Getting Started in Professional Facilitation | Mackenzie Wilson | Skillshare

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Getting Started in Professional Facilitation

teacher avatar Mackenzie Wilson

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (1h 19m)
    • 1. Introduction to the Course

    • 2. What is a Facilitator

    • 3. Roles of a Facilitator

    • 4. Facilitation Skill Levels

    • 5. Types of Thinking

    • 6. Listening Skills

    • 7. Non Verbal Messages

    • 8. Common Facilitation Techniques

    • 9. Effective Feedback

    • 10. The Language of Feedback

    • 11. Facilitating an Open Discussion

    • 12. The Language of Facilitation

    • 13. Dealing with Difficult Dynamics

    • 14. Learning Styles - Part 1

    • 15. Learning Styles - Part 2

    • 16. Adult Learning

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About This Class

Facilitators design, organize and facilitate conferences, away days, strategy and budget planning meetings to achieve your agreed outcome.

These can include elements of coaching, training and team building, and might also form part of a management development program or HR consultancy project.

What will you learn in this course?

  • Facilitating an Open Discussion
  • Dealing with Difficult Dynamics
  • Learning Common Facilitation Techniques
  • Giving Effective Feedback

Are there any course requirements or prerequisites?

  • No previous experience required
  • Desire to learn facilitation skills
  • Open mindedness is required

As a facilitator, it’s your job to guide a group through a process, making it easier for them to accomplish the goal at hand. Having a structure and general idea of what direction you’re going in will help you do just that.

So, at the end of this course, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish facilitation from instruction and training.
  • Identify the competencies linked to effective small group facilitation.
  • Understand the difference between content and process.
  • Use common process tools to make meetings easier and more productive.

Who is this course for?

  • Anyone that wants to learn techniques to improve their facilitation skills in both their personal and business life.

Interested to learn more? Let’s get started …

Meet Your Teacher

Hello, I'm Mackenzie.

I specialise in the area of Alternative Health, Anti-Aging, NLP and Nutrition.

My classes are designed to help you heal your physical and spiritual self.

In my classes here you will learn diets, clean eating, how to improve your sleep, skin, health, detoxify, give up smoke, alcohol and prolong your life span.

I am driven by our belief in the power of flexible education to improve or build new skills and transform and change people’s lives for the better and help them to achieve their life goals.

