Getting Started With Digital Painting | Marco Bucci | Skillshare

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Getting Started With Digital Painting

teacher avatar Marco Bucci, Professional illustrator & teacher

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

21 Lessons (4h 54m)
    • 1. Class Intro

    • 2. Acquiring The Software

    • 3. Interface: Photoshop

    • 4. Interface: Krita

    • 5. Interface: Procreate

    • 6. Tools: Photoshop

    • 7. Tools: Krita

    • 8. Tools: Procreate

    • 9. Brushes: Photoshop

    • 10. Brushes: Krita

    • 11. Brushes: Procreate

    • 12. Layers: Photoshop

    • 13. Layers: Krita

    • 14. Layers: Procreate

    • 15. Filters: Photoshop

    • 16. Filters: Krita

    • 17. Filters: Procreate

    • 18. Painting Demonstration: Photoshop

    • 19. Painting Demonstration: Krita

    • 20. Painting Demonstration: Procreate

    • 21. Homework Ideas

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About This Class

Software training material for anyone who wants to hit the ground running with digital painting.

My goal with this class is to demystify the software and digital art processes so that your creativity can take the reins! It will show you how to set up the digital workspace for optimal workflow, and take you through the most common and useful functions, brushes, tools, filters, layers and painting processes.

Three popular digital painting software packages will be shown:


They will be used to demonstrate how each app performs the same (or similar) functions, and with lessons and tips that can be extrapolated to most digital painting apps available today. 

The class is aimed at:

  • New artists (of all ages)
  • Traditional artists looking to apply their existing skills in the digital medium
  • Anybody who is daunted by the task of creating art on a computer

The class breaks down topics such as:

  • The user interface, and how to customize it for optimal workflow
  • The tools bar
  • Brushes, both using them, adjusting their settings, importing brushpacks and creating your own
  • Making brushes look less digital and more natural
  • Common digital selection tools, masking, sampling, warping, skewing, etc.
  • When and how to use layers
  • Layer FX
  • Working with common editing tools such as curves, levels, exposure adjustments
  • **A set of my brushes are included with this purchase. They work in both Photoshop and Procreate**
  • and more!

The class also features THREE painting demonstrations (45 mins - 1 hour long each, for each piece of software.) The demonstrations are in realtime (not sped up), with every thought and procedure explained.

How is this class different from the 'Digital Painting 1, 2, and 3' classes?

Digital Painting 1, 2, and 3 are demonstration-based lessons, and focus on the start-to-finish execution of a painting. And while they show me using the software, they do not break down the software from a training standpoint. This class is aimed to fill that gap. 
As stated above, there are painting demonstrations in this class (three of them!) However, they will be less ambitious than the full scenes tackled in Digital Painting I, II, and III, and targeted toward the use of various tools, rather than completing a portfolio piece.


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Marco Bucci

Professional illustrator & teacher


Hello, I'm Marco.

I'm a professional artist with 15 years' experience in the film, TV, game, and print industries - primarily as a concept artist and illustrator. I also happen to believe that it's the duty of experienced artists to pass on what they've learned, with no BS and for as low-cost as possible. It's for that reason that I'm a passionate teacher. I currently teach at CGMA, and have previously taught at Academy of Art University, Centennial College, and more. 


