthony, there was weakness here for double Atari. So white spotted that and played here. Essentially, I think white should have played here because you get two points. But when white plays what he did in the game, you don't even get this point. He doesn't even get this at the end, but this looks like 1, um, but black is able to push it. So why does something interesting here? White peeps to try and attack black. If white was able to kill something or make life inside them, black won't get any of these points. That doesn't happen. And in the next, next lesson, after the movement lessons, I'll be teaching life and death to show you how to make a living group inside your enemies walls. But that's for another lesson. For now. Black ignored it to try and get this bigger capture. And white answered by connected. And then black even ignored it further. And, and the reason is, is because black is so strong. Black has a lot of liberties behind his fortification wall, and white only has four. So black instead of attacking this white stone has now gone for the more points he's building even more compared to just going after the one stone that is already weak. White did, tried to fight, putting black and Atari and then peeping again. But black was able to counter white. And as you can see why only as one liberty now, whereas black has two. So no matter where white goes, black will be able to capture the white stones in one term. So at this point, Sito saw that and he decided to resign because as you can see, black has all these points out here. And y only has the small group season. So that was the end of this game. As you can see from the flow of the game or the Stones, every move kind of has a meaning or like it's saying something. It's asking for something. These stones here created a wall and like is asking for all the points in the top-left while y is projecting influence on the bottom right. So they're both asking for territory but in different manners. Will move on to the last one. I know this example stuff as long I think of these examples kinda like if you want more. So like I'll give you the lesson. I teach you exactly what you need to know, but then I give you more, like if you want to I don't know. Extra credit, right? Something like that. But this last game was once again played against Anthony versus Sito. You'll see the builder versus fighter mentality in this. And you'll see that this game actually got to the end so you can count territory once more. Okay, so black played here. You can see that it's focusing a little more on the side than the corner, but it still has presence in the corner. And then why? Played on a 404? I usually play on the fourth for myself so I can see why he chooses to do it. Because obviously I get good results. But let's move on. Black plays this large weird extension. Again. It's not a common extension, but it looks kind of cool on the nine by nine board. And so I mean, I can't complain. And you can see the territory framework. It's building. White did the same movie did in the previous scheme. And it's mainly to push black down. So black, by pushing back down blacks like getting guaranteed points. But it's not a lot of points. It could be more like a flat gotta stone. Here. You can see that black and get more points. So why is pushing black down in the game? White continues and you see black is getting fully pushed down, but he's also getting guaranteed points. Unfortunately, White didn't finish. White plate over here to snake these points. But actually, white should've probably swallowed this stone because you can see if this dies. Now white has way more points than black does. Being pushed on the third line versus white being like, I don't know, six lines up, seven lines up, 78 lines up 1234566, lines of territory. Versus two lines, a territory is a big difference. So that's where white should it play it. But we'll continue with the game as you can see why played here. So why it was going for this? Once again, I still think why should a split? So that way these two groups can't work together on making territory in group a here is really weak compared to B. So now this is where those capturing lessons really come into focus. But unfortunately, White played for territory. Again, which isn't his character. Usually he's more fighting than he is in this manner. But do you see why it's making a lot of points. This is quite a big box here. But let's focus. So black connected with his group. Why? Looks like he made a connection, or at least is trying to, to keep him because these stones are missing a lot of liberties. So this is a bad decision which should stay connected and make his guaranteed points. And this might even look like a winning game. I think it looks like White has more points plus combi, up here, the 6.5. So this could have been a winning game for C3PO. But instead, instead he played here, which was kind of greedy and allowed black to Atari and Len sweat. So now these two groups are split and they can't make territory together. Whites in a live danger in this group here. So I'll just rush a little bit through the game instead of talking about every move. Ideally, you can see in the end, white made these points and blackmailed all these points. So this is nine psi, so we're at the end of the game now, there's no more beneficial moves for black. With black plays anywhere, black will get killed, right? It doesn't matter where black plays because it's all bad moves at this point forward, unless he can find some weakness, which I don't see one. So in vice versa for white, if white plays anywhere inside here, then white will be at a disadvantage and there'll be no point. So both of them ended up passing black. So black pass and then wipe pass, throw away pass to yeah, bypass and then white pest. So this was the end of the actual game, was focus. So now all you have to do is count the points. And what you do is you find what black walled off, and you find what white for Waldorf, and then you just count. So this would be nine points. The board is nine spaces. So 123456789 and then 101112131415. So I got 15 points for black on the board plus one capture equals 16 points. And the computer countered it correctly. So now you look at whites born, and why has 123456789101112. So white has 12 points in the board, plus one capture the prisoner. It says in the computer language, and then call me 6.5. So I came out 19.5. So sorry, C3PO, why? One? Due to the Combi and got a win by 3.5. anyway, those are my three examples of counting territory, getting territory and full Go games in themselves. So I hope these examples really helped out. Next lesson we'll be talking about Hangman, which is the names of the moves. Each move has different names to help Go players review and discuss the board and think about the game. So we'll go over them in their qualities and what they do. And after that, we'll talk about life and death, which is how to live behind enemy walls or how to attack enemies trying to live, which will lead to the death. So thank you for watching. Have a good day. 7. Basic Haengma: Hello class. Today I'll be teaching you about Hangman, which is the Korean term for the way of the moving stones or the way of the moving force. There is important to learn how to make moves that are not easily cut or destroyed. So I'll introduce you to the six most common shapes that keep you some strong and safe. In the next lecture, we will look at some examples from my own students Games, and I'll use those examples to create some problems for you. The first move or hanging. The number one basic is the extension. The idea is the extension of the extension is that slow but strong? And when I say strong, that means that it has quite a lot of liberties compared to one stone has four liberties. And extended stone or two stones have 6246. Making it to liberty stronger than one stone that has four. When I say slow, I mean that it's not building a lot of potential points or framework for territory. In a Go game in the beginning, if white was to do a three space extension, or if black was to do is to Space extension only making a framework of four points. Why doing a free-space extension is a much faster move and making more territory. Or at least a framework, it's not guaranteed, but it's a framework of territory. So framework of ten points compared to for some good examples of using the extension, which is very quickly. I've taught capture go already. So if you know how to capture stones, then you understand that when black plays here, whites only one move away from capturing black. Now, if it's black's turn, obviously extending, we'll add three more liberties to the stone that recently only had one. Meaning adds prolonging blacks life, helping them connect and stay strong. So that's what I mean when I say the extension is strong but slow. The next basic comma is, oh, and I'll show you one more example of when it's a good idea to play the extension. So my harness and takes away Black second, third liberty. Black only has two liberties. So a good move for black is to strengthen himself. Now, black had two liberties, but now black has for, so he's doubled his liberties. And now let's say if white plates somewhere else in black was the cut. Now you can see black has four liberties on this group in two on this one, making See the week group. But A only has two liberties and B only has two liberties. So a is a weak group. B is a weak group, meaning that white has two-week groups and black only has one, which allows black to have an advantage in the fight to come. And if you see, let's say if black Atari and black attire and the correct moves for wide are to extend so that they can continue to live in fight. Also, when there's a crosscut like this, the idea would be to actually be doing the Italian, but the idea would be to extend, to strengthen yourself because your groups are weak. So it's a good idea to strengthen both groups. The only thing is, as black kinda has some advantage because he gets to go first in this pinwheel. But it's all, it's all semantics, right? I'll show examples with real games in the next lecture. For now, I just wanted to show you the extension. The next hung, the second basic one is the one jump. As you can see, it's only one step away from the extension. So there's only one space between it, making it the one job. But one jump is faster than the extension in. It's still relatively strong and safe. If you see if white threatens to the next black by playing something like by playing something here. Black is only one move away from connecting. Now, black is super-strong. It's like a triple extension, if anything are a double extension. If white tries to play between these stones to separate black. Black can Atari right? Now why for a good move for white is to extend and black has to cutting points. So it's a good idea for black to connect on one of these. Still, if Y is eager to cut you to, because he wants to separate these two groups. Black has the advantage. And why it really doesn't have many options to try and separate black anyone. Blackwell mainly always stay connected. And that's because the one jump is such a good shape and it's a good move. The thing, those are good examples of how to stay connected with the one jump. But the one disadvantage or the one jump is, is that it's still slow, faster than the extension, but still slow in comparison in the opening of the game, the idea is that if black was to play a one jump, if you'd only be making a framework of six points. Whereas if white plays that third space extension there, the framework for them is still ten, so it's a lot more. And in Go, you really just need 1 over your opponents when the game or even 0.05. but we'll talk about those roles more later. For now. Willing. I'll show you the next MOOC, which is the third one. I would call the two jump. As you can see, it is two spaces. And the idea is that when you play the extension sorry, I'm messing it up, but the idea is that the extension is one, move ahead. The one jump is technically one move away from your black zone, but two moves ahead. And then the two jump is two spaces between your stones. So three moves ahead. On the third line, 123, close to the edge of the board on the third line, the two space extension is very strong and still connected easily in the middle of the board. And I can't say that to be true. But on the third line, it's a good move. If you want to stay connected. If white tries to disconnect you. By playing with the intention of playing something like this. Law can easily extend. White peeps again in black connects. So now they're obviously strongly connected and making territory. If white was to try and cut through like an Atari. And now if y, sorry, of black, does anything protect this cutting points? Black will be connected and