See full profile

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1. Introduction to the Course: Hi there and welcome on board. It's impossible to be part of an organization today and not attend meetings, staff meetings project means planning and coordinating meetings. They all take time. There has been a growing realization that we have to pay attention to the process elements of meeting if we want them to be effective. With its focus on asking rather than telling and listening to build consensus, facilitation is the new leadership ideal, the core competency everybody needs. Managers, supervisors are often asked to facilitate rather than instruct or manage their meetings and training sessions. How can you facilitate rather than control group decision-making in team interaction? With no formal training, people may find it difficult to make the transition from an structures to managers, to facilitators. This course has been created to meet core facilitation skills, better understood and readily available for your organization. It represent materials in ideas that have been tested and refined over 20 years of active facilitation in all types of settings. So here are the learning objectives. At the end of this course, you will be able to distinguish facilitation from instruction in training. Identify the competencies linked to effective small group facilitation. Understand the difference between content and process. Identify the four stages of team development and ways to help teams through each stage use common process tools to make meetings easier and more productive. To learn more, let's dive in. 2. What is a Facilitator: What is a facilitator? The Latin root of Facilitate is to enable, to make easy. Facilitation is a helping role. It has been said that a meeting without a facilitator is about as effective as a team. Trying to have a game without a refresh. Facilitation is a way of providing leadership without taking the reins. The facilitator's job is to get others to assume responsibility and to take the lead. The group define its overall goals in its specific objectives. Help members assess their needs and create plans to meet them. Provide processes that help members use their time effectively to make high quality decisions. Guide group discussion to keep it on track. Instructors and facilitators. What is the difference between an instructor in a facilitator? One big difference is that facilitator's are content neutral, but a process advocate. You don't take sides and you don't have a stake in the outcome. You are an outsider or third party. The issues involved, however, you are there to help groups work through a process, a process that is fair, inclusive, and provides a space where every member of the group to participate fully. Key skills. A facilitative individual is someone who is easier to work with and who is aware of individual and group dynamics. Were she insists colleagues to work together more effectively? A facilitative person is knowledgeable in the interpersonal skills of communication, collaborative problem-solving, implanting, consensus building, and conflict resolution. A facilitator is a content-neutral party who doesn't take sides or express a point of view. He or she helps the group learn fair, open, and inclusive procedures for accomplishing the group's work. Facilitative behavior in skills are essential for anyone who wants to work collaboratively in groups or organizations today. Facilitative skills honor, enhance and focus the wisdom and knowledge that lies dormant in most groups. They are critical skills for developing what we have come to think of as the learning organization. 3. Roles of a Facilitator: Roles of a facilitator. Welcome back guys. Today let's talk about roles of a facilitator. The facilitator encourages full participation. One problem is that people don't say what they are thinking. It's hard to take risks and it's particularly hard when they expect the group responds to be hostile or dismissive. Comments like hurry up, we're running out of time or impossible won't work. No way discourages people from saying what they are thinking. To protect themselves, people constantly edit their thinking before they speak. To help, facilitators will give quiet participants an opportunity to speak up by creating space and using intentional silence. They will model the concept of valuing all opinions and will use small group discussions to encourage a free flow of ideas. The facilitator promotes mutual understanding. A group can't do its best thinking if the members don't understand one another. However, most people find it difficult to move away from their own position. Instead, they get caught up in amplifying and defending their own perspective. If they do try to discuss their differences, they misunderstood one another. When people tried to clear up a misunderstanding, they want their own ideas understood. First. They may not say so directly, but their behavior indicates, I can't really focus on what you're saying until I feel that you have understood my point of view, this can become a vicious cycle. To help the facilitator will use techniques like paraphrasing and summarizing to make certain people understand and are understood. Jorgen will be explained and technical terms spelled out so that everybody is on the same page. The facilitator fosters inclusive solutions. It's hard for most people to imagine that stakeholders with apparently irreconcilable differences might actually reach an agreement that benefits all parties. Most people are entrenched in a win-lose mentality. However, an experienced facilitator can help the group search for innovative ideas that incorporate everyone's point of view. The facilitator will work at helping participants find win-win solutions, as well as binding several solutions rather than just one right solution. The facilitator encourages diverse communication styles. Most people are not skilled in collaborative methods of arriving at solutions. Very few people understand the mechanics of group decision-making will enough to organize a group into a productive team of thinkers. The facilitator has the opportunity and the responsibility to show group members how to manage an effective decision making process. Now, it's your turn to think about it. The facilitator teaches new thinking skills. The facilitator will use a variety of facilitation skills to help people evaluate solutions and analyze cause and effect. The facilitator can help participants have civilized disagreements in see how conflicts can be resolved by clear communication. 4. Facilitation Skill Levels: Facilitation skill levels. Mastering the art of neutrality, keeping notes and asking questions at meetings is not all there is to facilitating. Being a true facilitator means developing your competency at four distinct levels. Level one, understanding, concepts, values, and believes. Use a facilitative behaviors such as active listening, paraphrasing, questioning, summarizing, managing time, encouraging participation, keeping clear and accurate notes, using basic tools like problem-solving and action planning. Level two, mastering process tools, designing meetings skilled at using the right decision-making methods, achieving consensus and getting true closure, handling feedback, activities, and conducting process checks, using exit surveys. Good at managing meetings in an effective matter, able to help a group set goals and objectives that are measurable. Skilled at checking assumptions and challenging ideas. Level three, skilled at managing conflict and making immediate interventions, able to deal with resistance in personal attacks. Making design changes on this part, sizing our per group and using the right strategies for its developmental stage. Managing survey feedback exercises, able to design and conduct interviews and focus groups, design and implement surveys. Consolidating ideas from a massive information into coherent summaries. Level for design and implement process interventions in response to complex organizational issues. Use tools to promote process improvement, customer intimacy, and overall organizational effectiveness. Able to support teams in the various stages of team development. 