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1. Class Intro: Hi everyone, I'm Marco Gucci. Have you ever seen a digital painter work? And their layer stack looks like this, and they're just dragging windows around and you have no idea what they're doing. Well, this class, we're going to fix all that. I'll be looking at three very popular digital painting apps, photoshop, the industry standard credo, which is a free alternative to Photoshop, as well as procreate, which is probably the most popular art app on the iPad for professionals and amateurs alike. Now, there are two overall volumes to this class. In Volume One will be talking about the essentials of the software. You know, things like user interfaces, tools, brushes, color pickers, layers, things that will really get us going with the ultimate goal of demystifying the software. And I'll show you how to perform the same tasks or similar tasks in all three applications. And in volume two, I'll actually do a real painting with each app. So that's three paintings total, where we'll take the information we learned in Volume One and apply it to actually making art. Alright, there's a lot to get it into. Let's get started. 2. Acquiring The Software: Alright, so before we dive in here, I want to show you how to acquire these three pieces of software. I'm currently on Adobe's website, the makers of Photoshop, I can click on creativity and design and they're featuring Photoshop right here. It's their flagship app. After all, photoshops available for desktop and iPad, and it's based on a monthly subscription model. You can get a free trial if you like, or if you click Buy. Now, Adobe presents you with their monthly membership options. If you only want Photoshop, it's 2099 US a month, which is not small potatoes. Personally, I use Photoshop for all my professional work, which is not to say that it's the best program or the one you should use. I've just been using it since 1997. I know it's so well now. So for what I do, the subscription is worth it. However, that's why I'm presenting you with three different apps. In this course, you may choose not to go the Photoshop route. Anyway, once you subscribe, you download the software and you're on your way, you can find Krita at And I'm happy to say that Krita is absolutely free and random trivia. That word credo means chalk. In Swedish. I don't speak Swedish, but I saw that on a YouTube comment. And sure enough, it's true. So Krita, if you're on the website, just go to the download link. The website should detect what system you're on. I'm on a Windows system here, so there's my installer, and that is all you need to get up and running with Credo. As far as I know, Krita is only available for desktop machines, Mac and PCs, not devices like iPads or iPhones or Androids or anything like that. When it comes to using Photoshop and Krita, I highly recommend using a tablet. This is my ancient Wacom six by 12 into us three tablet. They don't even make these anymore and you couldn't really see the wear and tear I've put on and over the years. But I've been using this since 2005. It works for me. I also have highest end sin t right there. This since IQ being where you actually can draw on the screen. And it's really, really good. Although I find myself more and more just using this guy here. There are really good options on the market these days for entry-level tablets if you can't afford or can't justify the Pro Stuff. There are two companies I've heard really good things about. The first being Helion. This is their pen tablet section. They have a few of them here. But as you can see, these prices are very reasonable and all of these will do what you want. You certainly don't need a top of the line syntax to get started. In fact, you don't ever need a top of the line isn't syntenic. I know many artists who have entry level stuff like this. The other company that I have first-hand experience with, I actually own one of these XP pen. If you go to their graphic tablet section, just like QE on they have a range of tablets. Looks like this one comes with its own little remotes. Some of them have buttons on board. There'll be different sizes as well. And as you can see, the prices are very competitive. You see this one, this pen has 8 thousand levels of pressure sensitivity. That's like three times more than what I have. And I'm sitting here at calling myself a professional artist. I don't even have this many levels of pressure. So yeah, you can't go wrong with stuff like XP pen. I just happened to randomly click on this one. But yes, something like this would be totally worth the investment to get going, I highly discourage you from using a mouse to paint. There's a bit of a paywall barrier to entry to get into digital painting, but you'll find it's very worth it. And these tools will last for years as well. So to use procreate, you'll need an iPad. This is my iPad Pro. It's a few generations old, but it still works. It's got a nice big screen. And you'll also need, well, I recommend the Apple pencil and if you haven't old generation iPad like I do, you'll need the matching Apple pencil. There are different generations of this two. I got my Apple Pencil at Click on iPad, Apple pencil. And when you scroll down here, you'll see the different generations. This first-generation one is the one I needed because my iPad is like four or five years old. I think the newest one is, yeah, this is the newest one here. Second generation, you don't need an Apple pencil. You could use procreate just with your fingertips. But for optimal painting performance, I do really recommend it. Okay, so I'm on my iPad here, click on the App Store, type in procreates. And we have a few options here. This is the main procreate app, the one I'll be using. I already own procreate, so it doesn't list the price, but it's 909 US and that's not monthly. That's a full purchase of the software forever. Anyway, you can grab procreate here. It will automatically install and link up with your Apple pencil and you are ready to go. Alright, let's dig our heels into these apps and see what they can do. 3. Interface: Photoshop: The user interface determines how you interact with digital software and accounts for an awful lot when it comes to using that software. Really, there's two overall requirements that I have of an interface. One, that the important things be no more than a click or two away. And secondly, that the extraneous things are not cluttering the interface. Let's begin here with Photoshop. When you open Photoshop, you'll see something like this. And I think I'm not alone in saying that right away. This is kind of off putting. There's a lot of stuff on the screen here. The thing to understand about Photoshop is it's not painting specific. It's meant for a lot of different things. And thankfully they've programmed some workspaces into it. I'll go up to Window Workspace, and currently it's set to the default, which is essentials. But I can just go down here and say painting. And I get a more streamlined interface that looks like this with windows that Photoshop has deemed essential for painting. So let me show you how you can control the interface. Here, there are two rows of windows which can be collapsed with these tiny arrows or expanded by clicking on those arrows. And this of course, is a nice way to save screen space, especially if you only have one monitor. Every little menu here can of course be accessed by clicking the button and you have what that window is and then collapsed with the arrows. Or you could just leave them in expanded view and in simply interact with any window you want by clicking around. These windows can also be undocked. If I just click here and drag this out, I now have my Layers window separate. If I want to bring that back into the mix here, I can just drag it in, click there and it's docked there. Or if I had just undock this, I can bring it as a tab in this window if I wanted to by dragging it here. And now all of these are in tabs. So that's kinda nice. And by the way, if you ever want to reset it, just go up to Window Workspace, reset painting in this case, and now it's back to normal. Let's say you're playing around with your interface by dragging things out and customizing like the sizes of windows like this. And you want to save this, just go up to Window Workspace, new workspace, name it like my workspace or whatever you want. Hit Save. And now if I go up to window workspace, I have my workspace there. And just the same way it later, let's say I made too many changes and I no longer liked what I've done. I can just go Window Workspace, reset my workspace, and I'm back to my custom workspace. So this is nice. No matter what windows you like to have open, you can save them exactly where you want them in Photoshop and then feel free to, you know, tweak them as your project's demands. Like maybe here I don't want all this stuff, so I'll just click it off and worked like this for 20 minutes. And if i want it back and just go to Window Workspace, reset my workspace and there it is. So let's say you accidentally close to this brushes window and you're like, oh no, I want that back. Well, all of these windows are located under the window tab. So I just closed my brushes window and there it is right there and it comes back where it was. The names of all these windows are of course labeled here like this is the channel's window. So if that were undocked and closed and I wanted it back, window channels there it is. And then I could of course bring it back and dock it there as a tab. So photoshop can look however you want it to look. The question is, how should you want Photoshop to look? This is where I can recommend what I use. There are really just a few windows I want on screen. The first is I want my toolbar on the left here, which I haven't mentioned yet. These are the tools that you have, you know, like the Brush tool, the Move tool, the paint bucket tool. They can be docked and on Docs just by dragging them on here and you can expand them to one row or two. Anyway, I want this on screen. I like to have it floating so I can just move it around based on where my canvases. So let's just put that there. I want my brushes window on screen and I usually just expanded a little bit so I can see a selection of brushes. Let's put that over here. I want my Layers window on screen, and maybe I'll just resize this a little bit and put it down here. And none of this stuff I actually want on screen, so I'm just gonna take it and just kill it. And take it and kill it. Alright, I'm already breathing a sigh of relief that all of that stuff is gone. It just feels way nicer to not have to deal with all that stuff. The one thing I want to add back here though, is a color picker. Photoshop has a color picker here. If you click on this color, you can of course, pick any color you want via this floating box. The problem is though with this color picker is that when it's open, you can't access anything else. You have to pick your color, hit OK. And now I can go back to the program that to meet kills productivity. So there's a better way. Just go up to window color. And now we have a floating box, which I can of course expand to any size that I want. I usually have something like this. Just to show you, let me just make a canvas with file new. I'll just hit OK. A canvas comes in. These windows can hover above the canvas, which is handy or you know, you just keep them off the canvas like this. If you want to dock them, you can grab the top strip here and just wait to the blue highlight thing shows up and now they're docked. And now of course we can expand them like that just like we had before, but with my own custom window set here. But honestly, I don't even like to do that. I just have them floating. And if I want to collapse this view, I can do that and there's all my stuff. But again, normally I don't collapse them. I just have it like this because the fewer clicks to get to something the better for me. So having the layers at the ready at all times is nice. And again, we'll look at the Layers window in a different chapter. I want to keep this one focus just on moving interface elements around one window that I have available to me here as the navigator, This is essentially a thumbnail view of your Canvas. So you know, if I painted something, you can see that it just shows up in a thumbnail view. As far as art process goes, I really find it handy to be able to view your work in a small thumbnail like this. I'm sure for all you traditional painters out there, you're so used to like backing up off your desk, say ten feet away and looking at your painting from afar, that's what this accomplishes. So I do like having the Navigator tab open and it's handy that it's buried in this overall window. I mean, of course you could have it open separately, but now we're starting to clutter the interface a bit I find. So let's just doc that back here. I should also mention at this point, if you have more than one monitor, then you can just drag these windows onto a secondary screen. And that's actually how I handle the navigator. I have it on my second monitor and oh yeah, this color, you can switch it on the fly. You don't need to like open a separate window here and pick your color and hit OK. You know, it's right there, ready to go at all times. And this is how photoshop looks for me. I've been working with Photoshop for almost 20 years now and really it never changes. One thing I do want to say about the color picker here, if you click on this lines button, you can set it to different previews. Like I could get a color wheel if I wanted. This is probably the most popular way of picking colors. Actually, a lot of other apps default to this. I personally prefer the hue cube just because I've been using it for so long. It makes sense to me. I just know my way around it so well, but you should feel free to use whatever you think is best for your process. Anyway, these windows on screen or a good indication of what my philosophy behind what a digital painting interface should look like. I've got my tools, my color picker, my brushes, and my layers. And another thing that's very useful with Photoshop, if you're working away here, you're kind of limited to where your canvases on screen. If you want to make more use of your screen space, just pushed the F key to enter full screen mode. And now I can push spacebar and move this around to access my full screen. Now these toolbars or in the way so I can push F a second time and get access to my entire screen and put an again hold space. And I can put this anywhere I want. This is very useful for large paintings and to get out of this mode is pushed for a third time and we're back in the basic interface. And a more limited way to do that is to push the Tab key, which temporarily removes all the toolbars from your screen, although this does keep the file locked in this window. So I have to drag the window instead of pressing Spacebar and then hitting Tab a second time will bring my elements back. So that covers the user interface for Photoshop. Let's move on to Krita. 4. Interface: Krita: So unlike Photoshop, Krita is targeted for painting. When you first load it up, you'll get a screen like this. I'm just gonna say new file and I'm just gonna say create. And look what we have here by default, i've got my tools, I've got a color picker, I've got brushes down below, and I've got my layers. So Krita is tuned into the requirements of a painter a little more succinctly than Photoshop maybe, which kinda makes sense when you think about it. Crito was after all designed to be a Photoshop adjacent program specifically targeted for painters, and they're pretty shameless about it. It even really looks like Photoshop. And I want to remind you here that Krita is free, which is a massive point in its favor. Ok, so much like Photoshop, I can go up to Window Workspace and the see what big paint to does. It gives me a few more windows. By the way, up here is what Photoshop called the navigator here it's called overview. I think I'm going to revert back to the big paint option, which is my personal favorite workspace in Krita. Again, like Photoshop, you can undock these windows by clicking here and just moving this out, create a defaults to a color wheel style of color picker. There are some nice features of this window that we'll look at in a later chapter. Again, I want to stay focused on overall interface stuff for now, these windows can be resized by clicking here, dragging this up, you can see the areas where it's possible to drag. It's these dotted icons right there. Click and drag it accordingly. You can do other cool customization things like I can take this toolbar, drag it out here, or I could bring it up here and then start resizing it like this. And you can do that with any window here. I'll grab the brushes and bring them up here. And now I've talked it so that my brushes are here and my toolbox is there. Again, being able to save screen space is valuable if you only have one monitor. Although this does go against my overall philosophy, I want things to be as few clicks away as possible. And you know, now they're like an extra click away because they're docked. So I probably would opt to drag this out and have it as its own window, of course now I have to resize it, which I can do over here. You can read OK anything by simply dragging it down to where you want it. And there you go. I'm just going to reset my entire interface though too big paint, with the only modification being to undock the color picker. I'm going to right-click here and this is where I can turn off Windows. I don't need this specific color selector, so that's gone. And that leaves me maximum room for my layers and my brushes. And because I'm a bit of a Photoshop junkie, I'm just going to swap the location of these. So my brushes are here, layers are there, and there we go. And now that I'm happy with this, just like with Photoshop, I can go to Window Workspace, new workspace. Again, I'll call it My Workspace. Hit. Okay, and now this has saved. And just a quick note on the color picker. You can click on this little box here and then click on this arrow here, and you have different layouts. If I wanted something close to Photoshop, it's probably that one there and then hit OK. And there you go. But in this case, I find the huge trip very narrow. It's a little difficult to pick the hues that I want. So I'm actually going to go back in here and use the color wheel mixed with the color box. This to me is a happy medium between the Photoshop style picker and the Krita style picker. But of course use whatever you feel most comfortable with. This is just what I'm used to. A really cool feature of Corita's interface is the right-click button, which I like to map to the back rocker switch of my stylus. It brings up this hovering mini interface. I've got my color picker here in the middle, which kinda rotates to point the most saturated portion of the triangle that whatever color I'm on, that's kind of interesting. This little circle at the top allows me to rotate my entire canvas. And there's a ghostly circle that's tes there to allow me to reposition it back at 0. And of course I could just pick brushes and start painting with them, change my color, pick a brush paint with this floating hub here. You could potentially eliminate your brush window here and open up more room. Because also this button right here accesses the same brush window as this. Also this floating Hub has different lists. If I click this right here, it comes pre-loaded with some categories. Here's the paint category. So these are all paint brushes. For example, this one here is like a smudgy rake brush. We're gonna cover brushes in a different section, but you get the idea, there are different brushes to choose from. You also have a favorites folder. So let me go over to the brush tab on the right. Let's say I happen to have really loved this texturally air brush right there. I could right-click on it. Say assign to tag and say My Favorites. And boom, that airbrushed just showed up right there, and now I have access to it. So again, that's right-click. And also you can right-click to exit that menu, or you can right-click, make an adjustment, pick a new brush and that will exit out. Or you can right-click, select your color and just click out, and there you go. And because your colors are also adjustable right here, maybe you don't even want this on screen. So without the color picker on-screen, and if I just drag that out and close it off without that on-screen, I'm really airing out the interface here, which I think is always a good thing when you can do that, but still have quick access to your tools. Oh, one last thing about this floating hub. If you click this button, it hides everything just like the F key and Photoshop did. And I can press Spacebar and move my view around in the same way. So I could like zoom in real large and manipulate my painting this close to the screen. And then of course, right-clicking here, just clicking that again brings back everything. Alright, so that is create as interface in a nutshell. Let's move on now to procreate. 5. Interface: Procreate: So we're in procreate here and I want to remind you that I am on my iPad now and you can't see my cursor move, you'll just be seeing the effects of my clicks. This is also why the screen resolution is a bit different. One thing we probably all know already intuitively from interacting with our devices every day is a two-finger touch will enable you to zoom, rotate, and move this canvas around. Now procreate is super streamlined for painting because the iPad is limited to the one screen. So there's actually not much we can do to this interface except for just understand it right away though the interface does meet my overall criteria. You've got your tools up here on the upper left. You've got your brushes here. This is the eraser tool. Right here you have your layers and on the very upper right you have your color picker. Now the color picker can be undocked, just drag it and you could then drag it anywhere on the screen that you want, clicking the x, we'll just dock it back up on the upper right. Going back in here, you could select these options down at the bottom to change the layout of the color picker. I personally like this one the best, but it gives you a few options and varieties of ways to pick your colors and tapping on the canvas will exit out of that. Here on the left you have your brush opacity and brush size, but I'll talk about that later on in another chapter. One thing that is customizable about the interface though, if you go up to this wrench icon and go do gesture controls, you have access to different features of the software. I wanna go to quick menu here and show you a really cool one that I use. It's this bottom one, touch and hold, which will bring up a quick menu. So I enabled that I'll push done. The quick menu is simply if I touched and held. It brings up this little quick menu where I can make a new layer or flip the canvas or clear layer or copy and paste. Going back into that menu here you can see there's different options to invoke the quick menu, and you can have multiple options enabled at once. And this is true for all the features you can modify. And just note that eight Touch is different than a Apple Pencil touch procreate can detect differences between the two. Pretty awesome. So you can have different Apple Pencil and finger combination gestures to activate different features. So aside from actually using the tools and functions of the software, which we'll get into right away. This is about all you need to know for the interface side of things. And that about wraps it up for interfaces in general. Let's dive a little deeper now and start looking at some tools. 6. Tools: Photoshop: Ok, here in Photoshop, Let's talk about the tools bar. And now the first thing I'm going to do is make a new canvas and just say, okay, I'll talk about the ins and outs of making canvases later in this lesson. So this is just a random Canvas because I'll have to demonstrate this stuff on a canvas after all. So digital software has to begin with the brush tool, which is right there. If you hover your mouse over these tools, Photoshop sort of gives you this animated icon to tell you what it is. Now if you click and hold that brush tool, it'll give you some other options. And the first thing I want to say is you should just completely ignore the pencil tool. No one ever uses that. Now you might be like, Well, how do I get a pencil and draw? Well, you use the Brush tool just with a pencil brush. Our brushes, as you recall, are over here. Now I am going to cover this window in the next chapter. But essentially with the brush tool active, you can just pick any brush and start painting with it. And if you wanted to say draw, you would just pick a pencil style brush, say like this one and just draw this way. So the brush tool goes hand in hand with the brushes you have at your disposal, which can number in the hundreds or thousands. In Photoshop. If you hold shifts, it will make a vertical line or a horizontal line. Also, if you say make a little dot, hold shift and click again, it'll draw a direct line between the two. Your brush opacity and flow is at the top. This is basically determines how opaque the stroke is. So at a 100%, I have a fully opaque stroke. If I reduce the opacity to say 50% or something, it's 50% opacity. As you can see, let me just select a red color. You can see that right now is 50% opacity. So you can see those other brushstrokes through it. Whereas if I brought it up here, you'd have more opaque strokes that just go over top of everything. Now, the opacity of most brushes is also controlled by how hard you're pressing with your stylus. So the opacity setting represents what you can achieve at 100% pressure on your stylus. Flow is similar, although I usually don't adjust flow too much. I usually just stick with opacity. Flow kind of mimics how an air brush works like if you pushed and held how much paint would come out, at what rate? It is a bit weird and honestly, I just don't really use it that much. Okay, so the opposite of the brush I suppose, is the eraser, which is right there. Now, the eraser in Photoshop or races back to the background color. This is the foreground color. This is the background color. You can swap them with this little handy arrow here. And you can pick different background colors. So if I picked a blue background color, when I erase, it's gonna go toward blew. This behavior can be modified as we start introducing layers. But again, I'm gonna section that off into a different chapter. Erasers can have brushes just like the Brush Tools can. So I can have an eraser shaped like whatever. This is, some kind of Dadi thing. And of course, if you hold on the eraser tool, you have different kinds of options, but I usually just stick with the eraser tool. If you're using a tablet, the other side of your pen usually has an eraser on it and you can use that as well. In that case, you can still be on the brush tool like right now I have the brush tool active making some strokes. Flip the stylus so the eraser is touching the tablet and as you can see, I'm erasing while the brush tool is active. As you are using the brush tool, you're going to want to change your color. Now of course you can do that here. Or if you want a color that's already existing in your painting, like let's say I want to get the mixture of that blue with that red push and hold Alt. And it turns into this eyedropper with which I can select a new color. The top half of that updating circle is the new color I'm selecting and the bottom half is the color I previously had. So I can just let go and paint with that new color now. And this is something I'll often do. I'll often make a few brushstrokes, sample the mixture, and then paint with that new color. It's a common approach that I use and when you sample colors like this, it also of course, updates on your color picker over here. The size of the brush can be changed up here by sliding around the size parameter. Or it can be changed in the brush window here by sliding the same size parameter if you slide it here, it also updates here, as you can see, they're both live in sync together. It's the same slider, but no one really uses that. The shortcut key is the square bracket keys. So the right square bracket increases your brush size. The left square bracket decreases the brush size. When I paint in Photoshop, my fingers are glued to those square bracket keys because I'm constantly changing brush size as I work. And already we've hit kind of a landmark in this class. If you're getting started with digital painting, if you're brand new to it, just with what we've covered so far in this class. You could paint, you don't need anything else. Just grab a brush, grab a new canvas, make your interface look how you want it. You know, something like this, and just go ahead and paint something. I painted some weird abstract thing here, but this could be a human portrait if you wanted it to be. And don't worry, we'll actually do a real painting later on in this class. But for now, let's look at some of the other tools in this toolbar. You'll probably be doing a lot of zooming when you paint digitally, the magnifying glass tool is right there. And by the way, when you have these little animated icons, Photoshop also gives you the shortcut key. So the shortcut here is z. Clicking on the Zoom tool though I could just press and hold and zoom in and out. Or you can just click once and it will zoom in to a certain degree. If you hold Alt, it turns into a zoom out and you can click. But my preference is to simply click and drag, which allows you to zoom in and out. When you're zoomed in, you can hold the space bar and move around your painting. This is also where that navigator window comes in. You see this blue box that indicates how far resumed in without pushing spacebar, you can simply click and drag around. This accomplishes the same thing. You also have a little zoom bar down here. So a lot of times these windows are tied into the toolbar here. If you look at this number here, Photoshop tells you how zoomed in you are. A quick way to zoom back out to a 100% is just double tap on the magnifying glass tool. Let's talk about this little guy right here. This is the eyedropper tool. As you can see from the animated diagram, the eye dropper tool samples colours. Now we already talked about doing that with the brush tool active and holding Alt. This activates the eye dropper tool. And this is the best way to do it because you don't have to switch tools. However, if you do switch to the eye dropper tool, you have a few options you can enable up here, by default, the eye dropper tool is set to point sample. This means it'll select the color of the pixel that I'm on. That can be a bit frustrating though, because sometimes you want a sample, sort of a general mixture of an area. To do that, simply click here and go to say 11 by 11 average. That will give me an 11 by 11 area of pixels. And it's almost like picking colors off a traditional painting palate. You know, where you have more of an area of color that you are selecting from, you can change it to be larger or smaller. And then again, what I like to do is go back to the brush tool and access the eyedropper by just clicking alt and doing so will respect the setting you have selected here. I recommend keeping the sample mode as it is set to all layers. There are times when you want to change that, but that gets into more technical territory, which I don't think we need to cover right now. Moving on to another tool, let's talk about the crop tool, which is right there. Photoshops animated little graphic there gives you an idea of what the crop tool does. What I'd like to do is make sure I'm zoomed out. Then grab the crop tool and simply click and drag to your desired cropping. And then you can use these handles to make little adjustments. And when you're done, just push enter and you've cropped your image. I should also mention the Undo feature. Just like any other software, it's edit, fun, do crop, another feature, another feature you might want to adjust if I just remade that crop, go to this gearbox tool and turn up the opacity and it will hide the painting that you're eventually going to crop out. This will probably allow you to preview your crop a little bit better than Azure dragging these handles around, you can see your painting once again. Another thing you could do is set custom ratios. So like a five by seven ratio is a common ratio for photographs. If I click that, Photoshop will automatically give me that five by seven, which I can adjust to any size I want, including horizontal, of course, while keeping that aspect ratio five by seven intact. And I'll just push Control Z a few times to undo a few steps there, you notice I have my five by seven cropping selected. You can just push the clear button. And