perfectly fine. If white was to play here. Black can play under the white stone. And if white tries to cut, to disconnect these, all these stones, black and easily capture white. No matter what tries to do, black, white wouldn't get captured by black. So as you can see, that these black groups are still all connected. And no matter how hard white tries in this situation, because the two jump is a good move to the third power. Let's see. The only disadvantage I'd say is once again, at the beginning of the game, the two jump is pretty good. It's doing a framework of 2468 points, whereas whites extension is still making 10, so it's still making more than black. But that's how you can tell from speed and strength. So the TO space jump is still strong and still connected and it has some good speed. The three space extension is can be split. I played a lot with it to show how it can be split, but it's difficult to show. So I'd rather show you like through actual games. But for now, we will move on to the next MOOC. The next move for the fourth one. And how much is the diagonal? The diagonal is very, very strong. I would say it's nearly as strong as the extension. Thus far. You can see that this one stone has four liberties. In this one stone has four liberties. So neither of them have the six that the extension gives you, right? But with black being diagonally connected, if white tries to disconnect, black only needs one move, and now he's fully connected and comes out with 1-2-3, 4-5-6 liberties. Whereas white only has to, making black extremely powerful and white very weak. Vice versa. If white plays on this point, then black and connect this way. So the idea is that black has two places to connect, and it's very hard for whites to separate black in this instance. Also, I wanted to point out that black is on the fourth line, so 1234, which is 1 more than the extension. So the idea is that you're building more points and more influenced throughout the board. So playing on the fourth line is usually a good idea. But once again, just to point out, I've said this many times now, but I'm sure you're sick of hearing it. But the idea is that in the beginning of the game, it's not a great move to use on the second move. Just because it's better to create a larger framework with fast extensions compared to slow movement. So it's low but strong. That's why I wanted to get it. Next will be the knight's move. Now the knight's move is named after the chess piece, excuse me, is named after the chess piece movement than that, essentially it moves in an L shape. The idea with the knight's move is that you're still pretty well-connected. And it's moving faster than the diagonal. Whether diagonal, diagonally connected. The black moves one step for further. This. If you see builds territory, more territory. So you're actually getting a full extra line of framework territory, which will be three points compared to the two. It's still slower than the three space extension, but it's on the right track, I would say, of building territory for the opening of the game. If white tries to disconnect, which you can see why it is only one move away from black and extend. And now you can see these stones are nearly connected. There is a cutting point which is here. But it actually doesn't threatened black as much as you'd think. Because this extension has four liberties. And this don't only has two liberties once you Atari. White continuously has three to two liberties each move. And then it can be easily brought down to death or one or 0, I should say. So this is still a strong connection even when white tries to break it. Same here. If white plays this way, black extends and you can kind of see a pattern where if light tries to separate you, it's good to extend here other stones so that you can stay connected. If white tries to cut this way, you can put black, sorry, white in a ladder. Which is just death for white. So this isn't good and, and that means that white can't separate black. If white plays this way. There's actually a few variations that can come out of this. But if you just wanted to play to block, you can see black is roof pretty much fully connected to himself. This is almost the diagonal connection if this is very easy to kill. So even though it's not actually connected, it has a connection. So you can see that the, the knight's move is connected in this way. And it's connected this way. You could even go further and this will probably be another lesson when it comes to Ted CG. But the idea is that this black is disconnecting though this black extension is disconnecting these two white stones. So if white tries to kill black here, black is able to swindle himself to stones. And you can see black is, can it has a good connection here. If white plays this way to connect, then black has a ladder. And now Blackstone's are awfully connected and in white is still in trouble. So I think I already said it. The idea is that white still making more points with the three space extension. But the knight's move is still a really good move. The last number six is the largest knight's move. So this would be the knight's move. One step further, we will be in the large knight's move. This actually is the first move out of all the moves that I've showed you that actually builds a bigger framework. Then the three space extension. And the idea is because it's on the fourth line in playing on the fourth line gives you three spaces of framework territory compared to being on the third line. That only gives you two spaces of the framework territory. So to conclude here, this actually gives you 11 points or framework, whereas this only gives you ten. To show the connectivity of these stones. If white tries to disconnect this way, it's pretty much the same thing as the night knight's move. Way is in a lot of trouble here. Because this connection, this, it's almost like a double extension. It's a this would be an extension and this would be another extension. So a double extension here has a lot of liberties. So as long as you push y into your strong groups, you can kill White. And White has no options of disconnecting. Bla, black here. White now has a weak Group here. In this group is pretty weak too, because it's surrounded. If we do this way, black can extend the extension on both sides. And now white is in trouble. No matter which side white tries to save. There's a ladder on both sides. So black will always stay connected by capturing a stone. If white plays on the underside. Just like last time with the night, black can kind of just cover him. So whereas white is making 12345678 points roughly, black has the potential in the strength on all the outside to considerably and make a lot of points on the other side of the board. But ideally, and to finish that statement, you can see that black is pretty much fully connected. Now, fully because this stone cutting point, but you can block that cutting plenty easy. So black stay connected and strong. Also moving fast, this is definitely the fastest movement at the six moves. So n The lesson here showing the OSX or the basic ones extension. The one jump, the to jump the diagonal, the knight's move, and the large knight's move of six basic color. I hope this lesson helps. Next lesson, I'll be showing you examples from my students Games to see when this was working, when it wasn't, when it should be. And then I will create some problems to help you practice these moves. I hope to see them in your game properly and hope they help you win a lot of games. Thank you for joining me on this lesson. See you in the next one. Have a good one. 8. Life and Death: Hello class. Today I'll be talking to you about life and death or assume ego and Japanese. Essentially their problems that teach you how to live behind enemy lines. As you can see, black is completely surrounding the white group here, here, and here. And as you know from our capturing lessons, once you surround your enemy, if you can take away all their liberties, then blacking kill these groups. But there's a way to make it so that white can live and never be killed. So I'm sure this is a very good technique obviously for anyone who's learning go. And there's a lot of resources for life and death. If you search up life and death are assume ego, you will get plenty and plenty of problems to play. Even on ODS here and the online go.com. There's puzzles and there's plenty of beginner life and death to teach you what I'm about to lecture on. But anyway, I'll start. So as you can see, why only has two liberties here. Now, if it is white's turn, white can play here. And as you can see, black cannot go here because this move is suicidal. So the fact is if black plays here, they will have no liberties, which means that it would instantly die and it go, you can't kill your own Stone in such a manner. So black can't play on either side. It's impossible for black to play, meaning that y has created position where white can't be killed. Now, to give some context, this is called the unsettled three. As you can see, there's three holes, here, are three. There's two liberties, but as three territory points or hole, I just call holes. So you can see 123123. They call it the unsettled three because one black is fully surrounding white. If black gets a move on the inside, white can't play here. So as you can see, white can't make two eyes are two wholes. Meaning that if white tries to capture this Blackstone, now white only has one liberty and it's dead. So it's much different. If white gets a stone here creating two eyes or holes. But most people call them iss, so but there are also holds the visa, I don't know, but there's two eyes here. And so once again, we've discussed that black can't play here because he can't kill himself. He would have no liberties. On the other hand, if it was black here. And black here. White can kill the two stones, but as you can see, it's only one eye or one hall. Well, it's two holes, but what I mean is it can't be split into a nine kilojoule situation. So why can sacrifice himself again? And now you can see why it is an Atari. So if white plays somewhere else, why dies? And if white plays to kill the Blackstone, white only has one liberty. So now black can take all the stones. So that's the first introduction to life-and-death on how to make an unscalable shape. So it cannot be killed when white makes two eyes. Here. If you want to pause the video, you can try and solve both of these. It's pretty I think I kind of gave you the answer. And so if you understand what I was talking about, then you should be able to find the answer for these two. But essentially, if white plays here, we'll have two eyes. And so black can that play in either or because once again, black will have no liberties. If we go back. And now it's black's turn. If black plays here, for instance, why can kill and get two eyes and vice versa. Same thing if black plays here. So why can get two eyes? So the key point or vital point to kill all these white stones is for black to take away whites ability to make two eyes. So now, even though black is gonna get killed here, didn't brings white down to one I am. Why is completely surrounded? So with only one eye, black can kill the stones. And let's say black plays somewhere else like over here. And now when white takes that, there's only one liberty. So there you go. That's how it works. You can play inside the hole. Or I, if once blacks move is over, there's liberties for black. So if you capture and you can play inside these holes, but if you can't capture, then you can't play inside the holes. And by the way, white can play inside the holes, but as you can see, that would just give white killed. So the idea is that you want to make two eyes. So I kinda gave the answer away with this one too. But I think you guys will understand how the unsettled three works. The key point is here at a, and depending on who gets it, we'll either live or die. So we'll move on to the next situation. By the next problems. Now, this, instead of three holes, 1234, there's four. So this is called the well, I don't know if it has a name really, but I'll call it the settled for. Essentially a black needs to moves in order to kill white here. But in go, black only moves one term at a time, which means white will always get their turn next. So we consider four spaces. Alive, because no matter what, Black usually can't get two terms unless you looking at a co fight, but they'll be explained in the next lecture. For this. Just know that if black plays here, white can now make two holes. You can see a and b. And now, because when black plays here, they'll have no liberties which would be considered suicide. That means black can play here. Black was not allowed to make a suicidal move. So no matter what, black can play here either. So why