Go, Baduk, Weiqi, In the Opening Fundamentals Intermediate class | Michael Sherman | Skillshare

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Go, Baduk, Weiqi, In the Opening Fundamentals Intermediate class

teacher avatar Michael Sherman, Go,Baduk,Weiqi Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (3h 23m)
    • 1. Introduction video intermediate course

    • 2. Resources and Books Reccomendations

    • 3. Opening Theory Intro

    • 4. extra credit more OP theory

    • 5. extra extra credit OP theory

    • 6. Direction of play Intro

    • 7. Direction of 4 4 stone

    • 8. Direction of 3 3 stone

    • 9. Direction of 3 4 stone

    • 10. Professional Direction of play example

    • 11. How to self study the opening

    • 12. Orders of operations for the opening

    • 13. Bases and Extensions

    • 14. Invasions and Reductions

    • 15. How to attack properly

    • 16. Defense Techniques

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About This Class

This class is the 2nd in a series to teach new players GO. Unlike the first class that mainly focused on the 9 x 9 board, this class focuses on the 19 x 19 board. With 361 spaces to place your stones, the board is much larger, and with the extra space there are hundreds of strategic fundamentals you can study on how to play the game. This class will help the student find where, why, and how they should be playing to formulate cohesive battle plans on the board. By the end of the class the student will have the tools to rank up from 20 kyu to 10 kyu. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Michael Sherman

Go,Baduk,Weiqi Teacher


Hello, I'm Michael. 

I have been playing Go for over 16 years. And teaching it ever since. I work hard not only to improve my skills by entering tournaments and leagues, but i also study under professional players, and read usually 4 hours a day. Other then my own studies i also enjoy teaching and raising others to a stronger rank. On sundays i teach beginners over discord in the Philippines Go Association.  And now i'm working on creating lessons and tips on youtube, here, and other outlets.