now I'm back to free hand cropping just to provide a little context here I do use the crop tool a lot in my art. Sometimes I'll be painting a composition and I just don't need like a little bit on the, on the side. So like I'll select the crop tool and just kinda go like this, push Enter, new cropping. You can also add Canvas space with the crop tool. If I click and select everything and then drag this out like this, I've now added more space. It's green because my background color is green, and that's how the crop tool works. It'll automatically fill your new space with whatever your background color is set to. Okay, but I'll undo to get our main image back. And let's move on to the next tool, which is the Selection tool up here. By default, it's the square. If you press and hold, you have access to elliptical or circles or single rose or single columns. Let's just go to the main one, which is the rectangular marquee tool, which I just call the selection tool. With this tool, we can of course make a selection and then do all kinds of things within that selection. The first thing I could do if I press B for brush, I could paint inside that selection. Another thing I could do is access photoshops, filters by going to filter, say Blur, Gaussian Blur and I can blurred just that selection, hitting OK if I were happy with that, but I'll hit cancel because I don't actually want to blur that. Another thing you could do here is accessed the Move Tool, which is this guy right here, and move this selection around. If I want to deselect that, I could either push Control D or simply click on the selection tool here and click out like that. And I'm free to make all kinds of selections just by clicking and dragging. Of course, if you want a multi-select hold shift, and now I can make a two selections. I could also click into the elliptical one and make elliptical selections. Still holding shift here to add to my selections and do all the same stuff within those selections. I'll push control D to Deselect that with the elliptical tool. If I hold shift, I can make a perfect circular selection. And the same is true with the box. And I went back to the box1 and held shift. I can make a perfect box selection. Once I have a selection like this, I could push Control T to access the Transform tools. And now I can do many different operations. Any of the handles will turn into a scale tool. And I can scale from different points. As you can see, holding control on one of these points will allow me to skew it. This can help with perspective or many different things. One unfortunate feature of this window is the undue key only works once. So I actually can't get this back to our Was to get it back and have to press Enter to commit to it, and then undo, and it'll undo the whole thing. It's, it's kinda weird that way. But pushing control T again, I could hover my mouse just above the corner and it turns into this Rotation icon, and this will allow me to rotate it. And finally, I could right-click inside the box. And I can access all of those things, including this Warp tool, which gives me a little grid with which I can warp or my image around. Also very handy when you're working on a complex drawing and you just want to tweak something. And again, pushing enter to commit to that. And then once you have it, you can push Control Z to undo everything. Another way to make a selection is with this tool, the lasso tool. By default, it'll be on this one. This is the free hand lasso tool, so I can make a selection like that. It actually the exact same way as the box one we just saw. Or you can hold and go to the polygonal lasso tool, which will allow you to draw points like this. Clicking the mouse at each point, pushing enter when you're done to make the selection. And again, holding shift will allow you to multi-select, just like before, you can also double-tap to end a selection like so, holding the ALT key will allow you to eliminate a selection. So like let's say I did this with the ALT key held pushing enter. I have removed that bit of the selection, and that holds true for the square and circular selection tools as well. A third way to make a selection is with the pen tool. I can make a few points just like before, but if you push and hold, you have this little Bessie, a curve which allows you to refine your selection as you're creating it. So again, clicking and holding and dragging will allow you to pull out those handles and make a curve. To close this selection, simply click on your original point and you can close off the shape. Now that's not actually a selection yet. To turn that into a selection, you have to push, control, enter, and that path we just drew with the pen tool has now become a selection. With this one you can say make another shape like this, push Alt Control Enter and we can subtract it, or I'll undo push, Shift Control Enter and we can add to it. And this is just like any other selection. So pressing Control T will bring up scale tools are Rotate tools or if you right-click, you can go into distort and distort these handles. You could go into your Warp tool and warp it around again. Once you're happy with this push Enter, notice once again, my background color is by default filled in with that green for the same reason, the green is my background color here. This will change as we start introducing layers, which I'll get into a few chapters from now. But one more thing you should know about the selection tool. Let's just make a selection. If I clicked on the Move tool again up here, as we know, we can move this around. But I now have access to this box which is show Transform controls. I think by default this is actually turned on. I like to turn it off, but when you have show Transform controls, you no longer have to press Control T to bring up these handles. It'll automatically be there. So you can make any selection, click on the Move tool and have these controls active. Another handy tool for making selections Is this the magic wand tool. And essentially what it does is you click and it samples all the similar colors that you clicked on. So in this case, I clicked on white and it's selected all the white. If you only want to select connected colors, click on this continuous box, click the white and it only selects connected areas of white. If you want more, you can hold the shift, click that bit of White, hold Shift, click that bit of light. You could also click and subtract that bit of light. You get the idea. And these are now selections. So for instance, if I wanted to paint into them, I could just paint into them like we've seen before. And to de-select that I could push Control D or I could go up to select, de-select. If you click and hold the magic one tool that you can get to this quick selection tool. What this does is it uses photoshops, internal intelligence to kind of figure out what you want to select. So if I click and drag my mouse, it kinda knows that I'm trying to select this monster character. This is not gonna be perfect, but it's actually surprisingly a good tool. And then maybe from here I can just move it around or do whatever else I would do with a selection. Let's move on to the paint bucket tool, which is right here. You find an area click and it fills it with your foreground color, which is that front color right there. The main thing to consider here is this tolerance value. You notice it didn't get some of these white pixels. Well, if I change the tolerance to say 35 and tried again, it does a better job at getting some of those similarly colored pixels. If you set the tolerance 2's a one, that means that the pixel has to be an exact match of where you clicked. I guess these pixels here are different or a different white than these ones. So it didn't fill them in. The paint bucket tool is classically used for filling in flat colors in line drawings, for example, maybe more a painterly artist. I really don't use it that much in my work, mostly using the brush tool and stuff like that. One tool I do use a lot of though is the gradient tool. If you click and hold on the paint bucket, you have access to the gradient tool. With the gradient tool, you essentially click and drag on your image and it fills it with a gradient. The two colors the gradient tool uses are your foreground and background color. So if I change this green to blue colour and did it again, you would have this result. You can change the pattern of your gradient right here. So this would create a circular gradient. This would create some kind of weird star-like gradient. Let's go back to this one though. If you click on here, you have different types of gradients you could do like this one, takes your foreground color and preserves the actual image it's on. And this is the kind of mode I like to use, not this exact one, but I like to go up here and click on this one here, you see that checkerboard, that's photoshops language for transparent. Whenever you see a checkerboard like that, it means transparent. So this one allows me to just use my foreground color and faded into transparency. And this becomes very useful, especially when combined with, say, a selection. So let me just quickly and very sloppily select out the hair using the free hand lasso tool up here. I'll go into my gradient. I'll hold Alt and pick a white color. All of these are tools we've seen before and I will gradient down and I can lighten up the head this way. And that reminds me one thing I should show you. You see these moving lines. Photoshop users call that marching ants. It can be very distracting. So let me undo that gradient. If you want your selection to be active but not see those marching ants, you can hide the marching ants by pushing control h. Now if I do that gradient again, the selection is still there. I can push control age to turn it back on. It just we don't see that annoying marching ants animation. So a lot of times what I'll do is use a selection tool like this in conjunction with the gradient tool. But I will almost always push control age to hide it. So I can just see how it's affecting my image. And there are many ways of Gradient tool can interact with your picture. I'll get into those methods in the layers chapter coming up. Okay, the clone tool is that guy right there. What this enables you to do is clone parts of your image over to other parts. So let's say I want this blue highlight on the for to like continue over here. Go to the area you'd like to clone from, hold Alt and sample it by clicking. Then go to the area you'd like to clone to and simply paint. So what is doing here is it's started where I sampled, but it got the mouth because I moved my cursor up when I was painting and it got the mouse. So what I'd like to do is pick here clone, resample, clone, re-sample clone. And I can take pixels from here and put it here. And when you're just holding your mouse, it actually gives you a preview as to what you are about to clone. So like let's say I sampled this tooth. You can see it's gonna show me where that tooth is gonna go. Then of course, when you press your tablet to paint, it'll paint it. Now I've got a double mouth creature, which is too creepy. Saw hit undo. The clone tool by default is a very soft round brush, but it can interact with other brushes as well. All right, moving on, I'm really excited to show you these smudge tool which is right there. This is one of my favorite tools in Photoshop. I paint with it a lot. It essentially lives up to its name and smudges the picture almost like using your fingers with what? Oil over acrylic paint or something. Now there are a couple of settings I want to adjust. The first is the strength up here. I like to set this high, like say 96 or something. And just with that alone, we could do more aggressive smudging or blending. You could bring in your brushes window and pick any brush to become a smudge tool brush. This is really nice. It preserves kind of the hairs of the brush itself. Now one thing to note is that I'm not actually painting any color with this. I'm simply smudging the paint that's already on the canvas. However, if I'd like to paint with color, I'll get my color picker open here. I'll pick a bright orange yellow color. I could turn on this finger-painting box and watch this now that allows me to paint with the color I have selected, but it slowly runs out as I paint and becomes more of a smudgy tool. I'll pick a different color here to show you. It begins almost as a brush tool with that color, but then fades away and becomes a smudge brush. And I find that different brushes preserve the color differently like this brush doesn't even appear to have that much purple to begin with at all. Whereas other brushes really, really load itself up like this one has a lot of that purple. So you can play with brushes in conjunction with the smudge tool. But yeah, they're supposed tool is a favorite of mine. If you go back to the brushes menu and click and hold it there is this thing called a mixer brush tool. Mixer brush tool is largely the same. You can pick a brush and paint with it and it really does the same thing. I'm going to differentiate between the regular brush tool and the mixer brush tool more in the brushes Section. One last thing I did want to mention as almost an addendum to the interface section. If you bring up a window history, this is kind of like an interactive undo feature. It lists a bunch of my actions that I've done previous. So like I just did a whole bunch of smudge tool work, right? Like I can click back, it's almost like an Advanced Control Z undo. I'm going back through time. If I were up here, I could just push Control Z. And as you can see it one by one goes through, but this is just a quicker way to do it. This window might be best if it's docked like that. So I can have my color box open and always go to the History window here. And with that, let's now move on to Krita and checkout it's toolset. 7. Tools: Krita: All right. Hearing Krita, the brush tool is right there. The shortcut for which is b, just like Photoshop. And as you've probably guessed with the brush tool, we have access to all these brushes immediately. I prefer creed his brush preview window because you can see like that's obviously a pencil brush and we can draw with it, change the color to mimic more of a graphite pencil. And there we go. And I've already shown you that you could just right-click and access brushes through these various menus. So if I want an air brush, their ego, and I'm painting with an airbrushed now, changing brush size and Crito as the same square bracket keys. Or a handy little shortcut is hold, shift and drag and you can resize your brush this way and hit. Another way to do it is simply drag this slider here for various brush sizes. Although this one's not so good because you don't get a preview. I prefer the square bracket keys or the Shift key because you can literally see how big or small your brushes getting in order to sample colors instead of the ALT key as we saw in Photoshop, it's the Control key. And much like Photoshop created gives you this pre viewer that shows you the new cover, your sampling, compared to the old color you had. And just let go of control and you can paint with that new color. If you go back to the toolbar here, there are also some preset shapes like this box looks like a selection tool, but it's not, it's a box drawer I guess, but it'll draw that box with the brush I have active. So if I choose this pencil brush, Andrew box, it'll paint it with the pencil brush as opposed to that airbrushed I had previously. And the same is true for this. This is a circle one. You can make a bunch of circles. This tool here allows you to draw your own custom shape. And these tools here are the same except these give you those curvy Bessie handles, which enables you to draw a smoother shapes. And of course you also have a line option. And this is probably the best way to get straight lines and Krita, going back to the interface topic for a second, just like in Photoshop, we have an undo history window here, and it's the same idea. I can go back in time, scroll way up and take away all my actions if I wanted to. But what's kinda nice about this window is it gives you a little icons like I can see each stage of the image so I don't have to like, read what they are. I can say, oh, I want to go back to our roughly that stage and just click there. Alternatively, you can simply use Control Z to Undo or click the undo or redo buttons up here. The crop tool in Krita is right there. It's pretty straightforward. You just click and drag. You can adjust these handles to get your cropping. Push Enter when you're done. And there you go. The zoom tool is down here, the magnifying glass. I can click and it zooms in. Or I can hold control and click and it zooms out. You can click and draw a selection like this, and it will zoom to that selection. And remember once again, you can right-click and use the zoom feature here with this slider. And speaking of navigation, pushing spacebar will allow you to navigate like that. Or you can simply click this hand icon and it does the same thing. I never like to click the hand icon though spacebar is such a handy shortcut for that, usually I'll be like on the brush tool and spacebar will allow me to move around while still having the brush tool active. The gradient tool is right here and at the top here you have your preset gradient patterns create a defaults to a transparent. And by the way, Crito also uses a checker box to indicate transparency. So a default is your color too transparent? So if I pick this bright green, I can click and drag and I have that same effect that I hadn't Photoshop. Of course you could click this and pick other patterns. This one oddly doesn't respond to any colour I have here, which is odd. But you can go in here, click Edit, and now you can manually configure exactly how you want this gradient tool to look. This is the type of stuff you just wanna play around with. But honestly I never used that. I always use the default which is foreground color too transparent. The shapes that the gradient takes can be adjusted at the bottom right, change it to radial and it's now like that circle effect. And it's even got this cool reverse box which will invert how the gradient works. That's pretty cool. And by the way, a lot of the tools adjustments are down here versus at the top, like they were in Photoshop. So if I click the paint bucket tool, I have all of its properties at the lower right, but that's just where I've put the window. I could I could have put that window anywhere. Okay. Moving on to the selection tools in Krita. They are down here at the bottom. This is the box selector. Make a selection. If you want to move that around, click on the Move tool, which is that guy right there. Move this around. You can push Control T, Just like Photoshop to excess scale tools. And we can scale freehand by default, or you can hold shift and scale uniformly. Moving off the handle will turn it into a rotate feature. And again, just like Photoshop, you could right-click and you have things like perspective, which allows you to warp it around. Notice you can only do one of these things at a time. Like if I were in Free Transform and I rotated it and then went to perspective, it resets my rotation. What you have to do is go to free rotate, do it, hit apply, then push Control T again, then go back in, hit your perspective and you can do it this way. It's a little bit more cumbersome. Also, instead of pushing control T, you can simply click this icon next to the Move tool, and it brings up the same controls to de-select that you can go to Select, de-select. And by the way, while we're here, created also gives you the shortcut, which in this case is control shift a. There's also a reselect option which is pretty handy sometimes. Anyway, your other selection tools are here. You've got your circle. You can hold shift and add more selections. You can hold Alt and take away selections, just like Photoshop. Here's your free hand one. There are also default actions down here. For example, if I click this second one and made a selection, the overlapping area will become my new selection. See that? And you have different ones you can play with, although I just usually keep it on the first one. This tool here is like the magic wand tool in Photoshop. It's called the continuous color selector. And Krita, continuous just means connected colors. So as I pick this white colour, it'll pick all the connected white pixels. If I sampled this blue colour, it will sample all the connected blue pixels. There are some interesting features down here like grow or shrink selection. Let's grow it. Select a white pixel that you can see it's selected beyond the borders. This actually can come in handy often in paint. Well, see if a situation arises where I can use that later on in this lesson when I do an actual painting in Krita, the only other selection tool I use is this one which gives me those Beziers handles that we saw in Photoshop. And of course, much like Photoshop, I could go to the brush tool and paint within that selection. By the way, if I zoom in here a little bit, you can soften the edges of your selections by going up to select feathers selection. Some reason the window has jumped over here, but you can set the feather radius to say, let's say 13 pixels. Now when I paint into it, you can see that there's a soft edge around that selection. Photoshop has the same feature and it's basically located in the same spot. I just forgot to show it. I'll try and show it when I actually do a painting in Photoshop later in this lesson. Speaking of similarities with Photoshop and other tool you have in Krita is this eyedropper tool. We know already that it allows you to sample a color. But if you go down here to your options box, you can change this radius value to say whatever you want, ten pixels. And now what it will do, it will sample a radius of ten pixels and average those colors together. This can be really handy if you have a lot of like gritty texture or spectrally brushstrokes where it's unreliable just to sample a single pixel. You can also change the Blending. So at 48%, which is what I just said it to there. When I sample it, it'll blend my sample 48% with my initial color. Let's choose a red color, which is the opposite of green and sample is green. You can see that it basically moved 48% toward where that green actually is, which is way over here. To my knowledge, Photoshop doesn't have a tool like that. And I think that's a pretty interesting new development on the eye dropper tool. Okay, a couple of final things I failed to mention. When you have your brush selected, you can change the opacity of your brush up here and your foreground and background colors are located here. If you wanted to, you could choose one of them and select your color. But obviously it's much handy or to just select it here or use this handy pop-up selector here. And by the way, in this pop-up selector, your background color is kinda sneakily hidden right there. A quick way of changing it is to actually select the foreground color and then just click this arrow and swap them. Now the color I just selected for my foreground has become my background. And I can continue to select my foreground color. Most of the time though, you're probably only going to be worried about your foreground color because that's what you paint with and that's what the gradient tool uses in the paint bucket tool and so on. It's pretty rare that I'm ever worried about what my background color actually is. Okay, so that about wraps it up for the toolbar in Krita. Let's move on now to procreate. 8. Tools: Procreate: Alright, so procreate doesn't really have a tools bar, at least not in the tradition of Photoshop and Krita. Its tools are scattered throughout that top bar. You see there currently I have the brush tool active, which means I can just draw. If I want to undo, I can click this little arrow right there. The brush size is controlled here and the brush opacity there. And by the way, you also have a redo feature here. So if you click on the Brush icon while it's active, you get your brush selections and procreate is laid out nicely. I've got sketching, inking, drawing, calligraphy, painting. It's pretty self-explanatory. Pick a brush you want and go ahead and paint with it. This tool to the right of the brushes is the smudge tool. And once again, if you click on it while it's already active, I can pick an appropriate smudge tool brush. I want something thicker, so maybe in the painting box, let's just go with this flat brush. And I can smudge with the flat brush in all three of these softwares I'm showing there are ways to customize your brushes, but I'll talk about that in the brushes section. Smudge tool, by the way, also has opacity and size on the same slider control on the left, this is the eraser tool. Right now I've got a pencil brush selected for that tool. Again, I can click the eraser, select a larger brush and erase that way, controlling size and opacity again over here. To make a selection in procreate, you choose this button that kinda looks like an S, S for selection, I guess by default it gets you to the free-hand selection tool so I can draw myself a little shape. And to make that selection active, I have to choose one of these options at the bottom. So I'll click Add. This basically adds that shape to my selected area. So for example, I can make another shape, push, add again, or make another shape push, remove and it removes it again. Pretty self-explanatory. If I wanted to say paint inside my selection, I now click on the brush and go ahead and paint. And it's painting clipped to my selection. Once I'm finished with my selection, I can click the button again to turn it off and I'm back to my full canvas. Let me just change the color for some variety here. Whenever I paint these abstract canvasses, they get real boring. Sorry about that. I promised they'll get more interesting later when I actually do real paintings with these three pieces of software, let's go back into the selection tool. I've got my rectangular selectors, my ellipse selectors. If I click the feather button, I can change the softness of the edge of my selection. It's a bit hard to see, but if I go into my brush tool here, you can see how it's fading away just like we saw with Krita. You could also make a selection. Then click this arrow tool, which turns it into a scalar or a rotator, you can click the distort option and distorts. You can warp it. All of the stuff we saw in the previous two examples, free form, which is just another scaling mode that's non uniform like this. You could flip your selection horizontal and vertical and rotate it and all this fun stuff. And of course there's a handy reset button there in case you don't like what you did. And then to exit out of that, just again, click the arrow tool. Let me go back into the selection to a real quick. The other thing to note about the free-hand selector, Yes, I could draw a shape like this or if I push clear to get rid of that, I can simply tap and it makes a point by point selection, like the polygonal Lasso Tools we've seen previously. The other toolbar related thing to look at if you go to the wrench icon, this is where the crop tool is, assuming I'm on the canvas link here I can go to crop and resize, and I can drag these handles to crop my image. I could also add Canvas space if I want by dragging beyond the borders. But if I just go in there, I could use this handy rotation tool if I want, then if I like my changes, I can hit done. And there we have our freshly cropped canvas. You might have noticed there's no paint bucket tool and procreate, but filling a color is easy. Let me just go select a different color. All you do is drag that red color I just picked from the little color dot on the upper right. Just drag onto the canvas and there's your color fill. By the way, there's a hidden little feature here. Let's say I click that color and changed it and clicked away. If I simply tapped and help my finger on that button, it changes back to my previous color. That's something I didn't know about for a long time. And that is about it for the toolbar related stuff in procreate. And that also wraps up this chapter. Let's move on now to talk about brushes. 