is alive unconditionally? No problem for white now. But if white was to play somewhere else, and black was able to get a second movement. Now, how can light make two holes? White, can't. Once white fills in any one of these, it becomes the unconditional three and write the unsettled three. So now you can see why it only has one liberty and white dies. Now. You can wait as white. You can wait for black to fill in one of those spots. And then white can kill. But as you can see, it becomes that unconditional three and it's black's turn. So that's the end. That is the end for white. Because no matter what, as long as black keep sacrificing, black will eventually bring the stones down to death. So in the end of an actual game, you wouldn't have to play all these out. But I'm showing you these for educational purposes. But regardless, the idea is that if there's four holes, then because go, you know, is a one take a turn and then the other ticker turn. There's me. I mean, AI is a Japanese term for two places that like if black plays here, white plays here. So then b becomes me-I. If black plays a, B plays here. And then the other way around is if black plays B, then white plays a. So there are mirrored, they give you the same result. And that's what me, I stands for. But anyway, as you can see, now black can't move here or here. And then vice versa. If black plays this one, then y can play here. So if you have foreign spaces and all your stones are connected, this is considered alive. We'll move on to the next one. I think you guys understand this one. So this has five holes, 123451234512345. As you can see, they call this, they have different names for it. But in the book that I used to read when I was a kid, it was called the bulky five. So there is a vital point. If you want to pause the video and try and get it. Where, let's say if you were playing as white, how can you create two holes in one move? If you want to pause the video, you can go ahead and try it. I'll give you 1 second. Okay, so now I'll explain the bulky five. There's a vital point here. And the vital point if you were playing as white, there's one move that allow you to make two eyes. Right here. As you can see, this makes one i, and then this huge hole is considered two eyes. The second I, the idea is that it looks like the unsettled three. And it is if white will fill them in. But now when black plays here, which would normally kill the unsettled three, there's an extra i here. So no matter what, black can't play in both holes, black can't kill himself. Actually. Oh, I see. I see black can't kill himself. So there's no way that white can die. And the situation once white plays on the vital point. Now, when it comes to go where your opponents best move is sometimes, or most of the time, especially in life and death, is blacks best move. So, and considering that if black plays here, now it prevents White from making two eyes. White can try to kill black. And as you can see, if white plays here, white will have two eyes or the making of at least two eyes, it would become a.co. Which once again, I'll explain next time. But if black plays here, now it prevents White from making two eyes. And as you can see, it becomes the unsettled three. If white plays here, black and kill. If white plays here, there's only one liberty, as you can see. So blacking kill. So pretty much becomes the unsettled three, the bulky five, once black finds the vital point. And of course, black needs to be completely surrounding white in order to bring white down to one liberty. So the vital point is here. So then the question becomes on this group, whereas the vital point, you can see the bulky five. Okay, and I don't know if you wanted to pause the video and try for yourself. But the vital point is here. And as you can see, no matter what white tries to do, black can block the making of an eye. If black placed somewhere else, then white can make two eyes and black can't play. But like I said and go, each player gets a turn. So as long as when black and see it, black and stop the eye. And no matter where white goes, it's the same situation that was in the corner. And then the last problem is here. If you are playing as white, this is the bulk E5 shape. So the vital point is here. And now you can see black can't kill white no matter what. Light doesn't even have to answer. And then as you can see, black can't kill himself on either hole. So the idea of making two eyes are two holes is very important concept and go. You'll find that whenever you're invading opponents territory framework where your opponent is trying to make a lot of points. And then you play an invasion making these shapes the ideally the fork so you can't be killed. But making the shapes comes up all the time. Been settled three, the street for the bulk E5. And this one is the pyramid. We'll go over this one very quickly. Because the lecture is getting long and I think you guys understand the idea. But if you want to pause the video and try and find the vital point for this group in the top left. Go ahead and pause the video. If you want to answer all of them, you can answer all of them. Okay? So the vital point, if it's black's turn to kill than the vital point would be. Here. As you can see, it's almost like a pyramid shape. So they called the pyramid for, for space pyramid. And unlike the street for and that was able to live do too me-I situation. This one is all concentrated on this one vital point. So once this vital points played, no matter whose turn it is. Once that vital points play, it will be the life and death. C, it becomes the unsettled three. When white plays anywhere to try and kill black. So white is incapable of making two eyes, which means that white will eventually die with some all-black sacrifices. And in a regular Go game, when you realize this is dead, instead of giving black bar points, trying to save them even though they're unsaleable, the best course of action is just leave them alone and let them die. Unfortunately, if you can kill something on the outside, then you'll save the group. Like let's say if Black didn't realize and you are able to kill something, that would make the difference, but don't feed your opponent. If, if the, the group is dead. To finish. For white to save this group, white would also plan the vital point, and as you can see, it actually creates 123. You only need two eyes to live, but the extra point is fun to have. So vital point is here. And then here. And the vital point for each player. So it's an unsettled group, meaning that whoever plays first is going to when either killing or living. Whereas like I said, the straightforward, it doesn't matter who plays first. If white plays first, why does it have to play anything at all? Because it's already alive, so it's settled. So whereas the unsettled three is unsettled, the For is settled straight for the bulk. E5 is unsettled, meaning whoever placed first will be able to live overkill. And then the pyramid for the vital point is also unsettled. So whoever plays first, as you can see, group a, White played for us and lives in Group B. Black plays first and kills. So that's the basics of life and death. Just remember you need to surround your opponent first before you want to really focus on killing the inside. Because if there's a weak group out here, and y is able to kill. And let's say black folks out the eyes. And it's white's turn. Then, no matter what black does, even though this doesn't have eyes. Now this creates two i's and Y hat by killing something like got to i groups. But I'll finish the review with this. If you want to try these on your own. This is pretty much just a review of what I showed you, except excluding this one, this one. I'm curious if you can find if blacking kill or white can just live no matter what. There is an answer, I won't give it to you. So I'll highlight you guys find it. But everything else is review the unsettled three, the street for the bulky five in the pyramid. Feel free to pause the video and try it yourself if you want. I think the answers are really easy for the basic life and death, but it'll take time for you to continuously see them in order to play them in your own games and do a bunch of problems. But anyway, oh, and if you want to do puzzles, I might create some for the lecture. But if not, if you hit puzzles, there's thousands, thousands and thousands of puzzles. And the first stuff is for beginners. So anyway, have a good day and thank you for watching. 9. Rule of KO: Hello class. Today I'll be teaching you the role of CO. This is a very subtle role in the game of Go. I've taught you mostly everything. We're only missing. I believe Cohen Secchi and we have generally all the basic rows down and maybe the band fall in the corner. But anyway, today will be speaking about co. So the idea of CO is, we'll look at this very basic formation of it. As you can see, this is like one of the first things ever taught you when he came to capturing. Um, but let's say black captured white and white place here. And let's say black played somewhere else. Now, when white takes this stone, as you can see, why it only has one liberty. So in theory, blacks should be able to play here and kill white because white only has one liberty. But the thing about that is, is if that was allowed to happen, then literally you could just play here and then white play back in, black play here. And why play there and black wire here, and why play there? So it will go on continuously, endlessly, right? So the idea is they invented in the craters, have GAAC invented a roll call and o, which essentially means that once a stone like this is taken, then black can't move here. Illegal co-move. Essentially you have to wait one turn. So you have to move somewhere else. And then you can choose to either fill or answer. Blacks move. And then black now has spent to turn. So now black can now take the CO. And now, because Black took the CO, white has to wait one move, illegal move. So why can't move here? So y it has to come up with some type of threat or something. I'm just somewhere else. And if black chooses to respond to the threat, then y can now take the code again and then black can't move here. Black will have to find the thread somewhere else. And if white, white has two options now y can either respond or fill. So if you fill, obviously there's no co anymore. There's no way that Black and capture the stone here because whites here. So the idea of code, like I said, is to just stop the advancement of taking a stone every single turn. And then still making the game would be too easy to sell me this game. If white and black could just keep playing here and here and here and here and here. Now there's some subtleties of CO. If there's two stones, show you how this works. I'm just setting up the board, so this is the setup. Now originally you're only taking one stone, but now when black takes two stones, there's a extra liberty here. So B, when white kills black, white has an extra liberty which allows for white to kill black instantly. Now if you remember in the ko rule, white can have moved here. F0 Blackstone was here, right? In this case. Rgs isn't making it different. But the idea is that if there is only one liberty after white takes, then there is a coal rule. I hope, but that's understandable. Because like I said, if black gutsy move here and then white gutter, white gets killed rate. But then y gets the move back here, and they're brackets killed, and then black and white gets killed. The game would just go on and tell me forever. So that's why the rule is vented. And that's the difference between killing two stones with white allowing to kill him right back in a technique called the snapback really. But then, yeah, because why it has an extra Liberty. So that's the difference between the ko rule and no coup. I'll show you a real life game that I played recently with how the code works and how it brought me. It's from a losing game to a winning game. So I was playing as white. I don't know. How shall I put it? Black is alive here right now, and white is alive here right now. In White has, like all this territory mapped out, black is dead here. Unfortunately, White is dead here. So this was actually a game where black was wedding. He was beating me. But and I played over here and he decided to respond. So then we created a co, see once black takes, Black only has one liberty, which means y cannot play here, see illegal co-move. So in order to fight for this CO, I have to play a move that threatens something on the board, which makes him respond in, then I can come back and take the co so you have to wait one turn. So I have to come up with a move. So I came up with this move. This move is threatening to cut these Blackstone's away from these Blackstone's, which would