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1. Introduction video intermediate course: Hello skill share. It's Michael Sherman here. And today I'll be introducing my second class for the basic rules in fundamentals of Go, Duke and witchy. Obviously, I won't be spending a lot of time on the rules because if you've seen my first-class, I've gone over pretty much all the rules that you need to learn how to play on the smaller board, the nine by nine, and went over capturing territory. Basic movement, life-and-death, rule of CO Secchi and do a live and some extras like Ted Sue Gs, which are techniques of fighting and some reviews from my students. So now in this class we'll be transitioning over to the 19 by 19 board. With larger born, there is many more strategic fundamentals that need to be learned in order for you to achieve a higher level and go. When you start playing. If you, if you're unfamiliar, you start at 30 que and then you work your way down to one Q and then pass that as one done. My original course was only to teach the rules and give you some really good fundamental principles to follow. Tao strengthen you quickly. So original was 32 to 20 cue, that was my goal to get you at. But now this is my goal for this class, is to get you down to ten to nine. Q. If you learn these strategic fundamentals, you'll know, you'll have a sense of where to play at all times, which is pretty hard for people who don't study go and just play. They tend to find themselves asking like where should I go and feeling confused because the board is so large. So my goal will be to teach you how to play in the opening, the direction of the stones so you won't get lost on what's going on. And many more techniques for the larger board. So without further ado, I'll show you this new course. I hope you join me on this adventure. I'm very excited to teach the intermediate or a second level of learning go. And I appreciate you taking the time to watch this intro video. I, if you join me, I'll see you in the next lecture and have a good one, right. 2. Resources and Books Reccomendations: Hello everyone. Today I will be going over some recommendations of books to read. You don't have to. In the lessons that I'm going over, I'll be going over a lot in these books. In fact, I would say this is where I cite my resources. So if you wanted to, if you wanted to read the books that I didn't use, the teachings that I'm going to use for this class. Like if you want to go for extra credit, I highly recommend reading these books. These books helped me get to the single digit Q when I was back in high school when I was 14. And so I wanted to go over these books. If you search them, it's possible you might find some PDFs on them. And if not, you can always buy them on Amazon. I actually own every single one of these. And I highly recommend them, especially for new players. Or player is trying to reach the single digit cue area past tank you. So let us take a look at the books. The first one I recommend is to learn to play Go series by Janice Kim. She is a, I believe, American, US citizen who went to Korea and became a professional Go player. And then she came back to America and became a professional poker player. She did create these amazing books that I can't recommend enough. Learned to play Go series with the books I recommend are the series is 245 to the way of the moving horses. One of the more important ones. When you're starting to learn to play on the 19 by 19, it teaches you how to move on. The third fourth binds in light to focus on the corners and then the sides. It's very, very, very good book. If you're trying to, if you're confused on where to go on that IT might 19 because it teaches quite a bit. And then battle strategies in the palace of memories, those are really, really good principles to follow. Even I find myself, you know, nowadays still reviewing those principles constantly. Store. I highly recommend this series. Specifically 245. If I was to recommend the first Go book that you'd read out, read the second volume. The first volume only goes over the rules. And in my first class I went very in depth in the rules. So if you are in other roles, I wouldn't recommend reading the first book unless you're just a completion is. So. Let's move on. The next series I recommend highly is the elementary go series. They have, I think maybe six or seven books in the library. But these are the two that I recommend because these will never go, these will never be outdated. Like opening pattern and theory is changing because of computers in AI. So I think that books are a little outdated, but these specific to volumes are essential for any Go player. It CG, a rough translation of that is skillful furnace is the tactics of fighting with go. It's like techniques of fighting. They are so essential to learn and try and master. So I highly recommend going through the whole book on that one. And trying to learn as much as you can. For the life and death book. Every Go game you'll play, whether nine by 919 by 19, or some crazy dimensions. There's always going to be life-and-death situations where a group is going to live or die. And it's highly recommended to go through this book too. I would say I've probably completed the test Suzhou book like 34 times and then life-and-death book. I don't think I've ever completed it. It's kind of a hard read. Now in difficulty, what is kinda difficult, but I don't know for some reason I like fighting and killing more than I do defending Ray and making life. So I don't know, I should really finished that book. I have opened it multiple times and have gone through like more than half the book multiple times. I've never gotten to the end, but I highly recommend both of these. Training near reading ability is the key to your ego strength. You couldn't not know any bow strategies at all. But if you're really good at reading, making life and killing things, then you can become a very highs a skilled player as well. I know I have friends who don't really read theory books, but they just constantly study their life-and-death and 2G and they're pretty good. Gives me the last of the slides in the last book recommendation, I recommend is the fundamental principles of go. This book by you and Yang. He believe he's Chinese, came from China and I'm pretty sure. And he's a very famous teacher of American go, like he's been in the American community, I want to say since the eighties. I'm not reading this off of any scripts. So I apologize if I get any of this wrong, but I'm just pulling from my memory. I love this book. This book is so good. I can't even explain exactly why it's good to have it in my hand right now. But it goes, it teaches the direction of play. Relationships in combinations, effective use of opening pattern, invasions in reductions, and a bunch of typical formations you'll see in the game. This book, I read in front-to-back at least 23 times. It's a great book. It will really bring you to a higher level. So those are my recommendations that learned to play Go sues the gyms, they VCE elementary groceries. And the fundamental principles of go. Specifically these two volumes and volumes to foreign five on this one. These are the sources I'll be using to teach this entire class. So I appreciate you guys watching the video and let's move on to the next lecture. 3. Opening Theory Intro: Okay, today we're going to just jump right in. I'm going to talk first about opening theory. I've mentioned this in the previous class, but this will be somewhat of a refresher. And obviously on a larger board, it's feels quite different. Just because you understand, understand. When they're, the principles are for the opening theory doesn't mean that you can apply them right away when you first start playing the game. This is one of the early games that I played against one of my students. And so I just want to show you through example. We'll look through a bunch of games, maybe only the first few moves so that the video isn't seamless. And the first thing you wanna do is play in the corners. So I guess I'll just go quickly. In opening theory, you wanna play first in the corners, then on the sides, and then in the middle. And the reason is, is because you can make the most amount of territory more quickly, you taking over the corners then you would decides, I guess I could show you really quickly. I think I did this in the first class. So it's just review. And I'm assuming a lot of you already know this, but let's see 12345677 stones to get nine points in here. So as you can see, you only have two builds. If this was like a house, it looks like you only have to build the bottom in the side because the side and the roof are already built. Well, that's why it's so efficient to play in the corner compared to the side 00 gs updated or something. But anyway, so this is the same nine points and it took, let's see here. So if this one quick 1-2-3, 4-5-6 stones to make nine points. This one takes 3696789123456789. There we go. So it takes nine stones, which means that would take nine terms in order to make the same amount of points that you could on the side here. So it's all about efficiency in Go. If you look in the middle here, now you have to build all four walls. The 36912, you can see that this one takes 12 trends in order to make nine points. So it's more efficient to focus on the corners first. So you'll see in every program, even the computer AI agrees that playing in the corners first is the most efficient way of playing in the beginning of girl. So in this game, I was playing while he was playing black. It looks like he first took the corners and also I played into the corner as well. I could go into explanation that this is the 44. So you can see 12341234. So this is a very high stone and it has a direction of facing on the sides, then it does more on the corner. But I'll explain that different lecture called the direction of play. And now I just want you to know that black played on the 4-4 stones. White did as well, except this one. This one played on a 34123. And then you can see 1234. So this has a different direction, but I'll explain that later. Just note that I played in the corner just like the student. Now he played on the side. I guess this pertains to theory and that he should play in the corners first and then the side without going into too much detail. Whereas for, for stone feels complete, like it doesn't have to play anymore moves. 34 stone feels like it. It's missing a move to try and take the corner. So it would have been more urgent for black to play one of these moves over here. But I digress. He did play in the corners first and then the sides. So it looks I'd played here usually, why would I continue with this? Or here, or here, or here? A white would usually continue with these moves in order to close this. But since he played here, I didn't want to get a double wing. See how this stone, FYI coronal stone. Think of a kinda like a bat. This is called the double wing. This is an old way of thinking. And nowadays, the computer AI, when they make a large extension like this computer a, I will just jump in. But I'm getting off topic, so I'll continue. I'm just explaining why I played here, which was to prevent black from black from getting a stone here. And here. That's why I played over here. And now this is where he broke opening theory. So he played immediately into the middle, is used to playing on a nine by nine, obviously at this point of time, this was January third in so he wasn't used to playing on the larger born. And this is why I wanted to show this came off because he played here. This gives way a big advantage. First, I just played in old school. Whoo. And then he kind of jumped back. Maybe he's trying to take this territory, but it's undercuts. So I ended up closing the shim 3 fourth stone here. This is called the shimmery enclosure. Any of these moves would be a shimmery night, shimmery, large nights to my one junction I2 jump. But I played the large night. And then he played over here. So. This is on the sides though. I think he should have focused on the corner, is if white takes, if y gets the play here, what it's going to have the whole corner now. So this is the focus of the coordinate. If black played here, white would probably jump to the side or push. But now back in the start and attack. So the idea is you want to focus on the corners first before the sides in this corner is open. So now why approached this corner? This is a very normal approach when trying to attack the corner. And black focussed on the side again. This move is okay because maybe he's trying to split both groups, but it allows white to settle very easy. Once again, black should have came over here to try and take as much of the corner as black could, then maybe it would lead to this common pattern. Something like this. And as you can see, black is getting an area and a wall facing outside. And white is getting a corner the way it is settling his group. But he played here. So now I just got to take the four corner. And this is slow too. And then I took the other corner. So even though like I'm not facing a strong opponent, I guess, because ease my students write them. But even though he's playing strange moves, like I'm not, I guess the most efficient way of me to take advantage of his round moves is by taking the corners. So you can see that I'm taking the corner, I'm taking the corner. I'm taking the corner where you can stop. Here. I'll go through we'll go very quickly through it. But at this point, blackout carafe tildes on this side. And White has pretty much, it's not guaranteed that white's going to get this whole side, but white has a good framework here. And white has a good framework here, especially with this kill. And then on the side here. So blacks framework is and you can't find it to be honest, you can't call this framework because of the white stone here. Can jump. Why can jump in, take away all these points in same here, right now. White can take a lot from this plus white as a group already here. So by can't make points. Now if you look on this board and White has this side, this side, and black as nothing that I can see. So this stems back to opening theory, where he played in the middle and then focus on any of the corners. This was one of his first attempts at the 19 by 19. So we'll move on to another game that he played with me. This was the second game on January seventh, we played. And so with the first review and lesson, I think he got better with opening theory. It still takes time. You need to play somebody a lot stronger than you, or let them teach you in the review or you didn't learn trial by error like I did along with me reading the books. Or you can watch these lessons and we can continue to strengthen this opening theory idea. So black played the corner, the 4-4 stone. I was playing as white again, black plane, the 3-4 stone. So the most common moves after white takes the fourth corner. Now each corner has a stone, but now the next area of interest would be this area through enclose this corner, this Shamatha. But instead black played here on the side in ideally plan aside, but he also played on the third line. So I want you to know, I mentioned this in the beginner class, but the third line is called the territory line. In the fourth line is called the power line. The third line focuses on territory in safety. In the fourth line focuses on influence in fighting. There'll be explained later. For now. We'll continue with the opening theory. So why now has made to fence posts and see why is trying to claim this area here and press down on black. Because Black didn't enclose the corner. This is the place that you want to be looking at this area here. The reason I'm stressing this is because I'm trying to teach you the direction of play, which is the areas of where you should be looking and why. And the reason is, is because if you look here, is 11 lines of territory that both players are kind of touching. And so there's this much potential of getting territory. Now if we look on this side, let's just play a move. And think You guys see where I'm getting at here. Whereas this was 11 lines of potential territory. This down here on the bottom is 12 lines of potential territory. So this is the bigger area. This is where the most amount of points can be made in. So that's why this becomes the most important part of the board and how stronger players understand that this is the area that needs to be played. So when you're looking for places that need to be played, as long as urine tie in any urgent danger, then it's a good idea to play in the biggest area. So I've made a fence posts now. That gives me advantages in this area. Now, this might not have been the best move, but I'm not going I'm not trying to go over every move. I just want you to understand that. Right now y is black is trying to take the corner. There's more efficient ways to do that, such as attaching, attaching to white and then backing off. And you can see usually didn't Fujisaki or opening pattern is, would be something like this black, it's the corner and white gets the nice side. So he played a little inefficiently here, but that's okay. He has a better scope of what he's trying to do, which is to focus on the corner first. Compare that to the previous game. It's much better. This is really nice to blackened God himself quite a big amount of territory in White God himself, a big wall, which is potential territory. So as blackouts, solid territory, wife got potential, big potential. This is what is called a running battle, or go over this more later. But when there's a running battle, you want to stay ahead because you don't want to get hit on the head of two stones. This is very bad shaped for black. Though this was a mistake. He needed to continue to focus on the important area. And so now white really gets to press in black and use a Ted Sue G, this double Atari Ted Sue G. But now black doesn't get this area anymore. And I wouldn't say this broke opening theory here. I would just say that during running battles where you can see where like is ahead, is ahead, he has to stay ahead in order to continue having a good advantage. So there's techniques for it, but once again, we'll move gone. We'll, we'll cross this bridge when we get there for now, let's just focus on the opening theory. I how should I put it? And this was just the mistake, right? Like I went and say this is an open-end theory problem. So I'll continue on and see if there's any other opening theory problems. This move was really good. Let's building his, well, what a potential, what's called potential, which we call a memorial. It's an ammonia is like a framework of potential. You can see, think of these like fence posts. This stone here and then this stone here. And the Moyo is between the fence post. He's building up a lot of potential here. This was a pretty good move. The corner is open. And he made another mistake here, but that's okay. And I guess we can talk about this real quick. So black has made a very large wall. And this is like a big, yeah, just the big wall in its protruding potential this way. So as a stronger player, you wouldn't feel this in. So you need to know how to make it so that it doesn't feel as dangerous. So the idea is that if black car a stone here or here, you can see that it's too big friends posts. It's like a fence post and then a big wall. So this majo is potential framework has become huge, Which is a lot of points. So that's why the next move for white. I immediately as an intermediate player or higher, and know that I need to shorten this potential in so by playing here and not only am I building a