9. Brushes: Photoshop: Digital brushes. This is a bit of a fiery topic in that you can waste a lot of time trying to find just that one right brush to give you my opinion, right up front, there is no such thing as just that right brush. Or maybe another way to say it is, many brushes can be great depending on how you use them. So let's get into it. As you know, this is the brush window here in Photoshop. You can resize them to get more display out of it like this, there are organized into handy little folders. Now if you're just new to Photoshop, your brush window will look different than this. These are brushes I've collected over the years that I randomly have kept. Some of them are preloaded with Photoshop. Some of them I've downloaded or purchased from other artists. This class comes with a set of my personal brushes and I really recommend you start with them also just so we're on the same page for this tutorial and to import them, click on this little box here, go to Import brushes. Click on the file you received with this class markup, UCI underscore, brush pack, hit load. And you can see my folder has been added here. If you unfurl the folder and ignore this warning, you might not even get this warning, By the way, but I'll hit OK. And here's a set of brushes that I use on a day-to-day basis. It's not every brush I use because again, I've purchased some of my brushes and I can't sell them. Obviously, that would be illegal, but these are brushes that I own and I'm happy to share with you as a viewer of this class, I'll need a new canvas obviously. So just File New and I'll just hit OK and move my workspace around accordingly. Now you may have noticed I have the brush tool activated here. And you see that icon, the brush icon. Now you see the brushes in my pack. They all share that same brush icon. That means that these brushes are specific to the brush tool. For example, if I clicked on this smudge tool and then clicked on one of my brushes, it defaults me back to the brush tool because this brush is only made to be used with the brush tool. I can scroll through some of my other brushes, like these brushes here I downloaded from artists A1 Zona, a great digital artist. These brushes don't have an icon, which means they can be used with any tool. So like let's say I painted something, switched to the smudge tool. I could click this brush and use it with the smudge tool. And I could use that same brush as an eraser as irregular brush because it has no icon. It's available to all the tools. Other times you'll find tools that are specific to other mark making tools like the smudge tool, say like this one here you see it has the smudge tool icon. That means that if I click that brush, it's going to be a smudge tool only, whereas this one here is specific to the brush tool. A handy little feature of this top row of brushes. This shows you your previous choices. It's like a brush history. So the last tool I used was that smudge tool, right? If I wanted again, I can easily reselect it. Okay, another anxiety inducing piece, I suppose about brushes is a question, Oh, how do I make my own brushes? And while i will show you how to customize and even make your own brush, I think it's a better use of your time to simply acquire brushes that have already been made. And this is what I personally do all the time. I haven't made my own brush honestly and about ten years and I have some good news. If you are a Photoshop CC subscriber, which is the only way to legally use Photoshop. You can click this button, say get more brushes. And it'll take you to Adobe's website where you can log in and access all these brush packs. There's a brilliant brush maker by the name of Kyle Webster, and these are all his kits. There is just such a wide variety of them, you will absolutely be able to find what you're looking for here. And if you have Photoshop, you should get your hands on a lot of these and just try them out. I personally like to have brushes that fall into three different categories. Category one is something I can draw with. I really like drawing with my tapered flat brush. It's essentially a calligraphy brush in that the weight of the line can change with pressure and the way you're curving the line, this is a very controllable brush to draw with. It's also good for shading if I raise the brush size and just quickly throw a tone in there, let's say this were a box in weird perspective I was drawing. I could fill in my tone here and then a little shadow on the bottom. I could just go over it with a shadow. I really like this brush for quick drawing. It's also good for very refined drawing as well. This is my website when I work on children's books like this one for Disney, I do all my refs with that one brush. These are all drawings done with the tapered flat brush. Another brush I really like for drawing is my marker brush, which is down here. Similar idea. It just gives me some very controllable lines and it has the softness of a felt tip marker. You can also add values here. And the nice thing about this is if you go over your stuff twice, it gets darker and darker and darker faced on the color I have selected. But with this market brush, you can also go lighter like this. So that's Category one, clean lines. Category number two is some brushes with a simple texture, say like this. This is my impasto brush. It feels like heavy oil paints on a textured canvas or something. It's a little more dirty and gritty than my tapered flat brush or my marker. And we get a little texture on the painting as a result. But it's still very controllable. It's like a big chunk and I can easily carve out shapes with it. So let's category number two is something a little grittier, but still quite controllable. And a lot of my brushes fall into that category. Like here's my OIL brush. It's got oil hairs on it like a bristle brush you'd traditionally by an art store. Here's another one that I've called the flat texture, that more texture to this. But again, it's still a chunky shape that's very controllable, or at least I think it's very controllable. I really like the good old hard round brush. This one doesn't have much texture at all. And this is actually, is actually belongs in category number one, if I'm honest, this is a very controllable drawing brush that I use a lot to draw with. Here's a rake brush and you can see the icon of the brush shows you the brush shape, the way digital media handles brushes is there like stamps, like if I took this and just clicked, you can see that it's just repeating that one stamp like it. Sure. Sometimes it rotates and stuff, but in general, it's just this one stamp repeated over and over. And when you click and drag a brushstroke, you can see those repetitions. In general, the smaller the brush, the better it will look, because the smaller brush is, the less you can detect those repetitions. Here's a brush I use all the time every single day. And I mean that quite literally this is my chalky brush. Again, category number two. It has some texture on it, but it's very controllable. You've probably noticed I like chunky square style brushes. This is no doubt because I was originally trained as an oil painter. And my favorite oil brushes were those flat bristle brushes. For some reason I just find them very controllable. Okay, category number three is extreme texture. Brush here called the Elana brush, made by my friend Ellen up and over more than ten years ago. Now, geez, she's given me permission to include this in my brush kit. By the way, I would say this is a pretty aggressive textured brush and I hope you can see how this is a bit less controllable, the strokes that makes her more incidental, and that can be good for many things. Of course, we'll do paintings together in the next section of this class. You know, after I finished discussing features and all that. But yeah, this brush makes some really nice varied strokes. Here's one I called sticks, which makes a bunch of stick like strokes by guess. And you notice all of these brushes, I can change the opacity based on how hard I push. Like, for example, right now I'm pressing very softly and now I'm pressing hard. Some brushes also react to size depending on how hard I press, like my tapered flap rush right now I'm pressing lightly and now I'm pressing harder. You see the size changed as well as the opacity, the window to customize all of that is in the window, brush Settings window. In fact, it's probably a good idea to pin this window here as a tab because these two often do go hand in hand. Essentially the brushes window is where you select your brush and the brush settings is where you can alter that brush. You can also select a brushes in the brush Settings window, but as you can see, they're not very organized. I currently have my tapered flap rushed elected. And at the bottom here you can see a sample brushstroke as to what that tapered flat brush looks like. The place to link opacity to your pen pressure is in the transfer mode, which has to be clicked on. And once it's clicked on, your opacity jitter has to be set to pen pressure, which it is already on this brush because I've set it up that way. If this were off or the whole checkbox was off, my pen pressure has no bearing on the opacity of the stroke. I'm pressing very lightly on my tablet right now and I'm still getting a very dark stroke. So turn this on, turn it to pen pressure. And we have the opacity control. And you can see by the way, this updates when I turn this off, you can see that the entire stroke has updated to be equal opacity. Whereas when I turn this depend pressure, it tapers. The size of the brush can be controlled and shaped dynamics. Turn this on and again turn this top one to pen pressure. This will make it so a soft touch is thinner and a heavy touch is thicker. You can change the minimum diameter. So if I push this all the way at the bottom, a soft touches very thin versus a heavy touch being much thicker. I think I had this brush sets somewhere over here. Brush Settings window is very handy, so Angle Jitter, you might wonder what that does. Well, turn it up and look at the preview down here. It kind of scatterers each stroke to kinda go haywire. Let's turn that back down and turn up the roundness jitter. Look at that. That's kind of interesting. Maybe I'd use that for some kinda weird digital screen texture or something. You can see the possibilities of this window and this is just with one brush. And of course you can go through and enable any of these boxes like scattering, which is turned off here, but let's turn it on. Currently the sliders are all set to 0, so effectively nothing will change. But if I turn up the scatter, you can see what it does. It just takes that brush stamp and well, scatters it. Alright, I'm gonna go back to the brushes tab and select my regular round brush. Say this guy right here. This, as you can see from the brush icon, is just the basic round brush. It doesn't get more basic than this. As I make various brushstrokes, you can see that round brush is pretty smooth. But watch this, I'll go into the brush settings and here's where you can adjust the repeatability of that stamp. Go into the brush tip shape up here, and it's under spacing right now it's at 12%. If I turn that up, each stamp get spaced out wider. This is one continuous brushstroke you're seeing. This is obviously not great for smooth painting, but let's say I enabled scattering and turn that way up. Click this both axes box and change the color real quick. And now I have a interesting little scatter brush. I could go into color dynamics. And by the way, they hue, saturation and brightness. And now I have a real sprinkler Lee Donuts scatter brush. And by the way, if you're unfamiliar with what hue saturation and brightness refers to. Here is a little handy chart. And I can really roof these sliders for craziness like this. And what I find really nice about digital brushes as digital and fake as this looks. Let me go back in here and grab a smudge tool. The second you start smudging the stuff, it takes what looked digital and repetitive, and it kinda starts giving it a more traditional feel almost instantly. But even this brush is getting a bit repetitive on me. Those spikes are a bit repetitive I find. So I'll go hunting for a different brush to use as my smudge tool. Look at this one. It's more of an organic like trippy paint kinda smudge tool. This, in my opinion, is where you can get real powerful with digital media and make it look like traditional media. Here's one of my paintings that was completely done with the brushes we've just seen. If I zoom in on this, the brushes I just showed you, I can see some round brushes in there. Oh, look, there's my OIL brush that I showed you, but the strokes are smudged and mixed together very gesturally. That's all done with the smudge tool here on the iris through recognized that Brush. That was the let's see if I can find it. This one here. That was my flat texture brush. It was this guy. You can see how that's the same brush, right? And I didn't smudge that one too much. I left that pretty hard. And you notice I switched my brushes a lot like this iris was painted, like I just said, with the flat texture brush, but this iris was not. I painted that with what looks like the round brush with digital. I really find that sticking to one brush only will give you that undesirable, repetitious look. I really rebelled against that, which is why I said the advice I did a few minutes ago. It's good to have a lot of brushes. And playing around with a lot of brushes can give you the look you want much more so than just sticking to one brush. Again, that's just my opinion though. Going back here, the only real difference between this and the owl painting you just saw is the painting has drawing applied to it, whereas this is just purely abstract. But as far as the Brush Tools go as basically the same thing, just want to show you a couple more interesting brush settings. If you click on my Eleanor brush and go into the brush settings, it uses this thing called dual brush. And if I click it off, look at the bottom here. If I click it off, you can see that that negative space kinda goes away. Dual brush essentially takes a second brush and uses it to kind of subtract away from the initial brush. Like if I clicked on that brush, somehow it's using that brush shape to eat into a cleaner brush shape. I guess that's why it's called dual brush. You kinda get the effect of two brushes combining in some way. So you can see like the one beneath it is more stick like if I clicked it, I get those sticks kind of impacting the brush shape and this is the result. So dual brush can be a very versatile way to make a one brush look like many different brushes. And this is where you can really design your own brushes. I recommend starting with the simple brushes that Photoshop already provides and then just customizing them here. Anyway, the other setting I sometimes use, let me go to my chalky brush and back into the brush settings. This one does not use dual brush to achieve its texture. It uses the texture tab. With the texture tab, you can pick from a series of preset textures and adjust various properties. And again, it updates at the bottom. So my texture brush has a modest bit of texture applied. It looks like the less you have depth, the more texture it gives it. So here's my chalky brush with less depth and the texture. And if I just ramp that up, it becomes more smooth. And the only other setting I want to show you, let me just grab a hard brush. This is a very basic round brush. One setting I use often to augment brushes like this as I simply turn on wet edges, I'll turn this on and off and you can look at the bottom to see what it's doing. What it is doing is it's making the middle of it translucence. Let me pick a color and put this in here. And you can see how the middle of that brush, where it was opaque before, is now transparent or translucent. And if you look closely, there's a tiny little bead of opacity around the edge. This is Photoshopped trying to simply mimic the way what pigment dries on paper. If you've painted watercolor before, this will be very familiar to you how the pigment kinda pools around the outside. And now this is a very limited simulation of that, but that's what the wet edges setting does. It does add some variety to an otherwise basic brush and I do use it a lot. Okay, let me finally show you how to make a brush of your own. Here on Google, I just searched for texture and here's a cool one. Let me right-click, hit Copy. And then in Photoshop I can hit File New, hit OK, and it'll paste in there. I'm gonna make this my brush shape. What I wanna do is add a little bit of white around the edges. So I'll get my crop tool expanded a little bit of my background color is white already, so there we go. I'll grab my eraser and erase this. I have kind of a textured eraser setting which is perfect for this, give this brush some ragged edges with it. What I'm basically designing is a single stamp of this brush. What does that stamp look like? And this stamp would in theory get repeated over and over as I then use this brush. But you'll see how this works. I want to get rid of any hard line around the outline, so I'm using my eraser rather aggressively here. So there we go. Now we're getting somewhere. Let's increase the contrast, image adjustments, brightness contrast. Let's just ramp this up like that. Photoshop will make the white pixels transparent and the black pixels opaque. So I kinda want a good range of those two camps here. Hit OK when I'm done, let me grab my tapered flat brush and kind of put some ragged scratches in this brush like this is a totally imperfect brush. Okay, how about something like this? Once you're done here, go to Edit, Define Brush Preset, call it whatever you want. My new brush hit OK, and there's my new brush. I'll go into my old canvas here. The brush has automatically selected, and if I just click, there's the texture I've just made. Of course, I could change this to any color right? Now. This is where you might want to go into your brush settings and all of this is turned off. So I might want to control my opacity was my stylist which is here, turn on my Shape Dynamics set that depend pressure maybe changed the minimum diameter, which I like to do, maybe a touch of scattering just a little, little bit. And of course it's nice to just make a few brushstrokes with this. It looks a bit too smooth. So how would if I went to brush tip shape and change the spacing a little bit, a little more. Maybe you get a different color. Okay, there we go. Now that texture starting to come through, how would if I hit it with a bit more texture, with the texture tab, something like this. Maybe scale it down so that texture repeats less. And there we go. That's pretty interesting. So CL quickly, I just made my own brush. Now be careful here if you select a different brush and then go back to your brush, all that hard work has gone. So I'll show you how to save it. Let's just put a couple of things on it like we had before. Just some random stuff to show you. There we go. Go back into your brushes. Click this button, make sure include Tool Settings is turned on. And the first one is, well, make sure include color is off. This will make sure the brush just assumes whatever color you currently have selected. Give it a name. I'll go with that one for now. Hit, okay, and now this one comes saved with all your settings. I'll take that one and simply trash it, it OK. And there's my brush there, and of course everything is still editable, right? I can change my mind on any of these settings. And there we have a rundown of how brushes work in Photoshop. It's not too dissimilar in other apps, but let's get going now with Krita. 10. Brushes: Krita: Okay, so here in credo, we've already established that the software already comes pre-loaded with tons of great brushes. Now unfortunately with Krita, you can't import my brushes. Create a simply doesn't allow for that format. So right off the bat here I wanna cover how to import custom brushes that other artists have made for Krita. If you do a Google search for free Crito brushes, you'll probably come upon the sight of David ReVoice. This is his creative brush kit version 8.2. If you scroll down, it's got all the brushes in the packets, got pencils and erasers and pens and paint brushes and all kinds of cool effects. And you can download it for free. You can also support him on patria and up here anyway, get to the bottom of our all the graphics are, you can download it. Now back in Crete, uh, to import a downloaded brush kit, go to settings, manage resources, and you will have a window that looks like this. You will not have these deep bad brushes because that's the pack I just downloaded. I've already imported them here. To import them yourself though, simply go to Import bundles, pick the bundle file you just downloaded, hit Open, and then make sure that bundle, which in this case is this one in the act of bundles box, not the inactive bundles box. This is also by the way, how you would deactivate certain brushes. Just take this one, push the side arrow here, and it would go into the inactive set, but we want them to be in the active set. If you click the David brushes there and go to brush presets, you can see all the brushes we just downloaded for free. And David revoice is just one of many artists who provide free Crito brushes. Always consider supporting these artists on Patreon. Okay, so you would hit okay, I'm just gonna hit cancel because I've already imported them. And if I click on All Now I have these david brushes here. Okay? You don't have to use that. Of course, I'm just gonna click myself over to the sketch category. And here's a default Krita pencil, much like we've seen. You can sketch with it. Undo is this button here or Control Z, right-click, we'll bring up the menu. Different brushes will have different levels of texture pre-loaded in them. And once again, I really find these more visual graphics really handy when it comes to evaluating a brush before you select it. Photoshop is always not been ideal in that regard. Head on over to the paint set. Now this is where something interesting occurs. This brush here, of course, will allow me to paints a color in a pretty standard way. But some of these brushes have these little water icons. I'll pick this one here to show you. The water icons denote blending capabilities, almost like photoshops, smudge tool. So you can see as I put this stroke down, it's interacting with that turquoise color I have on the canvas. If I decrease the opacity, let me just pick a different color. It essentially affects how much pigment is on the brush. So less opacity will turn this more into a pure blending brush and moral capacity. I'll get that color that I have selected, being more influential on the mix. Right away. This really looks like traditional paint. And just like Photoshop, you have different brush presets like this looks like a sort of a soft, Well, the icon is a Q-tip, so it's kind of a soft Q-Tip like cotton surface, true to acute dip, it does not seem to hold much pigment even though my opacity is at a 100% here, say I'm picking a color and that green is just barely showing up, if at all. We'll try a different blending brush here. When it comes in at a 100% opacity, it's pretty strong. Elect to decrease the opacity almost by default. That's kind of like my first instinctual move when I use a blending brush and Krita is to decrease the opacity to somewhere in the seventies or eighties. That seems to be a sweet spot. I really like this rake blender. Again, I'll decrease the opacity on it. This really reminds me of a lot of the rake like tools I have in my traditional painting setup where I use like old toothbrushes and literal plastic wake up rushes to get all kinds of effects just like this. It's almost like crosshatching, but with paint. Here's a palette knife blending tool. Really interesting effects you can get. And again, this brush doesn't seem to hold any of it's own color. But if I choose more of a standard paint brush like that, it will. It's funny, even though I recommended putting the brushes on the right. More and more of these days I find myself simply clicking on this button and accessing the same folder. I don't know for some reason I just find this really handy. Be sure to check out the ink brushes. There's so many really cool drawing tools here. One that creates almost a little accidental calligraphic patterns, really, really appealing. Or if you want something more standard like a pen tip, you can go with something like this. This will just give you exactly what you expect, very responsive to. I actually find the brushes and Krita in general a little more responsive than Photoshop. And we're talking like milliseconds here. And I'm running a fairly fast machine two, and I still notice a difference between Krita AND photoshop created being faster. And much like we saw in Photoshop. If you want to erase, instead of using your stylist is eraser. Simply go up here, go to the eraser category and just choose an eraser brush and erase away. Okay, it's time to talk about customizing your brushes. One thing you might have noticed as I just used my eraser tool is that it's a very hard eraser and I don't really like that. I want my tablet pressure to affect my eraser tool. So if you click on the Brush icon you're using up here, it brings up the most complicated looking window known to man. The Crito designers must have been on break that day, but okay, let's make some sense of this. This entire window is concerning. This eraser brush. It's the brush you have active. If I want to enable the opacity of the brush and link it to my pen pressure. I would go to the opacity tab and click enable pen settings. Pressure is already clicked on. Many brushed settings are controlled with these curves. Just like in Photoshop, you get a preview of your stroke up here. So if I just adjust this curve, you can get a sense of what it's doing. You also have a little handy brushstroke window here. Although this is odd because I'm using an eraser, this is works better with a brush tool, but for now, we can adjust it this way. Once you're happy with your brush adjustment, you can say safe to New Brush, Preset or overwrite the brush. I'm gonna hit overwrite in this case because I always want this eraser to have this property. So overwrite. Now this eraser responds to pressure and because I overwrote the brush, it'll remain that way even if I went to a different brush and then returned to that eraser. Alright, let's try this with a regular brush though I've picked this sort of marker style brush, I'll click into that settings window here. Brush tip is the first one, and that's where you might want to start. And by the way, now we can get a sense for what this scratch board does. Click the red button to reset it. It's very handy here. You can simply change the default size of the brush. The ratio will control its width, x versus y ratio essentially. So by turning it down, I've almost got more of a calligraphic style brush. You can unlink horizontal and vertical and sort of change the opacity of the brush depending on its X or Y axis. This is kind of interesting. In fact, I think in this case it looks more like an actual marker. This way, the angle setting changes the rotation of the brush. And once again, you're looking at these previews up here, right? As I change the angle, you can see what it's doing and then use a scratch board to verify it. Or really uses scratch port to feel it out. Density controls, I guess you can think of it as how much pigment is on the brush. So as I turn down density, it's almost like this marker's dying, although it's a very digital simulation of that, I guess. So let's turn this backup for now, and I'll turn a few of these back here. The mask type can help soften the brush a little bit. I'm on the soft setting here, but usually default is fine. Okay, we've already established to add opacity. You would go in here and make sure this is on and you can adjust your curve. Krita also gives you some preset curves to play around with. You add a point by accident and want to delete it, just drag it aggressively off the frame. The other major setting of any brush would be its size. We want the size to be affected by the pressure as well. So I just clicked on size. So size is the property we're controlling and you can control it now via all of these inputs. I just wanted to be controlled by pressure, which is the most common one. So pressure is active and I can change the curve and get my nice update here. I'll just clear that off and see if I like it. Maybe I wanted to go a little even thinner, so I'll go like this and there we go. That's kind of what I want out of my marker. You could of course enable any of these and change their curves. Although when you do, I do recommend clicking off this share curve across all settings. Click that off. Unfortunately, that means I have to reset this curve. But then if I say clicked on a different one, I have a unique curve by which to edit that input property. Okay, when it comes to the color modes, you can get a little crazy here, if I clicked on, say, saturation, I can control the saturation of the brush based on pressure in this case, and you can see what it's doing. If I press lightly, there's no saturation. I press hard, there's saturation of the color. This is interesting. It's nice that you can do that. I'm not sure exactly when I would do that, but hey, it's cool to have that feature and now you basically know how it works, right? So even though this window looks needlessly complicated, it is actually quite simple. It's the same workflow over and over. The textures can be interesting. Oh, and by the way, you can unfurl these to make it a little cleaner to look at. But anyway, it, let's unfurled texture, turn on pattern. And now I can pick any of these patterns which would affect what my brush looks like. This is obviously quite Digital looking, so be careful when you're using patterns to control the strength of the pattern. It's under the Options tab here you can scale it, change the brightness or contrast in with these curves. You can make it a little less noticeable. And okay, I think that concludes our overview of the brush editor window. We'll just click out of it here. And this is what's nice about Krita. It's only got the one brush tool, unlike Photoshop that had the smudge tool and the mixer brush tool and the regular brush tool and the pencil tool here, you just got one except for this guy right here, which honestly I have never used in my life. But you can pretty clearly see what it does. It might be good for making like wallpaper patterns or something, or like a bathroom tile texture you could repeat and warp and perspective. Anyway, let's move on now to procreate. 11. Brushes: Procreate: Ok, here in procreate, I'll open with some good news. You can import Photoshop brushes here. Now, doing so as a bit of a headache, the best way I found to do it is to access the Dropbox folder where the file is. I've provided a link for this. You'll need the Dropbox app. Unfortunately, anyway, here in Dropbox with the file active, Click on the top right icon here, say export, and then scroll over here and say copy to procreate. Now we're back in procreate and it's importing. Once that's done, click on the Brush tool and you'll find a markup UCI brush pack right at the top. And this is great. All the icons are preserved. Beautiful little previews of each brush. And I'm happy to say the quality of each brush is perfectly preserved. Brush looks exactly like it did in Photoshop. It automatically responds to pen pressure and stuff like that. Let's go back into the Brush tool. Let's get my texture guy brush out. This one has some scattering on it and yep, the scattering comes through and procreate just like it does in Photoshop. Okay. Now, do you need my brushes? No, of course not. Procreate has so many good brushes. I'd probably venture to say between the three apps we're looking at in this class, procreate comes pre-loaded with the most expansive brush set. I'm not gonna say best because I don't think there is a best. But in terms of pure selection right out of the box, procreate has it hands down, and as you can see, it's organized just so clearly procreates interface is bar none the easiest to follow. Just intuitively, I like this burst brush a lot by the way, it reminds me of when you're emptying a traditional airbrushed by spraying out the excess paint and you get all those fun little dots. Now the brushes you'll find here in the brush tool are all that stamp style brush, you know, like I described in Photoshop. It's a single stamp that gets repeated over and over and that's how you get your brush stroke. If you want a more smudgy style brush, the smudge tool is just to the right of the brush tool right here. Click on it again to access its brushes and we get all the same brushes is just now procreate is using this as a smudge tool. Okay, let's now talk about customizing your brushes. Let me go back into the Brush tool here. Click on it again to bring up the menu. I've got my acrylic brush selected. If I want to modify that, I would click that acrylic brush. Again. This brings up the brush studio window. Just like in Krita. I have my scratchpad here on the right. And unlike Krita, this window is very straightforward and intuitive. I can raise the spacing and it turns into dots. Oh, and I love this update as I change it, it updates the strokes. That is a feature I didn't even realize I was missing until I saw it here in procreate. This is just great look at this. It makes customizing brushes so easy. I really like the fall off feature, so it starts strong and then falls off. You can obviously change how much fall off you want. But I really, really like the fall off feature. Let's go over a few more of these settings together. I'll select my Eagle Hawk brush, which is a great brush for obvious preview I find in the taper settings here you can set it for pressure up here. It's like editing that curve in Krita. How hard you have to press the brush for difference sizes in the shape box, you can make things look a little bit more organic by increasing the scattering, which kind of affects the edge of the brush, kind of randomizes it almost one setting I really like for that is the count mixed with count jitter. This will kind of make each edge slightly different, which of course is more similar to how we experience it in traditional media. Now you can change the grain. Notice that live update is really helping us see the differences. Scale is larger, the texture is effectively more blurry and digital. So I recommend using a smaller scale with most brushes, the depth will essentially control how much of that texture is even visible. Photoshop also had a depth slider, and it's nice to also be able to control the brightness and contrast of your texture just to really fine tune its look. Jumping down here to the color dynamics. We've seen this in Photoshop. You can just have the brush sort of play in and out of different hues, saturations. If you really ramped these up, you can see how it's kind of with each stamp it's changing the hue, saturation and lightness. In this case, it isn't nice sometimes to have just a little bit of change. I don't like much Hugh change, but I do sometimes have a bit of saturation and just a touch of lightness change again in the name of mimicking traditional media. And of course, if you don't care about that, then more power to you. You might still like the setting for the variety it gives you, and it gives you that variety for free. You don't even have to think about it. But don't overdo that because it's really easy to have a brush that becomes unusable with too many of those settings. Stroke color, jitter down here. I've honestly never use this. I'm not quite sure what it does, but anyway, it's there. You can play with it. Then your color pressure changes, how much color is revealed or how much saturation or brightness is revealed based on your brush pressure. We saw a similar feature in Krita. I want to show you one more really cool brush setting. Let me just go pick my OIL brush here to show you. So double-tap on it, bring up the brush studio. Right now. It just acts normally as you'd expect. But check this out. If I go to the wet mix tab and I turn the settings up somewhere or roughly here, I've kinda memorize these settings, the sliders around there, the sliders a little greater around their attack is very low, like maybe three or 4%. And the pole value is very high. Let's see. I think grade should go up a little bit to what we get now is a brush that starts out as a brush but turns into a smudgy brush, which is what the wet mix category implies, Like it turns into a wet brush kind of watch this. If I push done and I go back to my canvas here, I can make single strokes and it acts kind of as a regular brush. But if I click and keep at stroke going, it turns into a smudge tool. And the settings we just adjusted in the brush studio menu determine how quickly it turns into that smudge tool. So this is kind of a best of both worlds type of situation here. And it's something you might want to explore and your brush creations as well. And one other really cool brush feature I want to show you when it comes to smudge tool versus brush tool. If I go back into the gesture controls and go to the top smudge option, this top one here, a finger will always smudge if I turn that on, hit done. Now watch this. I have just a regular hard brush selected there and I'm picking up my Apple Pencil right now, I'm using my Apple Pencil. It makes a regular brushstroke. But watch this. Now I'm using my finger and it smudges this to me is a very intuitive way of negotiating the brush tool versus the smudge tool. Now the smudge tool doesn't use the round brush I have selected. It uses the smudge brush I have selected, in this case the wet acrylic brush. So, so just keep that in mind. Alright, with that, we are finished our exploration of brushes, although some related information is coming up in the next chapter, which is all about layers. 