essentially kill all these stones. So saving these stones is worth more than taking the co. So he ends up saving this group. So that's a ko threat. I threatened him with the ko threat. So like if he played here, y can now cut. And now this black, a group is going to die. It's fully surrounded and it can't make two eyes. But that didn't happen in the game. So black responded so that I wouldn't kill the whole group. And then I got to take the codec. So now I'm threatening these groups and just ticking away points from them. So now it's his turn to find a co threatened to kill white somewhere on the board so that I don't respond here. Black came up with this move to kill this group here. And I responded. So now black gets to take the code down here. So you can see this is how a ko threat will continue to play in real games. You essentially, once you take the co, it's whoever's turn it is to who can't play here, has to come up with a move that threatens something big in order to, for them to, for black to respond. So I felt like these for stones and territory here and this territory here, these stones are worth more than getting a move over here, something. As you can see, this takes away a lot from white. Although I get some compensation. This is the art of CO fighting. You have to figure out what is worth what. So, but I found that I deem this worthy of saving. So then he got to take the code, and now I have to come up with a code that I got to threaten something that will make them respond. So I threatens this was a bad move, I should replace it here, but I threatened to connect this group with this group. And so if I connected these two groups, not only what I kill all these Blackstone's, but then I would save this white group. He didn't find that acceptable, so he connected. And then I got to take the Quebec black once again threaten this group. And I responded. So now he gets to take the codec. So that's how Coase work. To finish this off. I kept thrown threatening to make this group live, and he kept her anything to make this group live. So each time we kept responding by it was here, he made a mistake. This group is so important. And he didn't see that. Well, I don't know if he saw that this move would kill these. I don't think he did because this is so important. Like him having all this territory is winning and his is the winning strategy. So he would win. But he ended up choosing to take the code because he was tired of fighting the code. And then I was able to play here. He thought this group would live, but I'd stop that. This is the unsettled three from the life and death lesson. This is an actual in-game example of where he was trying to live with the unsettled three. So I poked out his eyes. I just want to get over here. So I'm doing this quickly. This actually started another CO. I didn't care as much about this code as long as this and this, I actually winning the game. So I didn't really care too much about the code, but I played it anyway. He did a ko threat here. So I have to respond, which I did. It takes the callback. I played the code right here to try and connect to this and kill all the stones. He responded. And then I took the CFO. He's threatening to kill these two stones, which if he can, then this black group will come back to life. But I said no. And then he took the CO, and then I created a dying shape here. So like this is the pyramid, right? So this was the unsettled three. And this is the force don't pyramid, which he didn't see. He didn't see that this would kill him. So he took the CO. And in a technical sense, I lost all these codes. But I gained so much that it doesn't matter that I last these co, fights. So I connected here. He attacked, he killed these stones. And then I poked out the eye. This is the vital point for the pyramid, for the four space pyramid. So I not only poked out this and kill these two groups, but I even poked out this large group, this whole black group depended on the eyes here. He tried to make a second i here, but I poked it out. And he resigned. This is the end. If you're wondering, is this is a two eyes. It's not, it's a fog side because white can Atari the stone so Glaucus to fill. But essentially, I was losing in this game and I won because of my good co fighting or more or less, I won because he chose bad co fights, right? He chose to take this one stone when I got to save this group here. And then once I save this group, was able to kill these stones. There was no coming back after that. But I hope that gives you not only what Co is, but how useful it can be in your games. It's very, very important to learn how to use the coefficients. But I will just reiterate. So if y, if it becomes this situation and White takes, now, black can't move here because it will go. So black has to come up with a threat or something. And FYI answers. That was black and take the CO. And he could see that throughout this whole game. And the lesson here. I hope that helps. I hope you absorb the idea of using ko threats, like essentially threatening something that was dead, like this group here was dead, but there were threatening to kill this group here to live. It's really high level stuff, but you should at least know the basics of code. And so that's why I wanted to teach you. Thank you for listening, and I hope you have a good day. 10. Seki, Dual life: Hello class. Today I'll be teaching you about Secchi, rule of psyche or dual life. In Japanese it's called Secchi and in English we'll call it dual life. Essentially, it's when two groups are fighting each other, but neither of them can kill each other. And so they're both considered alive at the end of the game, meaning nobody gets points in the area. Let me show you this by example. Looking at this board, there's two examples. There's a and B, and I'll move forward here. So as you can see, white here only has three liberties, 1-2-3, and same with black here, 123. If black is able to connect here, this solves blacks problems and actually kills white. White only has two liberties. So at the end of the game, if both players were to pass, white would be considered dead. But if it's, white's turn in, white is able to stop this connection. Now as you can see, there's only two liberties for both white and for black, there's only two liberties and they're both sharing them. As you can see, they're both touching these areas. So thinking about it, if it's black's turn and Black wants to capture why? There's only two places to go. And if black goes to either them, now it's white's turn, and black only has one liberty, which means a caption. Same here, and vice versa. Let's say black gives up on that situation, then realizes that it's hopeless, right? This is a bad move. I'm just saying like showing, for example, now it's white's turn. Now if white tries to capture these three stones, there's only two places for white to go. And as you can see, it's the same situation. White tries to capture black, blacking, capture and kill. Because white only has one liberty after moving. So both these players can't move here without dying. So that means that when if both players would have passed and the game was to finish you, neither of them can kill each other. So they both live dual life. Or Secchi. All these points would be no ones. So they're neutral points, meaning that just both players live and that's that you just leave it alone. To make it clear. If black was to play here. Now this would have been 12345678. This would have been eight points for black. But if white nose above the role of dual life and is able to pull it off. Now, white has essentially taking eight points away from black. This could have been blacked eight points. But now it is no one's points at 0. So it's not a gain for white, but it's a loss for black. So technically it's again for y. We'll move on to the next example. If it is. Blacks will go over white's turn first if it's widespread. And you can see that if white plays here, y has made one i. And now this capture, because black can play here, because black would only have one liberty and black can play suicidal moves. I'll show you in the computer example. See movies suicidal. So why can't move here? So this is considered a capture and dead. And so this would be two eyes, one I and one really big guy. And so this is six points, 1234566 points for white. But if we go back to the example, black actually has a way of destroying the eye and creating Secchi, meaning that black is alive here in white is alive here, but no points are here. So essentially white can't get the six points that White was originally going to get. And I'll show you the example. There's two liberties here, just like this example. And they're both sharing the liberties. So if white plays here, now it's Blackstone and black and kill white. Same here. And vice versa. If it was black's turn and black tried to kill white. You can see they both now only have one liberty and it's white's turn. So now there's four spaces here. And if you remember from the life-and-death lesson, four, spaces is alive unconditionally. So if black plays here, y can make two eyes. If black plays here, y can make two eyes. And this is the same thing if black was to try and capture this way. For spaces equal, meaning that white is alive unconditionally. So as you can see, if we go all the way back when black plays here to prevent white from making an I. Now, white can't move in, black can't move to make any beneficial movements if that makes sense. So in the end game, when both players pass, this group would also be considered to a life or Secchi, meaning that nobody gets points here and both players live. So those are the rules. We'll do two more problems as examples. So let's do it. Kinda given away some answers here. Sorry, I didn't properly reset the problem. But let's look at these examples here. So now we have example a and example b. For a. If it's white's turn, white can actually stop the Secchi and kill black. And if it's black's turn, then he can create a Secchi and both of them will live. If you wanna pause the video and play both as white to see if you can kill black and play as black to see if you can create psyche, you know, you can give it a shot. I'll give you a few moments to pause the video. Ok, and now I will give you the answer. So if it is white's turn, way actually can play either here or here. This one looks nicer because it creates an eye. And black can't play here because it's suicidal. Whereas if white plays here, it's white wins the capturing ways. So either R is whites answer, I like this one prisoner creates an I and I just like creating eyes. So but for black, let's say if it was black skin, There's really two options. I've kinda given away the answer I think. But if black plays here, it breaks whites I. And so now when it's white's turn, there's two liberties. Just like in the other examples. There's two liberties that both groups share. And now white can't play either without getting killed. In same with black. Black can play either without getting killed. So this is dual life. It's left alone, and at the end of the game, neither players get points. Here. Will go to example two. Now, if black plays, white will die. If black makes the correct move, white will die. And if white plays, white can create Secchi. So it's kinda the opposite of the situation. If you want to pause the video and try and solve it, the harder question is creating Secchi as white. But if you want to play as black tea can find a way to kill white. I'll give you a few moments to finish this video. If it's white's turn, let's do black first. If it's Blackstone. Originally, I just thought about making the psi. And now if white moves anywhere, white is short a liberty. White only has two liberties. And it creates an i. So I'd just like you. And then you could say, let's say if white played somewhere else, there's no place really to play. So this is just a thorough a MOOC. But if black plays either here or here, black has two liberties in white only has one. So whites then I didn't realize that was blacks ten cuz I like making the eyes just like here. But I just realized this black played here. Is that as well, why can't make any moves that will create life? Right? So this is probably even more simple than the way I made it. But now for white, if Y creates an I, this is considered a fossil, but it's still an eye shape. You can see black is short now liberties, if black plays here that near that. So black can't move. And essentially white can't move. Because if white plays here in black hills, and if white plays here, black kills y can take BEC, but now we're in the same spot we, we're, so it's an infinite loop, meaning that neither player can kill each other, so that grade Secchi or do life. So those are the four examples. Secchi, sec is very difficult. I