nice framework of points, but I'm also limiting his wall. So now it almost feels like this is the best black again or maybe something here. But honestly I'd push through and then there'll be trouble for black. So like this is the best he can do now. And if we start building, you can see who's getting more. White has a lot more potential than black does. And that's because of this MOOC. So that's something to keep in mind. And then here I have a fence posts and a fence post. These are building two walls. So now I want to make some territory in the middle. I played this move. And now if black comes into any of this area, y will have all the advantage of fighting. I think we can move on from this game. I'll just quickly show you to the end. White made another fence posts that you can see this is humungous, right? Lack protected what he had. So he did come out with these points. But why it has this humungous framework. So this is where I told them we can probably end here and review the game. Continue. So remember, this is a review, remembering your opening theory is that you want to play in the corners first, then the sides in the center. So this is the third game we played on January 19th. So this was this game was a big improvement compared to the other game, even though it ended up and of y over dominating. But it was a big improvement from him just playing dead center and like find the sides. Oh, let's see how he did this time. First you played in the corner by placing the coordinate. Then he played another move in the corner. This is pretty unique. It is the thing, the 5-3 or the 35. It is the thing. Essentially. You can think of it like a reform, reformer. But with are ready. A stone blocking the shimmery, right? So that's kinda cool. It's just a different order. So yeah, continual. I played a 3-4 stone. So now we have two corners. That knee are missing a move. Black played here. This is a bit high. There's still invasion points where white can invade here. Because it's so high up. It's almost like this is on the fourth line and this is on the fifth line, which I mean it is, but you know what I mean? And so when you play high stones, it's easy to get invaded. So it's, I would say a very small mistake. I looked at the computer and the computer also agrees that it should be enclosed him I like this. But either way is fine, is only a very small mistake. So why played a large to jumping closure? This does two things. And it's not really focused on taking the corner because milestones are high. My stones around the fourth line, the black has a lot of I invasion potential. Really in any, any of these. And couldn't. I considered like an invasion almost or reduction. But white plays this way because it builds a wall, a very big wall facing aside. And if Black never invades, then it does builds quite a big corner. So just keep that in mind. The real goal that you should be thinking about is you see incomplete or unfinished corners in. So who both moves? Wanna finish the corner. This he focused on building the territory this way. And as you can see, this wall is now limited by this stone. I, if we could get a move over here, this would be obviously are really good and ten posts or fence posts. So this would be really good for white. So that's why I'm assuming he played here because it's a very good strategy to take away whites potential. Whereas white now can only make five lines of territory potential. But previously, if, let's say black played here something. Now, this would be nine lines of potential. That's the big difference. So this was a really good move by my students. See, this was a bit high. Usually invade or approach this high. So this is like a local mistake. But I think the idea is good. The idea is that because of this enclosure, you can see why is building a wall here. And so this wall is facing this fence post. So this is starting to become my potential. So he felt this was the most interesting part of the board, which I will agree with them that it's pretty much is. So me personally, I would have done an invasion where I have an opportunity to make a base on both sides of this stone. But he played over here. So that's why I said it's like kind of a local mistake that the idea or direction is correct. This is the most important area and say, unless you wanted to build, then you can say this is the most important area. If black Wanda builds or black wants to break. So Black did try and make a base. It's still really high. But he can still ran to the center of the Zane dangerous so it's not too bad. White focused on the corner. This is solid corner now. And then white focused on this corner. It's not solid still, but it's better than what it was. Though. The theory continues to focus on the corners first and then the sides. This was a bit close, but I think it's okay to it's a nice fence posts in it later involves a nice invasion. I don't think he's familiar with this because I'm still learning even today. But I do know some of the patterns here. Then I focused on approaching a corner while building a fence post. And then he went on the side to try and weaken the stone in split me. So it's a good strategy. I think I would have protected the corner. But if he's focusing on building a large Maya, and I don't think it's a bad idea either. So either or oh yeah, but black should have played here. Once again, I don't want to go over every move. I just want to stay focused on the opening theory. We can continue the idea, at least if you look at a3 games that I've showed you. Other than this little hiccup. If we go back here, black hasn't made too many mistakes. Wacc is much better than what he was doing in the previous games. So I was very happy though. Remember, corner, then psi, and then center, the China to play like the first game. I accidentally by, I don't know if there's an accident by closed out the first scheme. But that game was pretty bad because he was playing. Think it went like this. And then he played here. So this is off topic. This isn't this isn't focusing on the area that it should be. And then I don't exactly remember. I think he played here. Maybe it is something like this. But yeah, these are off topic in incorrect opening theory. Though, when he played correct opening Theory. Who's a much better game for him for quite awhile. So I'll end this introduction on opening theory. But as you can see on the larger board, there's a lot more tactics lend, so let's continue. 4. extra credit more OP theory: Our rate. So I already explained the idea of opening theory in the last video. In, it came out quite long, it's quite long video. So consider these next two parts, number 23 as extra credit. But this, we're going to look over three of my games. This is being played in the Osaka league, international soccer go school. I'm a part of, and I started at two q. And ranked my way up to one Q. So I was facing against the Japanese 3Q, and this was a tombstone handicap game. So my opponent got two stones to on the star points. I already in the beginning of the game. So this is like the handicap against me. So we're still going to look at opening theory. We're not going to focus on every move or anything, but just following opening theory first, they focused on the corner and so didn't my opponent. So we're both playing at a higher intermediate level, almost at an advanced level. And you reached on, I believe. But anyway, so white approached, this was my move. I'm trying to ask for the corner or the Sidon, which, whichever way the wind blows. Black ended up playing. It looks like a defensive move because it is, you can see in one more move, black can take the whole corner, so it's really good. But also, if blacked out another move out here, you can consider an attacking move. It's almost like having a wall in white is in-between the two fence post, which makes it at a disadvantage. So this move has dual purpose. It's a very good mode, is the most common. I would say. Move when y approaches the knights, approach black defense with the knights backing off, which allows for either take the corner or to attack white. Because I'm playing a handicap game. Black is already ahead with two moves, so I have to play a little more crazier and a little more Wilder her like outstretched more. So instead of like making a base or coming for the corner or in the, you know, the new style of coming for the corner. This would be the normal like idea. But instead, and I have to kind of stretch myself out because I gotta play more than what I normally would. It's hard to explain, but anyway, I approach this corner now, remember it's focusing on the corners first and then the side. He played another backoff, like move. It. Pretty much does the same thing this one does. You can see if black like gets one more move, then WHO have real high control over the corner? Or if black gets something over here, he can attack both stones. You can see he's censoring both stones here. You even put a black stone here. And you can see that these walls are going to be good for the fighting. Alright, I'm going to turn this school Blackstone. But yeah, you see these walls are good for fighting these zones. So in the game I played here, because this is the defensive point. And you can see whites building a nice framework on the side. Black now approached this corner and as you can see, it's building a nice fence posts between his group here and here. So this is that potential framework or Moyo. And it's sticking to opening theory where he's attacking a corner and working aside, at the same time. Nobody is playing like random moves in the center, right? This is what I'm trying to show you. Now. Normally white would reactants some fashion, maybe this move or a kick, something of this nature. We normally why would react? But once again, because it's a tombstone handicap game, I have to play a little more faster. So I ended up just ignoring this approach and then approaching this corner to see what he would do. He this is very strange. I'm actually I'll be honest. I don't know if meal is a male or female, but since he's playing with Blackstone's, I'll just say he's a male. It's a little strange, but I can see what this is doing. Tacking this stone and building a nice framework over here. Haven't worked with these stones though. But it's very strange, very strange move. So I just instantly jumped into the corner. And then I think blacks should have split me. Then make this stone weaker. But black really wanted to make the territory over here. So hold on one moment. Yes, so black really wanted to make the territory this way. I think it's because he put stones here. I don't think it's the right decision, but no. Because now white gets a really nice corner as aside, and then potentially another corner over here. But this was whites mistake. This stone here, I think now I should've back and then focused on the stone. Maybe something like this. Or maybe continued over here first before the kick, or maybe just the defensive move from nature. But I think I should have focused over here. More than this. This was a bad mistake because black got a nice strong thickness here. Nice long wall and it's facing all histones. I did try to make him over concentrated. Which is another thing we'll have to go over in the class. The, the idea of over concentration is if he puts too many stones in one area, it's not efficiently making territory because there's too many turns. It takes him a trends and make the points. So now I guess this is the end of the opening because I feel like are fighting in the side in close to the middle. But say this is the end of the opening. And I don't think it was time to finish the opening era. I think I should have focused on the corner, this corner first, but that's just me. We'll look at another game. So this was against the one done amateur in the Osaka go League. This was is a hash I put it, I just became one q and then was able to win against meal. So that was cool. And then I actually won this match to so of the time of this recording, I'd been ranked up to one Q, and I've been winning my matches against one Dans. So very nice. Anyway, let's stick to the theory. So black started with the 34 Stone and white started with the 4-4 stone. Already. This is telling that black is more focused on territory and white is more focused on influence will get into that in the next lesson after R3 of opening theory, we'll move on to the direction of play, which we'll really start going into what each stone is like representing. So black ended up taking another corner with the three forms of the 34. And then weight also did a 34. So now we have three corners that aren't settled yet. Why? This one is a settled this group. And these three art, though, as I explained in the other video, in some fashion. We want to close these corners. So I played to fight his corner first before closing either mine. He knew Keen, which means to play away from the action. So he ended up approaching one of my corners. And he approached high, where I approached low. This is kind of a pattern, right? He is playing a lot of high moves. Where I'm playing a lot of low moves. And by high, I mean he's on the fourth line, the power line in low, I mean, the third line, which is the territory one. I played under the corner. And then he took the side, normally white mix a base over here. But instead, he played this because it's a nice knight's move from his stone that's being pressed on. And so it feels like this stone has pressure on it. So that's why I played immediately into the corner. I can't say this is right. And it led to a very strange pattern. But I was OK with this. So black ended up getting a good chunk of the corner. We're sharing it right now. And something on the side in White got something on the side here. So I would say it even black Carter corner, we share this corner. And then he aside and I got aside. So I played over here because once again in opening theory, always remember to focus on the corners first. So if you look, this became settled. This is a settled group for black. The now he focused on the next corner. And then we'll fight over this corner. And then this group became settled. In this group became settled. So now that they're both settled and by that I mean, they're not going to die. I'm easily. Then now I can move away from the action and focus on the biggest area on the board. If you look, this only has n lines of territory. And if you look here, this only has seven lines of territory. And if we look on this side, this has 11 lines of potential territory. So this is the biggest part of the board. This side right here, without group settled now I can focus on finding the biggest side of the door born, which I did at plate over here. This is the biggest part. So this is how you find your moves when you're trying to figure out what you should be doing is you want to play until you're group is settled. And then you want to look for the biggest moves you can in this is the most amount of points you can get on the board on this side. So that's why I played on this side. White played that defensive move I've showed you before, and this is a very good move. And then black played this link is stones in a sorted fashion. This is the old Fu Secchi Calder. Who Secchi means opening paren and this is an old opening pattern called the Kobayashi. It's kinda out of date now in the computer doesn't like it, but, you know, we're not perfect professionals, so we can still play old stuff and have a good game. And he also played in an old fashion. There's a new move, which would be like over here. And then something like this. I'm not gonna go into great detail because one, I haven't practiced it enough to memorize it into. This is just an opening theory. So so the idea was I attacked the corner, he defended the corner and then I came for the side. But it's that opening theory, Corners and Sides. This really can't be stated enough because I showed you when people don't understand this logic, how much of an advantage your opponent can get if they understand opening theory and you don't, Oh, we don't have to keep going in this game. This game i1. He made a big group here. And then I was able to kill. It. Ended up getting quite a lot of points, or very early in the game and it continues. So we'll move on to the last game. So this game was actually played against my teacher in the international Sachiko school. His name is Francis mayor and he's a one Dan professional. So he gets paid to play in teach goat. Very, very cool. Becoming a professional Go player and playing in tournaments. And though he was American, he was born in the USA. And then I think if I remember right, his father was American, is mother was Japanese. And then when he was young, he moves to Japan and then became a profound work to become a professional Go player. So I played the same opening because I'd been practicing this one. So I played in the corner. He played in the corner, played him corner, he played in the corner. Or stones for, for stones and three for 34. So remember this is a professional, so he's at the top of his field and I really like this really cool that I gets a play him often. So he attacked my corner. He didn't want me to finish the corner. See how I enclosed one corner. He didn't want me to enclose the other because it'll be too much of a vantage. So I played here the knight's move to jump out. And then later you can see if black, blacks making a wall here and another wall here. So if black car another move like this, you can see this is attacking the stone. And that's why, why defends that right away. Like he immediately knows that like this is becoming dangerous. So he made a base like are very loose space. And it stops black from making a lot of points. If you see if black even just got like a move here or here, right? This is a big fence posts. So you have two big fence posts in a lot of potential Moyo. You broke it up. And then I played over here. This approach obviously is approaching the corner, sticking to good opening theory. And it's building the side, making a nice fence posts for the side. He complimented me on this MOOC when we were doing the review. So then I jumped into the corner, employed the defensive move that we've talked about in the other two games. I jumped in the corner and then settled. And then he felt settled. So then he synuclein, he played away from the action and made himself a nice corner enclosure with the 4-4 stone in this nights. This knights enclosure, Not only is he nicely enclosing the corner, but this potential here for black, as you can see, if black, if black was able to get a move here. One, this is a nice fence post in to it's building a nice Moyo and three, it's attacking the corner. So he prevented that by playing their himself. Obviously is a professional, so he's gonna play the very best moves. You can see these examples with AMP, who's buying very, very well. Now, if you look here, why it has a wall in white, has a wall. So this is the focus of the game here. This is where if white god, maybe one more move. You can see that he's building something humungous and it'll be much harder to invade. But I felt like now is the time to invade. He played on this side attacking the stone in building the corner. And then I got to play here to make a small base. You need to make basis in order to live. So opening theory, I'd say almost all the corners are finished. They at least other corners have something going on. And so now he was feeling pressured because this group is getting surrounded by black. But now he leaned on this and then started a fight. We could go. I don't want to go completely into the game. The wearer, since this is