12. Layers: Photoshop: Alright, so layers will really round out this chapter as it's basically the other window I have on screen at all times in photoshop when you make a new canvas like I just did here, it starts you off with a background of background is simply a canvas set to whites in this case, and it's just the single default layer you start with. To make a new layer, click this little button here, and remember that checkerboard thing that I said signifies transparency. While layers always come in transparent if I were to hide the background by clicking this eyeball, you can see that my entire canvas is now that checkerboard implying that this whole thing is transparent, I'll just go get a brush here to paint with. When you have a layer selected, you can paint on it. Oh, and by the way, in my Layers view, I'd like to go in here, flick on panel options, and by default, Photoshop will be on this one. I like to increase the box size. This is how Photoshop will display your layers in the Layers window. And also I change it from entire document, which is the default to layer bounds C. If it's on entire document, it shows the whole canvas in this tiny thumbnail, but I only want to know what's on my layer. So going back in here, change it to layer bounds. It, clips it to just these blue brushstrokes I just made. If I made more brushstrokes up here, my graphic would update accordingly. Okay, I'll reveal the Background layer by simply clicking It's eyeball. And just for fun, let's put a few brushstrokes on it. First of all, notice it goes behind layer one because it's underneath it here in the Layers window. If I were to select layer one just by clicking on it, go to my move tool. I could move this around. I could also push Control T and rotate it and scale it and do all the things we saw in the tools section of this class. And of course I can just click this button again to make another layer of paint on it and do all the same stuff. If I wanted layer two to be underneath Layer one, just drag it down there and there you have it. Layers become really handy when you want to apply filters. So if I have layer one selected and I go to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur, I can blurred just that layer to merge layers hold shift and select the layers you want to merge and push Control E. Or I could select the two of them and go to layer merge layers. If I wanted to merge every layer, I could go to layer flattened image and now everything gets collapsed into that one background layer. Of course, when layers are collapsed like that, you can no longer edit them individually. There is no restriction as to the amount of layers you can have, although I suppose and artificial restriction would be the speed of your computer. Generally, the more layers you have, the more computationally expensive it is. You might wonder, how many layers do I like to work on? Well, here's one of my paintings, and I just did this on two layers. And this layer is a paltry little foreground element, just like I showed you here, I painted these foreground trees on a layer so that I could kinda blur them out to imitate a camera's depth of field or something. But this entire image was painted on just the background layer. You absolutely do not need layers in digital painting. But let me show you a few cool things you can do with layers. First of all, this layer is locked with this lock icon. When a layer is locked, you cannot move it, you cannot paint on it as you can see, I just got an error there. So let me just unlock it like this one handy little box you might want to check is this one. Locks the transparent pixels, which is just a fancy way of saying that if I painted now on this layer with this button checked, it only affects the pixels that are on this layer. So let's say I wanted to make these trees darker in parts. I could do it much more easily than if I didn't have this on a layer. Let's go back into our original image here. On this layer, if I click the lock transparent pixels button and let me go grab a software kind of air brushy type brush. I could like, make this a little bit darker here with a nice gradient or add a little streak of red to it here. So it kind of uses the layer information as a pencil and you can paint perfectly into it. It's a very nice feature. These other buttons here like this paintbrush one means I can no longer paint on this layer. If I click this one, it locks my ability to move it like I could not move that layer anymore, but I could paint into it. I don't use these ones that much. The only real ones I use are locked transparent pixels and the actual lock button, which means I can't do anything to that layer, picks up for, turn it on and off. To get rid of layers, I'll unlock this and you have this little trash can icon here to delete them. I think by default, Photoshop will give you a warning asking if you want to delete, you can disable that warning. You can't delete the background layer. You always need at least one. I could make a new layer and then delete the background layer. But you always have to have at least one layer here in the Layers window to rename a layer, simply double-click on it and you can type a layer name. One very common way to use layers is to have like a pencil drawing and then a layer underneath to fill in a color. If I hold Control and click the New Layer button, it comes in underneath and I can switch to my paint bucket tool, grab a color and fill it in. But no, it fills the entire layer. I have to go up here and select all layers, which makes it consider the layer above it. If I were already on the layer above it, I could do that, but it's nice to have your colors on separate layers. So now that I have these two layers, if I wanted to solo one, I could hold Alt and click its eyeball button, and it only shows me what's on that layer still holding all ticket. Click on that one, and it only shows me what's on that layer. This is really handy when you have many, many layers and you don't want to spend time scrolling through them all. And by the way, this is where the lock transparent pixels might come in handy on my color layer. If I locked transparent pixels, grabbed a brush, I could say paint a shadow onto my ball and have like a sphere. And then maybe on a layer underneath that, I could paint the spheres shadow on the table. Painting this on a layer underneath it makes sure that that shadow goes underneath the sphere. Then maybe on a layer underneath that, I could put in a little environment like a sky here or something like that. And the ball is sitting on a desk. And there we go. I have a digital painting made of layers. You can create layer groups just to save visual space here, like let's say I wanted the sphere to be its own group and the background to be separate. I could shift, select my sphere layers, push control g to add them to a group. And then now I have one eyeball icon that I can turn on and off, and I can unfurl that group to see its layers. Grouping layers does not affect the picture. It's simply how the layers are displayed and organized in your layers box. You can drag layers in and out of this group too. With a group, I could select that group and move all of its elements at once. And I could still of course select a single layer within that group and just move that. Speaking of moving layers, this auto select button will make it so where your mouse clicks Photoshop auto selects that layer. This can be very handy, but also very frustrating if you don't know about it. I think by default it's on. I usually like to turn it off and select layers by hand this way, and I'll just undo all that. Okay, let's talk about layer blending modes. The first thing I'm gonna do on my red layer here is just select this and paint everything back to that one color. Looks like this brush has some color dynamics on which is pretty cool. Every layer you make can have its own blending mode. Blending modes are like how the layer effects or blends with other layers. Blending modes are accessed. Up here. You unfurl this list and you have all of these things. As I move my mouse over them, you can kinda see what they're doing. But let me go back to normal, which is the default. That just means the color you pick is the color that shows up. So I want to add a shadow in a different way. I'll make a new layer and select a multiply blending mode. I don't know why it's called multiply, but multiply is a darkening mode. So watch this, I'll select a light color and it will still dark and my image, I can go a bit dark worth that color and get my shadows this way. This is a bit of an issue because I can paint outside the red sphere, I don't want to do that. So one handy tool to clip this to the read is to create a clipping mask. If you hold Alt and go between the layers, you get this kind of arrow icon once you have that click and your layer view updates like so. And this little arrow means that the visibility of this layer is controlled by this layer. This is essentially the same thing as turning on the lock transparent pixels on this layer, except the benefit is we have this on its own layer. So I could select the Move tool and move this around if I wanted. Or a very good benefit of this is I can change its color. I can do that by going to image adjustments and say hue saturation. And I can move this little guy around and change the color. I could change the lightness or darkness, changed the saturation just on that layer. And the fact that it's set to multiply mode means it'll always go darker than the layer it's painted on. So multiply mode is a very popular way of adding shadows to otherwise flat line and color art. Okay, let's do the opposite thing and say I wanted to add a bit of a lighter part of the sphere. Well, make a new layer. I also want this layer to be clips to the red. Another way to do that is to right-click on it and say create clipping mask and we get our little arrow updated. Now with this layer, I'll select its blending mode and change it to screen. Again, I don't know why it's called Screen, but screen is a lightening mode. So if I selected my brush, maybe a different cover was time, something in the greenish range. Maybe I'm going to select on the dark side knowing that screen is a lightening mode. And it will lighten this. If I selected a more aggressive, saturated Green, it'll become kind of a mixture of that green with the red getting me to sort of yellowish thing. Let me undo that though. I'll pick more of a standard red color to match our sphere. And I can lighten the sphere. If I wanted a bit of a highlight, I'll just go much lighter, smaller brush and I can paint in my little highlight. There are other lightening modes to, in fact, Photoshop kind of breaks things into these sections. We're multiply was all of these go darker just in different ways. And where the screen mode is, this section is all lightening effects. And I'm saying lightening, not lightning. They all act different ways. So Color Dodge maybe preserves a little more saturation in the color. Linear Dodge is actually one of my favorites because it kind of acts the way you would expect real light to act. So I'll bring this painting backup. I'll make a new layer and set it to Linear Dodge mode. And I'll pick a color here that approximates a warm pre dusk type son color, maybe a bit darker than that because Linear Dodge is a pretty aggressive effect. Now watch this as I paint this colour in, it really starts looking like sunlight is hitting this bridge and maybe I can paint a shaft of light coming in this way. So the monster is like casting a shadow by way of lightening the areas around him and me here too. And what's cool is because I have this on a layer. I could always go to my eraser tool and erase out. I could erase out shadows from these little headstones here. And erase out the boys shadow there. And this brings me to the next useful thing about layers on this Linear Dodge layer. Let me just paint in a bunch of nonsense like this. I want to preserve some of that, but some of that I want to go away. I just showed you that I could use the eraser and erase it away, but there's actually a better way to do it, a more non-destructive way. Click this button here and you get kinda this sub layer. This is called a Layer Mask. A Layer Mask tells the layer what information to reveal and what information to hide, and it works with black and white. By default, the Layer Mask is white, which means everything is visible. But if I picked a black color here and I could use any brush, I'll paint black into the Layer Mask and kind of reveal my shadows this way by essentially hiding parts of this light layer. This is another very popular way. You'll see artists working all the time with these layer masks and it doesn't have to be pure black and white. I can press softly on my tablet like I'm doing here and get kind of a gradient. Now I called this non-destructive because my original layer, as you can see here on the icon, is still fully intact. Let's say I made my shadow too long and I'm like, oh, I want some of that light back. Well, just go to a light color like white here. And I can paint that layer information back in. And again, really all I'm doing is controlling what's visible in this layer with layer masks gets to be careful. Right now I have my Layer Mask selected, but if I click here, I'm now painting into my actual light layer. So I'll undo that. Make sure if I want to paint into my Layer Mask, I click it and it's active. If you want to see exactly what's on this hold, Alt and click the layer mask. And this is my black and white mask that's controlling this layer. To get out of this view, you could also click again or simply just click on this layer and then you're back in your painting where you could select various layers, right? Some very handy stuff there. And you can also see how layers are more technical. But I want to remind you, I painted this entire image without any of this fancy stuff. You should experiment with it and learn it, but only use it when you feel like you need it. Layers are not a requirement. A few other things to know here, to duplicate a layer, you can drag it into the new layer box. And now I have two of these layers. The layer mode is also preserved with that duplicate. And I've essentially here doubled my Linear Dodge effect. If you want to reduce the strength of a layer, you have a opacity slider. By default, it's set to a 100 of course, and I can just dial this down. You also have a Fill box. I never use this. I'm not sure what the difference is, to be honest with you, I just use opacity. Now let's say I wanted to merge these two Linear Dodge layers and I shift selected them and push control, ie. Well, Photoshop is not smart enough to recognize that it should stay Linear Dodge it goes back to normal mode, but this is easily fixed by going right back there. And of course, if I went back to my background layer, which is underneath the Linear Dodge layer, any color I paint on that background will be affected by the Linear Dodge above it. So it's kind of a nice way of presetting your light and shadow effects. And you can do entire paintings this way. Alright, let's go back to our red sphere painting. I would like to add some bounced light bouncing up into the shadows here. As we remember, my shadows are controlled by this layer and it's always good practice to double-click and rename things. Okay, so I want to paint some reflected light bouncing into that shadow. This is where I want to add just a little wrinkle of knowledge to our brushes section. Now that we're familiar with blending modes, I want to show you that the Brush Tools also have blending modes. And these are the exact same blending modes that are available with layers. It's just that this menu here works on the brush level. So I'm on my shadow layer, which is a multiply layer. But watch this with this brush tool. I'll set this brush to screen, which as you remember, is a blending mode that lightens things. So I'll pick a color here. And now with my screen brush, I'll paint into my multiply layer. Are you following this? I am essentially lightening my layer that is darkening the red sphere and I have my nice reflected light painted in that way. Let me just undo that, an alternative way to do that. If I wanted to keep it everything on its own layer, I could make a new layer. And by the way, when I did that, this layer automatically came in with a clipping mask because it came in between two layers that have clipping masks. Let me just back up and show you. I'll delete that layer. If I were on this top layer and made a new one, this layer comes in normally, but if I say drag it down here, it automatically inherits the clipping mask. Okay, I can set this layer to screen mode. And now my brush does not have to be on screen mode, it can just be on normal mode. And I could achieve the same kind of thing. And of course, having this on a layer means I could modify it separately like by blurring it or something like that, reducing its opacity. And I can dial it in precisely. There is a case for putting everything on layers, but from an art standpoint, I find it really bogs me down because the technical kind of overtakes the creative. But hey, while we're here, let me show you other ways of adding to your layer stack. Let me just collapsed this group here, one area of Photoshop that I've accessed before but never really talked about is up here, image adjustments. And you have a bunch of ways to essentially change the brightness and contrast and saturation of your picture hue saturation is one of the most common. I've already shown you this. You can cycle through Hughes and change your background colors like this, saturation lightness hit OK when you're done. Another one of my favorites is exposure. This mimics a camera's exposure so you can ramp it up, get back some of the contrast changed, the gamma. This is all pretty cool. You should go in here and play with all of these, particularly these ones in the first half of the menu. They all basically do the same thing but in different ways. Another one of my favorites, by the way, is curves, where the top of this curve controls the light pixels. The bottom of the curve controls the dark pixels. And this curve acts just like the one we saw in Krita, except here we're affecting brightness and stuff. There's a special set of layers called adjustment layers that call up those effects, but embed them in the layer stack. Let me show you here. I'll click on the group and I'll make an adjustment layer above this, adjustment layers are located here. So I just showed you the curves, right? Let me bring up curves. I now have a Curves Adjustment Layer and this window has popped up over here. Let me just resize it a little so we can see it. Now this does the same thing we just saw. The only difference is I now have that curves dialog box editable in my layer stack. I could just double-click back into it and you can see my old setting is there. I could also hide this layer to hide the effect. Or I could reduce the opacity on it to get like, you know, 39% in this case of that effect, adjustment layers also come with their own layer masks. So let's say I didn't want to adjust all of this, get a brush and set it to a black color. And I could paint a way that changes caused by the Adjustment Layer. And of course, painting white will paint them back in. If I move this adjustment layer below the sphere, it's only affecting the background now. And I can of course, double-click back in and make it more effected. You can see my strokes here at the layer mask. Those are still there causing this thing to happen. This is an area where the effect is not being shown. You could disable layer masks, By the way, just right-click and say disabled Layer Mask. They'll draw a big X through it and now you get the full effect to re-enable it. Just right-click and say enable. That holds true with all layer masks, I could unfurl this group and put this Curves Adjustment anywhere I want. I could put it just above the red color. So now this curves is only affecting the red color. With curves you can actually access red, green, blue. So if I wanted to kill some of the red of that red ball, I could pull out some of the red and the layer mass because of course affecting where this effect shows up. You can see the possibility here, and this is just one adjustment layer. You can add as many of these as you want and there's all of these to choose from. And this is what I meant in the intro when I said layer stacks. It's just how you order your layers. And hopefully you can see here how quickly layers can stack up if you let them. Okay, for now though, I'd like to move on to Krita. 13. Layers: Krita: Ok, here in Krita, when you open a new canvas, it automatically starts with two layers of background layer and a transparent layer on top, creat a locks the Background layer for some reason it wants you to paint on layer one, so okay, let's just draw that same circle. I can push the plus button here to make a new layer. Let's drag this below layer one and I will get my fill tool, make the same red ball. This, by the way, is where the gross selection thing might come in a bit handy by undo that and redo it. Okay, my threshold is set too high. It was dropped that down. And there we go. The expanded Phil kind of covers that pencil line a little bit in Photoshop. It didn't do that. It kinda went to the first edge of the pencil. But sometimes it's nice to fill the pencil line by a few pixels. And this grow selection feature is where that can really come in handy. Let me go back to my line layer and I'll double-click it and just call it line. I can access layer blending modes here, just like in Photoshop. And there's multiply. Multiply is the typical setting for any line drawing because you want those lines to appear dark. So multiply will ensure that they darken the layers underneath it. If I wanted to adjust the color of that red ball, I could go up to filter adjust hue saturation value adjustment or HSV adjustment. And this is like the hue saturation box in Photoshop. You have your three properties here. Now Crito has prioritized that lock transparent pixels button. It's right here on the right-hand side of every layer created calls at alpha lock. So I'll push it and get this airbrushed tool and pushed V for brush. I could do the same thing where I can brazenly use my brush, but credo will clip it to the influence of the ball that's already on the canvas. Let me undo that though. If I wanted to make a clipping mask, it's a bit different here. And Krita clip the source layer that you're going to base this on and push control shift G. This creates what created calls a clipping group. And inside that group it has your initial layer, the red ball, plus this new mask layer. And on that mask layer, now it acts the same as it did in Photoshop. I have this as its own thing. Essentially this is just a layer group and it seems more complex, but I do like how the thumbnail of the group shows the entire result of the group. Photoshop didn't do that. Oh, and by the way, you can change the size of those icons right here, make them a little larger or smaller. Something like this might be nice. And while I'm here, I'll just expand my entire Layers window. But now that I have a clipping group, I can unfurl it, click on the plus button to make a new layer. And you have to click on this a button which essentially tells it to use the transparency from the bottom layer. So same thing. This being on a layer I could erase out of it, paint back into it. I can click into the blending mode. And you notice I have a lot more options here in Krita. And honestly, I don't know what half of them do. I just kind of play with them until I find what I like. Although my tried and true ones are like lighten, which was similar to screen in Photoshop. Obviously multiply, which we've already talked about, Color Dodge, which is similar to Linear Dodge. And there's also this addition one, which is another way of lightening pixels. So if I wanted to lighten this fear with AD mode, I could pick a darker red and lighten it this way. And then maybe go even lighter and create that highlight. And then I'll scroll down and select the background. Let's go into my div, add brushes. Let's get this brush here. And you notice I can't paint on the background. That's because it's locked. So I will unlock it and that will allow me to paint. I'm not sure why Crito locks the background. They must have some logical reason for it, but I can't discern what it is. You label kind of recreate the painting we hadn't Photoshop here and then maybe create a new layer which is outside of my clipping group. And on that new layer I will go ahead and paint a shadow on the table. Cool. Then I'll click into my shadow layer here, the shadow on the ball that is. And with the brush selected, I can select brush blending modes, which just like in Photoshop, is the same menu as the layer blending modes. Let's go ahead and pick screen, change the opacity of the brush a little bit. And we will lighten some of the reflected light of the ball in shadow. And just to show you some very simple layer functions and Krita deleting a layer. You've got the trashcan icon there. You can right-click on the layer and say Duplicate. It gives you a shortcut there, control Jay to do that and I'll just trash that won. The opacity of your layer is this slider up here at the top. You could right-click and say copy layer than say go to the very top up here and right-click and say paste layer, and it'll paste it above your selected layer. Not that I would do that in this case because it puts the shadow on top of the ball. But it is handy that you can quickly do that. To merge layers. You could right-click and say merge with layer below, shortcut there as control ie. That merges those two layers. You could right-click on any layer and say flattened image, which merges all the layers. Or I'll undo that, a handy little thing. Right-click on any layer and say New Layer from visible. This will merge all your layers and put it as a layer on top. But all the initial layers that went into it are still intact. At this point, I can hide all these layers with the eyeball icon just to show you that we're no longer effecting the picture because they're all merged above. And I can continue my painting on this one layer here. This is a good way to kind of bookmark your progress. You might say almost like a saved game or something. Let me show you something pretty cool you can do with textures and you could do the same thing in Photoshop. I just didn't happen to show it there. I did my old Google search for texture again, found this one. I'll right-click and say copy image than here in Krita. I'll control V for paste. I'm just going to click the as web button there, and it pastes the texture in. I'll set its blending mode to multiply. And instantly I have a photographic texture overlaid on my painting, which I could move around where I want it to be. I could push Control T, which unfortunately changes the view of it. But I'd like to right-click and do some liquefying which allows me to sort of shape it like a sphere. I'm going to try and get this texture or to feel like it's a wrapping around the sphere. People commonly use the liquefy tool here to kind of correct drawings. And it's certainly well used for that. I do that too. Although in this case I'm trying to warp it texture around a ball. Ok, let's just say OK to that by pushing enter. Now I want this texture to only affect the ball, not the entire background like that. So I'll click on this arrow beside the plus button and say transparency mask. This is the same thing as a Layer Mask and Photoshop. Instead of starting it in full opacity, I'll actually invert the Layer Mask by going to filter a just inverts shortcut here being controlled, I click that. Now nothing appears to show through because the Layer Mask is completely black. But if I went in there and got a soft airbrushed tool like this guy, I could paint whites into the Layer Mask and kind of subtly reveal the texture where I want it. In this case, on the ball itself, maybe not so much in the highlights. So I'll paint that black and take that away. And just a few little refining brushstrokes and I have a texture ball. Sure, it looks a bit digital, but when I get to actually doing real paintings, which is coming right up, I'll show you how you can use this more organically in this chapter, I'm covering the nuts and bolts of how you access this stuff. Alright, let's move on to procreate. 