think there's plenty of life-and-death problems that have them. But I don't know of any book that like just focuses on making Secchi I don't know. A way to practice it. Like consecutively. If you look at puzzles on this website, COGS, online go.com, you can type in Secchi. And there's plenty of problems where Secchi is a part of the problem set. But there's no like focus, there's no problem set. That's just solely making Secchi. So I find Secchi kinda hard to study sometimes. But it's a rule that obviously you should learn. And so I wanted to teach it as well. I think we're pretty much at the end of our basic lessons. There's one more lesson I have planned for teaching you how to play, Go up to 20 Q I'd say. And it's capturing techniques and strategies. Just a few basic ones, so that'll be the next lesson. But for now I hope this lesson helps you learn another rule of go. I think we finished all the basic rules of go. We finished CO and making territory, finishing games, capturing. You guys are all sent him playing games. But I will show you one more lesson that will help you learn to capture better. So thank you for watching. I hope you have a good day. Bye. 11. Ponnuki, Ladders, Nets: Hello class. Today I'll be teaching you sue Gs or capturing techniques. There is, there's a lot of patterns and go that you'll start to see over and over and over as you play and play and play. And so over the thousands of years that people can play in the game, they've noticed these patterns, given them names, and there's plenty of ways to practice these techniques. So I'll introduce you to three common ones that you'll find in almost all your games, at least, particularly these two here, Here, a and b. Although C comes up very often too, and they're kind of like the beginner or basic techniques of capturing. The first we'll talk about is a, the pronuclei, also known as the star capture. As you can see, it kind of creates a twinkling star shape here. And it's one of the first techniques actually tell you and capture go. It's the most efficient way. Excuse me, to capture a stone. Before, if you take out the stone here, you can see these three shapes. And to be honest, I don't know where I heard the name, but it's always stuck with me. And it was considered these three, this pattern of these three stones are called the Tiger's mouth. And the idea is that if somebody goes into the Tiger's mouth, ooh, tiger eats just like that. So I always teach this because it's a very important Shape. You'll see all the time. Creating Tiger's mouth. Senior Game is usually a bad idea. And breaking Tiger's mouth is also not a bad idea. So I think you guys have seen this one quite often. This capture here in probably even in your own games if you play with plenty of games already. Now, b is called the ladder. The ladder is a technique which actually, if we go back, you can see that it's just the Tiger's mouth. Oops. It's just the Tiger's mouth, but with one extended stone. You'll see, I think the saliva and games usually like this. And when white place here to try and cut. Let's say if weightless here, let's see if this stone which try and cut these two off. You'll see this a lot in your games. In then black can attack this white stone and you can put the stone and Atari. Now on white moves here, y only has two liberties. So on black attacks, there's two ways to attack or Atari these stones. One is here, but then this would give white three liberties. Whereas if we attire the other way and white moves out, there's only two liberties. So you can see there's an advantage on which way that you can, you should Atari stone. And this is the technique or Ted Sue G is the ladder here. By playing the correct Atari is you can make it. So why only has two liberties each time? And then eventually white will bump the wall and die. So where I don't have to talk a lot. I don't think about the a group, the star capture or in Japanese. I think we should do a couple more examples of b. So this will go all the way back and create some examples just off the fly. So I'll just create this. And let's say it is now. White's turn. Let's say black played in here. Let's say if white tried to cut these two stones, as you can see, when it's black's turn, this actually creates the Tiger's mouth plus the extension, creating the ladder. So you can see that when white tries to escape, if black continued to Atari This way, white can get three liberties. And although in this particular situation it still looks bad for white, giving white three liberties is giving White a chance to escape. So instead you want to create the ladder, the technique, the killing technique. And so if you play here, when white comes out, white only has two liberties. So if black plays here to Atari again, white. Black has two options to Atari once again. And if black plays this way, you can see white squeezes out almost like toothpaste. And so y against three liberties on this particular board. Like I said, White is kinda actually is a good example. If black continues to try and capture, see how White has three liberties. Well now white has the freedom. So double Atari. I'm not saying this is a good game example, but I'm just showing you the latter technique. And the idea is that black has two places, two Atari and be a squeezes whiteout like toothpaste, but be continues this zigzag pattern creating the ladder. Same here. You could say there's two places, black and Atari. And then you can see white has three liberties. So. You continue making sure that way only has two liberties. And eventually you'll get the capture. And it makes that zigzag pattern as you see. So this is a fundamental technique to learn, is the ladder. And like I said, if you got rid of all the other stones around, you can see it's that fundamental Tiger's mouth, but with the extension of one creating the ladder. But yeah, we'll continue. I will say that if you're a stone gets captured in a ladder, then you can create a ladder breaker. Essentially you play a move in the path of the ladder. And when, if white like ants, black answers this latter breaker. This stone here, then white now is free from the ladder. Because now white has three liberties in places to cut an attack. So as you can see, this stone here is the ladder breaker. So if you know your stone is gonna get killed, this one here, you know, this ladder is gonna kill. Why? You shouldn't play the technique out? Because you know why can't escape, right? So don't give your opponent free stones. Instead. Use a ladder breaker somewhere in the path of the ladder. And then if black answers, let's say black kills the stone because it knows that the ladders broken now, you can take another move. So instead of giving your opponent free stones to kill, you should consider letting the stone die and then do something else. So that's the example of the latter. Will go back. Let's see if I can bring us to, let's see if I can bring us to the third example. This is the third example here. This is called the net. So we've studied the star Panofsky, we've studied the ladder, and now we are studying the net. The net technique is, let's say, if we had stones like this, and White wanted to cut these Blackstone's by playing a stone here. As you can see, now, black is separated. But you can also see that black has a lot of strength here. Black has two stones here and two stones here. And white only has one stone here. So the technique is just to surround. In fact, this is actually the ladder looking at it. But it has an extended stone here. So if you took this stone away, it would be the latter technique, funny enough. But instead of the ladder, the net kills white also. So if white tries to escape, so white only has two liberties here. And if white tries to escape, it still only has two liberties. And now if you block whites escape, and white tries to escape again, as you can see why it only has one liberty. So it's easy capture. Look, let's take a look at the board and I'll see if I can create a ladder situation. So let's pretend the game went like this. Now once again, these are all idea moves. They're actually just made for purpose of teaching. But the idea is that black has two groups here. And if white tries to split, now black has options, black and put white in a ladder. Or black can just net in reality at play here. But for the technique situation, you can see now white can't escape. So that's the technique. And if we were to bring this to the middle of the board, this is actually a good looking like board here. Let's say this black was setup for the latter. Right? Now, you shouldn't feed your opponent extra stones. You shouldn't play it out. If you can see that white's going to die here no matter what. So instead, you should try and figure out a way to sacrifice system but still use it. And one way is to peep. I think I've taught in the people for, and essentially it's to say, hey, can I connect here? As you can see in one white dot and extra move, black played somewhere else, white can connect. So that's the peak of black says no. And then it says, hey, you can, I can connect on this side. And black says No. So as you can see, although black is very strong, I mean, the idea is not to capture black, but the idea is to have these white stones on the outside here. So that way, you use your sacrifice to help white create some type of group on the outside. And I'm not saying it's ideal to do this right away. But I do want to just show you that when black or your opponent puts you in a Tzu gene like situation where y is gonna get killed no matter what. You should find, other ways to make this stone useful. Don't just play extra stones and die. But yeah, to finish their review, you have once again, the Tiger's mouth shape, which turns into the pronucleus if it gets a capture. And then you also have the ladder, which this teaches you how to fight. But essentially you have to imagine in your mind's eye, if I play here, whites and Atari, so there's only one move for y. And then you can count how many liberties there'll be in your imagination. Whereas for black, if you play on this side, and white is now an Atari. So white is forced to play this way. And as you can see, there's only two liberties here. So if you continue that without messing up, without making three liberties for white, it creates this zigzag pattern, which is a tensor g called the ladder. And then no matter what, Black and capture, see you have the Ngugi, the ladder. And then finally, we will look at I'll take the stone away. The ladder. Sorry, the net. And the net, as I showed you is this situation. So if you have these stones to iron pillars, to stones connected are called iron pillars like this. But if you have two iron pillars and then white tries to separate you, it's very easy to net. You're stones over the white. It's very easy to capture. So that's the end of the lecture. Those are the three capturing techniques. And this is actually the end of the basic rules in fundamentals of go. I will be teaching another class. This is all just one project or one class, but I'll be teaching more later on. Higher level techniques. Different board sizes from the nine by nine to the 19 by 19 and all sorts of things. So I hope you continue to follow me in my classes and I hope this helped you learn how to play and I hope we can all become better go players together. Thank you for watching. Have a good day. 12. Review 1 Owen 20k 5 Starter principles on the 9 x 9: Hello class. Today I will be reviewing one of my students games. He mainly is in Filipino Go Association and I teach on Sundays. So I wanted to use one of his games because he is 20 Q So he's a lower q. But this is where I want to get you in this class is to this point. So we're going to review the game, will look at principles in order to teach you how to play. So he's using a special strategy. In the larger boards. I don't recommend playing Tangun, but smaller boards, it's fine. As you can see, every stone that's placed emanates power. And by playing in the center, I'm not saying this is the best move. I don't actually play here when I play. This stone emanates power on all sides of the board. So it should give him some advantage when it comes to the fighting. So the first lesson, actually, let's just an explanation of what's going on. The first lesson. Usually in Go, especially on the larger boards, is to play in the corners first, this essentially gives you a good framework for the corner, particularly on 34, how this is 123123. Oh sorry, this is the 33.33. You're really like taking the corner saying This is my. So the first principle is playing on the corners. First. Because they are the easiest to make territory. And might have explained this in an earlier class when I was teaching territory. But it's good to remind yourself of the principles. So now black