fighting. Once the fighting starts your kind of away from the opening and more into the middle game. In so now we are working on the sides in the center. And this class, this was extra credit, number one, showing my personal games in Go school, the Sachiko school. So thank you for watching. We're going to do one more part of this. Next time it'll be professionals playing that nasa had lower Q and middle q, but professionals. Thank you. 5. extra extra credit OP theory: Okay, before we look at some pro games to finish off this opening theory, I think since we watch to arts of opening theory, let's go back now to a new or player. At this time, this was in September of last year. My student, DR. stoned, E, has only been playing since possibly the beginning of September because I only started playing again in August. So he's only like a month, shrunk, and he was facing somebody who's 18. Q and so let's check the opening theory. Black played in the corner, or for stone, for, for stone. Both of them. This is a cross scheme, but it's different than all the other games we looked at. And then this is where the opening theory was broken. So he immediately played, this is my student's opponent. My student was playing white immediately plane in the middle, which it's very hard to get territory in the middle, especially this early. So It's breaking opening theory. White focused on the corner and then black focussed on the side. So this is already two moves that are breaking theory, right? Remember to play the corners first, then the sides, and then the center last. Why did a double approach? This is double approaching the corner. Black jumped out and then why it took the 33, this is a very vital point. Black blocks on one side and then y gets the other. So now white has a nice corner here. Very nice corner. Black belt awhile hearing. So he's going to have to try and utilize it. I would've played somewhere somewhere out here. I guess. Yeah, this MOOC. I would do and I would play maybe on top of or on the side here, or maybe even further out. As you will have to attack this group and prevent them, him from making obese. But I like this type of move is even if white tries to get out, you can only go so far. Maybe something like this, saying it's the perfect resume, but it could be something like this. Obviously this one would be that green or black. But I'm just blown playing around with moves. So even if black admin, I'd probably just play, maybe even here or here. And going into variations more. So let's focus on opening theories though. So wait, install the corner and then black played not so great of a move which allowed white now to get the side. So now why it got some of the side in the corner. So this is really good for white. This is away from the action. And I think this area or this area should be the focus. Instead, he played on the side. And then why I felt it was time to invade. Quite focused on the corner and in discarded without a fight. And the game continues. I don't have to go too much further to kind of show you what happens. But essentially when white gets one huge corner inside and then a corner and then another corner and another corner. So white has all four corners plus something on the side. And so this is a very good game for white, is because white was following opening theory while black wasn't. So you can get huge advantages very quickly when you're not. And in opening theory you, um, or I should say, when your opponents now trained in an opening theory, you can very quickly get huge advantages that would guarantee you victories. Though. We'll go over some programs very quickly. I think I've beaten this theory down with the hammer. So black played 34 stone White played before for stone. Black encloses the corner here. Which I always say if there's a 3-4 stone and this is what Black wants to do and the pros agree. So white immediately took a corner. This is actually this is new. So for like a thousands or hundreds of years, if not 1000 years, we wouldn't, as humans, we wouldn't play this early into the corner. We will play a more this style because it's building fence posts in still attacking the corner. But now because of the computer AI, they say now that just jumping straight into the corner is the correct move. And you can see this follows opening theory. I mean a good, it's more focused on the corner than the side. So this is opening pattern. This becomes into a complicated phi. This is a very complicated and their psyche or opening pattern. I might even just end this one here. Because when the fighting starts like this, you could say that the opening is over now because they have to focus so hard on the fighting. But eventually it does come back to the corner. Then this side. So the, the principles are still the same. And also that lesson that I mentioned in a previous video is that you don't want it to Ngugi or play away from the action until everything settled in. If you look, everything is like getting close to being killed or being killed. So there's no point yet where everything is settled. So that's why they continue to play here and here and here and here and here and here. More than Moving on. And that's why this is also a complicated just lucky because look at how long it is. It's 41 moves in and they've only worked on one corner. So anyway, I'll move onto the next program. Take a quick look. So this one, 3-4 stone, 3-4 stone. I've studied this, so one a lot. And so that's why I've been playing this opening more. If you've seen it in my other games in the second part of opening theory. So black enclose one of his 34 points, and then white took the other because it would be really good if Black got to enclosures on two corners. So white prevents that. Sorry, I'm moving quickly. So black settled this corner and white settled on the side. But now that they're both settled and it's now time to move on to the next corner. And this is a really nice move because you get that nice tent post. These, these fence posts. For this is the B stone is almost like an extension of a while attacking the corner. Doing every move if played well in have a dual purpose in this is a great example of that. This is why the professional so white kicked and then took another corner, back, took the side and making himself in a space. And then white finished the side base here. Black now is trying to get inside. And then y to new Gaetan and got and try is trying to get inside on this side. So black defends the corner. Why it doesn't attack. And then this is all fighting after this. But you can see in the end, lack gets the corner in White, got this outside influence. And then white finish this corner here after the Lydon, This is a running battle. So they had to continue to play until they didn't need to anymore. Why it is satisfied with the wall, that white god. And so now that white is satisfied, she, and move on to the next move. The next area of importance in this area is very important because this stone could have jumped in here at any point. Then they finish on this corner. And then the game continues. So that's the end of the opening theory for this. And we'll do one more. This is another program, all four for stones. This is kind of interesting. I think this is the first game we've ever seen where there are four forces. Black approaches for the corner. And then why ignores it to also approach on this side of the corner. There, even black does that nice night's defensive move, the backoff move. Remember how I said that? It makes it so blacks only one move away from taking a nice corner or playing this pincer attack in putting this stone between the two fence posts. So that's why this is such a nice smooth white immediately jumps into the corner. And once again, this is the new AI computer induced move, right? We didn't play this way in so computers started role on the world's in 2016. If at the Go world. So black caster now focus on this. And once they're settles why it has a corner and black has a wall. Black now to new keys and attacks this corner. So I really just want to stress the fact that in all the pro games, the intermediate games, we all focus on corners. First. I think you can see that. I mean, that's what this past hour has been talking about these bees opening theories part 123. But you can see the professionals and computers. There are all. The most important thing is first, you know, going for the corners. And it's all balanced to, it's not like blacks on just one side of the board. Like in the first R1, when my student would only play on the right side and then I got the rest of the board. You can see black is moving around in his like balancing out everything so that white can't make a big territory. Eventually, why does make a nice Moyo here? Not worrying about the technicalities of the job sec year, the pattern. You can see at the end of it. You've got this nice capture finicky. And now you can see all three of white stones are working together to make a huge Moyo. Let's say if black played here to make this boil down below, if white gotta move here, this potential, this Moyo is sanely good. I think you'd be like game over practically at this point. But that's why black plays here merely to break up this Moyo and attack the corner. It's all sticking to opening theory. Ra, I think I've talked enough about opening theory. We'll talk a little bit about direction of play, which secretly we were kinda doing this whole time anyway. But the next one will be a lot shorter. I'll see you in the next review. 6. Direction of play Intro: Alright, now that we've gone into a bit of opening theory in great, great, great detail or lack of detail in some aspects of it. Now will talk about the direction of play. So in the beginning of a Go game, usually these are your first moves in the corner. There are specialty ones, like here, and here, and here and here. But these are a little older fashion. And I don't see the computers are pros play them as much anymore. So let's discuss these moves. First, you have the 4-4 stone. Next is the 33. This one is the 34. And this one's also the 3-4. The reason I showed it twice was because although like I said, there are moves such as this, which is like 53 and phi four. They're kinda like the reverse order of the 3-4. And like I said, I don't see the computer are pros play them much. So I'm just going to talk about the three threes. I mean, sorry, the three fours. So in the next lecture we'll talk about the 4-4 Stone first and work our way to the 33 and then 34. These are all moves that you'll be using in all your beginning Go games. And I just want to stress that in the opening of the game, this is where most of the potential is. Everything is open right now, right? And so each move has the most value you can possibly get on the board. Essentially, as more moves are played, less and less spaces are available on the board. So there's less and less options to be played. So the idea is that it should be easier and easier to find your moves. The more there's moves on the board because there's less options. So the idea is that each stone you play has a great amount of value, especially in the opening of the game. And so that's why I want to teach which direction these emanate. Since you are I noticed on the corners and then work on the sides after. We'll move on from here. So in the next lecture, let's talk about the 4-4 stone in its special properties. 7. Direction of 4 4 stone: All right, we'll be discussing the four fourths o Now in the direction of play. When you play the fourth for stone, you're playing high and not low. This would be like very low to the ground on the third line, right of territory. In the fourth line is the line of power. Anytime you play on the line of power, you must understand that it can be undercut. And so the idea is that this stone is more focused on the outside in the sides, particularly, and the fighting in the center more than the corner. If I show you if white was to invade on the 33 points, black cannot kill white. I can show you two ways. This is the older, the old way people played for, I want to say a hundreds of years. And so you can see that white has gained a very secure corner, has taken it away from black. But on the other side of the wall, black has made a very large and strong formation that emanates power throughout the rest of the board. So although white made roughly a secured ten points, black has a formation that's going to affect the rest of the game. In Ghana help him with all his battles and making a large oil. So the idea of the 4-4 stone is to focus more on the outside, either on the sides or this will help with the fighting in the center of the game. White usually nowadays either jumps right into the 3-3 or approaches on the sides here. The nice thing about the 4-4 stone is it's symmetrical. So if white plays on one side, black and plan and the other with no bomb. So other than that, we also want to know that black is a speedy development. So if black was to play on the three forced on, one of the first things that you'll want to do is to enclose blacks corner here. So that way he can make a nice wall which wouldn't, the direction of play of this wall is facing this way. And you can see that if black God or move out here, and then I move here, you'd be building a nice box or formation, whichever you want to call it. But it'll be a lot of nice potential. But when you think about it, black has to now come back and make a second move in order to make this corner. Viable. If black ignored it and played somewhere else. Way could now play on top of Black. Either moves and press down black, let's say a flag to eat again. White could really either press him down or y could take half of the corner with no issue. Or I'll pretty much all of it. They would have to fight a little bit for it. But the idea is that this was blacks corner black player to move here first. And then white was able to easily take it. So that's why it's so advantageous to enclose quickly when playing a 3-4 stone. But once again, that takes away a turn from yourself in order to do so. Whereas white doesn't have to worry about enclosing his corners and can move on to something else. So when I say a speedy development, I'm saying that black doesn't have to spend another move over here to enclose. So if we looked at the most typical of games, you could say that blacker and make the three stars, the Sun standpoint. The San, San opening. So essentially, you can see black is building quite a big Moyo on one side of the board. Black could also approach. And then this is older fashioned Same with the sun sign, but the idea is that you can see black Kim builds a very speedy, very quick Moyo, or large framework or territory. And that's because the special properties of the 4-4 stone needing a move to enclose. So that's just the introduction to the 4-4 stone. And the idea is that you want to build more on the sides and not focus so much on the corner. Although eventually, if white never approaches in black makes a night enclosure, then wait please over here. Black can completely solidify the corner. It takes three moves to do so. But this is the formation you would need in order to enclose a corner like this. Whereas if black played the 33 stone, 3-4 stone, needs one move in order to enclose the corner. So although it's speedier and the fact that you're focusing on the sides and the fighting in the center. It takes much, many more moves in order to enclose the corner. So that's why I'm really trying to tell you that the 4-4 stone doesn't focus on the corner. But you can take the corner if the opportunity arises where maybe whites playing only on one side are right. I'll finish this now with the 4-4 and next we'll talk about the 33. 8. Direction of 3 3 stone: Okay, now we can talk about the 33 stone. Now, the 33 stone actually doesn't have a direction of flow. A believe it or not. Once you play the 33 stone, you're essentially saying, all I want is this corner. And now I don't want to bother with this side of the board. This 1 fourth to the board on you wanna think about it. Idea. I mean, that's the idea actually. So let's say if the game went like this, weight can actually either approach. I'll show you the approaches for the, I'd say these are the most common approach moves. If you're white. Approaches on this side, black can easily come out and start making a formation. Same width here. It's the same exact thing. And here, the closer white is, I've been advised from one of the pros that was teaching me. If you approach on a two space, then you want to jump to spaces. You this nice jump to space, large knight's move. Same here, same exact thing. And if white approaches with a one space move, then it's advisable to dump one space, the knight's move. And the reason is, is because if you go farther out by can now move and perform an action in order to keep black separating. These groups are now separated. So black still gets the corner. It doesn't have to worry about dying, but still it's not nice when your cutoff like this. Whereas if you play appropriately, white can cut you off. But I mean, the stones are going to die. No matter how you try and spin it, the stones are gonna die. So with that in mind, these are the approach moves I've showed off these two and this one. This will be the last one. This is a very common thing. When black tries to expand his territory, white pushes out. When black tries to expand his territory, white jumps out, and then black can play something like this. The idea is that white and stays ahead of black. So black kinda gets stuck in the corner here. And then y gets the outside influence, as you can see. And that's the idea of the 33 Stone, is that there's no direction of development for it. It just takes the corner and that's it. It's sole reason is just to take the corner. Yeah. That's all I can really say. Regarding the direction of play for the 33 stone. Most of the time. The board this section of the board isn't played in, it's the most uninteresting part of the board. And so the moose are played on these corners. So that's it for the 33. 