14. Layers: Procreate: Okay, so here we are in procreate and we already know the Layers window is on the upper right here. And much like Krita procreate wants you to draw on a separate layer, not the background layer. In fact, if you click on the background layer, procreate will just prompt you to pick a color for that background, which we can just do here, hit done, and it automatically kicks me back up to layer one. And then of course on layer one, I could just pick a brush, makes them brush strokes go back into my layers and we can see the icon layer one has been updated with my brushstrokes. If I hide the layer by clicking it's check box on the right, obviously gets hidden. I can bring it back the same way by checking it on. If I hide the background, we can see that the layers and procreate are also transparent, just like they are in Photoshop. And Krita and procreate uses a checkerboard similar to Photoshop is just a little darker in this app, but it's the same thing. Checkerboard denotes transparency. Okay? You see that little n on layer one. If you click that n, This is where you get your blending Modes. And I'm just sliding my finger here. And you can see that that layer is updating based on the blending mode I have selected. You can also just single click and pick it like this. So like any app, normal is the default. If you scroll up, you'll get darkening modes like there's multiply right there, and then you have dark in color burn. These are all ways of darkening the image. And you can just play with them to see what works best for the particular application you need it for. Generally speaking, multiply as what you want though. And then if I scroll down, I have lightening modes. We looked at screen in Photoshop, we looked at Linear Dodge and procreate, you'd use Color Dodge or add is another good one. We'll actually use some of these. Wanna do paintings in the next section. And here at the top you have your opacity slider, okay, click back on the layer to hide that menu. To make a new layer, simply click the plus button and if you want to delete that layer, just drag it to the left and you'll access this delete button to duplicate the layer, drag it to the left pit duplicate, and let me just quickly draw something on it so you can see. And let me just rename this top layer by tapping the name and saying rename, I'll just call this layer two. So yeah, if I want layer one to be in a group with layer two, just click and hold layer one and drag it into layer two, which creates a new group that you can hide and unhide in unison. I can collapse it down like this. So it's nicer to the I or I can unfurl it like that and have access to all my layers. I can grab the Move tool and move an entire group or scale and entire group, just like we could in Photoshop. Clicking back on say the brush tool when I'm done. Ok, let's say I have something on a layer and I want to just clear it off. Well remember I had that gesture control activated so I could click and hold and say clear layer. Or if you don't want that gesture control, you can just go into the layer, click it, say clear. You can see where the gesture control just saves you a few clicks, right? Alright, so let me just paint our little circle there. Let's say once you lock the transparency of that or alpha lock it, I'll open the layers tab, click on the layer and say alpha lock. You can see the Layer icon has been updated there to show the transparency, indicating that the transparency information has been locked to what's currently on the layer that I can say select a different color and paint into our sphere. And I can effectively go ahead and render out our little sphere this way and maybe make a new layer, click and hold the layer to drag it underneath Layer one. Grab a color, change my brush size here. And on that layer, I will just block in our little shadow here. And again new layer, click and hold to drag it below, grab a brush and start blocking in our background here for this demo, by the way, I'm just using my finger. But when I actually go to paint something in the next chapter, I will use the Apple pencil, which of course responds much better to pressure and angle and stuff like that. So anyway, now that we have our painting done on a few layers, I could like click that layer, click the selection tool, and have full access to dragging this around, rotating it here, scaling it, my spheres little Warby. So let me click warp and I'll warp it back into proper shape. And I'll just click on the Brush when I'm done. Okay, so I want to add some more light to the sphere. Click the layer box, make a new layer. This time I'll click on the end button and set it to Color Dodge Actually, let's go add. We haven't seen ad mode yet. Click away. Let me go into my air brushes here. Soft brush, gonna set it too low opacity and high brush size. And here's the light side of the sphere. But you notice when I did that, if I show you my layers and turn this on and off, my painting has gone beyond the silhouette of the sphere and it's bled into the sky. And I don't want that to happen in this case. So there's two ways to fix it. One, I could use a clipping mask and clip this layers transparency to the sphere below. To do that, simply click layer for click again and say clipping mask. And just like we saw with Photoshop and Krita, it draws that little arrow indicating that it's transparency is clipped to the circle below it to undo a clipping mask, just uncheck it there. Now there's a second way I can do this. Like for example, let's say I had a layer in between the circle and my highlights. Now if I made a clipping mask, it doesn't work because it's clipped to a layer that doesn't even have any information on it in this case. So that's not gonna work for me. I'll push on do down here a couple of times. So what I'm gonna do is click on the circle layer, click again and say select. This will make a selection shape that matches the circle that's on this layer. Now with that selection activated of oh, back into my layers, up to layer for click it, click mask. This gives me a Layer Mask, which works exactly the same way we've seen in Photoshop and Krita. And when you make a layer mask with a selection already active, that's what it sets the Layer Mask to. So you can see my Layer Mask up there is that circle. So now if I just unchecked the selection tool and I'm back into painting mode and I click on layer four. I can just grab any color and continue painting into that sphere without having to worry about it's spilling over. I can of course take the eraser and erase out if I wanted. And one final thing I wanted to show you about layers and procreate is how to import textures and it's pretty simple. Go up to the wrench icon here. I'll click on insert a photo, insert a file if you haven't saved to your files. So here I'm accessing my iPad's camera and I have these old photos from a YouTube video I did when I was doing some stop motion animation. Anyway, if this were a texture, I could just pick it. It comes in as it's own layer, of course. Which means I can, you know, do all the same stuff I could do on any, any layer, including paint on it. But usually what you do with textures is you set it to say overlay mode. And look at that. I have a furry sphere, but those art supplies at the top of the photo are weird, so I'll just get an airbrushed or I should say an eraser tool set to the air brush. And I can just erase that part out if I wanted. But now that that's gone, I don't have any texture there, right? So I want to clone the texture from below. That is up here on the left, on the second icon next to the wrench. Here's the clone tool where you can basically copy and paste, but with a brush clicking on this little circle will set the clone source. So I want to copy this carpet texture and then just simply paint and you can copy it back in. But now my rug texture is overtaking the Skype. So I'll do the same thing that I did before, where I take the circle layer, click it, say select, then go back into my layers, up to the texture, click it again and say clipping mask. And there we go of Fermi sphere. Ok, starting back with a fresh slate here, I wanna show you something about color filling and layers. If I drew a circle, we've already seen that I can drag this in and color fill it. But that's assuming it's on the same layer. I'll undo that. Let's say I made a new layer and had the layer beneath the circle. And I wanted to fill the circle color in on that layer, which makes sense to keep your lines in your colors separate. So I'll just pick a new color, drag it in and it doesn't do what I wanted to do. It fills the whole canvas instead of just the circle. Let me undo that. This is where the reference function comes in. I'll click on layer one, click on its icon, and we have this option at the bottom called reference. I'll check that this tells procreate to reference that layer when doing things like color filling. So now I can go back to layer to drag in my color and we have the result we're looking for. I'll look at my layers here. And of course, I could hide my line layer and we just have the color fill. And you can see that color field respects the texture of the pen brush I happened to use to draw those lines as well. Procreate fills it sort of right up to the edge of the line, which can sometimes be an issue. Sometimes you want to just go onto layer two here in this case and just paint in beyond the line just so you don't see any of those little errand white pixels. Now this feature is not perfect. Unfortunately, if I go back to my layer one and I pick, say I like it, it's just sketching pencil and I'll pick a dark color and just draw another circle. That circle is clearly closed on all sides. But if I go back to layer two and try and color fill it, it doesn't work. This is what can happen sometimes with textured brushes like this pencil I just used, whereas the pen brush I use to draw my first circle, I guess had moral pasty to it and therefore procreate regarded it as a closed shape. So to fill that second circle, I would actually use either just a paint brush or I'd use selections. Okay, I think that's all for layers and procreate. Let's do one final quick chapter where we talk about effects and filters, because I haven't really touched on them at all yet, but it will be fast and then we'll get right into doing actual paintings. 15. Filters: Photoshop: Alright, I want to quickly discuss some of the filters and effects you have at your disposal here. The reason I say quickly is a lot of these are pretty cheesy like filter distort, pinch, I can pinch this picture. Hit. Okay. Okay, that's actually pretty cool. But like when are you going to use this? I don't know. Like it's not like something that is really integral to the crowd or the art of digital painting. Perhaps sometimes you'd want a little pinch effect like that. I'll just control Z to undo. But there are some common ones that you probably will be using a lot like something like blur. The blur that I go to is the Gaussian blur here. This is just a nice clean blur that may help you imitate something like camera focus. I already showed you one of my paintings with the green monster character, how the trees in the foreground appeared to be autofocus. This is how I achieved that. Obviously these filters are really handy when you have things on layers. But even on something like this, this is just done on one layer as you can see. But what I can do here is I can say make a selection of the background, sort of a rough selection of the background here. Okay, so I have this selection of push Control H to hide the marching ants. If I blurred that, we're already getting kind of a blurry background, but there's a hard edge like, especially if I zoom in, you can see that there's a hard edge between what's blurred and what's not. I showed this in Krita and in procreate. I didn't show it in Photoshop yet, so I'll just do it now. If you go to, with your selection active, Go to Select Modify Feather, and the feather radius determines how soft it is. So let's say like 40 pixels. And now if I repeated that blur, which by the way I can do right here, your last filter is at the top. So I'll click that, it realize that filter. But now there's a much more soft edge between what's blurry and what's not. So even if you didn't use layers, you can still do some of these cool effects. Let me just undo that. Another thing you could do, again, I have my selection active there. If I push control j, it makes a layer based on my selection. Just to show you that layer, there it is, you can see it comes with a soft edges from my feathering and it's in the exact same place as it was in the painting. I'll just undo for a second. And by the way, you could do the same thing with layer, new layer via copyright here. And then with this layer, I don't need a selection anymore because I have it on its own layer. I could go in and do the same blur stuff to it. Okay, so that's a pretty common way. You'll be using filters with selections. When it comes to going through all these, you should just take a few minutes and play with them. Like for example, the pixelate filter, you can do some cool mosaic patterns. This is kinda like a, you know, when you're censoring something out, you might use an effect like this. Most filters come with like a little dial that you can just dial in the amount to the effect it ok. One handy tool is if you push Control Shift F, it brings up a fade dialogue. And as I draw this back, it merges the original width, the effect. So this would be a 60% merging, favoring the effect and 40% the original. Although when I hit OK, I'm kinda committed to it. A better way to do that I would say would be to go back here, simply duplicate the layer, apply the mosaic effect, and use the layer's opacity. Because then you always have this as a layer that you can always adjust. The fade dialogue is kind of a one stop thing. Once you're done, you can't go back and edit it. The sharpened filters are handy. Let me just zoom in a little bit here. Sometimes Digital brushstrokes can get very wishy-washy on you. It's a very common thing. So what I'll do is I'll just make a new layer so we can see before and after filter sharpen, let's just do a simple one. Sharpen more than you might have to look closely here. But if I click this on and off, you can see what that sharpen filter is doing is just bringing a little bit of clarity to the image. Now be careful with sharpened filters because you're basically asking Photoshop to interpret your painting into what it considers sharp, it won't always get it right. A more interactive way to sharpen is filter, sharpen, unsharp mask. This brings up a dialog where you can set the amount of sharpening, the amount of, let's call it aggression the sharpening has and this is an additional dialogue which I'm not really sure what it does. I usually keep this one pretty low. So that's the other common sharpen filter that I'll use sometimes, again, only when my brushstrokes are feeling a little bit too soft. Other classic things like lens flares are in Photoshop Filter menu. So like if I made a new layer to make a lens flare, I actually have to fill it with black. I'll set that to screen mode. But because it's black, it doesn't lighten anything. But then if I go into Filter, Render, lens flare and I can grab myself a little cheesy all lens flare here, bring it in. And now I have a lens later play around with. And sometimes lens flares can be tempered by blurring them with maybe a motion blur. In motion blur, you can set the direction of the blur and dial it maybe way up. And this is actually a pretty common way of disguising a lens flare and allowing it to sort of color your image without seeming like a really cheesy effect. Although this is looking pretty cheesy, I would never use it on this painting. But if you dial back the opacity, you know, you can see what we're getting out here. Okay, the last one I want to show you is the filter gallery. Filter, filter gallery. This is like a whole subset of filters. Oftentimes I use this angled strokes filter to simplify images. Photoshopped does a pretty artistic job, combining shapes and textures and values into something very digestible. Sometimes it's good to study photographs this way if you're doing a photo study, you can use the angles, strokes to simplify it. Another one I often use is in the artistic box, and it's the dry brush filter. Again, this is like a simplification filter. Photoshop tries to make it into like blobs of paints or more than it already is in this case. And you have so many options to play with here. And each option has its own sliders. So you can really fine tune the effect you're going for. Okay, so those are some things to play around with. Let's go look at Credo. 16. Filters: Krita: Okay, so I have an image open here and Krita, And just like Photoshop, you have a filter menu up here. Crito limits the filters a little bit more. You know, I have fewer blurs, fewer artistic filters, et cetera. And that's okay. I find Photoshopped to be a bit overpopulated in that area of anyway, what's cool about the filter's menu is I can click on any random one, say this one, and it brings up this dialogue box for that filter. If you click this button on the lower left, it essentially gives you the entire filter menu on screen here, which allows you to preview and audit effects and filters very quickly. So there's almost never any reason to use the actual filter's menu. Just click on any random one, makes sure that this button is checked and then you have access to the menu. And it's so easy to preview what you're doing. I can push spacebar and move my image over here. I can zoom out with this tab here. I don't think ever showed that. You can also zoom out with this little lower bar here. Put my image over here, kind of customize my interface here while I apply a filter. And it's very easy to just audit these and see what they do. The lens blur is in effect. You'll also find in other apps, it's a bit more sophisticated than the Gaussian blur. The lens blur mimics more of an actual camera's lens. It's not a night and day difference, but sometimes a lens blur is nice if you're really featuring that blur. Okay, so look at this. I can see what that filter is doing to my entire image. And I could push okay and commit to it. Or I can push this create filter mask. I'll push it. This applies the filter and gives me a custom layer mask for that lens blur filter. In this case, the Layer Mask is selected and automatically my color picker is set to grayscale black and white. And with any brush, I'll pick an airbrushed here. I can paint black into that filter mask and reveal my original image. And then of course, painting white reveals the effects of the filter again. So this is a very quick and easy way to do what you could do in Photoshop, but you would have to manually set it up by copying your layer, applying the filter on the top layer, and then making a Layer Mask. Krita does it for you in one click. And I find this to be a really great feature. You could click the tiny little arrow here to hide the layer mask view and then expand it when you want to edit it. You could also turn off and on the filter. And when you're finally okay with the effect and you'd like to flatten it and no longer have it editable here in the layers. Just right-click on the layer and say flattened layer. And now our filter has been applied and our layer is basically back to normal. I could continue painting on it if I wanted to, but I will just trash that filter by clicking on the trash bin here to get back to just a normal layer. This next thing is not really a filter, but something I didn't show before. To flip your canvas, go up to image and you can go mirror image horizontally or vertically. These are useful tools when you're actually doing a painting and I'll talk about them in Volume Two when I'm actually doing some artwork with these pieces of software. So as we looked at in Photoshop, filters are often paired with selections. You know, it's pretty rare that you wanna do a filter over the entire picture, which is why I just showed you the filter mask thing. Another way to go about that would be to go up to select and turn on, Show Global selection mask. It looks like this colors the image red, but it's not. What you're looking at here is red indicates that nothing is selected. But with my airbrushed that I still have activated, I could paint white, which eliminates the red. And you see it added a layer called a selection. Well, if I click back on layer one, the thing I just painted becomes a selection. And because I use an airbrushed to make this, the soft edges of the air brush will be embedded in this selection. So what I can do now is go up to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur, and dial up the setting here. Let me just move this image over here. And you can see that it applies the blur to that selection. The reason it's tapered off at the sides is because again, I used an airbrushed to make that selection. So the blur is respecting my soft edge to air brush. So this is something I could have shown in the selections section of this tutorial, but I wanted to show it here because this is probably where you'll be using it. I'll hit Cancel and deselect this by going to select, de-select. It's nice because that selection stays there. Krita saves it. If I wanted to edit it, I just click the circle button and I get back to my red view and I can paint in or erase out whatever I want. Like if I just painted black, I could get rid of some of the selection right? And then click off the circle which has now become a son. Put that off to not see it. But then let's say I had a new layer. Like if I made a new layer though, just to show you something else, to make that new layer, I'll go to file open. I'll just go grab a random piece of art which opens in another tab. By the way, you can see the Batman thing is here and my baby dragon is here. To bring this into my baby dragon image as a layer, I could push control a four, Select All and control c for copy, go to my baby dragon, Push control V for paste. And there's Batman as a layer, which of course means I can move it around and scale it. And oh yeah, when an image is bigger than the canvass and you do a transform to it. Create a shows you the rest of the image. This is very handy. Another thing Photoshop doesn't do. Anyway, the whole reason I'm showing you this is let's say I had my Batman there. This just represents a layer stack where there's many layers. I can now get my selection back on this layer with the Batman layer active, I simply click the circle button and there's my selection that I painted, which is now ready to affect this layer. To make more selection layers, you could select the selection layer, click on this button which duplicates a layer. And then to reset that selection to be a blank slate, you can just get a black color, say edit, fill with foreground color, and then click the circle. And you could then go back in and paint out your selection. Okay, a bit of a detour there because we were talking about filters, but there isn't a whole lot to say about them other than what I talked about at the beginning of this section, let me click on my Batman layer when you apply a filter like a Gaussian Blur, and I'll just raise it up. You can hit OK and then say go to your bottom layer, go-to filter and you can apply that same filter again, the shortcut for that is control F. And that about wraps it up for filters and Krita, let's move on to procreate. 17. Filters: Procreate: This stuff is all thankfully very simplified and streamlined here and procreate. And this, by the way, just a photograph of one of my actual watercolor sketches. I just happened to have this on my iPad. So here in procreate the second button, the one beside the wrench, brings up a limited set of adjustments, and it just gives you a few options for each major category, I've got a gaussian blur. When I click it, nothing appears to happen, but if I drag my finger or my Apple Pencil, you can dial in the blur. You can hit reset and dial in. And again, let me just hit cancel to get out of that, you've got a motion blur and this is pretty cool. The direction you're dragging your finger determines the direction of the motion blur. I will cancel again. Perspective blur is kinda like a vertigo style inducing blur. The center of the perspective can be set with straggling around this little dot here. And you can change some options like this as a directional one, which kind of emanates from the dot. And just in a different way, it kinda goes downward and you can change that angle as well. And just its behavior overall. What else we have in here and we have sharpen, which should be pretty self-explanatory. The noise filter is interesting. Sometimes I do use a layer of noise as kind of a starting point for my work. It's kind of a cheap way of getting a texture in there just really quickly and then just painting into that. So let's say I liked this noise. I'll just click on the adjustments tool again and it commits it. And then, you know, if you have that noise they are, you can say get a smudge tool and you can start smudging around noise. You can see what I mean. If I zoom in, I'll show you. You see what I mean. It gives you kind of a texture. It's much more interesting playing with noise, then it is just a blank white canvas. I'll try and put that in my demo in volume two of this class. Let me just undo this a bunch so to get rid of that noise for now, another good thing that can help your drawing is go back in here. And it's the liquefy tool. This just allows you to move and warp and push things around. It's almost like you're drawing becomes a sculpture or something, just gonna hit reset to return to normal. You can do all kinds of things. You can twirl it. You can twirl left, you can pinch it. The size of your brush is controlled here. So this would be like a big pinch. Reset that again, you know, all kinds of things. This is the crystal filter. That's pretty cool. I don't think I've ever seen or used that, but terrorist is, here's an edge one which I've also never used was this do it kinda looks like it pinches things locally. Yeah. This is all pretty cool stuff. The re-construct button is kind of like you're undo. So if I push this around, right, and I'm like, oh, I don't want that to be that extreme. You can hit the reconstruct button and kind of bring it back to the original. So it's kind of like an interactive undo. Pretty cool. Once you're done, just click on the same tool and it'll exit the menu. And you have some basic color correction stuff. Here's hue saturation. You can really ramp up the saturation there, change the hue, brightness. Again, it's just the essentials here and procreate. It keeps you on a bit of a tight leash, which I think is a good thing that filters it has included here are really the main ones you want to use anyway. So, okay, that's procreate and that completes Volume one of this class. This is exciting. Let's move into volume two. Were finally we can do some actual arts. I'll see you there. 18. Painting Demonstration: Photoshop: Alright, who's ready to do a painting? I'll be painting from reference so you can kinda see the decisions I'm making an app to find reference. I'm on Ahmed Al juries Pinterest account. And he's got all these great pin board saved. I'm gonna go into this one, his meds 50 heads. And this is kind of an art challenge that is popular on Instagram and you can just find good reference here. And let's see, scrolling through this. I think this piece of reference here is going to be interesting to paint. There's a bunch of colors we can play with. It's a fun angle. So to put that in Photoshop, I'll right-click, say copy image here. And Photoshop will just hit File New. Hit OK, which automatically sets the canvas to the size of that photo. I'll hit Control V for paste. And there's our reference now to make a new canvas. Now I'll make the canvas I'm gonna paint on. So File New. And what I wanna do here is just pick a modest size. I'm not worried about going to print or anything like that. Usually if you go to print, you need a pretty big resolution. But here I'm just sketching in keeping with the theme, Getting Started with digital painting. So I'm gonna make my canvas, let's say 1200 pixels wide by 1500 pixels tall. And this resolution here, the DPI dots per inch or pixels per inch, that can just stay at 72. This is a pretty typical canvas size for me when I'm just sketching and playing around with the software. So I'll hit OK. There's my canvas which is actually pretty close to what this is, how it wasn't intentional. But there we go. My interface, of course, is already set up from the previous section. Now I'm going to be painting solely with my markup UCI brush pack, the one that you guys also have access to with this class. I am also not really going to edit this in the sense that I'm going to let you see everything pretty much in real time. I might edit out a few ums and ahs, but I'm not going to speed this up and I'm gonna do minimal editing so you can get the best possible sense of the process I go through. So the first thing I'm gonna do is just fill my canvas with a neutral color and I'll go to filter noise, add noise. This is similar to what we saw in procreate just a few minutes ago. And I'll bring the amount down a little bit. Pin. Okay. Grab my smudge tool, uncheck finger-painting, and just kinda smudge that noise around a little bit just to get me started with some texture. Grab a brush. Let's see you go to my Eleanor brush, which is a fun little texture type thing. Let's put in just some various colors, keeping my value overall, sort of neutral light. It's not perfectly light is not perfectly dark. It's somewhere in the higher middle-range, let's say. Alright. Just summing to get me started. Okay, let's make a new layer. And if I want to be fastidious, So I will call it line, I will set it to multiply mode. I'll grab my tapered flat brush. And with this brush with a pretty high brush size and a fairly dark color here, I'll just start drawing. This image. Now I personally don't do a refined line drawing normally, I'm much more comfortable just working with shapes of paint, color and value and stuff like that. And this is where this class doesn't tread too much. This is not a class about the fundamentals of painting. I'm showing you my process here, but I have other classes that talk about the fundamentals, including my youtube channel, which is obviously free. And if you haven't seen my YouTube channel, you can check out slash markup UCI for all kinds of art theory lessons and color theory and how to paint light and shadow and all that. I'll talk about that a little bit here, but that's not the focus of this chapter. The focus of this chapter is of course, just using the software. Based on the lessons we've learned so far. Here. I'm just blocking in my starting point and you know what, I'm going to switch myself to thinking about shapes of light and shadow. I don't need to draw like a perfect i as long as I have some reliable shapes of light and shadow like this eye socket is completely in shadow. And there is a light shape being left behind here and that nose is way too low. So I'm just sampling something like this. Actually, no, if I sample that in paint with it, it's dark because I'm on my multiply layer, so I'll just go to the erase tool and just erase this out. That nose is much higher, it's up here. And what I'm doing here is I'm working with the shapes of light and shadow as much as I am working with any kind of lines. I'd like to take measurements like where did the lips lineup and it's somewhere along the tear duct. This is a common relationship that a quarter of an ellipse lining up at the tear duct. So the paradox is not perfectly drawn in my image yet, but it's roughly there. I can use that as a measuring stick. I'm not trying to exactly copy the reference anyway. I just want something that's inspired by it. Sometimes what I like to do, even at this early stage is throw in some colors. So what I'll do here, I'll make a new layer. Actually, no, I'll erase that layer, go back to my background layer. And I will just grab, say, this dry brush. And what I can do is I can set that dry brush to overlay mode and it will interact with the color's already on my canvas. I can just block in a basic skin tone and as you can see on very haphazard about it, maybe some redness in the cheeks. And while I'm on that red habits, some redness for some of her hair here. And I find sometimes it's just a good idea at this early stage to let colors bleed and just be really liberal with them. Like don't worry about getting specific decisions made yet. We'll ratchet down on those later. Especially with color. Color really doesn't matter. The only thing, the only time color matters is when it's plugged into shapes in value. So right now I don't have my shapes and values established, so I can do anything I want with color. And I'll just rein it in later. I'll go back up to my line drawing layer and go back to actually, I'll pick my marker brush, which is where's that? Somewhere over here. With that selected back on my line layer, instead of drawing with a desaturated grayish color like that, I'll put some color in it, maybe a little bit lighter to this. We'll kinda just play more nicely with the colors underneath. Sometimes having just pure grey colors on a multiply layer will kind of kill the colors on layers beneath. So in this sense, I'm almost using a colored line while I am using a covered line underneath my oh, sorry, over top of my color layer. I'll probably flatten these layers in a second and just continue on as one painting. This is something I do a lot by also want to show you guys, you know, general usage of layers as well. I really like the neck line. It's such a gestural element to this. And it kinda just swings. Its looks like as a gesture line running through the head that kinda goes like this. I want to make sure I capture that in this piece. I've extended her brow too high. So okay. I'm gonna take my layers and flatten them. I'm just gonna push control, ie on that. It brings everything down. One tool that I've shown another softwares but haven't shown here as the liquefied tool filter liquefy like the exact same as what it is in procreate. It's just loading right now. You can size your brush with the same square bracket keys and just push things around. This tool here expands things, you kind of click and drag and you can expand things. I don't want to do that though. This one's sort of pinches things. But generally I'm on this tool and you can just reshape stuff. Now this can be a crutch or can be a savior depending on your skill level. If your drawing is okay, like if you have a good foundational level of drawing, I don't see any problem. And using the liquefy tool, it's just basically like a shortcut to an eraser. If I were drawing this on paper and I didn't like an area, I would erase it and redraw it. Here. I don't have to erase it. I could just morph it a bit. Hit OK when you're done, you can see the changes. Sometimes by the way, I like to open the History window, window history. And you can see the liquefies last thing I did, right? I can click back and forth and see the changes I've made. And just to see if I like them. In this case, I'm so early in the process that I almost can't tell. I just more mostly wanted to show you guys that feature. Alright, what I'll do now is switch to my hard round with what edges. I'll switch it to multiply mode. So it's a darkening brush. And let's get some more color in here. So I'll go to this pinkish thing or reduce the opacity on it. Something like that. I'm doing strokes and pushing on due to kind of just test them out, seeing what they do before I just paint with them. There is a very large shadow running down this entire part. I use undo a lot by the way, I almost don't even realize how much I do it until I'm recording one of these demos. And I'm like, oh, well, I do undo a lot. I kind of instinctually have developed a sense for when the stroke is correct and I can't really explain it. And I know that's a bit lame, but I sometimes just don't like the stroke that goes down for any number of reasons. And I'll just undo it and redo it. It's one of those luxuries we have with digital that you definitely do not have with traditional. And it's nice to say, hey, that's stroke didn't do what I wanted it to do. Let's push undo. It can be nice to map your Undo button to your tablets front rocker switch. This is what I do with mine. So because I'm clutching my pen, my stylist at all times, all I have to do is my fingers naturally positioned on the front button on my tablet and I can just push undo whenever I want. So I've also developed a bit of a trigger happy finger as a result and undo trigger-happy finger, which is maybe not the best habit, but that's what I do. All