has played on the 33. This is a special strategy opening that I've taught me that I had found the weakness with the computer from facing a strong computer will play here. And I actually learned this from the conquest and goes to shut up to them. But anyway, to continue. The reason that he plays here is because now when white takes both corners, even if white was third plane over here, and take this corner black and get this nice triangle. And this triangle meets a lot of territorial framework. And a lot of strength by kill have advantages in the fighting. So that's why he played this way. Y now has only one side and it's low on the third line. Whereas black has built strong, we like. He has a mix of third limestones in now a fifth line stone. So the second principle, I'll teach this very quickly is that the lines of power. So we'll go all the way back. So as you can see this for lines from the board, and you can do this on any edge. I'm just using this one. But essentially the third line is known as the territorial line. When White played here, it's very easy to make territory in the corner and he's playing on the third line. In fact, it's the 33 line, which is the strongest of making territory. Now the second line is known as the loser line. If for say, an instance if weight played here in black, played here. And we alternated. The reason it's called the loser line is because whites only making 1 territory each time, whereas black is building a nice wall facing outside of the board. So black has more potential of making points where whites only making 1 each. So this is why I nicknamed Lucy line. I might have heard it from somewhere before, but I can't tell you where it's written down, so I'm not sure. The first line. I don't know what you'd call it the baseline or the earth or the ground. Essentially think of this like the ground area which you're not making anything. Usually in the fourth line is known as the power line. I know I learned this from a certain book, the Janice Kimball slender play Go. The fourth line. I use black because black goes first. The fourth line makes a lot of territory quickly. As you can see, this is the fourth 444 lines, 12341234. But the fourth line, although evidence the power line and makes lots of territory more than the other lines, write X less, less than. It's easily available. So why can play the 33 line? And now black, no matter how hard black tries, cannot kill white. White is going to be ALK and make solid points. So as you can see though, although the fourth line doesn't build territory that well, it does however built influence. So the idea is that white has built a nice solid corner. Probably eight to ten points were, but black has all this influence this potential territory. If white plays in here, the third three is pretty safe, but let's say F White played anywhere else in here. Black has the total advantage of all fighting. Why can't make eyes very easy? That's not gonna happen for a while. And so using this force, this influence is great. This will be a lot better on the 19 by 19 board. It's a little harder on the nine by nine board. But just remember, these lines have different attributes or power in. So that's why I wanted to talk about the fifth line, is very, very far away from the wall, and so white can undercut him very easy play, then white will have no problem making territory. So I just want you to keep that in mind. So the second principle will be burning and using lines accordingly. And a little funny, but these are really important concepts. Land, I might've already taught them in the basics, but now you can see them at work in this game review. So white now is trying to find the biggest move. So black presses on and tries to disconnect white stones. And important principle down the nine by nine in particular, because of the nine by nine is mainly used for fighting. Like the idea or the nine by 9s is to improve your reading and fighting. And I highly recommend you stay on the nine by nine until you reach like 15, cure yourself because you become extremely powerful in your reading in fighting. If you continue to play lots of nine by nine games. Mom, my friend Milan played on a nine by nine all the way until these tank you before moving on to the 19th, 18th. And he's a killer. It he will, his whole goal is to just destroy your by fighting. But anyway, so a good principle is to separate, separate your opponent's stones and to keep connected. So you want to separate your opponent and you want to keep your stones connected. It's kinda like a yin-yang thing. As you can see, these stones are pretty close to being separated. Black only really needs one more move in. It's guaranteed. Instead of separating the stone though, he ended up connecting, which is also a good principal. It could have gone either way. Let me see if y connects here. Okay, why didn't a connecting move? This would have been better. Because if white shirt, black tries to separate, he can play has the advantage of fighting. Same here. This is just bad shape. So this move was incorrect, but it's fine. But the principle still stands. That he wanted to stay connected. And keeping connected as a big principle. And same with separating your opponent is a big principle. If I was black out a plate here, and if white wanted to disconnect to me, I would then either attack this stone to try and kill this and make all this territory. Or I will focus on living. It looks a little dangerous if white stays connected than black and live. And if white tries to attack them black and separate, and you can see these stones are in trouble. So that really shows that principle of like if you can disconnect your opponent, you should keep them disconnected. And if you can stay connected, it's a good idea because then he can't get disconnected. And if that makes sense, like I said, it's a Yang Yang type of thing. Oh, okay, so black played bed sheet. So this will be a shaped lesson. And this is the empty triangle, or what my roommate likes to call it the trash triangle. Try this will be another principal and school four. Try to avoid the bed shapes. You'll need a shape lesson, but an Adobe over time. So I might as well just give us more shape lesson right now. If we go back up to seven empty board so I can explain it. So if you play in a straight line, you get eight liberties. Okay? So this is very efficient. This is, this is a very efficient shape. You're getting the most liberties you possibly can. Now, if you play in a curved line, so this is three stones in the three stones. But the difference is, is now you're short liberties. So you've only made seven liberties compared to what you can make, eight on these stones. But it's an inefficient shape. Now, if this is empty, this is usually considered a bad shape. It's special situation case for this to be a good shape. But if a stone was here, you can see if black would, if it was like this and black played here. Now you're shorting wider liberty in. So this attack is usually considered pretty good. So this is what is a filled triangle. See how the shape makes a triangle. This is a filled triangle, whereas if the white stone wasn't here, it's an empty triangle, aka the trash triangle. So a good way that I tell my students to consider, if you ever consider creating an empty triangle instead of playing it out. Look, read to make sure that it's okay. But ideally in the one-point jump here is more efficient than this one. You're still pretty vaguely close to being connected and you're making better shape. Another shape that comes out of this is the bamboo shoot. So if you see if white tries to separate, there's no way that we can do so. It's just very easily connected. If white was to play here, you can play here. That's another shape to put in your tool set. But we'll continue on. Unfortunately, black can't play a one-point jump. And so this is why I think this connecting move wouldn't be my choice. I would continue to fight. And then if you wanted to fight back, then I would start focusing on countering this fight. It's hard and it's written, it's tough to say, like if this is the correct idea. But I think black would be ok, and this would be a whole different game and something else to reveal. That the principle is to, if you can separate your opponent's stones, and if you're in trouble, then keep connected. Black, I don't think is in trouble yet. So this would be where I would separate. And that's that principle I would do. Next lesson would be not to make that shapes. This is a bad shape. As you can see. White is now still connected. This move didn't disconnect white. It's only plain black stones. So this shape didn't disconnect, disconnect weight. So now white flayed here, I think in the actual game. And if black plays this, just read this out. Okay, so this bad shape allowed White to play here. And even if black tries to disconnect now, why you'd have to do in deep reading to make sure this works. But wait, would essentially be OK if laboratories white triangle black tries to cut, but weight can get out of it. Now, why it has three liberties? So this group's alive, this has two Liberty, so it's dead. This group S3 Liberty, so it's alive and this group has to Liberty, so it's dead. So because of this bed sheet, now black is in a lot of trouble. In the real game. This is how it happened. I was just looking. So he set up here. Weight was able to make a sacrifice. Wrap around black. That's pretty clever. I wonder if I can play here. If black and white has enough liberties to kill. So this was a reading mistake he protected here when he took this. So what can I say about always reading? Ok, principle four, it will be always read. It's tough when you're starting the game because you're not used to it and imagining stones, but they're stronger you make your reading ability and the stronger that you'll become as a player. Your strength relies on your ability to predict moves by placing them down in your imagination and then playing them out. You can strengthen your reading by doing life-and-death problems in Tzu GI problems. So I highly advise always reading and then always yeah, the always read out everything as much as you can. But this gave black by the low boost here. This is unfortunate. I think weight is alive pretty much in the game's over. I think it has the advantage here, especially would call me. But what can we learn from? These are useless moves. He's trying his best, but they're useless in the end. Lying useless moves. You gotta read and figure out if they're actual veins or if they useless. And if they're useless, then you don't want to plan because essentially you're giving white free points. So let's just review these principles real quick. To cap off this lesson. One principle is to play on the corners first, because they're the easiest to make territory. White follow this principle in black had a special strategy for this. This is a special opening. I like I said, I wouldn't recommend it when you're playing on the bigger boards, but I think this is more than fine on the smaller board if you want to try it out. Let's see what's the next one? Using the lines accordingly. This is also just a quick lesson I'd throw in here so that, you know, White played on for territory. And this leads into the principle of separation and connecting. If I was black Once again, I would have focused on separating these two groups. And if he attacked, I would counter attack. If white plays here to separate these two groups, then I would counter attack. I'd make ladies first, then F wait, doesn't let me make life. How did this go better in the review? Yes. Okay, so I played here, essentially, white tries to poke out the MySpace. You can counterattack and white connects. You can make life very easy. So the idea is to separate your opponent and to keep your stones connected if you endanger. The third one, principle is bad shapes. This is a new shape for you guys. Make sure to learn this and try to avoid it. And then this is some reading here. And this is some reading here. This in particular, this was a reading mistake. If he read through it correctly, you would know that he can take away more from black. But instead he connected here. And then lastly initiative, which I haven't explained something goto, Yeah, that'll be for another lesson. In this review. I'm sure it's very long. So thank you for watching. Have a good one. 13. Lessons from Aulavik be aggressive, but read first: Hello class. Today I'll be looking at another one of my students. Themes from the nine by nine to teach you principals of the game. I love it. I've gotten the face him three times Cs from the Filipino go association. But we had some good lessons between us. Let's continue and check this schema. So just like the previous video, black plays in the corner first trying to secure foreigner