5. Types of Thinking: Types of thinking. There are two types of thinking. Divergent thinking and convergent thinking. In brief, problem-solving means coming up with a number of ideas for solving a problem or coming to resolution, and then selecting one of them and moving forward. This should be so simple, but it isn't what a group of decision makers has to wrestle with the difficult problem. They will not succeed in solving it until they break out of the narrow band of familiar opinions and explore a wider range of responsibilities. In theory, a group that has committed itself to working through it. Difficult problem would move in orderly, thoughtful steps. First, the group would generally and explore a diverse set of ideas. Next, they would consolidate the best thinking into a possible solution. Then they would refine their solution until they arrived at a decision that nicely incorporated the breadth of their thinking. Yes, the real-life word that way. In practice, it's difficult to make the shift from expressing our own opinions to understanding a wide diversity of other people's perspectives. Many people get overloaded, disoriented, annoyed, impatient, or all of the above. Some people feel misunderstood and keep repeating themselves. Others push for closure. Sometimes several sub conversations develop, each one occupying the attention of two or three people. Even the most sincere attempts to solve problems often dissipate into confusion. At times. And individual members of the group need to express their own points of view. And at other times they want to narrow their differences and work toward closure. These two sets of processes are referred to as divergent thinking and convergent thinking. Please have a look at this slide. Divergent thinking. Generate alternatives for all open discussion. Gathering diverse points of view, exploring the logic of a problem, convergent thinking, evaluating alternatives, summarizing key points, sorting ideas into categories, arriving at a general conclusion. Finally, the groans zone. We just get frustrated and impatient when people put forward ideas that from our point of view don't seem rooted, impracticality. Welcome to the grown zone. That gray, frustrating, agonizing area between using our divergent skills and our convergence kills. Struggling to understand that a wide range of foreign or opposing ideas isn't a pleasant experience. Group members get short-tempered, repetitious, insensitive, and defensive, and then they think there is something wrong with their group. If you can just prepare a group for the grown zone or acknowledged its existence, this can be a significant step for a group to take. This is where a facilitator plays a key role. 6. Listening Skills: Listening skills. The ability to listen is an important skill for any facilitator to have. Listening allows you to understand where the other person is coming from and shows you're interested in what he or she has to say. Unfortunately, we all experienced common listening problems. We let our attention Wender. We miss the real point of what the speaker is saying. We let our emotions interfere rather than remain neutral. We think ahead and miss what's being said right now. Opening the door is the first thing a facilitator may wish to do just by encouraging a participant to speak up. Jan, did you have something you would like to add to that? Encourages jam to speak. Then you can follow the three steps of active listening. Nonverbal messages. Eye contact, an alert expression, head nodding, and a forward lean to the body expresses listening, cues or invitations. These are the phrases. Aha, okay? Yes, and go on. That signal our attention and invite an individual to continue talking. Clarification of what has been said. We can do this by asking questions, summarizing what has been said, or paraphrasing the message in your own words. However, you might want to add another little footnote at the end of these tabs to remind that you must stop talking in order to listen. Sometimes as facilitators, we forget this important step. When it comes to questions. There are two types of questions we can ask. Most of us are very good at asking closed questions, the kind that must be answered with short answers. You can only get very specific bits of information. Examples, what is your name? Where do you live? Do you like vanilla ice cream? Where most people need more practice, is asking the open questions. Those were the listener is given a chance to explain, to tell how they feel or offer suggestions. These are like essay type questions or going fishing. Within that, you can catch all kinds of things, including some things you'd never expect. Examples. What's your opinion? How do you think we should solve the problem? What would you do in my shoes? Now? Be very careful about why questions. All too often these questions sound like accusations and the listener immediately becomes defensive. And finally, let's consider probing. One of the most common ways of probing is to ask an open question such as, can you describe that more clearly? Would you give me a specific example of what you mean? What do you think we should do? The difficulty here is that if you ask too many of these, the other person begins to feel like they're under interrogation. A second very effective way of probing is a pause, stop talking, let the other person speak, let them fill this silence. A third way is to ask a reflective or mirroring question. For example, the person has just said, what I really want is more variety in my work. And you may respond by just reflecting back to them variety. The reflective question usually provides you with an expanded answer without appearing to ask more questions. Of course, it is best used in conjunction with a pause. Reflective questions or statements focus on clarifying and summarizing without interrupting the flow of the conversation. They indicate to pretend, understand the sender's thoughts and feelings. A fourth method that is particularly useful to make certain you are clear about what the individual has said is paraphrasing, what has just been said in your own words. So if I understand you correctly, you, you can use this response to show that you want to increase the accuracy of your understanding of what just has been said. You might also want to use it to ensure the sender heres what he has just said. Finally, paraphrasing reassures the sender that you are trying to understand what he or she is saying. The last method most often used as a conversation is winding down is the summary question. You have tried ignoring the scent of your colleagues Cologne. You have talked with him about how it affects your allergies. And now you have tried shutting your door to keep this sent from your workspace. None of these has worked and now you're asking me to intervene. Have I got it right? These five probes can be arranged like a funnel from the lip to the spout. Open probes, open questions, which will give you a lot of information. Pauses, give the other person an opportunity to respond. Reflective statements or a COS. This is where you repeat back to the person a little bit of what he or she said. And echo, followed by a pause, will normally give the other person another opportunity to respond. Summary probes. Now, you're beginning to wind down the probing. You summarize all that the person has said that is relevant to your initial question. Your last question in this funnel is very restrictive. You ask a fact finding were closed question to wrap up the conversation. 