right, let's switch that brush out of Multiply, go back to normal. And let's just put in some semblance of the sky background. Capacity is still low, so let's raise that up. And there we go. Let's get some sort of sky in their, interestingly enough, her hair is lighter than the Sky, which is a rare relationship. It usually is the opposite. Usually hair is darker than this guy, but in this case it's not, it's lighter. And I'm just scribbling in here. You know, you could use any brush you want for this, I could have gotten an airbrushed, something more smooth. Maybe like take the hard round brush, but in the brush settings, just take that hardness way down. It kinda becomes an airbrushed essentially. And I could block in the sky this way, although that kind of obliterates a lot of my nice digital noise texture that I started with. So I usually don't like to use air brushes. I've often will opt for more textural strokes like I really like the smudge tool a lot. It allows me to carve out silhouettes in a way that just reminds me more of traditional pain. I use air brushes in traditional paint as well. But for me it's a bit of a pain to load an airbrushed and then make sure it's clean and spray it all that stuff comes at a cost of time, so I don't use the airbrushed as much as as much as I do. Just a regular impasto bristle brush or smudging things with my fingers and stuff like that. Alright, so I'm building up some value on her hair. I'm already detecting that I am elongating her face a little bit. So I want to work on these all important and shadow shapes, the measurement of which will determine the quality of my drawing. So like if I elongate her face, that's equivalent to me saying the drawing is bad because you don't want to unintentionally changed proportions. If you intentionally change proportion, that's a whole different story, that's fine. But in this case, I want her to look human and I'm not trying to do a donkey like caricature of this person. So let's see where we're at here. It's actually quite difficult to, Well, for me to paint and, and think and talk about my thoughts all at the same time. Usually it's all I can excuse me. Usually it's all I can do to just handle the first two of those. There are kinda like three color areas of the head, the brow, I like to generally tint toward the oranges and I'll try and exaggerate this here for you. It'll all work out in the, and trust me, I'll exaggerate the brow toward the golden hues that I say orange, I meant like orangey, yellow, ochre, ease and stuff. Then I will grade eight the sheiks toward a reddish pinkish blood like whew. Red's in this case, she kinda has some pinks that sort of harmonized with her hair as well, which I really like. What's actually boldly push into the pink family. And this is, by the way, is where you could get a brush, switch your brush to say overlay or even color mode is a good one for this, color mode preserves your values but just changes the color. So if I wanted some to glaze in some pinks, I could do that with color and this is actually nice that this is like a watercolor wash, almost like a very wet wash of watercolor. So it doesn't matter that I can pick a very dark red. And it well, it kinda matters in how much color it's adding, but it doesn't dark and the values is what I'm trying to get at. Color mode sort of generally works best when it's up here. I'll even push into some of the pinks. So if you have a value sketch like I roughly have going here, color mode can be good to just quickly block in some color. I could even change the sky to add just a few more hints of blue to this. And this is, I'm going to crop this. I don't need this much of the canvass. Kind of more interesting. I think if we offset her, not that I'm going for an interesting composition, but I do think when you're sketching and just doing art for no reason. Well, I mean, I'm doing this art as a demo for you guys, but I'm not going to publish this in any portfolio or anything. I'm probably not going to share this to social media except for maybe a trailer for the class. My point is, whenever you're sketching, still try and make an appealing composition. It exercises good habits, good art muscles. It's usually like some people will say, oh, I'm just sketching. I don't care about brushstrokes or composition. I still care about those things even when I'm sketching. Now, I'm not trying to make it a finished masterpiece. But if I can make a compositional idea change that affects the overall driving idea behind the piece, like how it's perceived. And that's just as much to me, a part of the art as, you know as anything else. Alright, I'm working on my values here. Oh, here's a cool little tip. Make a new layer, fill it with white, and then set it to color mode and it strips out the saturation. So essentially we have a black and white filter. Usually what I like to do is lock that layer. And then so I can't paint on it like Photoshop won't let me paint on it. And then I can just switch it on and off. So I have a nice little handy Black and White Filter layer. Experts and Photoshop will be quick to tell me that there are better ways to do that. And I know you can go up here and arrange all kinds of stuff, but it gets technical. This is just a very simple way, and this way works in Krita, procreate and other softwares do. So of course you can have this on, go underneath. So I'm on my painting layer now. And I can continue painting even with color like I can continue painting. I can't see the color of course, but I can continue painting without, with colors while judging values only. This is an incredibly handy way to paint. Now you'll want to turn that back on to judge your colors. So or at least, sorry, turn this off to judge your color. And I can see my blues are a bit out of place there, but I know they work value wise. So all I'm gonna do is just, I'm gonna keep them on the canvas. I'm just going to adjust the colors. A few minutes ago I was talking about the three colors, bones of the head. I mentioned the ovary stuff up top, the reddish pinkish stuff in the middle. The bottom is kind of like. Almost it's cooler sometimes is greenish, sometimes it's like gray or reddish. It's just cooler than that read up in the cheeks. Sometimes you can even push into some blues, especially if you're painting men with like five o'clock shadows. Generally that facial hair that's stubble will push colors into a much cooler zone. She has elements of it. The cooler color that is. And I'm going to exaggerate it a little bit. I should basically outright say I'm not interested in copying the colors of the picture. I would like to do something more interesting than the photo. And this is not saying that I'm better than a camera. It's just saying that I, in my own pursuit of art, one of the things that drives me is changing nature, but in the direction that nature is already going. So it's like a caricature. When you think of a caricature, what do you think of? You think of like changing someone's facial features but in the direction they already are. So like if someone has a naturally large knows, a caricature is gonna give them a massive knows, it's not gonna give them a small nose because that's opposite of what's happening. You're going to caricature what's there. Just raise the volume to 11. That's what I do with color. A lot of the time. I see the relationships of warm and cool that nature is giving me. And I will do my best to understand what that relationship is and I'll just raise the volume on it. If you want to know more about color, theory and stuff, well, check out my YouTube channel first, which is free. But my other classes, digital painting three is a good one. Digital painting too has some good stuff in it. And oddly, my children's book class, illustrating children's books and beyond is what it's called, has some really good info, a whole chapter dedicated to my personal color theory. You can check that out as well. Obviously here I'm focused on applying that stuff. Okay, just for fun, I'm gonna do something off the beaten path. I'm going to duplicate this layer filter gallery. And let's go into my yeah, angled strobes which loads up by default. You can see my settings here. Okay, I'll play with them a little bit. Hit OK. And we have this thing. I'm gonna make a layer mask. With the Layer Mask selected, I'll push control i to invert it. So nothing appears to show through to do that on the menu. By the way, if I just go back to this, you can just go to image adjustments, invert and it says the shortcut Control lie right there. So this essentially does nothing or it appears to do nothing, that this layer now is deactivated essentially because nothing is showing through what the layer mask. So what I'll do is I will select the layer mask, get a brush, and with a white color, I can reveal that effect. And I just, I don't know. I'm just using this as a way to keep the strokes feeling a little fresh. This is a digital is offering me some effects here and let's just use them with that done. This is sort of before and after. Alright, I'll push control ie to merge it down. So I'm still working on just this one layer. And that's pretty common for me. I'll try some effects out, whether it be scaling or the filter gallery, like I just did that dry brush strokes. Directional strokes. And then once I'm happy with whatever edit I'm doing, I will commit myself to it by merging it. And at this point, I'm just putting more brushstrokes over my image is which means that I am fully committed to it. I can't really go back and undo it. Well, I could, but then I'd have to go back through all of these brushstrokes, losing major progress. I prefer to work with what I've got, then have the ability to edit everything at all times. People often say one of the best parts about digital paint is that you can edit anything at anytime. And one of the worst parts about digital paint is that you can edit anything at anytime. For those of you who are, who are used to traditional media, you know what it feels like to commit to something once that watercolour brush goes down. That's it. You have made the decision with oil, I suppose it's a bit more forgiving and acrylic. Same deal, but even those mediums, you can't just overlay things forever. Let's get some texture. I don't like to sample the image by the way, I like to sample my painting, but I don't know if just for fun, let's sample her jacket. This I don't even know what this is. Texture. I can't explain to you what this says, but I will smudge it out. It's going to look interesting in the end. I think it actually don't know, but I've been painting long enough to know that I can make something like this work. I've done it for. This is my smudge tool by the way. And remember I have finger-painting on which means that it'll actually make a stroke with what the color is. And sometimes I like to just paint mistakes like that. Purple on the sky is not supposed to be there, but the act of painting into it will make it interesting. Hope, hopefully, I don't know, I don't actually know that to be true, but you can often intentionally make quote unquote mistakes. And then the act of working into them makes them feel like makes them become a feature of the work. It's kind of like setting some kind of restriction on yourself and having forcing yourself to work with what you've got. It's enables ingenuity in a way that trying to keep things perfect, never can. Alright, here's a, I'm gonna switch this brush to Linear Dodge mode and grab a color. Actually, you know what, I'm going to pick a different brush for this. Let's go with, let's just go with my heart round brush. Change it more to an airbrushed by decreasing the hardness, get rid of the noise. And I'll change it to Linear Dodge. And I want that hair to start glowing a little bit like it is in the photograph. And also even the top of her head generally needs to be much lighter than the lower third of her head. So something like this. I'm just tapping my airbrushed, can hear me tapping my tablet very lightly. Not not doing this, just tapping it very lightly. With this color. Maybe I'll change my color. Throw this a little bit more lighter and in the red a little bit. Something like that. I can also switch it to overlay mode. Actually know what's gonna multiply mode, which is a darkening version as you know, let's set a very light color, which means it's only going to darken a little bit. And just dark in the lower part of the painting. Just so the light really, really looks like it's coming in strongly from the top. This is a Rembrandt thing. I'm not comparing myself to Rembrandt, believe me, but I have learned from Rembrandt this thing about the egg principle. The principle of if you kind of think of the human hand is an egg. The top of the egg. When the light coming from above the top of the egg faces the light more so than the bottom of the egg. So even though the bottom of the egg, her jaw here is getting hit by light, the top of the egg gets it more directly. So you Rembrandt popularized this aesthetic where he would do the same kind of value organization where the chin and cheeks get slightly darker values then the forehead and stuff, and the nose. And you can just check out Rembrandt's work and look at that. He was really a master. While people call Rembrandt, the Dutch sergeant, started being like the American God of painting. In my opinion. That's not really true because sergeant, there are many gods of fainting. Sargent is just one of them. Her hair and shadow, It's pump in some subtle blues. Get a textured brush because I like the shape of shadow I have. It's going to use my Eleanor brush too. Just put in some blue color notes. I don't want to lose the soft edge though between this red and the blue cell just as much that out. You notice I'm editing the value in the photo, it's much darker here. Actually, I'm gonna undo a few steps in the photo is much darker and while I could, let me get my watercolor brush, I could go darker. I don't want to go as dark as it is in the photo and I don't like those brushstrokes, some undoing and get my wet edge brush instead, which is a bit nicer, maybe reduce the opacity a little bit. So I want a bit of darkening here, but not as much as the photo. I can't tell you why. I just think it will look nicer. I could be wrong. That's the whole thing about sketching and just playing around your testing your theories. You have all these aesthetic theories on how things should look or how things could look, is maybe a better way of saying it. And then you paint to test it out. I've been a teacher for more than ten years now. And one thing I have found over and over with students is that they're very anxious. The, maybe the wrong word. They're very intent on painting for the frame. They want. In general, a lot of students, including me when I was first a student, want their paintings to go in a frame. In fact, I remember doing this explicitly when I was younger. I bought a frame at ikea and I had to fill it up. So I started, I just did paintings and like I wouldn't even really edit myself. Every painting I did, I would put it in the frame. And it's kind of a I don't do that anymore. I'm i for every painting that makes it into a frame for me, honestly, 50 paint from more a 100 paintings don't see the light of day. And that's kind of a ratio that will. Maybe helped you improve a little bit when you're painting for the frame, I guess the mentality is you want things to be just so. But the nature of being an artist is that you can't always control that. The better you get, the more likely you are to hit that mark. But it's not something you can expect of yourself every time. So you know me recording this live demo for you right now. I think this will work. I think it's working, but, you know, I've always definitely anxious about it when I woke up this morning, I'm like, I gotta record this panning. I'm not sure if it's gonna work, but that's the nature of being an artist. If you're ever, if you're ever positive that what you're gonna do is going to work. You probably have a blind spot that you should address. There is some light coming down here and she's got a red shirt. That will be a really nice way to kinda bind the colors here. And I want to crop it again. I don't need this much room at the bottom. I don't even need this much over the side. Let's go with that. One little tip that can help is flipping the canvas. Image adjustments. No, image, image rotation, flipped Canvas horizontal. This will help you spot little drawing errors. I'm noticing that her head is slightly skewed this way. I mean, I could flip this one to image rotation horizontal just to stay tuned into the reference. I flipped my canvas all the time when I work, because it psychologically sort of allows you to see your image almost as though you're seeing it for the first time. And all, all these little shapes and drawing decisions that you've become used to suddenly come to the fore and you can detect errors pretty quickly. So it's not bad. I'm not far off of things, but I do feel like I'm adjusting some important shapes that I might not have caught otherwise. And I'll work this way for a bit. This, this works also when you're just painting from imagination. You can also flip your canvas like this, even though you don't have reference to compare it to, the effect is the same where you suddenly see with fresh eyes what you've been creating. And sometimes it can be like seeing a monster. You're like, oh my gosh, I did that. It's almost like sometimes it's like almost a sick job, like Come on. It looks like that. It's amazing. The better you get withdrawing. Not that I've mastered it, but the better you get withdrawing, the more you'll be able to see your shapes clearly all the time. And again, I'm not there yet, but getting there, I guess slowly but surely. I wonder if someone like Sgt, I could do that. I don't know. I do know that sergeant had a big mirror in his studio though. And that's what, you know, traditional painters do. They have mirrors in their studio or a mirror allows them to, and usually that usually that mirror is placed far away as well. So you can kinda zoom out, flip the canvas optically in the mirror and see your progress. Zooming out is helpful, although that's where I have the navigator window open, which I don't have open now, navigator, I showed you this in chapter one. This can help too. And some people usually all key Ives two monitors. I usually keep this on my other screen. It's a kind of takes up too much real estate when I have it open on one screen. But in this case I'll just throw it over here. Alright, again, there are differences between my painting and the photograph, but I'm okay with that. I'm not trying to copy it shape for shape like a photocopier. I'm trying to make my version of it like the neck is longer, but that was intentional. Some of the proportions have been adjusted, some of them unintentional, but all of which I'm okay with right now, unless I'm not seeing something which is totally possible, I might have to take a quick break on this and then come back in an hour with some fresh eyes and re-evaluate. Just darkening some of that out of there, but making sure I don't kill nice reflected light on her chin here. There is a underside of her head that needs some light is reflected. There's a whole like the underside of the head is like a shelf and there's reflected light hitting the bottom side of that shelf as it points down towards the ground which is or it actually it's pointing. This is the area I'm talking about here. It's pointing down toward her chest which is getting light. So light is bouncing up off the chest onto the underside of her head is a classic bit of bounce light that often causes the underside of the head when it's visible, actually be quite warm. And that's when the light is coming from above because the light will come from above, bounce off the chest or something, and then illuminate the shadow. I want a nice straight line here. 01 tool I don't think I showed you is photoshops line tool. It's here somewhere. I'm honestly having trouble finding it. Oh, here it is. Line tool. You can draw a line by clicking and dragging. And I like this because I think in this case, there's a very graphic statement with the way her clothing goes. My kinda want to use a line tool. I don't know why just, I want to react to this in a very linear way. And you even know, this is, this is the fun of sketching. I have no idea what I'm doing yet. I am confident that something good will come of it. And I've been proven wrong before. But that doesn't dissuade me. And you guys know this, but as I record this, today is my birthday, so I feel extra confident today. Little birthday gift to myself. I'm not going to allow myself to be trepidation over this stuff is going to go for it. I really like some of the quality of the bounce light that I'm getting in this painting. Partially credit to the original photograph here. Because there's so much beautiful bounce light in it. But I feel like the decision to heighten it was the right one. Or at the very least, it's giving me some opportunities for some interesting lighting. Let me switch my canvas back flip horizontal. And by the way, sometimes you flip vertical, it's abstract now, but it allows you to see your painting even from different set of fresh eyes. And I'll flip this one back to. Alright, to continue with the theme of texture, I'll add a new layer. I'm gonna fill it with some light color, say like that. But I'll switch it to multiply, then go filter noise, add noise, similar to what we just saw, but I'll hit OK this time I'll zoom way out, push Control T, Which brings up my transform and just scale that noise way up. Hit enter, zoom back in and that noise is massive, right? What I'll do is I will make a Layer Mask control I again, to invert the layer mask, this is a process I use a lot. I'll grab a brush painting with white and just paint some of this noise into the scene. I'm really interested in putting it where her jacket is. It's almost give me that fabric look without having to paint anything. Isn't digital great. You can cheat your head off. Which I am totally fine with. You know, you can cheat in traditional two. I remember watching, drew straws and paint one of my favorite artists, jurists risen. And he was showing how he achieves textures traditionally, it has to do with toothbrushes and broken spirits or bottles that spatter paint. This is just the digital equivalent. I mean, I don't I don't call it cheating other than just to be facetious here, but whatever you can do to make the marks, once I'm happy with it, once again, I will hit Control E and merge it down. My overall theory with learning art is you should be able to go about your drawing and painting in a fairly no-frills way. Like if you didn't have texture tools and liquefy tools, you should still be able to draw well, once you can do that, and then that takes years to learn. It's not like these skills don't happen overnight. Once you acquire those skills, then you have access to the entire playground of digital. And of course you have access to it anyway. But I don't recommend really relying on any of digitals, fun little tools until you have the confidence and being able to do it manually. And then, then it's a free for all. But in terms of getting started with digital paint, you know what this class is about? I want to show you these tools so you can use them yourself. Like you can experiment with them if you like. My shadow needs to be shaped more that way. And I'm a big fan of putting blues in places where there shouldn't be blues. So how about if I find some blue? If any of you here have heard my audio book, Creativity in the campfire. There's a little section on this artist who used the, who put a blue bit of paint near her models knows like on her painting, she put some blue paint on the nose and it made $0.00 like that, connect that blue stroke right there. It makes 0 sense, but like it looked incredible, like something about it just sung. And ever since that day, back in those product 20082009, I've been obsessed with was like this turquoise, he blew up and obsessed with this color. It happens to be similar to the color of the sky. So especially with her white bleached hair. Bleached hair is going to really pick up a lot of those blue tones from the sky. And wonder if I can shift my blues here into the violence and find. Little neighboring color nodes. My rake brush here can be useful for just maybe finding a little bit of hair direction. I'm I'm really not the type of person to render hair. I mean, I will depending on who I'm working for and what the job requires. But if I'm painting for myself, I will be hard-pressed to ever render a hare. I will oftentimes make use of a sort of rake style brush like this to imply hair, like strands of hair. I mean, rendering hair can be done without rendering strands. And I'm usually more interested in that. But you know, it, again, it depends. I don't always do anything. But my natural predilection is for more painterly solutions, which is what I am doing here. I feel like I need some of the sky still on my rake brush here, but I feel like I need some of the sky to be a little bit more pronounced. Say help her hair continue to pop out here. While I'm here, I'll throw some of that sky, the darker sky on top. The Rake brush makes very obvious brushstrokes. It can get very out of hand very quickly. So I'm on the rake brush for awhile now, but I almost have a little timer on my head that's ticking away with how long I'm using this rake brush. And once it's, once the timer goes off, I have to click away from this brush, which is right now, it's too much rake, brush going on. So the nice thing about, like I've shown you in the brushes section is you can just smudge away these marks that you feel could be edited or altered or like there's too much rake brushes, smudge it away. And that way you're maintaining forward progress. Again with digital, you have limitless undoes. Essentially, you can just put a brushstroke down and undo it till the cows come home. But doing so will not help train confidence. I'm a much bigger advocate of putting something down. And if you don't like it, don't undo it, work with it. Now, I'm a hypocrite here because I've already just said a few minutes ago that I undo a lot of brushstrokes I do use onto as well, but, you know, put something down. And instead of I gotta dig myself out of this hole here. I only started using undo a lot when I started having ideas of how the brushstrokes should look. But if you don't have those ideas yet, put stuff down and work with it, because that's how you can develop your personal aesthetic. Some of you may already have it if you come from a traditional media background where you do have that kind of confidence of how brushstroke should look. You might want to seek that out digitally and you'll have very clear ideas. But for those of you who maybe are starting out with digital pain, try and put something down and work with it and see if you can mold your ideas like almost like a live on the canvas, rather than relying on undo. Because if you're just starting out with art, chances are, you won't, you won't, you can't trust yourself to know when the stroke is correct because you don't have the experience yet. You have to build up to it like anyone else. So. Try not to undo so much. I think I've been doing this for 20 years. I've I kinda know why I'm undoing something. But there's no rules. So go crazy with Control Z if you so choose. I'm using a multiply brush here. And sometimes I like to reduce the opacity on multiply brushes. So I can like even more than that. So I can press really hard with my tablet, which I like to do just tactfully. I like to press hard on my drawing tools. So I always have with my pencils, pens, and tablets. I'd like to press hard. So sometimes when it's when it's set to a 100%, I press hard. It's too opaque so, well, just reduce the opacity and get a nice dark accent here for the corner of the mouth. A dark accent just underneath the lower lip. And I almost want to go back into the liquefy tool to change some of the lips relationship to the chin. But I will resist the urge for a second and see if maybe just editing some of the shadow shapes will do it. She has a lipstick on which is causing her lips to go very saturated red. So I will get that in now, being sure though, to make sure I am tracking this cash shadow. When it comes to like calling the art finished. The nice thing about just sketching like this for no real reason other than to just sketch. You can call it done whenever you want. Like I could this could be done right now. The information is there, the main information. This is not something you'd call a rendered finished, but I'm not going after a rendered finish. So there comes a point where it's like just call it done and move on. Not quite there yet though. I'll spend another five or six minutes on this. I'm not sure. Still working away at the shapes of light and shadow here, the cash-out or from the nose meeting the light of the cheek. There is a very important line here. It describes the form of the nose and the muzzle area as it slides down and around the mouth. These shapes are everything when it comes to the quality of drawing in your paintings. 