territory. And so doesn't wait, follow. Now black, this is a unique move. It looks strange and it looks easy to separate. What I save that at the right timing is to separate. Maybe it's not a bad idea. Just like in principle number three of the last video, it's good to keep your opponent separated. Maybe I'd play the corners first because they're the more important things to focus on at the beginning. But move on from there. And that's where he played. He played in the opposite corner. And now he has to foreigners where he has a lot of claim on. When black attaches. This is actually good for white because black can now had a here which hurts the stone, taking away one of its liberties. So whereas this has two liberties, these white stones have three liberties. This is a good mode. My personal next move would ABB something over here or here. Probably, maybe, maybe even something like this to try and split Blackstone's. White plays here with that objective in mind, two splits black stones. But here's a good shape and I put it as principle to, but it's the first principle that I picked up on this. And that is here. This shape, so beautiful. This is the Tiger's mouth. So essentially hits the head of whites to stones. White stones were trying to move forward and Blackstock his movement. So now these two stones are damaged. And black has a very beautiful shape here, making points and strength. If white was able to play here, you can see the Tiger's mouth that is broken in black is in a bad situation where rarely He should only consider connecting, which stinks and is good for way. So by one black played here, this was a beautiful, beautiful move in good shape. So I want you to keep the shape in mind is if somebody's attacking you and you have two stones like this situation, a good idea is to make a Tiger's mouth. So we'll move on right now is trying to separate black still. This is a little dubious, like it's almost like a trick play because white is pretty weak here. So by playing away from y and getting separated, both groups are kind of weak. Here, a and B. So. By following Principle number three from the last lecture I gave in the last lesson, you can see that black separating white and making white week, which makes the game difficult for white. White retirees, black connects. And then this is the biggest mistake I think, of the game. So you've separated White and White had a choice of either strengthening this sign for strengthening this side because both sides are weak, you can see a black stone here is bad for weight. And Blackstone here is bad for away. So White had a choice and made it strengthening this side. So black should have found a way to be aggressive. One of the good principles is attacking is very fun and important in the game. And if you can be aggressive in a correct manner, then this is a good principle to follow. But you have to make sure to read. If you're too aggressive and making moves that are easily cuttable, then you'll get punished. But in this particular case, It's very easy, I think, to see that if black attacks here, white only has one liberty. And is now in, in one of the texts images I taught in an earlier lesson, the ladder. This is like the first technique you should learn when it comes to fighting is the ladder. So white has no way of escaping. And black just wins the game. Like this is one, no problem. So by not being aggressive way, I mean, black has given y a big chance as white. I think he should focus on this group and like try and make life here in counterattack these, one of these groups. But maybe it was a good choice for Y2 Just to give up these stones. And like move on for this connection. So I'll move on from there. It's a style of play of Fischer. Black was able to kill now. But wait, didn't have to allow this. White could have food, try to counter attack somewhere. Although he would have been at a big disadvantage. But not as big. That is disadvantages as it looks. So. But we'll move on. We're just focusing on principles here. White tried to connect, whack played a clever move. And now black takes its price because it has to end game. I don't see too often. I'll show you why in a moment. I just think it's funny that it happens both here and here by both players. So there's a concept of sente versus goatee, which I didn't write down. But the idea is that if you play moves that can be attacked easy, then you'll lose initiative. So. Probably, probably, maybe here would have been a better move. Because it opens up here and get against territory on this side. By playing this type of Hannah here, white can counter attack, and then black has to make a defensive move. Now there's a few options. You have a as he played, B and C. So a to me is the worst one. And here's why. Because if white plays here, black only has two liberties. So white has made territory. And now black has to defend again. As you can see, if white played here, black will die, right? So black has to defend here. But now he's lost the initiative, meaning that he had to play here. So he even played and goto, which is bad. He lastly Initiative. And now white is being able to play the bigger place here. So now wife got all these points, plus you've got to move over here before black tin. So if we go back, this is probably my most used one. And the reason is, is because if y now please hear, this will mean that white loses the initiative. Feel playing goatee because black will attack here. And now what he has to answer right? So now black is the initiative and blankets to play the correct move over here. So you can see the difference in advantages versus the disadvantages from sente versus goto. Sente meaning that you get the initiative to play where you want. And Gautam means you play a move that makes it so that you lose the initiative. And now, it's a little complicated. But my third principle that I wanted to point out, the, usually the second line are the first line. Endgame usually isn't this move usually I would play here. Or if you want, you can play here and see this is a double Tiger's mouth. So white can't play here without getting eaten. So if white plays here, and my only problem is now it's not beneficial. Usually. It's okay, you can play this. But it's the kind of the same concept of playing here is you lose the initiative. While playing here. You have the initiative, but we can take it from you. But this is good for eye shape. It's called the hang man. If I remember right, the hanging connection, it makes double Tiger's mouth. So that's pretty cool. This one's okay. I like this one best though, just because what if white falls into the trap, then you'll get centered. And you can keep sente by playing those that white has to answer. All these moves. For fall 2468, route goto allows black to continue the onslaught of taking away all of lights points. It's a high-level stuff. So, you know, if you don't understand it right away and you'll continuously see it. But it's something for you to think about it as my third principle for this review. The game continued on. Black took sente accent, accent, and then took this one as well, which was nice. This was whites mistake, I think. Wait, shouldn't have played here first. We should have played here first. Then maybe here. And here. And you can see by taking all the sente white gets more points this way is very varied. Actually, we can even go further. And now black has a default, and now I can finish it. So it's very subtle this principle, but it's something that if you can master you level up very quickly. So we'll move on. So this was interesting. Black, how's the winning game? Black as all the more territory than light? And is in trouble. I mean, not in trouble away blacks should be winning. But why was clever and, and play this strategy to see if he could make life in the quantity. It's his last resort because white is losing. This principle is one of the more important ones, which is the study life and death. Inland to sacrifice your stones to make fall size. Studying life and death, it will improve your reading Vasily. And it's one of the most important things you can do, and it's one of the most boring things you can do. At first. It's kind of fun if the problems are weak and easy. But then it becomes such a grind when you're having trouble with the problems, but it's so important. So this is a study tip or principle or anything, but we will show you in the game what happened. White played here. Black attacked. And you know, the best he could. Wait, did the hanging connection. So this is good for making eyes and stuff. Black attacked over here. And now, white has now attack this Blackstone. It's kinda funny. Black is so strong, I didn't notice this, but this is a five space area. So if black just played hearing, White doesn't have enough room to make eyes. But you can't do anything to try and make eyes. Right now, you sacrifice these stones to make this one big ie or a fossil site really fossa, but one big guy. And now Whites and trouble and can't live unless white kill something, which why can't this is tune. Black has too many liberties and connections that ruin it. So my point is to study life and death. I actually made a really good life and death introduction. And I taught this five space. The bulky five is what I'll call what it's called. So I've already done this before, and I hope you can learn it and apply it in your own games. But black plate over here ended up connecting. This is where I was saying in principle here you can learn to sacrifice. If black Atari here, white would have to take rate for black. And then black can take, so that way it would be in trouble. And then F White played here in black and play this. And now it's just like we saw. White can't make two eyes. This is a far side because eventually it will take time. But black can blacken and eventually Atari this group here. So now it's a far side. There's no I hear it's false. So my next tip is to study life and death. And we will continue. Another strategy is black is so strong here that black could have just played here. And now white's going to struggle to make any eye shape. If white tries to do something like this where I can poke out the I and there's no way to make two eyes will continue. The very last tip I can give is this move here. So you must do your reading, like you should always imagine the stones in C. Black is not an Atari here. Black has two liberties. And if white was to play here, y only has one liberty. Oops, I'm just making the most progress. But if weight played here, black and kill and see it's all connected and fun. Name with a flight played here, black and kill. And it's all connected and fun. So the fact is this is a useless MOOC. Essentially, you just robbed yourself of 1 here, the black player, of course. And you don't know how to rob yourself of points. Every point counts in the game of Go. So I highly advise not to play useless moves. If you think something's gonna die. Make sure to read it and read it and read it. Make sure that it's either alive or dead. If it is dying, then yes, connect. But if it's not dying and has no way of dying, then don't connect. They'll just lose yourself for point. That's it. I guess. I'll recap really quickly. If you want to end the video here, you can enter it here, but I'm just gonna go over very quickly. Tiger's mouth is a great, cheap, beautiful shape. If you're allowed to do stuff like this, please do. Next. Is this group both a and B were cut off now. So they're both kind of week looking at them. So this allowed for you to attack one over the other. So black should have read this attack. You can see this very basic Ted Sue G, the ladder. And that's one of the first things you guys should learn when it comes to fighting texts, tactics. So that was the second or the first principle. This is just a shape lesson or endgame lesson. When it comes to this connection, a, B, and C are your options, is usually the least amount played because you can lose sente this way. And if you wanted to keep sente, you couldn't play instead of this honey to play here. Away has to react. Ok. So that's the other principle or the second line. And game stuff. I usually don't see the down. Usually see either the connection or the hangman. Life and death is very crucial. Black is so strong here. Playing shouldn't have a chance to live. But White played very well. So this is the bulky five shape for life and death. It's one of the basic life-and-death shapes. So make sure study that. And then finally, don't make useless moves. Don't take away points from yourself. If you don't have to. Unless in here and thank you for watching, have a good one. 14. Review 3 cito 20k If your winning play simply: Hello class. This will be the third and final review I do for the beginner is basic fundamentals class. So this is a game