7. Non Verbal Messages: Nonverbal messages. Remember that when we are delivering any message, only 7% of that message is our words. The rest is our total voice and our nonverbal body language. Our bodies speak volumes. We are always sending signals to others, whether we like it or not. My language, combined with the vocal tone, can override or even cancel the meaning of the words we say. Make sure your mouth and your body are sending the same signals. Here are some things to keep in mind about body language. Eyes, eyebrows, and mouth, send out the signals that can make a world of difference. People who smile are happier than those who don't. Smiling, releases a chemical in your brain that makes you feel good. It's a great way to establish a rapport with listeners. Eye contact helps you carry your message to each person in the audience. It builds trust. Learn to speak with your hands, draw lines in the air, make a point, count on your fingers and emphasize length and width. Work on appearing. And here and comfortable. Let your hands do what they want to do, as long as they don't get in your pockets, fiddle with an object, or make obscene gestures to your audience. Your body posture affects your emotions and how you feel determines your posture. If you're confident, happy, and ready, your body will show it. One of the most important things you can do with your body language is learned to pick up cues from people that you are making them uncomfortable. Rocking legs, swinging, tapping. If you sensitize yourself to simple cues over time, people will have the experience or feeling more relaxed, at ease and open with you and to you. These are the first signals of tension and indicate that the person feels nervous. If it escalates, the signals are often followed by intermediate closing of the eyes, slight tucking of the chin into the chest, shoulder hunching. Basically learned to watch for these and then adjust your approach. Sometimes just taking one step back or seizing talking and getting the other person to talk to you instead will be all it takes to ease the tension. Listening for a common ground, there are a number of practices we can learn or use as facilitators that can help us in the groups we are facilitating, work more productively together. For example, when you are doing the exercise at the beginning of the morning, you were really finding ways that you and others in the room. We are similar as human beings. We are often searching for some affinity with our fellow humankind. This seems to be instinctive in human beings. We sometimes call this listening for common ground. 8. Common Facilitation Techniques: Common facilitation techniques. There are many tools and processes that a facilitator can use. Here they are. Stay neutral on content. Your job is to focus on the process roll, and avoid the temptation of offering opinions about the topic under discussion. You should use questions and suggestions to offer ideas that spring to mind, but never impose opinions on the group. Listen actively, look people in the eye. Attentive body language and paraphrase what they are saying. Always make eye contact with people while they speak, when paraphrasing what they have just said and when summarizing their key ideas. Also use eye contact to let people know they can speak next and to prompt the quiet ones in the crowd to participate. Ask questions. This is the most important tool you possess. Questions, test assumptions, invite participation, gathering information, and probe for hidden points. Effective questioning allows you to delve, pass the symptoms to get at root causes. Paraphrase to clarify. This is a form of listening, a way of making certain we understand another by repeating their words back to them. This can also help them hear what they just said. Paraphrasing is very calming and reassuring because it tells people they have been heard or listened to. Generally, we repeat what they said in our own words. However, if the person is upset or emotional, we may find it helpful to repeat their own words back to them. Example, are you seeing or do I understand you to mean that emphasize ideas. Don't just record individual ideas to participants. Instead, get people to comment and build on each other's thoughts to ensure that the idea is recorded on the flip chart represent collective thinking. This builds consensus and commitment. Example. Alice, would you like to add to Jeff's comments on track setTime guidelines for each discussion. Appoint a timekeeper inside the group to use a timer and callout milestones. Point out that depression is discussion has veered off topic. Parking. At every meeting, tape, a flip chart, cheat to a wall to record all sidetrack items later, these items can be reviewed for inclusion in a future agenda. Parking lot sheets lets you capture ideas that may be important later while staying on track. Give and receive feedback. Periodically hold up a mirror to help the group C itself so it can make corrections. For example, you could say only two people are engaged in this discussion while three others are reading. What's this telling us we need to do? Also ask for and accept feedback about the facilitation using questions like, are we making progress? How's the pace? What can I do to be more effective? Test assumptions? You need to bring the assumptions people are operating under, out into the open and clarify them so that there are clearly understood by everyone. These assumptions may even need to be challenged before a group can explore new ground, collect ideas, keep track of both emerging ideas and final decisions made clear and accurate summaries on a flip chart or electronic board. So everyone can see the nodes. Nodes should be brief and concise. They must always reflect what the participants actually said rather than your interpretation of what they said. Summarise clearly, a great facilitator listens attentively to everything that is said and then offers concise and timely summaries. Summarize, what do you want to revive a discussion that has ground to a halt or to end a discussion. What things it seemed to be wrapping up, labels sidetracked. It's your responsibility to let the group members know when they're off track. They can then decide to pursue the sidetracked or stop their current discussion and get back to the agenda. Example. We are now discussing something that isn't on our agenda. What does the group wants to do? Who draw people out? Open questions, probing and body language are all tools we use to make people comfortable enough to voice their ideas. We all have a tendency to self-censor a bit. So you want to make the group feel they are in a safe environment where they won't be judged or ridiculed. More directive than reflective listening is the art of drawing people out. When facilitators ask questions such as, can you say more about that? Or can you elaborate on that statement? They are making a judgement that would benefit the group to hear more from the person who has just been speaking. Mirroring. This means using the same words or body language as another person. This may make us feel uncomfortable and feel like we are mocking or shaping another person. But it does have the effect of making others feel more comfortable with us. Common ground perhaps. Gather ideas, not unlike brainstorming. This is where we use open questions and probing to make sure we get everybody's ideas out there. Who knows where the best idea will come from? If you have some quiet people in the group try to elicit ideas from them as well as the Talkers use tacking. This technique is particularly useful when several people want to respond to something you or someone else has said. By naming the order in which people will speak, you reassure the group in the individuals in the group that you haven't forgotten them and that you have created a space for them to speak as an example. Okay, timess first, then SUE, followed by Michael, and then Rob. Encourage participants. This has very like drawing people out. Although there may be times this technique is useful if someone is tumbling over an explanation or their thoughts, you can reassure them that it's okay if thoughts don't come out perfectly formed the first time around. If they are hesitant, you might reassure them that the group wants to hear their thoughts on the topic. Use balancing. This is an especially useful neutrality technique. If you have several people present one side of an issue, you might want to encourage the group to consider the other side as well. So you have both pros and cons of any solution on the table before making decisions. 