9. Direction of 3 4 stone: Okay, let's move on to the 3-4 stone. Gives me the 3-4 stone, eliminates a direction towards developing a right side when it plays here. Unlike the 4-4 stone that is symmetrical on the board, it has two sides that wants to do the same with the 33 stone. Eventually, you could say that black, we could try and develop on either side. But 34 Stone actually wants to develop over here. Now because the corner is in symmetrical or enclosed. First you'll wanna make an enclosure a, B, C, or D. These are the most common enclosures. C, the one jump, the knight's move, the large knight's move and do space jump enclosure. But you can see everything regardless of which enclosure you use. A creates a wow. And this wall is facing this direction. And the reason I'm saying that it's facing this direction is I can show you if blankets and other stone here. Let's use a more common, this is the most common enclosure. This one's getting into fashion. But let's just put this one for this argument. So this wall here. The reason why I say it's facing down here in this way instead of this way is because let's take a look actually. So this side is forming a box. A box is very efficient in taking and making territory. I go, well, if we look here, 12345510152025303540, forty one, forty two, forty three versus 43 points. You can see it efficiently is mapping out 43 points. Now let's do this. 15101234 though, or a 16202428, and then 33 and that would be 34 versus 34 points. Okay? So you have roughly the same distance, the star point to the start point, in the same height. So these stones are the same height and these stones are the same height. So with that in mind, you can see which one is efficiently making more points. In that is the right side. Which is making almost ten more points. It's nine points difference. So this is the more beneficial side to develop on, which is the direction of play. That's what the direction of plays I'm all about is trying to figure out where the most efficient ways to make points are. So I really want to stress the fact that the 3-4 Stone wants to make an enclosure first in some fashion, one of these, whichever you prefer, learning and playing. And then note that it's building a wall which changes the direction this way. So you can say that originally the stone wants to go in this direction, but as soon as it does, then it wants to double back and move over to this direction to develop. And we went over that in obviously intricate, very intricately counting the points, knowing that this side would make more points than this side. So if black when into the opposite order and said, I didn't enclose the corner and tried taking the side immediately. It affords widely opportunity to play. One of these moves. One of these moves are the most common way to press down black. These moves can also be played, but they're more focused on the left side. Will instead of pressing down black, it gives black quite an opportunity to still take a lot of territory. If black was to play something like this or something like this, this would allow for white and black to still get the corner and his side territory pretty well. But anyway, the point is, is when white gets the press down on here, now, white and black are sharing the corner in. So black is not getting as much as it was. You can see something like this. Or if we wanted to go into more detail, we could go like this. And White has options. Why can play here? I can play here, and why can even play this depending on your style and what you're going for. Me personally, I might back off first and then see how I feel about later. Let's say a flag to Ngugi's. Now while you can come in here, no problem. Or if black takes the corner than y can build somewhere else. But anyway, my point is is that There's an order to building for the 3-4 stone in the first part that you want to build is this. And so that way a white Kim Press Black down. You could argue that white could take away blacks directional play because black ones supply over here. But even this is really nice for black. Black still making a sort of box and making very efficient points. So that's the direction for the three-fourths zone. You can see if we reverse it over here, it's the same thing. Black ones to enclose in some fashion. And one of the four of these moves, and then you can see his direction changes this way. Instead of this way. The advantages for the three-fourths zone is that it only takes one move in order to make a nice enclosure for the territory. The disadvantages of Black is that it takes three turns in order to take over the side or its first move out to the side. You could even argue that it takes for a really utilize taking the side. Whereas the star stone, the 4-4 point on the star, is able to take the sides very, very, very quickly. So it's a faster development for the, for, for stone, but it's less secure because y can unsecure the corner. Whereas the 3-4 stone is slower because it takes the action that many more turns in order to get to the side. But it encloses the corner so you get pretty close to guarantee territory very quickly. So it's all your play style, if you like fighting in the center and making Speedy developments than play on the 4-4 stones. If you like, guaranteed territory, or at least more secured territory than 4-4 stone, then consider these enclosures. So that's all I need to say about the 3-4 stone. I've given the advantages, disadvantages. Some approach moves in what black actually wants to accomplish here. And we'll be moving on to the next lecture. 10. Professional Direction of play example: Alright, now that we understand how each stone kind of emits a different direction, why don't we look at a professional game in how they play? And we'll talk about the directions of all their moves. This is probably gonna be a little tedious or maybe even a little boring. I'm not sure. But I will say that it's important to practice this type of stuff. If you understand the direction of each stone, you'll understand what they're doing. And if you understand what they're doing, then you can come up with your own battle strategies on how you should play and you'll never have to truly worry about like feeling confused, like where I should play or why I should play. So we're gonna go over one game and focus on the direction of play. But essentially from one of the books I've read, they say that every Go game, every move you could consider as a direction of play problem, right? If you look at it in a problem sense, like trying to solve a problem on where the biggest moves are and why do you need to move in the situation? You could look at your games in a different light. And once again, it really helps on like, it should eliminate the problem of where should I play. It should eliminate that question. So this is going to be a fun test for me. I'll see how much I can remember. I've been memorizing programs for my own personal study. And it's been helping me a lot with my opening techniques. In this game. It was against two females. I don't remember their name by heart. So I apologize. I think one was named Shiba Nano, but I'm not sure. So either way, let's continue. So black played in the three on the 33 spot, saying that this is a boring corner. Now, white plate on the 4-4, black played on the 3-4 spot, showing that this is the direction of development that she truly wants. And White played here the 3-4 spot as well. Black maid or one space. Hi, I'm approach I mean to Mari or enclosure. So you can see the direction of plane is facing this way and you built the wall. And if like, let's say black got a stone here or here, you can see that it's building a nice framework. White played to space Hi extension, shimmery. So this encloses the corner and builds a wall facing this way. I'm not at a level to say like if this is the best opening, but, you know, obviously I learned what the pros do and try and figure it out. Black now makes a nice enclosure this way. An approach actually not an enclosure, it's an approach on this corner. You remember opening theory? We focused on this. We might have even reviewed this game quickly, but now I'm going into real depth on this. And you can see there's a nice fence posts type situation where blacks out skirting or making a territorial framework this way. Wait, did not like that. So white actually played here. Breaking up this group. Black took the opportunity to double approach. Actually, black played a high double approach. And so you can feel the corners getting really Box2D squeezed out. White. Allowed this to happen because white plate here and a normal move for white might have been something like this. To protect this side and to protect the corner. Lets say if black played one more move, why can easily grab the corner here? This is not how it went, so went like this. And then, because while it has a stone here, white wants to use this power, the power of the stone. So you can kind of see that this stone is squeezed between these two white stones. So y attached here in black hat answers. And then continues forward. And then black goes for the corner. So now you can see regardless of which direction black plays, Black's going to get a nice corner. And the idea is if blankets or stone this way, the corner goes this way and Blackett system this way, the corner goes this way. So for whites direction, why it has two choices to make? Which direction does white wanna plan? If you want to pause the video and take a guess, you can see if white wants to play a or B. So the answer is B, because B wants to continue to use this power, the stone, and to keep the attack on this. And it works well with these stones as well. So you can see it's like building a house. Black pushed up because black and wants to take the corner and not die. White and continues to push. And now black is almost connected with histones. And you can see the direction of these stones though, where black wants to continue to develop this way. Why can't develop this way obviously, because whites here, whites here and here. So this is very easy to find the direction of stones. If you know what you're looking for and you understand the moves. This is actually how I memorize the games, is if i understand why they played the way they did, and think about the direction of play. Then I understand. Now then I can memorize the moves. I apologize, I need some water. White plays under here. To maybe attack black space and to make some space of her own. And then white makes the scorpion formation. Black attacks it, and white creates a CO. And now white uses save these retirees for this CO, white and I guess that knew that this code is going to happen. So that's why white save these Uttar 0s here. White took back the CO and black blocks. So now, even if white wins, disco, black didn't, won't be damaged. Black has a nice solid corner. Now. White plays out here. And I will talk about the direction now. So why it has one builds a very large wall that you can see that white wants to develop this way. Unfortunately, black has a group here. So why can't develop too far? But why did get these two moves? And this is probably what makes it worth it or even, or even a good position is because the stone is vastly weekend and it's putting out influence all throughout the center of the board. It's putting out influenced this way, which is working towards your stones. And once again, it's putting out a very minimal amount of influence over here. Whereas black mainly only just got this corner. After all is said and done about this formation. Though it is a nice corner. So we'll move on. Next. Black limited the amount of points that white can make over here, and is also building a nice formation in the corner. So it's a dual purpose move. Wij now is looking for the biggest part of the board. This took a long time to settle. All these moves were completely necessary to play out. There was no break time. This was all the action, right? Black was working on this corner and why it had to continue to answer. So now that there's a break in the action where everything settles, white now chooses to look for the biggest part of the board. This is an essential skill that you're going to need in that, hopefully by me pointing it out and showing these examples, you'll consider them and learn how to find the biggest points of the board. The way to do that is mainly just to count and see what's going on. So you can see that black wants to develop this way. But you can also see that this stone is very low to the ground. So if white pushes on black around here, like a white kind've up quite a bit of territory over here. And so yeah, I mean, if we really look at this board, kind of annoying with other stuff on the board. But if we really look at this board, you can see there's a large amount of territory here to be gained and there is a larger tumor territory to hear to be gained. So these are your two directions that you want to consider. In considering that this is low. What I ended up playing over here. But to space approach. This corner here, black answered two spaces. So black jumped two spaces. And then white came back over here. This is actually an older fashioned style, but this was a brand new game in 2019. So it's still kind of a little old, but it's still relevant, of course, today. So you can see that white is building quite a big boil up here. I'll, these stones are working together like every single one of these. You could almost say the moisture is like this. We'll continue a little more. Black, saw this big loyal. So he has two options in viable options. One is he could build his Moyo bigger because he has a large Moyo as well. Or try to attack, which black does in the scheme, black makes a move here to try and break up all this central territory. As you can see, plays on top, focusing more on this loyal. So this is the direction of play. These are the directions of stones, like I said, each stone misdirection. So this is the goal of this stone, is to make them loyal this way. And then black finishes. Makes a nice move, nice extension on this side. And now you can see that the Stones got to develop this way. And this is really nice for black. I wonder at this time, I should have put it. I would say, I don't know if it's even or not. I would say I like white more. I liked this position in the center more for white. But it's still pretty much even at this point. I mean, blacks got a whole side in a corner. And why it has a whole, almost the whole side. And a little pocket here. White plate over here to block this Blackstone because black guy could try and come out this way. And then black started his attack. Black needs to try and do something here so that white doesn't make all the points. Direction wise. You can, I think we've really hammered the point on about direction, how this works. So I think I'm gonna stop here. I could go on and show you pretty much the full game. But then we're not talking about direction as much anymore. Where more talking about mental game fighting and all sorts of stuff. So I'll lecture here for a directional play. But I hope this really helped you give you an idea on how to play more balanced inefficiently in the opening. So that way you'll play obviously MR. higher-quality games. So, whereas let's move on to the next lecture. 11. How to self study the opening: All right everyone, let's talk about Joe Secchi In this lecture. Just Secchi is opening patterns. There are patterns that before the computer, they were human-made and there were pro players trying to find even patterns that happens all the time they come out with even results. Later the computer invented a bunch of Joe Secchi, outdated a bunch of them. And then even firms improved from other human-made formations where like the most efficient possible. The idea is when you play the game, you want to review your games after this is the fastest way you'll grow stronger is by reviewing your games, especially with the stronger player. It's probably better to have a teacher who can go over this with you. But if you don't have a teacher on hand at all times, like myself for instance. I do have a couple of teachers, but I only see them. You know, they review all my league games in or whatnot. But I can't just call them up and ask them to review a game. So what I do is I rely on AI. Ojs. The online go.com server has a great online computer that allows you to review your games. They actually have to either cots ego or below 0. I usually use cut the ego. And then also they have a button here called Joy of Secchi, which you can click this button and you can study all, all the Josephy you want here. First, I'll show you the game AI style. So if you enable an AI review and put in for AI review, you do have to pay for this service. It's kinda cheap or fire member, I don't know the pricing on it. I pay for the best one. I think it's like $10 a month. But anyway, Once you do the full AI review, a shows you all the points on the board and like what the AI chooses. So if it's 0, that means that the win rate will stay the same. You can change it. Win percentage. Or you can change the score I like score. And score white's winning in the beginning. White as 51% chance of winning because of combi. Anyway, we'll move on. So we'll look at this game. This is a game I played against somebody randomly online. There's a for Q. At the time, and I was to Q. So black plane in the top-right, I was playing as whites. Why played a 3-4 stone, amino? 4-4 stone. And as you can see, it shows like all the percentages. As I told you before, the computer really only recognizes for, for stones in the 3-4 stones, they don't really play often in the 33 area or they don't really play often. And unlike the 35 or four or five, you know. So anyway, we'll move on. So the idea is that you can see where your opponent played. You can see where the computers suggests. And when you do it actually shows you variations that the computer predicts. So we'll move on, but will just pass the form of so now we have two stones into stones on each aisle aboard. Back immediately thinks it should play on with inside the 3-3 or make an enclosure. Just as I explained with the 3-4 stone, it really wants to make an enclosure. Black in this game did. And it's funny why it has to approach moves. I ended up playing the, the blue, which is the recommended move. And then black Walk this Way. Black blocks here. So this is actually the old way of playing LOTRO Secchi. This was the old human way. Now it is deemed inefficient because of computers and how they continuously, when humans, by this way. And it puts you down 0.4 in score. So when he plays this, my win rate goes up. Look at the percentage style. It was FFT 2% when Ray, and then it jumped to 55 because if later inefficient move. So this is how you can train your opening patterns in your psyche. You can see what's efficient and what's not efficient in this particular move is efficient. If black played this, you could play out the moves and learn these opening patterns. These joe Secchi theme with this if black plate here, you know, white jumps and then, and then black immediately he goes into this corner and, and so on. So you can learn these patterns this way. It's most efficient to play your game and then review them after and see what the computer thinks is inefficient and why it thinks it is efficient. I will say that I usually don't sweat over 0.4. and negative bad move. I usually worry if it's negative five or over and then am I. Well, okay, that's a big mistake. But anyway, I don't want to go over this for game. I just wanted to explain that. It's very important to review your games. And it's even more important to learn opening patterns and by reviewing with the computer to allow you to do so. Another way you can do it, and this was before AI, before we had these computers to help us, we would have Joe Secchi engines like this, which is on the website as well. Right there, Joe Secchi. So if you click this, it will show this. And it shows all the most played moves. Number one is the 4-4 stone. So we can tell that the computer or a lot of programs, I think they grabbed these from programs. Most pros plan a four or 4, then they'll play the 34 as the secondary. And then the third move is the 33, which is pretty fun because these are the three I taught you and I was told you that they're the most played and login, this proves it. So anyway, we'll just play out one formation, I guess for each. So you can see. So the most common move that white will do after all four corners are played. Of course, I think I will just play a whole game here. Actually now, we'll just focus on one corner. But essentially the most played approach move is this one number one. The second is just taking the corner right away as the computer has taught us. So now we'll play the most recommended move. So I guess a, let me see a anti-nuclear emphasized territory, incense, hey, this makes some popular choices in modern Go. So it's saying that either you can sneaky, meaning you can play anywhere else you want. You don't have to answer this, this approach, or the most common of approaches. And number one defense is this MOOC. You can, of course, studying all these. You can go as far as you want and study every single one