where one of my students, Dr. stoned, played, has been playing a little on and off. He started only a few months ago, and I helped them get pretty much to around 20 to 17 Q very quickly. And he's very he was very dedicated again, but now he's playing other things like Call of Duty and stuff. But he still plays after a couple of games a week and he's quite good. So we'll look at his game. He does make us made plenty of mistakes. But this game has probably the best fundamentals, like the combination of all three of those reviews will see in this. So let's begin. And so we follow the rules of playing in the corner. This is dr. stone here. Then he built himself a little base. And then he even reinforced his base even more. So these stones are very strong while these in there on the third line. So if you remember, I told you about the lines, this is the territory line. He's not going to have a problem making territory or living here are or at least issuing. Whereas these stones, we take a look around the fifth line. So this is very easily available. So this strategy, I don't think is a winning strategy on the nine by nine board. Even on the 19 by 90, the bigger boards, the fifth line is pretty, pretty dicey. You're not gonna make land territory. And this one's even on the sixth line, so will continue. This is the first principle I'll teach in this game. Slow moves equals losing games or games loss. Or Islam moves, moves, games. Essentially. These are the points where blacks should be focused on because they're very easily available. This move, this is already a nice connection here between these two marks stones. So they're very easy, very shrunk. They're not easy to break apart. Like if white plays here in black and make some type of attempt data connection. And even if white was to cut black, reconsider sacrificing the, these stones in. Take the win. If you like. This is very hard to invade now because it's on the fourth line here. Let's just strategy. But the idea is that this particular move is a connection that doesn't need to be made right now. So it's slow and it allows white to invade. The second principle that I want you to understand is if your stones are strong, definitely look for an invasion after your strong stones are strengthened. And the nine by nine board in particular. Bigger born. If you had Armstrong groups, then of course you could look for invasions or better, the best moves to play by the nine by nine, this game is all about fighting. So if you have strength, now's the time to invade. So this was perfect timing. I don't know who's the best innovation I want to consider. And maybe I'm the thirty-three point here, but this is fine. C. Now this comes to another concept, this move here. So these stones right now are kind of in danger behind enemy lines and they don't have eyes yet. They have good eye potential, but they don't have eyes yet. So whereas these group, this group was very strong. So now's the time to invade these groups. These groups, this group is weak. So now is not the time to be. He should focus on strengthens group. My personal move would have been here. The concept is, is already winning. If this group lives, White has territory here and territory here and Comi, these extra five points. So if black only makes points here, why is winning by a mile? So essentially white is winning. So why it should play simply, if you're winning the game, whether it's 19 by 19, eating the larger board or the nine by nine, this word. If you are in a lead position, you should consider just playing simply and keeping your leave. Once you play this move. Now you're saying black can't make any points, right? Black can't make points here, here, here, here. So black makes 0 points. That's, that's, that's very ambitious. That's a very ambitious idea. Instead, you should consider just letting black make some points but keep it small or you make the rest. So by strengthening this group, so where that it can't be killed. White would ever guaranteed when here. But I digress. He played here. This move was strange. I guess it breaks another principle. The idea is that it's okay. And what are the principle that is thinking of is the one I've talked before. Keep your opponents separated. See how this weekend's this. You could even go a little further. And then maybe strengthen here it takes, this is a false psi. This is just me trying to play out something. But it's kinda difficult, like whites in a good position here unfortunately. Maybe maybe something like this. If weight tries to come under eating, keep separate it. So that principle stays strong where you keep separated. And our weight has a small amount of area to try and make life. This is where you would study your life-and-death yet. But Yeah, so the principle from the previous games is to keep your opponent separated. I think this would have been proper MOOC, but he played over here is pretty unique. Way, is now allowed to connect. And then once again, black should consider being white separated. Because if Y is separated, you can see whites group here and here are very weak. He asked to fight a lot to live. But he played here, which I can see he's trying to make it so white can't make eye space. But here's a principle I didn't write down. White has options to continue to move out. He has plenty of room to make ice face. So playing this way is just allowing white to live easily. Although your goal is to make it so white can't make eyes down here. That means as long as white can keep stretching out, white is gonna make eyes somewhere else. So that's just something to mull over. Will continue on. This move here is called a peep. I don't know if I've ever talked to vertical for but essentially, a peep is an asking move. Usually to ask if you can split your opponent. It is usually always, always, but it's usually just to connect the peep, which my student does. So I'm very proud because he's made very solid points. So will continue from there and I'll show you that real quick. It's very simple. So if white wants to separate, this is the peak. It's an asking both Black wants to collect here. If black doesn't connect here, white can now poke in. And now there's two, there's two cutting points. And son of Black is significantly weaker. So I just want you to keep that in mind. This is the peak shape where if you have a one jump in, somebody tries to ask, hey, can I disconnect you? Usually the right answer is here. And this is the shape lesson for this game of black people, white connected. Like play these moves. Quite short himself. He, he actually has the same vial liberties. But this was endangered this whole time actually with this cut here. So now separating your opponent leads to a good capture. But here is the principle of last, the last review. Don't play useless moves. White can't. Actually went, could do something in. And then look at this as fairly as I thought. Maybe I would just play here then, because it doesn't look as strange from playing here. So essentially when by playing here, I suppose. This is how it could've gone. White, gets all the outside, which is actually pretty good at this was used to smoke, but I can kind of see that he can be bullied around, around here because of this MOOC. So maybe this would have been better because now you don't have to play this at all. Like no matter what does white does, black, black, snout and trouble at any point he can just kill so he doesn't have to kill. So that was the principle of last where the trend out to play you so smooth. This one still makes it so that we can get some advantage here. So it's essentially a useless move. And that's what I wanted to point out. This one to me was essentially the same as like a useless MOOC. You could consider playing here and then making the soko in. So now you'd have to make ko threats and fight, which I don't see any ko threats for weight. So I think black would be OK. And I think this would actually, I'm sorry, could actually give him the victory here. This would be the strongest MOOC, but you'd have to continue to cope. This would be the easiest way to go about it. I'm rambling a little, so I'll move hand. But yeah, I try not to make useless moves. These tunes playing these two moves felt useless. And when he could have done an m1, that's what I was trying to get at, is you could have fixed everything when one moves, but instead you had to take two moves to fix everything. So that makes it a useless MOOC. And this this is the last one. This is the main offender. To me. Though. Move does both principles. One, you shouldn't play and gave moves to the envelope game. I think making a ko threat here to try and take this co back would be much more valuable. So you could play here to threaten, to cut off the, you can make a lot of points in FY answers, then you can continue the co. So this was just one reason I didn't think this moves it much. And it allowed white to get a huge advantage in this area. Was able to take back the CO and then take another stone and then threaten this. So this was a Gothenburg. So to sort of get the lat, one of the last principles in the stay focused on your opponent. If feels like lacquer nor ignored, ignored, ignored is opponent here. And plate over here. You should try and stay focused on your opponent and consider like, what, why would white move here? Like what other follow-ups can weigh, have and it's pretty severe. White could Yvonne White played here, which was pretty safe. But you could consider a white could have even played here. To make even more points. You'd have to fight the CO, which actually I think he would lose. But still, why nTs himself the victory here, though, it's important to stay focused when your opponent makes a move. You should consider Y and then continue to either stay on topic. Black couldn't play something bold like this, or, you know, just connect. But it's important to stay on topic and take all the moves that you can before you play this end game loop. And now I became a little RAM believed back then in the last part of this. But let's review. So white focused on the corner first, black plays too high. The fifth line, I think, is too high and easily available. This was pretty defensive of weight. So Black had the chance to come back and defend a lot of territory. But once he didn't, playing slow moves, loses games is very slow. This already has a nice connection. So he shouldn't focus on playing another connection that slow. The extension is too slow. So now y has a big chance of winning the game. If you're strong, you should either invade or find weakness, these stones out week. So that's why he went for the invasion. This was really risky because now he's creating two-week groups. This group is weak and not strong. So you shouldn't play away from weak groups. You shouldn't continue to strengthen yourself and so you don't have to just move would've been pretty much again TDD when this point, this is a P, this is a good shape to learn. And usually the answer is this one. In some cases you can attack them, Blackstone. But in this case you can see black as friends everywhere. So it's best to just take your points. And if white plays somewhere else, this would be a really good move for Black. Pete wants to cut through and create lots of problems. This would actually work out extremely well for black guy to play that so quickly. It's a sacrificing technique. If white kills, then Vlashkin take advantage of it. And if white connects, black can take advantage of this. And so now the big kill. So that's why when somebody peeps, it's not a good idea to let them cut through you and create having points. You shouldn't just connect. Most of the time, if you can counter attack, it's even better. But most the time you want to connect the last lean. And that's in play. Useless moves. This move is to, moves to kill. Whereas this MOOC, you don't have to worry about killing anymore. Like there's no problem, won't have to play here. So that's just a concept that you shouldn't take into consideration. And other one is stay focused if your opponents making moves, consider why they're making moves and find their follow-ups. Don't play somewhere else randomly. And especially end game. This is the last thing you should do in the game. It's the least amount of points. This is the main focus of the game here. And so stay focused and consider why you're prone to making the moves that thank you for watching. I hope these three reviews have helped you significantly learn lots of principles of the game. And I hope you can utilize them to take many wins and level up to 20 Q if not further, my goal will be to get everyone to thank you. So I'll be working on an intermediate class now. But I really appreciate you guys will become my students in March in these. Feel free to contact me. Thank you. Have a good one.