9. Effective Feedback: Effective feedback. Hello there. Today we'll discuss about giving good feedback. If green facilitator encounter situations that require feedback, perhaps the meeting is dragged or maybe people are exhausted. I need a break. Perhaps the group needs to improve its interpersonal behavior. Managing feedback is an important facilitator. Responsibility. Feedback involves stopping the groups discussions to ask them to assess how, what's going. Here are general principles of good feedback. Feedback is always meant to be positive. It's goal is to improve the current situation or performance. It's goal is never to criticize or offend. The structure of giving feedback is a reflection of this positive intent. No matter what form feedback takes, the following general principles always apply. B, descriptive rather than evaluative. Tell the other person what you notice or what has happened. Avoid all comments about him or her as a person. Be specific Instead of general. Describe exactly what happened. So that fact, not impressions formed the basis of the feedback. Solicit feedback, rather than impose it. Ask the other person if you can give him or her feedback. Collaborate to determine if more convenient time, time it feedback should be given as soon as possible after the situation being described. Focus and what can be changed. Make suggestions for improvement that the person is capable of implementing. Check the feedback. Make sure you're understanding is accurate and fair. Check with the person or even with others to avoid misjudging the situation. Demonstrate carrying, offer feedback with the positive intent of helping the other person. Feedback formats. Feedback can take a number of forms. Here are a few. To get you started. You can hand out a survey for members to complete at a braid and then share results with the group for their analysis and action planning. Post selected question on a flip chart, ask members to rate each item, discuss the results, and look for solutions to any items that received low ratings as group members to give each other written feedback in response to questions such as, what things are you doing well or what could you do to become even more effective? Use force field analysis to discuss what is and is not going well with the whole group. The group then creates remedies for all of the things that aren't going well. Simply ask members to tell you how you're doing and what you could do better. Now, let's look at. The eighth step feedback process. Imagine you're at a meeting at which no one is putting the real issues on the table. Everyone is being polite and the problems of the group aren't being resolved. In this situation, the facilitator needs to stop the action and give feedback so that participants can resolve their problems and move on. It's never easy given direct feedback. So use the right language and follow the steps outlined below. Step one, asked permission to offer feedback. Definition. Asking permission lets people tell you if this is at that time to hear feedback and ensures that they're ready to pay careful attention. Asking permission is a way of signaling that you intend to give feedback. Example, I'm going to stop this meeting now and give you some input that I think you need to hear. Is that ok? Step to describe specifically what you are observing. Definition, give a clear and specific description of what you observed. Avoid generalizing, exaggerating, or offering emotional accounts. Example, during the interviews I held with more than half of you, the issue of some people not pulling their weight was mentioned by everyone as the most serious problem facing this team. We have been talking about teen problems for two hours and yet no one has mentioned this issue. Step three, Tell them about the direct impact of their actions. Definition, describe the impact on individuals, the program or the department. Keep it very objective and don't get personal. Avoid blaming, deal with the fact of the current situation. Example. Since the issue of people not pulling their weight has not been mentioned, there is a good chance that these discussions are not going to resolve your most serious team problem. Step four, get the other person an opportunity to explain. Definition. Listen actively using attentive body language and paraphrasing key points. Example, you're telling me that this problem isn't being discussed because it's too sensitive and people are concerned about fending each other. Step five, draw out ideas from the others. Definition. Frame the whole thing as a problem to be sold. Get people to offer their ideas. Remember that people are most likely to implement their own ideas. The more they self prescribe, the better support their efforts at self-correction. Example, what do you think we could do to make it feel safe enough so that this issue can be discussed. What guidelines will create the comfort we? Step six, offer specific suggestions for improvement. Definition. Make suggestions that will improve tuition wherever possible. Build on the ideas suggested by others. Example, I think the guidelines you have come up with are excellent. I'd like to add a few ideas about how we can tackle this with sensitivity. Would this be okay? Step seven, summarize and express your support definition. Demoralizing people does not set the stage for improved performance. Offering encouragement in ending on an optimistic note does example. I want to thank you for being willing to tackle this tough subject. Step eight, follow-up definition makes sure you end the feedback discussion with clear actions tips. This ensures that the whole exercise does it need to be repeated later on. Example, I'm going to stop the action in about an hour and check with you to see if we're now tackling our real problems and if the guidelines we set are working. 10. The Language of Feedback: The language of feedback. Here are a few more examples about language you can add to your tool kit to enhance the effectiveness of your feedback. Openers to feed back. I'd like to give you input about I have a concern about I have information that I think you might be interested in. I'd like to make a suggestion if you're interested. Examples of feedback statements. Instead of telling me what you think I should do, I would be better if you would ask for my opinion. I know that you have a lot on your plate, but I need your full attention now. When you keep on looking at your watch, I sense that you are not getting any value out of this discussion. I'd like to propose that we try openly discussing any problems rather than trying to keep them to ourselves. Avoid usually or always, as these words may offer more emphasis, then you intend or evoke and negative reaction. Never use assumptive labels that describe personal traits, such as lazy, thoughtless, and sloppy. Instead, offer specific details about what the person did and when shoes. How about, let's try or would you consider in place of tips of receiving feedback if you've ever been I'm involved in a feedback exercise. You know how difficult it can be, especially if you're on the receiving end. Here are some tips. Will the same actively make eye contact with the speaker? Ask probing questions to make sure you understand what's being said. Don't get emotional. Breathe deeply, sit back. Adult or relaxed body, Paul, sure. Lower your voice, speak slowly. Don't get defensive. This isn't aimed at you personally. Understand the other person's perspective before presenting your side of the story. As for more details on points you don't agree with, except the input, even when you don't agree with all of it, there will be some good ideas. Try to accept these. This shows respect for the other person's perspective. Work to improve. Devote your energy to finding improvements rather than disputing observations. Do not put the entire burden for finding solutions on the other person. Offer ideas of your own. 11. Facilitating an Open Discussion: Facilitating an open discussion. Open discussion is the unstructured conversational way of talking that we are all familiar with. People speak up when they want to and talk for as long as they want. A lot of different perspectives have been put on the table and contentious issues can be clarified. At its best, open discussion is very effective. However, the facilitator's job is to be ever vigilant to determine who talks and when they talk. What is tacking, how do you use it? Stacking can help determine whose turn it is. The problem is that it can get in the way of people being spontaneous. Say that somebody makes a remark that someone else wants to immediately respond to. But the group is in the middle of stacking. What can you do? One danger here is that the facilitator might seem like she or he is playing favorites. Tell the group, you might interrupt this tag if it looks like some people want to respond to hot topics. A second danger is that there is the chance many topics we'll get onto the floor at one time. Sometimes the group would prefer to just let two or three people discuss an issue rather than have every body feeling like they should get in on the discussion. On the other hand, this may be the simplest way to organize conversation flow and to make sure low status members get to participate. Stacking is an important intervention. Just recognize its limitations and don't use it too often. Or for two smaller group. How can you encourage