of these and become a master of Gov. Once again, we're just gonna make this video short. So black defends. And now I just want to say, in the olden days, this move in this MOOC used to be the most common back in the day, the slide, they even have names, which is kinda cool. So it's actually, this is really cool. I've never really use this too much. The way I study just Secchi is by playing through pro games. So I'll find modern programs and just play them in like see what they're doing and why. But this is really, really cool. To finish. So this a is the most common move and then this is the second. So this is the old human way and this is the new AI way. It's cool that they even have explanations. This is really, really cool. I'm just saying this is the only move. It looks like this is a mistake. And then this looks, I don't know why it has an x here. But anyway, yes, so this is how you learn, just lucky. You just play through the moves. Can think about why they're doing, they're moving like this. And what's crazy is that this engine tells you why they're doing it. So that's really cool. We're just going to play through the most common moves now. And then it looks like a is more common than B. And when I was taught this, B was the most common mood at the time. And I like these explanations, is a good one, is Goodwin black as the upper side potential, and b is simple. And CO2 Nokia, other possibilities. I'm not familiar with it. See, it looks like that your psyche ends here. So brackets the top and y gets the corner. This really does everything for you now, like this wasn't like this. When I started back in 2004. It even shows the continuation. I don't wanna go too much further than this. This was an introduction to Git Secchi. So I want you to know that when you play a game, you can review with the AI, which is very important because it'll show you exactly what you're doing wrong in like, you know, I'll give you alternatives on how to learn and play and get better. And then two, if you want to go the old-school way and which definitely has a new twist. Once you do a formation here, you can now go. And if you don't want to pay for the AI reviews, you can go over here and figure it out. Well, let's look at this same exact formation. You can see C is the least played move. Now, he takes the core because it's focusing on something else. But the now, the new key is now visable. Why crawling on the line of the feed shoe. But it's telling you not to nicky. Now template anywhere else you should continue to play. And it shows you this mistake, as this is a mistake, it will show you how it gets punished. And it shows you the correct way to play. The now it even tells you Z is the traditional Han move. I told you that's very old. Oh, anyway, yeah, I'll wrap it up here. But this is how you want to learn you're opening patterns and become stronger of a Go player with your own self-study is by using AI and learning the patterns or coming back to the Giuseppe button. And rarely stuttering like the most common moves in everything with the gray explanations. This is so cool. All right, let's move on to the next lecture. 12. Orders of operations for the opening: Okay, now we're gonna talk about the orders of operations for the opening. Essentially, these are the rules that you'll need to know in order to really cement your opening. If you follow these rules, I can guarantee that you're going to have a very strong opening. And having a strong opening obviously gives you a vantage in the middle game and in the end game. I mean, it's the whole beginning of your game. When I follow these operations, of course I do very well. But I know it gets messy though. And when Josep keys start to spring up, once we start finishing formation, things can get messy. And that's why I'm not winning every single game in the opening. But following these orders of operations, you'll find that you'll be having no problem with opponents. Probably up to 5Q rarely. But of course, you have to learn your psyches and opening patterns to really get an advantage in that only the, learn the patterns, but you have to figure out how to make them work for the whole board. You have to develop your whole board thinking. But let me give you these basics in so you can start learning how to be a good Go player. In the opening, the first class moves is playing in an empty corner. I think we've gone over this quite extensively, but playing in an empty corner is one of the best moves you can play their first-class moves. The first formula should be in each corner. That's just a given, whether it's again like this for all four star points, or even if it's a cross game, it's very important to first play in the corners. Now, looking at, let's continue with second-class Moon. Who after first-class moves, your order of operations is to perform first-class move. Now the second one is to either enclose or approach 3-4 stones. I went over this in great detail with you during the opening theory. But as you can see, the pros really recommend doing this first or second. Anyway, it's a second-class move very high up. So the idea is to either approach a group that hasn't been enclosed yet, or to enclose your own group. And vice versa. If your opponent has in, approached your corner, let's say it's something like this and White played over here something. Then you should continue to enclose your own, enclose your own formations. So let's move on to the next second one. This one is start a Joe Secchi. So we went over a class on how to study Joe Secchi. I advise the, one of the best ways honestly is to replay through pro matches. But that's, I suppose that's a higher level, like I learned a lot, just Secchi before I started witnessing it in like redoing programs. But anyway, I've shown you that you can go here and look up and Joseph keys. So if you feel you got a bad position in your game, then you can look up what you did in your game and then see what would be better. But I'll just perform a very short Joe psyche. Let's say if we do all-star points, this is very common, very common game. Now, there is no three-fourths to approach her clothes so we can focus on starting age of Secchi. So one of the most common ones is this one where white backs off. More black asks for the corner and why it says no. Black says, are you sure I want this corner? And why attacks a retirees this stone? Then you can see white needs to protect its cutting point. And why is threatening to cut off these three stones if y gets a move here? So that's why Black says no. And then there's different variations. Though. One in the Josep Kitab from doing that video, I learned this is the most common move. This is the one I was taught. It's the most simplest. Let's do the most common. The idea is that if y played here, black plays here, and now pretty much it's over. I mean, why can keep pressing? But it's not exactly common. Why could play here so that white still holds onto the corner? Or why continuity in play somewhere else? So that would be to start at your psyche in the corner. Now the next is to play between two opposing positions. So these are the highest level of moves you can do after the first-class moon. Let's talk about between two opposing positions. You could consider claim between Posen, this stone in this don't want to develop this area because playing a 4-4 Stone wants to live out the side. So you can consider one black plays something like this. He's already playing between two opposing positions. Well, let's make it even more obvious. If black played here, and by the way, could hear black played here. And it was like this. And now we both have to situations where the opposing sides are. Y m, Blackwater develop this way and white and black wanna develop this way. First, there's the enclosures. Up to your style. You can either attack first or you can enclose first. I'm going to enclose. And then let's say white wants then close because this is a second-class move. This is very important. So now you can see both walls are facing this side over here. So if black is able to play first in the middle, in white, because the best white can to counter it. You can see that black has gotten more. And so by playing on the in-between two opposing positions, black has gotten a larger advantage of, you know, the larger advantage of getting points. I don't know how to word it as well. But the idea is you can see blackout nine lines of territory and white only got seven. So that's quite a big number difference in points. And that's because blackouts and play on the opposing side first. Same with over here. Now, if Black got this, you can see obviously why can pincer and try and break up what's going on here? But the idea is that black still gets an advantage because white is in-between blacks to positions. So, let's say if I answer this way and backends to this way, there would be no doubt in any Go players mine, that black has a larger in vantage in Framework compared to white. I would much rather be playing black than white. And that's because this is such an important move. Our idea of a move is a second-class move over, move on. We talked about the first-class taking the corners. The second class moves are enclosing and starting at your psyche and if possible, plane between two opposing positions. Let's talk about third-class moves now. The first one is make moves that strengthen you and weakens your opponent. So let's think of an example for that one. And I have a preference. I don't have a perfect set-up here, unfortunately for this one. But let's see. Let's again in older and older, Joe Secchi. So black normally would come over here to protect himself. But if black chooses to skip this third-class move by strengthening his Wheatstone's. Let's say he plays something like this. Now Y can play a move that sandwiches these two stones. So black has become significantly weaker. Maybe black will try and dig under. And then black will have to come out. And then white can continue to come out. Really make a base. Maybe try and cut through, and then come out a stronger. But you can see black isn't making points while whites making points on the side. And these stones feel like they're making a really nice invasion or reduction of this point. While black still has to run in kind of cry for life. There are moves obviously that can help him make some space, but the idea is still the same. It's very important to strengthen your weekend stones. So by not finishing this year, Secchi, white can now attack. And that's the thing you want to make moves that either strengthen yourself or weaken your opponent. So this is the type of move that weakens your opponent a great deal. So that's the first third-class move. This move I tend to do before finishing my second class moves on the board, and that's probably what gets me in trouble a lot of the time. So as I can, when I see a weakness, I like pray on it. I started attacking it early. But anyway, we'll move on. Play on aside where one group of stones has potential to develop. So let's look at this one. Let's look at, let's say y makes a bad move. Let's say white place something like this. Right? Now, it's very clear that black, once they develop this way, and white doesn't want to develop this way exactly because it's on the 33 points. So it's like, you know, it doesn't have, it doesn't wanna develop over here, but it doesn't have much of a claim as this one does. So this is more beneficial for black to come over here than it is for whites come over here. And this is that idea that playing on one side where one group has potential wells and the other doesn't this one, and develop as easily as this one. But if black plays here first, you can see that it's kind of that same idea that blacks gonna get way more points. This was like what, nine lines of territory. And this one's only 123456. So if black wants to develop period, and obviously this is very big move for black, for white, let's say f black, that's something else. Why, even though this isn't as good development for white, because black in push-down, whites territory, you know, black and keep white small. It's still a good move. It's still a third class move because you're stopping blacks development. So it's not a bad point for whites. It consider maybe something like this. For black will come back or something. Either way And the idea is still the same. You can see that white has stopped blacks development. Now full disclosure. I know that with recent AI, they don't make these big phi space extensions. This is actually six basics and should be a little wide. But they don't like making these moves and physical reason for it, not on this particular example, but let's say if it was like this in white made a big one, biospace extension. This is beside that both stones were developed, so this is a good idea to play. It's a second-class move. But nowadays because of this, it's not as recommended because this 33 makes white a little cramped or just flat. This is what I was taught in the Yangon. Say that this is the old school way. I still think the old school way is very viable though, because as humans we're not as good as computers, so we're not playing like inside here and doing great like this is actually pretty tough for black to handle himself. Why can definitely get a good advantage by playing something like this. But computers are so good that they can play something like this and make magic happen. But anyway, I just wanted to give that disclaimer that this is kind of an old school way of thinking, but it's still very, very viable and good to play, especially at your level. Like, I wouldn't worry about this stuff until you like $5 or something. Anyway, we'll move on to the next one. Play on aside where one group of stones have potential. Actually, I think we just did this one. Yeah. But now it's just enclose on the 33 stones for why you might want to develop this way. You can see that it's making a nice formation. It's not only building a wall that's facing this way, but it's also making quite a lot of points in material over here. And it's making blacks development side a little less appealing because now white stones have here. Vice versa. If it was black's turn. Approaching a 33 Stone is a good idea, especially on this particular one, because if it went like this, you can see black is developing on the side. He wants to develop on maybe something. So it's a little strange. I don't know that 3-3 stuff as much as I should. But the idea still remains that black wants to make a nice big wall and then come back and make his development here. So approaching that 3-3 Stone is a good third-class move. And developing from a 33 Stone is a good move. And the last third-class move is the 44 cornerstones. Closing or approaching a 4-4 stone. You can see up here this is in approaching a 404 stone. And you can see here this is enclosing a 4-4 stone. These are really good. As you can see this I would even consider to be a second-class move, even though it says it's the third class move, I would definitely consider a second. You see this all the time. You see this as the second move constantly. But usually when it's both players played on the 4-4 stone, that's gone into great detail. But so this is a good move for the opening. And this is a good move for the opening. It all depends on how you're feeling. I personally like to outstretched my outposts first, but it depends on the situation. If we had if we had a large potential to develop this side, then I might want to just calmly play an enclosure like this instead of out stretching myself. And that's because once again, white can just immediately come in here. And then black isn't making a lot of points here. Or black stays very flat here as well. So that's why I wouldn't want to maybe consider a commonly playing an enclosure, basing this great potential. We're now on the last part of this opening order of operations video for the fourth class move. Finished the burden. Move enclosure for, for, for stone or stop your opponent from enclosing the 4-4 enclosure. So what it's telling you is one to either finish, and this is by the way, and once again, this is on order. So you should be looking for these moves first before you look for these. But this is a fourth class move. It's still a really good idea to play before you start fighting in the middle game. So the fourth class move is saying to finish this enclosure, as we've talked about in previous lessons, this move here solidifies the corner. So it's very good. I mean, you're looking at 20 points here. This is a very good move and vice versa. If it was white cern, you don't want black to finish this corner. So there's a bunch of different techniques. Might know that there's a move here, here. Maybe here if you wanted to fight a code, but it's usually ill-advised in there's probably even more that I'm not too familiar with. But these type of invasions are very possible. I don't have all the memorised patterns for these, but I know that if black chooses the outside, white can make some type of formation. Now live here on the corner, taking the corner from black. And then if black, once the corner way can, actually, I don't know, why could make a base like this in black can't stop wait from connecting, right? So white could make a base like this. I'm more used to this one where if Black place something like this to save the corner. Now you can play another base move. There's a bunch of these. I'm not going to lie. And I don't know all of them. I should study them and I will make a video only so there'll be in the future. But the idea is to either finish your 44 enclosure or to stop your opponent from finishing off for foreign Closure. The next one is play on the side where neither player has good development. So if we have a situation like this, you can see blacks wall is facing this area, and white swale is facing this area. So neither are facing this. There's not a lot of development. The idea is you can make way more points playing over here, then playing over here. So because whites here, that's why black can't make a lot of points over here. So this is what this is, is plan aside where neither player has good development. Once again, it's a fourth class move. You should look for all these first, and you can see that it's not the biggest move on the board. So that's why it's so forth class move. Last, make any remaining two or three space extensions. I can use this same example is, even if, you know a white hat, a formation like this. Or if black Hadar formation like this. This is our remaining two or three space extension. So, you know, if the whole board was covered with stones and this will be the last type of move you'll be looking for. But anyway, that's it. This is it. If you can memorize this type of sooner or reservoir operations, these right here, you will become very good at the opening. The last bits of fill in is just to learn the Josep keys. So that way you can really optimize your opening. You shouldn't learn these, follow and practice them. And you'll become easily tend to 5Q In your opening if now more, I'm sure even the professionals follow these guidelines. Although, excuse me, once again, some of the ideas of like stretching out five base extensions are little. They're changed. But it's still, if you take the role of playing between two opposing positions. And think of it this way, or this way. You can still apply these rules perfectly. So end this lecture here. 13. Bases and Extensions: Okay, for this lesson, we'll be talking about bases and extensions. This was a game I showed previously in the opening theory. I want to say example and number two, it's in the extra credit section. But anyway, I