participants? It is very like drawing people out, although there may be times this technique is useful if someone is stumbling over an explanation or their thoughts, you can reassure them that it's okay if thoughts don't come out perfectly formed the first time around. If they are hesitant, you might reassure them that the group wants to hear their thoughts on topic. How can you use balancing? This isn't especially useful neutrality technique. If you have several people present one side of an issue, you might want to encourage the group to consider the other side as well. So you have both pros and cons of any solution on the table before making decisions. How can you make space? Examples? Frank, you look like you want to speak, do you, Harriet? Did you have something you wanted to say? Be careful about singling people out like this. Use this technique sparingly and couple it with observing body language. Invitations like these work best when a participant has made a gesture indicating he or she might want to speak, such as someone may raise his or her index finger rather than raising a hand. Someone else might raise their chin in sort of the reverse nod. Still someone else might look directly at the facilitator and crinkled their nose or purse their lips as if to say, no, I don't agree with that. What would you do when you are using the clock? Part of your responsibility as a facilitator is to keep participants on track. You can't use time to do this. Some examples. We have five minutes left. I want to make sure we've heard from everyone. We only have a few minutes left who wants to speak? We only have time for one or two more comments. Perhaps we could hear from somebody who hasn't spoken in a while. We have 15 minutes left in this discussion. Could we hear from somebody who hasn't yet voiced an opinion? How can we help individuals make a speaker feel understood through paraphrasing and mirroring or reflective listening. This keeps focus of attention on the speaker. However, once again, you don't want to appear to be taking sides. So this device, It's used as a way to help speakers who are clearly having difficulty expressing themselves. Managing divergent prospectives, sequencing. Usually if a lot of people are taking part in a discussion, there are a lot of different perspectives on the issue. When this happens, everyone approaches the topic from their own point of view and their own frame of reference. The facilitators challenge is to help people value one another's contributions. Sometimes facilitators have a tendency to cut people off if they appear to be off topic. With Ghana facilitator do. The simplest and most straightforward technique is sequencing. With this technique, the facilitator validates each perspective and then directs a group to focus on each line of thought in sequence one at a time. This is very similar to Stacking, except with points of view rather than speakers beans tagged. 12. The Language of Facilitation: The language of facilitation. A particular style of language has evolved as a part of facilitation. These techniques are especially important when it comes to commenting on people's behavior without sounding critical or judgmental. The main language techniques aren't discussed below. Paraphrasing to clarify. This involves describing in your own words what another person's remarks convey. Using phrases like the following can help you avoid sounding critical or judgmental. If I understand you correctly, you are saying, is this an accurate understanding of your point, what you're seeing is you should be paraphrasing continuously, especially if the discussion starts to spin in circles or if people are getting heated. This repetition assures participants that their ideas are being heard. New facilitators often make the mistake of not paraphrasing and love reporting behavior. This consists of staining the observable actions of others without making accusations or generalizations about them as people. However, by describing specific behaviors, you give others information about how their behavior is being perceived by others. Feeding this information back to participants in a non-threatening manner opens the door for individuals to suggest actions to improve the existing situation. Example, Tom and Ralph, you've been indeed discussion, would you be talking about something the whole group will benefit from hearing? Describing feelings. This consists of identifying or specifying feelings by naming the feeling or using a metaphor or other figure of speech to describe how your feeling. As a facilitator, you need to be aware of your own feelings and not to be afraid to share his feelings with here grew. This, let other people know it's okay to talk about their feelings. Examples, I feel exhausted naming. I feel like a can't invocation metaphor. I feel like a fly on the wall, figure of speech. I feel like jumping for joy, action, perception, checking. This is describing what you perceive to be another person's inner state in order to see if you understand what he or she is feeling. Examples. Ruth, you seem upset about the last comment is that how you feel Jains, you seem frustrated by this discussion, is that how you feel? Checking is a very important tool. Lets you take the poles of participants who may be experiencing emotions that get in the way of their participation. 13. Dealing with Difficult Dynamics: Dealing with difficult dynamics, misunderstanding, and confusion or normal when a group has to wrestle with difficult issues, periods of tedium, tension, impatience, and frustration, or normal experiences, but they are nonetheless unpleasant. Staying focused at such and is an enormous challenge. Clear headed thinking deteriorates as emotional urgency intensify. Some people get so access for raided and overwhelmed, they withdraw from the discussion. Others feel compelled to take over leadership of the discussion, even if they aren't sure how to do it effectively. Despite the rise intention, many people continue to make the effort to stay committed and focused. They keep trying, but they are working under pressure. This may affect their mood, their communication style, and their ability to think. This is usually the time when the group looks to the facilitator to save them from their anguish. Facilitators are exported to control the offending group members, perhaps by talking with him or her during a break, or to get the group back on track by interrupting people who deviate from a topic. However, eliminating a symptom will not necessarily remove the cause of this tress. In almost every group, there are people who we find a challenge to work with. Some of these difficult people have been identified in the following exercise. When it comes to interventions. Interventions, say what's going on. Sometimes simply identifying, describing a disruptive behavior is enough to change that behavior. Be sure to check for agreement after you process observation examples. You're not letting John finish his report. I think you're trying to force a decision before you are ready. It seems to me that check for agreement. Almost anytime you make a statement or proposer process and give the group and opportunity to respond. Don't assume they are with you. Examples. Do you agree? Are right. Ok. A powerful way of checking is to look for the negative. Makes islands assign of confirmation. Rather than saying, Do you all agree with me? Ask are there any objections? If there are no objections, we'll move on to is there anyone who can't live with that decision? Process battles? Don't let the group get locked into arguments about what is the best way to proceed. Point out that you can try a number of things. Examples. We can try both approaches. Which one would you like to try first? Can we agree to cover both topics in the remaining time? Okay. Which do you want to start with? Boomer rain? Don't get backed into answering questions that groups should be answering for themselves. Boomerang the question back to the group, group member facilitator. Which problems should we deal with first? Facilitator? That's up to the group, which do you think we should discuss first? Group member addressing the facilitator. What was the inflation rate for the last year? Facilitator? Who can answer that question? Group member. I don't like the track we are taking here. Facilitator, What do you think we should do avoid being defensive, maintain, or regain focus? One group has gotten