was facing against my teacher, for instance, mayor, he's a one down professional from Japan. And I wanted to show about bases and extensions. So an important concept in Go is that if you have a base, you're more likely to live, you'll have room to live, which will amount to more than two eyes and then you don't have to worry about die. Life and death was explained in the first course, though, I'm assuming if you already know how to play Go, you understand at least the basics of life and death concept. Well, let's go. We can just quickly go through the scheme. So I played the 3-4, he played a 443444 planets. Let the computers moves distract you. I do have for a reasonable time I disable them because I find them distracting. But we'll go on. In a sense, you could almost think this enclosure as a base because this creates area where I can make life if need be. And also as a direction of play comment makes it a big wall. So this is a good area to play. I mean, this is, this is the direction where black wants to build. And so white knows that he's a professional player. So he knows to break up my by building area. He played here. I played this. We won't go into every move. I'm just I haven't looked at this game through the API. And it's kinda funny, like black on the AI wants me to pincer here because I can work well with the Stones appear, but instead I worked plate over here, which is negative one. So that's kind of bad in comparison. But anyway, we'll move on. So as you can see, black was alone stone and now I've created a move that kinda gives me a base area. And he's alone stone in a bad area. So he played a base that allows him room to spread out and make eyes if need be. So next, I played over here to help this extension to make two friends posts. The game my teacher played here with the computer recommends this kick. Will look at this kick because it creates a base atmosphere. And I want to show you. So one white kicks, This is trying to take the corner. Black plays up. And now you can see white plays here. The reason why it plays high is because if black doesn't make a base, weight can attack these stones. And sometimes black will play somewhere else. But for the most part, when you have lone stones that are specially far away from your friends, you want to have some sort of base connection. I mean, looking at this board, you have this as a base. These two stones have this as a base. These two stones have this as a base. This is obviously are symmetrical point the 44. And so if I attack on either side, white can make a base. None of these stones are weak right now. And if you don't have a base, then your stones are considered weak. If they're going to come under attack. So the AI recommends to make a base for these two stones. But let's say I didn't do that. Let's say I played right here. Now, if white can get an attack on black, such as a move like this, black can't get to his friends. If I went like this, this would be really bad for black. I think. There's things you can mess around with that. How about I just play this then? And if it continued like this, you can see is continuing to separate black. And at the end, if y was let black connect this way. You can see y got this big wall facing the outside of the board. Which means that y, it will be able to use this influence later in the game. Whereas black really only made 1, each of which is really bad for black. So my point is, is that when y is able to play a move that takes away a base from so your opponent's stones. Now your opponent has to find ways to live. And usually it's painful. Like if it turned out the way that I just showed you, this is very painful for black to live with their other moves. He had a waste and then wife got a really good result from it. They're file is really playing in this situation. I'd probably jump out, but this feels bad anyway. Because white can just keep playing, making territory on the side while blacks running for his life. Um, I don't know them. The most perfect moves to play here, but you can play something like this. You know, keep black. I'll chained together. And then keep pushing to make territorial while blacks not making any eye space. But the idea is that if you don't make basis, then you can get attacked. If you're getting attacked your opponent. If they know how to attack properly, then they can manipulate the game in, earn points, why you're just running away not making any points. So this is one situation for base building. This, as you can see, pretty much built like a base area as well. Black connects under. This is modern AI Joe Secchi. And then we come to this move. So this move, as you can see, is building a wall. And this wall, the direction of play is facing this way, which is facing another wall. So the computer is really good at direction of play. So it knows that this area is the focus point of the game. And this is the whole concept of how I was saying. If you understand directional play, you always have a vague idea on where to play. Now, I played this in the game to computer recommends this, but this is only as 0.06 negative moves. So it's really not that bad. I mean, if you look at its other recommendations, this is less than this, right? This move isn't bad, but obviously this is the better one. We'll look at both moves. I move now as 1234 spaces. 1234 spaces between these two groups. So no matter which way y attacks this Blackstone. Black is always going to have a place to jump to make a two space space. So in the game, White did play here just as the computer recommended. And Black made a base here. So this group is weak. But let's say if I didn't play here, extra, I'm curious with the computer is going to try to tell me. This is pretty interesting. So the computer, this is a higher level than what I'm used to. Obviously, I'm not the best player in the world. Even pros have trouble against the computer. So the computer is just at a level I reach. But ideally, this is the move in the computer says it's really not that bad. It's only negative 0.7. but if you look at these exchanges, first black I assume, is trying to ask if white wants the corner. And White says, yes, I'll take the corner. And then black makes a base. So you can see that eventually the computer does want to make a base. But first they wanna make these high-level exchanges in order before making the base, which is pretty cool. And this is why it's good to train with the AI, because they'll always introduce you to really cool tactics. But regardless, having a base is important because let's say if I played somewhere else, Wow, I didn't even expect the computer to have an answer here because look at this, nothing marked here. But the most ideal move for white now is to start the attack. And now black doesn't have a base, it doesn't have any really I potential making it extremely weak in possibly killed. And think if black is killed here, white's going to have a claim on everything below this line, which is a lot of territory. So the fact is you always want to be focused on making basis for your groups. Unless year playing lightly and throwing away. That's the, but for the most part, you want to focus on making basis for groups. So if we go back, this was my original move. And this is the move with computer one. And if we look at the computers most efficient move, White takes the corner. Black extends, making a base. And then why attacks from the outside and then black finishes the base. That you can see this is a nice three space extension with a nice base area that black as I potential and can still run out. So yeah, I just want you to focus on the idea that bases are extremely important for the safety of your stones. And without them, the opponent can get attacked. So let's say if white played somewhere else, maybe not this one. This one, okay, So this is perfect. So if y attacks over here, the computer shows that one of the best moves black can do is to play here. And the reason is, is because now white can't make a two space extension. White can't make efficient base. I can still try and way has some stuff in the corner here. But the idea is that white will now have to struggle. And even if white lives, Black's going to make a lot of points on this side of the board. So I should explain how bases are forms other than Ali examples you've seen, I'm sure you can figure out how bases are forms in plane. But let's just go over some moves really quickly. On the third line. This is how bases work. If you can make, if you play one stone, then an ideal base for one stone is a two space jump. The reason is, is because if you did three space jump, while it has a very efficient move that will make it difficult for you to connect. There is a pattern that does form when those, when there is a pattern that does form if black plays under. But if we were looking at this on a higher line, now, black is completely separated. And you can see this Romeo Juliet split. Between this a group in this b stone. So when you overextend, white can play between you and that's the point of making bases and breaking basis. So if black was to make a two space jump base in white tried to split by, can easily connect under and white, no matter how hard white tries weight can't separate black. As you can see, the two stones are connected. There's no way for whites to stop back from staying connected. So there's two space-based is really nice, and three space-based can be separated. And in a sense, there's this x2 g here. Or a common pattern, biting pattern where black and stays Some pretty much connected. But still this to cutting points here and a lot of weakness. Wight might not play this, this very second. Maybe wait, wants to push out first to make life potential. But weight can cut. I mean, so there's still opportunity for this cut and this technique doesn't work. And any other line, only the third line here. But we'll move on. If black has a two space while this lake in the game where I showed you where if black and white mix the two Spacewar. Now white can extend three spaces in a black tries to separate. Way, can just stay connected. Or I have a huge advantage in the fight. This is a ladder blackboard after play, something to defend it. And then this is Latin. It's not going to live. Or if it does white still going and get a huge advantage and be able to come back until these two. The fact is when you make, when you have two stones, you can make a three-point jump. And it's pretty safe if black tries to separate this way, it's pretty obvious that a awaken stay connected light is going to have a huge advantage in byte. Maybe even something like this. And you find the best way if this happened in a real game. Going like this way, it would be in danger here. So it goes like this. So in this instance, weight gets separated, but must be some. Sway, looks promising. Beaufort went something like this. You can see that white has a huge advantage on all sides. Black ASL keep moving to live. And then white can actually wake and do what you want. By Greg can keep pushing. And Blackstone not alive. Though. Regardless, this is an advantageous situation. So the idea is that it's okay to extend three spaces with the TO space, base, to space. Do stone base. It's okay to extend three spaces. The ideas, if you extend pore spaces now black can rarely get in here and separate. Wait. There's a bunch of formations you can play out, but way will get separated in a manner that even something like this. And even if they played this way, it's messy, it's messy stuff. But just know that this is too far of an extension is not the best step I will admit. But so that's it for this lecture. I'm just know that obviously bases are really good. In almost any go you game that's at a high level. The players are always gonna make basis and focus on not having weak groups. And the way to make basis is to extend. If you have one stone to space extensions are really good. If you have two stone wall, then three in space extensions are really, really good. Alright, I'll end the lecture here. 14. Invasions and Reductions: Okay, let's talk about invasions and reductions. This scheme was a game I played in Yangon, say league. And it was versus a 3Q At the time. I was 2Q at the time, right now, I actually ranked up to one Q, which is nice. But anyway, talking about invasions and reductions, I was playing as white in this game. And you can see that white has a nice solid formation here, meaning that it's very strong. And it has a strong formation here, meaning that this spooky or star kill is very strong shape. You can see between here. In here. There's like an imaginary line that creates my Moyo hardest point potential. Black was not amused. So he played an invasion. And this was a very deep invasion. Usually, when you play invasions, you have a better area to run away from or in. Like for instance, this move here, the one that I played just before this all happened. I could consider this an invasion because you can see black has a nice strong formation here. These stones are dead, so this is really strong. And this is a big wall. So I invaded here because I have a two space jump no matter which direction I can go and I can make a base. Just like in the previous video that we looked at, making basis. And the importance allows me to have high potential and still run out into the center. So this invasion feels right. This invasion, on the other hand, doesn't have too much bass potential. I was a little soft on him in the game I think, but I still ended up getting a nice kill here. The idea is when you want to invade, you want to have at least enough room to runaway or make space. And usually you don't want to play behind the imaginary line of the two friends posts if you don't have enough space to run. So in the game, we don't have to go over every detail. Eiseley, I played a little soft, which allowed him to escape on an area. But usually you want to cap your opponent when they invade. If you think you can tell them the correct Heng Ma. If I remember right from my review from my teacher was to play one more. Yeah, here's to play on one more. I ended up playing this. But if I play this, ANY committed. White has no issues here. Like it's white. Regardless, I would say that this was a successful invasion on his part, but it's probably because I made some things, fortunately. But the idea is to show the difference between an invasion and a reduction. So if we go back, this is a very deep invasion, and this is an invasion. This one doesn't feel as deep because white has so much running space. Whereas this one there isn't that much running space. Another form of while another will talk about reductions first and then I'll show you another game about invading and reducing. So reduction is more safer than a deep dive invasion. And this is an all or nothing tactic. Whereas this is if I'm already winning, then I'll just play calmly and continue to win. Whereas this is more like a Hail Mary, like throwing the ball really far and hoping that somebody catches it. So this invasion, I mean reduction. You can see it allows whites have close off the territory. But, oops. It allows black to usually build a wall on the outside. And even if it went something like this, you can see black got a nice wall facing the outside. And now you can do a nice invasion over here. And you might even be able to cut off the stone and make a good amount of points here. And maybe obviously white only really needs one or two more moves to make life. But even this is in danger, in this is in danger, and it's because this, while it has such influence, the reduction here might have been more useful, or at least it's an idea for sure. But usually when you reduce your looking to make a wall on the outside and just allow white to make a small amount of points. Obviously, if Black did nothing, then m white gets another move. Then he can build his Moyo even larger and make that line bigger. So that's why it's good to consider either an invasion if it's safe. And you know, you're going to get a payout for reduction if you don't think it's viable, but you still want them, your opponent to make a smaller amount of points. We'll look at one more example. This is a game that I'm playing with an old friend now. We're in the middle of it, as we speak. Started in January 23rd, but it's a correspondence scheme, meaning that we get r This time we get 23 days. And after the twain days are over, then each do we get, it looks like two moves a day, something like that. But anyway, the most current move is this one. But if we go just looking for how to learn about invasions and reductions, you can see black has this. These three big expand extensions, are there stones? And White has two solid formations on both side of black. So this is an ideal time. Once I feel comfortable finishing this, an ideal time to invade, you can see if I play something like this, this could really take away blacks points here. If Black wants to keep this stone and try and connect over to it. Maybe I can play something like this. Then here. And you can see there's a cut. Let's say y just plays under black connects. You can see black didn't get any points here even though black had three stones here. For this invasion is, it's, it's hard to thwart. Let's say, if he tried playing this way, why easily makes a formation that has potential for two eyes? And if wait, succeeds in making two eyes, which I don't see a way that Black and stop White from doing so. White can even start cutting here and doing more damage. So the idea is that if white lives here, let's just say live outrageous like this. This was all blacks area, but now black lasts this area. Because whites fortified here and can't be killed. Though. This is an invasion. And I want you to keep that in mind. I usually only do invasions unless it's an opportunity like this where you guaranteed to have a way to get out or live. If he plays this way and I can just live outright. And if he tries to attack me, then I can still live outright. And I just have to play intelligently. I don't even know if these exchanges unnecessary, but if he plays this far, it feels like it is. Yeah, this is definitely definitely leah Living shape in black. Does it make any points here in black makes a wall, but blacks wall is facing this wall. So this is going to be Nobody's points. So that's something for invasions. In the last example I want to show is a reduction. But say, why can play almost anywhere on the fourth line here to reduce. So if I play a shoulder hit than black tries to connect to his group. You can see why is now building a wall and this is starting to become a territory for us black and thwart that. But the idea is that black only made this much territory compared to if we don't reduce at all. And black gets moved like this. Now you can see his Moyo is getting larger. In this invasion. Doesn't work as well as it used to. If white tries to escape under. There is no issue for black to stop the connection. And now this even weekends the corner over here. So this is the first introduction to invasions and reductions. And recap. And invasion is when you enter somebody's territory to take away all their points or its undercut them so they don't have a base. I usually only recommend doing this if you know there's a way out. Usually you want at least two ways out. One being if Y. I mean, if black even played here to take these points, you can see why now cuts off this stone. So this stones dying and whites making bigger territory. So white has two options of getting out either a or B, and even making life at sea. So there's three options for this invasion. A reduction usually involves either capping or shoulder hitting. This is called the shoulder hip. You can figure this out as a soldier and you're like pumping and shoulder. And you can see this presses black down. Maybe even going something like this. I'd probably make this exchange first and then come back. Because now this feels really nice for white. In black only made a minimal amount of points. The idea is that if white, if it doesn't reduce or the black can play this and now, it's much harder to invade. And blacks making more secure territory. And they're reduction comes to this line. Yeah, pretty much this line. So that's my introduction to invasions and reductions. I'll see you in the next lecture. 15. How to attack properly: Okay, let's talk about efficient attacking. My heavy game here that I played in the international soccer go school. It was when I was a 2Q and I was facing a one done in Japanese school. They make it so that if your two ranks apart, then you need to play two stones of handicap. So that's how we had to play. This game is really good example of how to attack. But first I'll just give you some example. First let's do this normal kick. White stands up because why it doesn't wanna get pushed on anymore by black. And let's say if we ignore this group now, let's say you weigh played very far or very far extension. As you know, with two stones, you should consider extending three spaces. One of these moves. But sometimes in an allied professional game, Sue, I see wages to new key and leave this as is. Now. The way to attack zones, is attempting to kill. Well, not attempting to kill them actually. But it is like you're trying to kill them, but you're trying to find a benefit also while trying to kill them. Oh, let's actually change the board a little bit and put white here. Now, black has two option. Or ideas, would say a black cat histone here as well. So the idea is that if black laid on top of y here, it gives white the opportunity to make a base, ideal base. So do attack stones. One of the first things you wanna do is to try and interrupt that base smith. So as you can see, white normally would want to move on the third line here to make a base. So black will usually will push in one more extra line. And a good thing to understand is it's not good to attach onto the stone. Because the idea is that if the game goes turn by turn, so each player gets one term at a time. So you'll never be able to capture white going one term at a time. The after outsmart your opponent by playing loosely. So now you see black has now taken away whitespace. Wage in, try to come out. And these are very effective moves by, as you see, with white trying to escape. Wacc is expanding his walls, gaining more territory. And why it is not really making any points. Whites just try and run away to survive. So it's important to make basis. We've already discussed this in a previous lecture. But it's important when it comes to attacking the focus more on what the end result is going to be. If you can't capture white. If you cannot capture white, then you want to at least have a more beneficial position or doing the attack if it harms you. If white, like, let's say if it was changed, something like this bag. This attack is going to be harmful actually from plague, black isn't really making any points. So all this attack is doing is hoping that it can kill white. But because white, it's very difficult to kill whites gonna get out, like out with no problem, and then Black's going to have no benefit. So you can see the difference between an attack like this, where black is getting a lot of benefit on both sides of the board versus no benefit. And just hoping that you'll get that kill. Most of the time you can't kill things easy and go. Your opponent will not let you just kill their groups unless they're not making bases in nuking everywhere, which at lower levels players will do so. But I'm teaching, I'm trying to teach you at a high level. So the idea is, the idea is to say if this is like this. The idea is when you're attacking to squeeze your opponents so they can't make a base. And this situation white can't make it to space, space. And let's say just ignored it and played somewhere else. The most efficient attack is to play it on its side. A white can't make a base. And now y only has one direction ago. And while whites making these moves, black is gaining territory on both sides. And why isn't really making any territory? The best way I can do is live in IQ, some influence. But even then, if black sufficiently continuing the attack, lacking continue to make points. So this is the most Armen like ideals of attacking is that you don't want to actually try and kill your opponent if you can, that's great. But I expect that you cannot in, then try and get the most benefit or attacking If you can't kill them. I hope that makes sense. Let's look at this game. This is I pick this game because it was a handicap game. So it gives me all the advantages in fighting. So this is some interesting stuff like white stubble approach was pretty interesting. As black, I just continued to press on white and make a big wall basing milestones. So this is a nice Memorial. And I wanted to attack this stone. So instead of attaching onto wave, which by the way, when you attach to your opponent, this was explained in the first beginner course in the other class. But these are battle basics when you attach your to your opponent, the first thing they should do is either try and attack you back or strengthen. And so if I was trying to fight it by watching my opponent, I'm never gonna be able to kill them. Though. There'll be a move ahead. And though is a one-term to turn type thing, so it's just not gonna happen. So the way to attack is to attack subtly. I just surrounding your opponent and not giving them enough room for a base. If I really, really wanted to kill the stone, I might play something like this to space approach to attack. The reason I played a three space approaches because I wanted to build on this side using a stone as well. So that's why I kind of expanded. It's not the most threatening move, but it's definitely an attack. Why press down on my group in the normal Joe Secchi would be to play one of these. But I wanted to paid him into separating these stones. So now at the end results of it is he has a stick with a nurse, a week stone next to it. But it's also breaking some high-potential here. If packets to move up in black just got a very nice corner. So this is a nice like endpoints if not more. And my attack, even if y is able to live with this, these, this group, it's not like white's going to make a lot of points here because black has this stone here in this wall here. So why it's not gonna make a lot here? Regardless if white lives or not. But the attack now feels like I'm attacking two groups. And back has to strong groups. And So I have nothing really to worry about unless I make some mistakes and I am facing an opponent whose two ranked stronger than me in this game. So there's definitely opportunity make mistakes. We're not going to go over all the mistakes. But I'm just showing you the ideals or the fundamentals of attacking. And as you can see, I'm keeping this group from not having a base in this one. Now is started again one. But that's okay because one, it's still not fully settled, so it's still under attack. And now this groups under attack. So if you can split your opponent in mega double-check, it's very good. Playing on the pivot points. The break I space is usually a good idea when attacking. I'm trying to ask to connect under if need be. As this group can also run out, I have two options of saving it. White's trying to get out as best it can. This was incorrect move. I should've continued and out here to split these two. So this was a bad move, but also, even though it's considered a bad move, you can see black is building quite a lot of points by just attacking this group here. So this group is still, I list, it doesn't have even, it has maybe 1 of my potential here, but it doesn't have any eye shape yet. And so I'm Bill making points while I'm just putting pressure on this. But the reason this was a mistake was because white can get a nice smooth here. This move was actually a mistake for him as well. He should have played this. And now you can see that this group becomes way safer. This group is almost encased inside white. And then these groups are pretty close to connecting. So this was a mistake. This was also a mistake. My teacher said I should have played probably this. In C. It puts pressure on this group more and it saves this connection so I can stay out and fight. This move allows me to get cut. But I was OK with this cut because I felt like having a group here would really weaken this. So it's interesting how originally I was attacking this stone, right? And then we made a new group over here. Then I started hammering on this grew, I started focusing because this guy a little stronger. And then by hammering on this group or putting pressure on this group. Now, I get to put pressure on this group. So this is some Fundamentals. This is more highly advanced strategies of fighting where you split your opponent, you pressure one side and then come back to attack the other. In the beginning of the video is the baby basics of like begun away somebody's base and making them run and make points. But this is like the more advanced, close to one Dan, I bullfighting. So I just wanted to really show this off. I don't know how much longer we wanna make this video, but I'll just go through quickly. This was a mistake. So I got to poke at as I shave. And now I got to squeeze his group. He got a capture. But then once I it's a squeeze him now he has no eyes. There's no eyes here at all. Just a big heavy group. And now this attack actually threatens this corner and this group. So this is the whole splitting your opponent and attacking both sides. I attacked one side-to-side and three side. In this game, which cause an amazing fight. Black is the, this is the key stones that are cutting these two groups. So it's very important to keep these stones alive. So I come out with them and I press, this is that idea of pressing on one group, it gets stronger. And then now I can come back to attack this group. Instead, I just played here and outright killed these stones. The stones can make eyes. So that's the end of this, this, he just lost a lot of points here. And then this looks like it's dying. But because of maybe a mistake that he played, it allowed me to play these moves and cut this group here a. And now black only has three liberties. But when black, if white tries to keep black in, when black plays here, it retirees this stone, which if black gets list, then this is two eyes, right? Uis. So white has to defend. And then blacking kill here. And now these stones are dead. Then black wins. And that's it. So now this group, and this group dies. And so that's why when he saw this this move here, he knew that it was over, so he resigned. And this is the I believe this was the match that actually ranked me up to one Q. But anyway, this is how you fight. You don't touch your opponent. You mainly focus on keeping them baseless. And were a hit there pivot points so that they can't make eyes. This pivot point is like the pivot point is making. I think I explained this in the beginner class, but I'll just touch it very lightly now. The pivot points are the points where you can make Tiger's mouth, tigers mouth's make eyes very quickly. So by hitting these pivot points like I did in the game, it keeps him eyeless and baseless. And so now he has only one place to go which is out. And while he's going out. Although this was a mistake timing, you can see black can make many points while fighting. And then focusing on this group allowed me to attack this group, which then allowed me to attack this group. Though, these high level attacking skills, it takes a long time. I do advise reading a full book on this. There's a really good one causes AC and defense from the elementary series of James Davis, actually, the same guy who does life-and-death and had CG. That's how I learned how to attack properly. But this is just a very quick guide of how you attack. So we'll move on to the next lecture will be to how to defend. 16. Defense Techniques: All right. Now we'll talk about defense. Now when it comes to defense, I actually I can't exactly making a bunch of easy examples on the fly as I have been with the other videos, the same wood looking through my games. So I had to spend a lot of time reading a few books on defense in order to figure out how to teach this to you guys. So I found three good examples that I just wanted to show and talk about. But to get good at defense, what you'll need to do is learn to study life and death will need to go over all the important shapes, the other main shapes, formations. And other than that, the Yoyo and you just have to practice life-and-death years shapes. And then we'll go over to basic Ted strategies or techniques. In this video, we'll go over basic techniques on how to escape. But in the next videos we'll be going deep into shape, which will be more about defense tactics. So I will say that if we can come out here, we've done this discussion before where it takes four moves in order for white to get a single kill. And yet it only takes one move or black to be able to defend themselves from dying, at least at this point. So in Go, it's much easier to defend in live than it is to attack and kill. So with that in mind, don't feel bad if you die in your games, obviously, you'll have to study connections, movement shaped life and death. But I just want you to know that in, compared to attacking, defending should be a lot easier. So let us start with the first example. This example, we have White who's clearly under attack and black with a lot of advantage. Black is making points over here. Strong, and black is making a nice fence post here. And so there's a good framework or territory and loyal. White could jump. But you could see black and threaten their cut. And then black can come out and make more points while keeping pressure on white. This is very bad for white. White might not die here, but it's not ideal. So what is ideal on the situation? Instead of jumping out? One of the first techniques that you didn't try and study and practice is contact play. As I said, with attacking, connecting or attaching to your opponent is not good because you'll never, you'll never catch your opponent, right? But in this example, you can see you might not be able to capture black, but you are getting a lot of strength in being able to come out strong. So although attaching to your opponent is bad for attacking, attaching for your opponent to get stronger is quite. And different and better. But you can see way black really only has two main options that are like really beneficial to black. If lack wants to make this, you know, the honey is really good. And if white just pushes forward, would say f black plays either here or here to defend this cut. Now you can see white is out, way out into the center and doesn't have to worry about the safety of this group. Compare this. How nice this looks. To this. You can see the big difference of black making LAI influences way and points this way compared to this attachment Ted CG. Well, where whites out in expanding almost like a fan. So this is the first example. Let's see if I can find the second. Ok. So this is the second example. This is the black group that's weak. And originally we talked about attaching to 2G. Now I'm going to show you the shoulder hit tensor g. Now we talked briefly about shoulder hits during the reduction lesson. So I'm hoping you know where to find the shoulder hits. But as you can see is shoulder hits are also good or escaping. So if black plays here and white plays here, you can see that once black touches here, why you cannot really break black apart. Black is, I mean, sorry, weights in deep trouble here. And without going into all the variations, you can clearly see that white either could be killed or if you let white live in, you can still squeeze him and do quite a bit of damage. I don't think this is the most efficient way to go about though. I think it might be just better to kill them. So something like this. Actually, this becomes endanger, so this isn't danger and then these are in danger. Well, I'd say they're in me-I, meaning that either or black will get a good result. So we'll move on from this one more example. So if white doesn't play this move, this is the shoulder hit. If white doesn't play this way and plays Maybe this way to attack from the side. You can see black can play here. And if white continues to separate black, then black can play here and engulf this stone. And now this area is starting to become big, which is more than enough to make eyes. And then if white was to try to escape this way, you can come out with something like this or start attacking. Here. There's a bunch of options. But the idea is that you want to learn about connecting to two Gs by like connecting to your opponent or attaching, I should say, to your opponents. So then you can get stronger. And you want to learn about the shoulder here, which will allow you to continue to run out quickly. This being the ideal move. So we have one more example. Okay? So now we're looking at these two stones and you can see they're surrounded by quite a lot of enemies stones. This is a dire situation here. But using the connecting set Cg, you can see there if white tries to separate you, creating the Romeo Juliet split, you could see that this would separate. So this would be bad for black. But now you can use another contacts, play another attach. And so now you're threatening this stone and you're threatening to connect out here. So f y, it defends himself here. Black can play this. And now these stones are dead and black is fully connected. So this is really good, obviously for Black compared to what it was. And if it continues the separation here, then black can play this zone. And white is effectively going to have a hard time saving this zone. The whitespace chance would be here. And I haven't really tested the follow-ups on this, but it looks like black should have no problem taking out weight here. This might be the wrong string. If it goes like this, this would be CO. But even then that's not an arable result for black. It's better than dying. Other ways we go about this, bill, I get kinda demes to the same, pretty much the same formation. Yeah, this would be co again. But the idea is that if you attach your opponent, you can get decent results here and this defense is pretty good. I'm sure there's a way to break it, but maybe I'm just not high enough level to see it. Or if I spend more time reading, I might be able to find it, but maybe something like this. Yeah, this looks good. Like omega, I'm a good formation this way. But I think this might be the counter attack. But anyway, this is the short introduction to how to defend. I just wanted to give you some brief examples. And I wanted to let you know that it takes quite a bit to get good at defense. We'll be make sure make sure to study on your own life-and-death problems. And I will go ahead and, and start teaching you really important shapes that will allow you to have strong defensive positions. When you have strong defensive positions, you can play further away in the MEG attack successful. It needs strong fortifications in order to be able to play if strong attacks. Because if you have a weak base or a weak group, you can get counter attacked and then you'll just lose your stones. So that's why defenses so important. But the, in the next lecture.