off track or the discussion has broken down. Play dumb way of getting the group to focus on its own process by having to explain it to you. It's a form of boomerangs and is easy to do when you are really confused. Examples. Can someone tell me what's going on? I'm confused. What are we doing now? Where are we? I'm lost. I thought we were forced process agreements. Once the group has agreed to a procedure, your credibility neutrality may be at stake if you don't enforce that agreement. Examples, Wait a second. You agreed to brainstorm. Now you're evaluating ideas. Harry, let John finish. Sorry Beth, I'm afraid your time is up. Encourage. Sometimes the group may need to be encouraged to keep going until they reach a solution. Could you say more about that? Why don't you try? Keep going. I think this is useful. Deal with, except legitimize, differ. It is important to deal with doubt and criticism. One strategy is to accept or legitimised the group members feelings. You can say something like, you're not convinced we're getting anywhere. Perhaps you're right. How does the rest of the group feel? You can also try persuading them to give it more time by saying something like, are you willing to hang on for ten more minutes and see what happens? Don't be a defensive. If you're challenged, don't argue or become defensive. Accept the criticism. Thank the individual for the comment and boomerang the issue back to the individual or group. Examples. I caught you off before you are finished. I apologize. Please continue. You think can push it too hard. Lots of nods. Thank you for telling me how should we proceed from here. The group memory. The group memory as an agenda or a flip chart, can also be used to reinforce many of these interventions and prevention. For example, walking up to the group memory can't facilitate regaining focus and pointing at the agenda item that group should be dealing with. Getting agreement on content can be greatly supported by writing down or circling this subject to be discussed. Use your body language. Many of these interventions and prevention can be reinforced and sometimes even made by the movement of your body or hands. Examples. Regain focus by standing up and moving into the middle of the group. Enforcing a process argument by holding up your hand to keep someone from interrupting, encouraging someone by gesturing with your hand. Don't talk too much. The better facilitate or you become, the fewer words you will have to use. When you really have done a good job. The group mainly thinking they can do it without you next time. Use your hands, eye contact, and partial sentences to communicate economically. 14. Learning Styles - Part 1: Learning styles. David Kolb's development of the four-step process led to an identification of four distinct learning styles. So today, let's look at the divergent alerting style. People with divergent learning styles are best at using the experiential and reflection steps in learning. This is your style. You probably have the ability to view specific situations from many perspectives. For example, you may enjoy brainstorming and small group discussions. You also like to gather information and probably have broad interests. You may prefer to watch events rather than participate in them. To increase your learning power, you also need to place emphasis on the other steps in the learning process. This means forming conclusions from your information, planning, the application of these conclusions, and actually implementing them. For example, after watching a role play or listening to a discussion, summarize your observations into clear conclusions. Then decide how when to test these conclusions in your own situations. Established criteria to evaluate. It had been new idea really worked. Do this at the end of every activity in which you are an observer. To further increase your learning power, take a more active role in the workshop than you might normally to volunteer to be in the role plays or to lead group discussions. This may be uncomfortable at first, but it will give you an opportunity to experiment with your conclusions. You may find it useful to discuss workshop topics with someone who has a converter learning style. This person will help you see possible conclusions in applications you might overlook. You in turn may help them see information they might overlook and develop more perspective. You may have a tendency to concentrate on the human side of problems or topics or exercises. This reflects your ability to understand or to empathize with others feelings or points of view. But you may also have a tendency to avoid drawing conclusions about the quantitative or technical aspects of the situation. Try to develop these skills. Collect and analyze numerical data. Look for overall patterns. In any feedback, you get. Put your own feelings aside for a moment and take a more objective look. Assimilative style. People within assimilative learning style are best at using the reflection and generalization steps in the learning process. If this is your style, you have the ability to create theoretical models. Ideas that predict outcomes and descriptions of how different factors interact. You most likely enjoy inductive reasoning in distilled disparate observations into logical explanations. To increase your learning power, you also need to place more emphasis on application and experiential steps in the learning process. This involves speeding up your learning cycle by moving into action sooner. For example, after watching a role play or listening to a discussion, think about ways and immediately apply your conclusions. Look for opportunities to test your new idea during the workshop and personally experienced the results. To further increase your learning, be more aware of the feelings and reactions of individuals including yourself. You may have a tendency to discount intuitive or emotional information. But a lot can be learned from a person's tone of voice, facial expressions, and other body language. Much of this data is preliminary in nature and hard to analyze in a logical fashion. But it provides an early warning about how things are going or how an idea has been understood. You may have a preference of examining the quantitative or thing aspects of a situation. Your conclusions may be based primarily on policies, official relations, or formulas developed in other situations. This can cause you to be over cautious about experimenting and miss opportunities of learning. No two situations are exactly alike. Put more effort into trying ideas, skills, or concepts, then pay attention to the way things actually happen. It is often different than the way things are supposed to happen. Your ability to deal with non-quantitative data will increase if you get involved in interpersonal activities, roleplays, simulations, discussions more frequently, take an active role and express your feelings. Others will do the same, and this will give you experience. Handling is data. Get into discussions with people whose primary learning style is accommodative, melt the value they place on intuition. Decision-making device. Research shows that in many situations, into mission is more effective than logic. Tried to implement their suggestions, even if he can't provide a supporting rationale. Or perhaps you can help them think through the rationale. You may want to add these learning skills to your current ones. Seeking and exploring possibilities, influencing others. Being personally involved. Deal with the people side of issues you work on. Particularly how to get the support of key individuals whose help you need. 15. Learning Styles - Part 2: The convergence style. People with a convergent learning style are best at using the generalization and experiential steps in the learning process. If this is your style, you have the ability to find practical application for ideas, concepts, and theories. In particular, you enjoy situations in which there is a single or best answer to a question or a problem. You may usually assume there is one best answer and use technical analysis to reveal it. Youtube may prefer to deal with technical issues and other men people issues. To increase your learning power, you need to place even more emphasis on the application and reflection steps in the learning process. This means placing a higher value on gathering and understanding non-quantitative information by looking at a situation from different perspectives. The result may seem to slow your learning process down, but in fact, it will speed the long-term accuracy by ensuring you are learning the most important things. For example, while watching a role-play or listening to a lecture, you may be thinking about how the topic or technique applies to your situation before making a decision, however, try to get other people's perspectives. Listen to their ideas, comments, and questions. You may discover this situation has elements you weren't considering. This may influence how you apply your learning to further increase your learning. Try to take a less active role in the workshop. Then you might usually take, spend some time really listening to others ideas. Try to see the world as they see it, to understand their feelings and values. Play as an observer role from time to time, and avoid making judgments or decisions about how well others are doing. Instead, try to understand why they are saying or doing something. This may lead you to new and eventually useful information. You will find it important to discuss workshop topics with someone who has a divergent learning style? This person will see both questions and possibilities you might tend to ignore or avoid. You may hope that see how to apply some of their ideas. You may have a tendency to concentrate on the thing side of problems, topics, or exercises. You may underestimate the impact, people's values any motions have on the way systems actually work. Avoid coming to quick conclusions. The particular learning skills you want to add to the ones you already have include. Listening with an open mind, gathering information, imagining the implications of situations. They accommodative learning style. People with the accommodative learning style are best at using the experiential and application steps in the learning process. If this is your style, you have the ability to learn primarily from hands-on experience. You probably enjoy carrying it out plans and involving yourself in new challenging experiences. Your tendency maybe to act on intuition and gut feeling rather thin, careful analysis. One, a thoughtful approach does not seem to be working out. You will be quick to discard it and improvise. To increase your learning power, you need to place even more emphasis on the reflection and generalization steps in the learning process. This means collecting and analyzing more information about the results of your efforts. Your battering average in the trial and error method of learning will increase if you learn more than you currently do from each of your trials. When watching a role-play, you may feel frustrated and prefer to be doing the role play yourself. Your tendency might be to think of how you would do the same activity. However, to develop your reflective skills, you should examine other less personal aspects of the situation. Here are questions you might ask. What point, dusty exercise, prove, or disprove? What other information aside from your personal experience do you have that relate to the same topic? Does this exercise helped you understand why certain techniques work? Not just what the techniques are or how to use them to further increase your learning power. Try to take a plus physically active part in the workshop than you might normally choose. B, more mentally active, volunteer to be an observer in some exercises, not a dewar. This will give you an opportunity to reflect on other people's experiences and learn from their trial and error. To increase your learning, keep notes on your experiences, analyze them, and look for patterns. In other words, look for the forest as well as the trees. Take more time to get other people's perspective on what has happened or what you're about to do during the workshop. The particular skills you want to add to your current ones are organizing information, build conceptual models, test theories, and ideas. 16. Adult Learning: Adult learning. There is quite a body of research on what constitutes a good meeting versus a Bem meeting. And that information can be very helpful to today's facilitators. There is also some strong data on what turns off adults in the classroom. And there is starting to be some reliable research we can use on our road to become excellent facilitators. However, as with many other things in life, there is probably not just one road that gets us to the top from a variety of sources. There doesn't merge a body of fairly reliable knowledge about adult learning. This body can be divided into three basic divisions. Things we know about adult learners and their motivation. Things we know about designing curriculum for adults. Things we know about working with adults in the classroom. We have all heard the old saying, you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink. The same is true of adults. And learning. Adults can't be threatened, coerced, or tricked into learning something new. Birch rod and gold stars have minimum impact. Adults can be ordered into a classroom and prodded into a seat, but they cannot be forced to learn. They'll trainers are often faced with adults who had been sent to training. There are some insights to be gathered from the research on adult who seek out structured learning experience on their own, accommodating learning preferences. The learning process. The work of David Cole, 1984, which is based on research by Kurt Lewin 1951, describes learning four-step process with learners demonstrating a greater level of comfort. In one of these steps. These tabs should be a part of each and every teaching point. Experience. Get involved, deal with people. Reflection, listen with an open mind, gather information, generalization, build concepts or ideas, test theories and ideas. Application, set goals, make decisions. However, as we introduced in new teaching point, we also want to bring the participants onboard with us. So why suggests an additional two steps before you go on to the for learning steps, orientation and objectives agenda. For example, let's say you want to teach people how to use a planner to schedule their daily activities. Orientation. To a little warm up to the idea of using a planner. Perhaps ask how many people in the room use a planner and how many buy them, but then never use them. As cow. Many people just use their planner to keep track of meetings. Objectives and agenda explains that the objective is to use any planner effectively. We will work with a simple planner and then develop some guidelines for selecting and using a planner. There is a rule of thumb we can use when we are getting started at scheduling. If a task will take less than 30 minutes to it. If the task takes more than 30 minutes, schedule it. First, change a whole learning experience. Now you are ready to take the group through an experiential stage of learning and exercise on using that planner. Give each person two pages from a planner, a month at-a-glance page, and daily page. Typically, you would use the current month or an upcoming month and a day in the next tweet. As they work on the month, at-a-glance, ask them to fill in important family date, personal health care or development days, any meetings they know they will be attending, and any tests that must be done. Keep it in mind. If the task takes more than 30 minutes, schedule it, then we'll move on to the daily page. Are there established routines they will follow, such as checking emails, are their activities or jobs that must be done. How long will each job? Are there people they must call? That daily page usually has room for scheduling as well as your to-do list and the people you must contact. This can be documentation for what you do. Second stage of learning, reflection, give people some opportunity to think about what they have just experienced and jot down some notes on what worked or what did it work for them. Third stage of learning, generalization. Now, ask them to share their thoughts with two to three others in a small group and suggest some guidelines for the type of bladder that will work best. Or some guidelines you have found helpful for using a planner. Fourth stage of learning application in this example and many other teaching points, application will not be until they are back in their own workplace. However, an application for our example might be buying a planner. Or if those working through the exercise already have a planner, the application would be using it effectively.