19. Painting Demonstration: Krita: All right, time to start painting something in Krita, I had this image of a baby dragon that I painted opened in the last section on filters. Let's, let's pay something like that a little different than what we did in Photoshop. I'm going to use this app called pure href, which you can just Google pure REF. There it is, that's the name of it. There is going to exit out. Essentially this is a cool program to just dock your reference so I can just drag the baby dragon image in. I could rotate it around or scale it. Right-clicking will move the entire window around. Of course I can resize this to middle clicking will move the image on the canvas and you can have multiple images collaged inside this pure ref window. It's really great. I'm just gonna throw it over here. Maybe moved my canvas up, bring back PRF. If I right-click, I could go to mode always on top. So that means if I'm in Krita, my dragon image in pure href will just stay floating there. And okay, so this is just a raw opening of Krita. Oh, and I should just show you my new Canvas is the same as photoshop file new. And I just accepted creed as default, which is 1600 width by 1200 height when you're painting for the internet, which I am right now, this is a totally fine size. The PPI resolution doesn't even matter when you're painting only for the Internet. I have another class, my class on illustrating children's books that goes into pretty good detail on setting things up for a printer. But because this class is getting started with digital painting, I don't even want you guys to think about print too much, at least not yet. Our job here is to get our feet wet with the software. So then I just hit Create and I had my canvas. And then once I had my cameras, I actually cropped it to the dimensions you see here. And I wanna take a quick aside for a moment. While I was recording this demo, something just maddening happened. I was putting a brushstroke down and like I couldn't draw like I'm moving my tablet a lot right now, but it's only drawing these weird strokes. And I'm like what is happening is something wrong with my tablet. And I honestly have to do some research to figure out what was going on. I've never encountered this before. And Krita, it turns out in the Tool Options bar, which I have at the bottom here, if you don't have this bar, you can right-click and make sure it's on up here Tool Options, this button called delay is checked on. And when I hover it says delay the brushstroke to make the line smoother. Well, check that off, folks. Also, when you're done with that, go up to the top where it says brushed smoothing sets a stabilizer, open that up and say none. And now your brush will act exactly as you expect it to with virtually no lag at all. Ok, so starting to rough in the head of the dragon, just blocking in some basic forms here, starting with kind of the perspective of the head is what I like to go with. You can see me drawing little cross contours to understand the form of the head. Cross contours being lines that go around the form. The body is basically this sausage like shapes. So I'm thinking about volumes of cylinders and like sort of a squishy hotdog slash sausage thing. And to make it look cute, I like to overlap or very Gore come very close to overlapping. Like the arm and hand with the face. I have a little daughter and I mean, I knew this before I had my daughter. But babies often like achieved cuteness, but by touching their face is unlike the little arms can barely like reach the tops of their heads, but they try and it just, there's something about that that's cute. You know, think of like a little cat licking her and giving her face a bath. That's, there's something inherently queued above that. So this relationship right here with the hand reaching the face is one of those areas to achieve cuteness. Same with, of course, big features like big nose, big eyes, floppy ears. You know, these are things to look for. If you just study, you know, cute characters throughout time, like Mickey Mouse being one of the, oh geez, I think more modern things like LIGO and stitch. How did those characters look cute? They all have very similar traits. You can look at like the, another good one is the triangle relationship between the eyes and the nose. If you look at the triangle relationship of a little kitty cat, like a kitten, they have apparently what I've, I've read somewhere, that is the ideal triangle relationship to achieve optimal cuteness. And of course, human babies have it to a very similar triangle. Not sure why nature programmed cats as being the optimal cuteness, although it just fits somehow. Ok, the tail is also very cylindrical and let's get that rhythm. That tail kind of flowing in with the body. This is all very sketchy. I'm going to be painting or ride over this. I'm, I could clean this line drawing up. But I think what I'll I think what I'll do, right, he's got these spike, he's there. I think what I'll do with this is I'll just put brushstrokes right on top of this, like on the same layer, even. See how that works. If you can't tell by now, I'm a big fan of painting on one layer or as few layers as possible. It just gets me into the least amount of trouble with digital software as cool as those layers are. You know, I really enjoyed going through the layers chapter here with you guys and showing you all the fun stuff you can achieve with layers. At the end of the day, I kind of opt out of it most of the time. Of course, being an illustrator myself. When I worked for clients, I have to use features like that all the time because you're gonna get tons of revisions and layers make that easier. One thing I've been elongated his body to much. So here's where selections can come in. I'll just grab a freehand selection and just grab this and grab the Move tool, which is right here and just kind of bring this in. That's another thing about cuteness. Squished things together. Nothing will destroy cuteness like elongating a form. And then I'm so used to photoshops de-select which is controlled the in Photoshop here and create a control shift a. So I often forget that and I go up to de-select. I do use Photoshop much more than I use Creed I just because that's what I use for my professional day-to-day job. But every now and then when I feel like sketching, sometimes I'll just fire up Krita just for a different feel. You can achieve the exact same look. It's just how the software works and what you prefer. I'm gonna grab this multi thick pencil here and block in a bit of a shadow. Just so I have an idea of the perspective. It's kinda like he's on a floor sitting this way. In fact, sometimes it helps to have a little perspective guides in there. Okay. I'm not gonna bother well, if he spitting fire out, I might have indications of that here, but I'm more interested in just getting to the point of this demo which is painting this dragon dude, little baby dragon. We are ready to go. Okay, I'll unlock the Background layer. Click on the background. Just gonna go to the All button here and just grab myself a bit of an air brush, something like that. And let's get a gist, something in the background that surprise has a bit of noise on it. And that's interesting. If I wanted, no noise will just let me just grab another one. This one's more and just digitally clean, which is OK. I mean, I usually don't like digitally clean, clean brushes by default, but in this case I'm going to be adding a lot of textural brushstrokes into the scene and the character when I paint them. So in this case, I just want to block in something clean behind them might actually help. Alright? And then what I'll do, I'll just go grab a paintbrush. Anyone will do that guy is fine. Actually, maybe one with a wet mark, so it simply scroll through here. Maybe click on Paint. Yeah, this one something with the water droplet because that will allow me to blend the color right into those blue's a little bit and I can reduce the opacity. As we saw in the brushes section of this class. It's a sort of blended in with the colors that are going on around. It. Gets some yellows For the belly and just sort of get kind of blocking in this overall color. Grad. Grad means degradation. Lot of lingo and the digital painting world. I think what I wanna do now is establish a shadow pattern, because right now everything is looking pretty flat like the drawing is dimensional. But as I paint this, it's very flat. Like if I hit the drawing layer, there's basically nothing there. So what I'll do is I will make a new layer. I'll set that layer to multiply. Just here. I'll go into the digital bar and find like a marker like something like this. And let's see, let's pick a nice warm color which I think will look okay. Reduce the opacity a touch. And with this marker, bigger brush size holding shift to determine my brush size here. Back that off a little bit. I will block in some shadow stuff. This brush doesn't have. This pressure is interesting, is kind of a calligraphic style brush. And yeah, this is cool. Let's chop out some form with this. I feel like I'm chiseling, like I'm sculpting or something. And I can change the color of my multiply brush. Of course, as I go, like if I want the nodes to be a bit more blue at bluish, I can go and get that in there. This mix and match colors and the shadow, so long as the shadow shapes are good, the color almost doesn't matter. But a warm color I think, will help sell the cuteness of what's going on here. Maybe a bit more blues for the spike thingies of the dragon. Alright, once I'm happy with this, I'm going to flatten everything. I'll just right-click on a layer and just say flattened image. Now I still have that same marker selected, but it's no longer on multiply mode because that was the layer on multiply, right? This brush, as you can see here, is just on normal mode. So with that selected, I can go in and like find the whites of the eyes, which I hadn't looked at until now, those blocked in. You notice I'm I kind of embrace the idea of being imperfect with each step of the process. I'm not too worried about achieving exactly the final look. I will work toward the final look. This is something that this is a personal preference thing, but if you are always in search of the final brushstroke, probably you're never actually going to hit it and your work will look stiff because the reality is, you don't know what the final brushstroke, the final look should be until you build yourself there. It takes a, unless you're like Kim Jiang Ji or something who I swear has a computer chip in his brain. You don't know what the final look should be. Most of us don't. You have to get their iteratively with stages. And so what I try and do is embrace a kind of imperfection as I work. And that imperfection actually ends up becoming part of the look. Although what I do as I just saw my Photoshop demo, which I recorded before this one. You saw me, you know, start Raph and just refine it. And that's always what I do with, even with tight artwork. This image is loose, it's a more sketchy then, then tightly finished. I mean, it's finished but in a sketchy style. But even when I do more tight work, I still start very loose and allow the process to determine, you know, what I'm seeing and how things should be. I'm gonna change my brush to a pencil. Let me go grab a sketch. Just grab this very thin pencil, something like that. It's almost like a thin brush actually. And actually that's not the right one. Let's go here. Okay, that's good. And I want to just get some lines in here. I'm noticing my original design has just some lines that have been overlaid and left. And I could do this on a layer, but I don't want these lines to be sacred or anything like I want to still be able to paint over them. These are just almost a stage in the process where I am refining the drawing. So here I'm finding the little clause and tightening up some of the shapes. Let's get the eye a little bit more resolved. If he's looking, I gotta figure out where he's looking. He's going to be looking at a slightly different spot in my original image. Actually, you know what, no, I'm gonna go back to my original, sample, this stuff, go back to the original. Another thing that helps qt is one ie that the far I, if he's looking up close the far i gets cut off a little bit by perspective, like the perspective of the head sort of cuts off the iris. Like in perspective, I mean, and that's cute. I think. So I'm gonna go with something like that. Have a little eyes. As you can see, I'm constantly going back to this color picker. Whoops, I didn't mean to do that and drag it back out. Now I have to resize it is there's one thing I wish it was smart enough to just obviously I didn't mean to do that. Or if I did me to do it, I don't want it to be stretched across my entire screen. Krita, okay. But hey, maybe that, maybe that's actually useful for other things. I don't know. It must be part to be an interface designer. Because you have no idea that tastes of other people and how varied tastes can be, what one person loves in a software and other person hates. And that just must be a maddening prospect if you are a, a software designer. So respects to those people. Okay, procreate has a liquefy function. If I push Control T to access the Transform Tool and I right-click, I can say liquefy. And this acts the same as it does in Photoshop. I can pull and push things around. I want to just more squish. I want more squishing this guy. So let's just drag things around. Elongate that triangle for the head. Get a little bit more of an angle on the head. Maybe you just by pushing and pulling things around. This is better. I can hold Shift and resize my brush, same as always. Just maybe a bit less girth on the tail and a bit more AHRQ and the back. Alright, that's better. When I'm done, I can just push enter and I'm back to painting mode, get my brush tool back out. And let's get a brush here. This maybe pastel brush thing. I'm holding control to sample a lot. You always see basically two things. I'll hop to my color picker or I will sample something already on the canvas. Sometimes I like to reduce opacity just by default, just so I tend to have a heavy hand as I work on my tablet. So to prevent myself from always putting down really hard strokes, I will reduce the opacity. I'm gonna change this brush to multiply, which in Photoshop is somewhere up here and create as tau1 here. And I always get tripped up by that. So let's see. There we go. Get more of a shadow out of some of this stuff. I want to get the actual line of the mouth because I'm on multiply mode, I'm picking light colors which will still dark and write multiplies a darkening mode as we've seen. So sometimes when I use multiply or a lot of the time, I'm actually picking pretty light colors and it's the opposite for screen mode or dodge mode I'm picking, That's a lightening Mozart, unpicking dark colors when I'm on those modes. A little twisty mouth is another thing that's kinda cute. Let's get the eyeballs in here. Okay, I get myself back to normal mode c. I wish normal was just at the top because that's the main one you want. But anyway, that's just my bias. I'm used to Photoshop. And I'm afraid that watching someone paint in real time is maybe not all that exhilarating. Most of the time with my demos, I speed them up a little bit. But in this one, because I imagine a lot of my audience for this class or people new to digital painting. I didn't want to add any confusion. If you know digital painting, you can watch an artist's work sped up and know what they're doing. But if you don't, then watching someone works, but up is like the opposite of helpful. But it comes at a bit of a cost where you kinda have to endure periods. We're I'm just not talking very much because I don't actually have anything to say other than I'm just working out the problems of painting form and stuff. I think what I'll do, I want to start getting at some form on the leg. So this part of the leg is is pointed up, sorry, so I'm gonna get a lighter value on it. Painting right over the lines. Feel like it's time to switch my brush. Let's go into the paint mode here. And let's get, let's try palette knife. Reduce the opacity of bit. Reduce the opacity even more. Just to get more blending out of this palette knife, something like this. On a smudgy brush here, it's going to work at that background and just disrupt some of that flatness or that digital sameness that came in with my airbrushed. And this is really where you can start departing from that digital look if you want, which is often something that look to do. So I just sample things, mix it in if that blue is too strong, mixing in another color. This is often how I paint. I don't use undoes. I talked about this in my Photoshop demo. I don't necessarily use undoes to, to correct quote unquote mistakes. I usually prefer to work in two mistakes and correct them just by overlaying more correct strokes. I'll use undo if I don't like the actual look of the stroke. Width digitals depends on which brushes you use a chorus, but with digital, it can be a little tricky to know what the brushstroke will look like, especially if you're using like a very textured brush or something with a random setting on it. Like, you know, spidery brushes or something like this brush has a bit of texture. Sometimes it can be hard to know exactly where that texture will land. That's where I'll use undue with pencils and stuff. It's a lot easier to control them. And generally, in, in my own painting experience, I do prefer brushes that are controllable. Sometimes you need to introduce a bit of that chaos to offset the digital look as I just talked about with the smudging here. But other times or most of the time, in my opinion, early in my experience, for me personally, you want brushes that are pretty controllable because that is where you're going to get the, the, well, the most control over your marks. And when you have control, that is when you can put forth your best drawing. Drawing meaning like the shapes I'm making, the perspective I'm following, which in this case it's a very cartoony perspective. It's not like it's anything accurate, but there is a logic to it. There is perspective here that I'm falling when a crop this, I don't need all the space. Something like this is going to be way better. Let's bring this even in, give the drag and a bit more room on the right. Here we go. Just hug, hug him a little bit more with the frame. That's such a nice thing about digital, the ability to just crop on the fly. I use that a lot. Ok, so here's a bit of a texture brush. Let's use it to again offset this background a little bit. Not too much though. That's the other thing about digital texture. It's very repetitive, right? So if you use it a lot, the audience will detect the repetition. And when the audience to texts repetition in anything, in any art form like music, for example, when you detect something repetitive, you can then anticipate it and your part of your brain is always going to be on that anticipation of it. And while you can use that to your advantage, most of the time if it makes your art fall flat. So the second, like with a texture brush, I feel like the audience can detect that I'm using that brush over and over, I will instinctively get away from it. I'll also use other brushes, like in this case, I switched to this palette knife brush. I'll use it to kind of augment the texture by smearing over it and stuff like that. That's a great way of adding a freshness to your work, like I talked about in the brushes section, right? Start with something repetitive and then smear it around. And that's a good way to do it. Let's see, let's get a different brush just for fun. And there's a bit of a, actually the switch it over to multiply. Or just for fun, let's do a different one like overlay. Overlay will go both lighter and darker. Like I can go lighter if I'm on a light color or I can go darker on a dark color. And it kinda straddles both multiply mode and screen mode, but it has its own character. Overlay mode does. So you know, when you're playing around with it, just try and take stock of how it adds like overlay I find can add a lot of saturation to your work and that can be good or it can not be good depending on what you're going for. In this case, a bit of saturations, Okay? So I need to get, It's, the light in this picture is interesting. It's, I don't even know what I was thinking when I painted it. It's almost like I'm favoring light coming from like extremely to the side. It's like the light that the side of the Dragon is lighter than the top. It makes very difficult bit of painting. I gave myself that challenge when I painted. This doesn't quite make sense. But I think it's visually appealing, just the same. I'm going to zoom in here just a little bit for a small period of time and try and work on some of the little clause I have hidden my pure ref window just off to the side. It's actually on my other screen right now. I'll bring it back in though. And let's just didn't want it in the way of my painting. Let's just get some clause in. Again, spacebar will move the canvas around the teeth. This is where I can just dial in some of these small shapes. I'm a big fan of offsetting hard line, so the mouth is not going to be just one consistent hard line all the way through. It's going to play with different colors and values and stuff like that. Lets this calligraphy brush, trying to find an interesting brushes. This one has a lot of color, variety and weird stuff on it. I think that's pretty cool. Maybe I can use it for like the nostrils or something. And maybe the start indicating some of the fire, flames that's emanating from this guy. Just get some basic shapes in here. Okay. Let's just quickly save this file. Save as it automatically gets you to the Crito document.write JIRA format, that's the equivalent of PTSD for Photoshop. So I'll just call this guide baby dragon. Save. And there we go. That would also save any layers you might have going. And it's uncompressed. So that's the format to save when you're using Krita. Alright, the, through the magic of editing, this has been invisible, but this is the next day I had to take a break from that previous sketching session. So I've hidden the pure ref image and even for myself I can't see it anymore either. And I just want to work on this on one layer, you know, as if this were a brand new painting and not studied off of something else. I think I'm gonna switch up my technique a little bit too. I like what's happening, but I think I want a few more hard edges and like some graphic decisions also to do something a bit different than I did in Photoshop in the previous demo. So I'll make a new layer and I will grab a selection tool, maybe the free hand tool here, and just start picking out some shapes. This will be some of the light on the dragons body. I'll hold shift to multi-select this and make a few selections here, maybe this. And let's grab the paint bucket fill and go with something like this. And oh, yes, it's not filling everything because I still have all layers sample that should just be current layer. And now I can just fill like that and select, de-select. Okay, that looks horrible. But if I switch the layer mode to one of these, say, overlay, and then went up to filter and do my old trick where I just pick any one. And the one I want is actually the HSV adjustment. The Hughes fine, bit less saturation may be and perhaps a bit more lightness, Something like that. Okay, on the same layer, I'll pick a different color and B, I'll switch over to the polygonal lasso, which allows me to click the mouse on each point rather than drawing it freehand. It's a bit more controllable, hitting Enter to close the shape. And I picked a different color. And again, I'll get the fill bucket tool and fill that in. I'll undo that. It's a bit too strong. Pick a different color. Just dial in. There we go, something like that. And the shortcut here for de-select is control shift a. And I'll try and make another shadow shape for the head. And whoops, that filled the whole layer. Although I didn't mean to do that, I thought I had the selection tool active, I had the Paint Bucket Tool and I fill the whole layer. And I kinda like that. So I think what I'll do, let's, let's roll with that. I'll get an, get an eraser and just go to my erasers, grab this and I need to be on the brush tool that I have that active and I'll erase out some of that to get back my original color layer. So this is on a layer, right? So I can erase this right out. So I don't want all of it to be present, but I do like the kinda had a harmonious, unifying effect on the colors that I wouldn't mind keeping some of. So I'm just erasing this out just based on taste. And let's go with that. Once I'm happy with that, I can just turn on and off this layered. Yeah, I definitely think it's better with the layer. So I will push control ie to merge it down. One thing I do remember about my original sketch, it had these little like mole things, not moles, but little spots of color that are like the dragon equivalent of moles. And I liked that. It helped. It also allowed me to continue this motif with the hard lines. So I'm just drawing some of them out and just literally outlining them. I learned this technique from Drew screws and I think I mentioned drew in one of my earlier sections of this class. I love jurisdictions where he's one of one of my favorite artists of all time. And one thing he does is his work, upon first glance, looks very realistic. If anyone doesn't know who juice treason is. He's the famous portrait artists from the eighties and nineties, basically like he did the Indiana Jones posters in the Back to the Future posters. And he's responsible for so many iconic pictures that we all have in our brains. Whether or not you know that the name gestures in or not. He does this cool thing where he'll make these shapes and then they'll go in and like just, it'll just add little accents of outlines to them. And it's almost invisible if you're just looking at his work from afar. Like if you just look at a small internet VR, like cropping of it, you almost don't see this. But the second you zoom in, you notice that he does a lot of work with a colored pencil. And I've seen him work as a DVD out where he paints a Hell Boy image, the poster for that. And he does a lot of this stuff with with pencil crown or colored pencil. And I'm really, I got really inspired by that because you have this, you have this way of like getting hard edges with these repeated pencil strokes. But you can still kind of group them to make bigger shapes like and if I do this, I've essentially made a shape that looks like a square, but I've done it with hashed strokes that this is nothing true Susan invented, but what's cool about him is he's one of the first artists I've seen who really successfully ties that technique in with, with also the idea of painting. So it's like he's painting with a pencil or colored pencil in his case, he also uses like acrylic paints and airbrushed as well. But a lot of his stuff is done over. C, This tale, it's kind of got a blocked in sort of soft look that I did with the airbrushed or a very soft brush. Susan would start with something like that and then kind of carve into it with a pencil or a colored pencil, I should say. So that is really what I'm doing here. This brush has a bit of Almost a bit of blending to it. This is a pencil brush, but it's kind of a marker like felt tip pen, which has a bit of wetness to it. It's this brush up here. It's kind of it's not pencil brush. It's a yeah, like a felt tip markers style brush. So this is a almost the hybrid, you might say, between a paintbrush and a pencil. And I remember like let's say you like a pencil brush, there's nothing stopping you from just holding the square bracket key and making it bigger. And instantly you have like a bigger version of a pencil, like a super thick pencil that you can never actually get in reality. It's one of the nice things about digital. You could, you know, you have all the brushes in the world at your fingertips. Infinite amounts of sizes, styles, pencils, pens, were really spoiled with digital media. Of course, the caveat is none of it is actually real. And it is a big challenge for those of us who are trying to get into digital from the world of traditional. We're, you know, we're just so used to that, the tactile response of traditional media. And suddenly in digital, it'll, For those of us again who are coming from the world attritional, it'll feel like that's been stripped away from you. And probably you'll rebel against it at first. This is all from my own experience, but trust me, give it a bit and you will find other little hidden joys that it has that traditional media doesn't have. I don't think any one is wholesale better than the other, but they are different and they have their pros and cons just like anything else. And let's this multicolored one, calligraphy brush. I think I'll go to the rake style smudge tool thing. So my fingers are glued to the square bracket keys so you can hear me hear me clicking them. I could like my fingers are always there. My middle finger is on the left square bracket. My index finger of my left hand is on the right square bracket key. So at anytime I can change my brush size, so I almost never change it up here. I'm always changing it with my fingers or you can hold shift and do it this way. In Krita. I'm used to Photoshop or you can't do that. So I, I'm still at the square bracket keys, but the nice thing about the square bracket keys is shift is right there. So I could easily just move my index finger down and hit the shift key. And yes, so I'm, you know, I'm at the point in the sketch room, feel like I'm refining it. Let's hit the side of the dragon's head with more light. Because if the light is coming from the side, you would have to be lighter here. Although it's hard to paint with this tool is is more of a smudgy tool. So I think I'll have to get out of here, maybe get a paintbrush, something like this, where you know what, I'm gonna go into the paint section here and get one with the teardrop shape or the drop shape, which means it has like a blending aspect to it. Like a wet into wet sort of thing. Dropped the opacity as I usually do. And there we go. Now I can. You get some light on this guy's head. And I am, at this point, I'm just working away on little individual areas until I feel like it has the look that I want to call final. And I'm using my own aesthetics here. There's no deal beautiful thing about art, right? There's no one to tell you when you're finished and no one to tell you what it should look like. That's up to you. If you're studying from another artist, maybe that tells you what it should look like. Because after all, you're trying to do a study to potentially mimic that person's style as a learning tool. But in this case I'm not doing that. I started with my own sketches reference and that when I did that sketch, it didn't have any reference. So I really have no north star on this other than my own instincts. And that's really where you want to get as any form of artist. If you're just starting with traditional digital media, sorry, which I assume you are because you're watching this class after all. I recommend Don't, you know, definitely do your own art, but also try and get, you gotta get a feel for the software first and make it feel a little bit committed to instinct, that it takes a bit of time. That's again, hopefully while you are watching this class and hopefully something you're getting out of this class is you're able to focus your efforts and, you know, figure out how certain things work so you don't have to figure it out again. But studies are actual paintings or what will help you use those tools. And once you use the tools, that's when you'll know. It's like okay, you know, I want this a particular type of brushstroke I know that's seen in whatever set you have and you know how it feels on the canvas. Just like any traditional tool. Maybe some highlights running along the snout. And of course a little cutesy circular highlight on the nose. And while I'm here, there's going to be little highlights on the eyes and stuff. This I wanted to be more in shadow. It's going to pick up a lot of reflected color from the background. Some of them give it more of a bluish kinda shadow. Switch my brush to a blending brush and well, maybe not that one. This press here is pretty interesting, is kinda like a sort of almost a random watercolor textural look to it. So I'll paint with that a little bit. Probably dip down the opacity of touch. And you notice that, you know, as I do the sketches, pretty rare that I actually enter into the brush menu and change it. I mean, sometimes, but I just kinda look what, look at what's available and I just try and make art with it. But you know, sometimes it's helpful to go in here and you get a few other options like, looks like a nice little scatter brush that maybe I could set to multiply mode and scatter in just a little bit of you can hear me hitting the tablet with my brush. I just to in a few little. Textures maybe like these are like freckles or something. I don't wanna overdo this, but I will come up with a few spots and then maybe switch back to a thin brush like a pencil or something. And with that, I could zoom in a bit here and add some little outline II bits. So even though this is a sketch, you know, still zooming in, adjusting little things, making sure each one of these scales has its own bit of light. And the only difference between this and something fully rendered and realistic is just probably the amount as well for sure the amount of time you'll spend. And also just how faithful you want to be to each shape. I'm letting this be loose. You know, each shape is not fully enclosed or anything like that. I'm using a lot of soft edges and that will determine a precipitate a certain look. And obviously I'm talking about style here. This class is not about style, but I have other classes where I talk about my particular choice of style. A little bit more like the looseness and paint willingness, as well as some of my videos on other platforms like YouTube. But when I'm trying to do here is I'm just trying to, trying to make good shapes. Like I want the light shape on the top of his head to be pretty identifiable is kinda of a rectangle shape, like a light shape, but there can be different colors in it as long as the values correct and as long as it's kinda recognizable is kinda like that hacking thing I just talked about where it's, the illusion is that it's a shape, but in reality it's very broken. But the I will, our eye wants things to work are i wants to categorize things. And I know that, you know, R, I will turn that into a shape. I don't like staying zoomed into long by the way. And this is probably where I'll go to like image, mirror image horizontally and work on it this way for a bit. When I, when I mirror it, I can really see the tilt of the head, which I like, but I didn't see it before. I've got so used to it. I don't want to spend too much time on the fire, but, you know, if I did, I would just start scribbling and just, it seems like this image is becoming a very sort of scribbly centric picture, which has no doubt inspired by her my original, which was also very scribbly. Again, scribbly but hopefully still making clear shapes. So with this, I could indicate maybe some of the fire, fire is like more orange toward the outside and even gets into some reds. If you look at like a candle flame or a camp fire, there are differences in hue and saturation as it, as it moves away from the central part, which is very white, burning white hot. And if this dragon is spitting fire, then we should have some of those fire lines emanating from his nose. And just for fun, let's put a few shapes like he's almost like he's sneezed or it's like how a baby spits up or something and just kinda comes out. As to the the baby bonus of this character. I'm enjoying this brush with brushes, this, this one here. Something about its feel that jives with me right now. So I'm gonna stay on it for a bit. Although maybe a bit less opacity, it's a bit strong. If you're using a tablet, which I hope you are, you can adjust your overall tablets pressure in your tablet properties. I'm using the wake on tablets. So what I would do, I would click here and I just push spacebar and search for lei con or is it Wacom? I'm not even sure. And then here you could set your pressure right here in the Penn section. Like if you have a soft touch, it'll hit maximum very quickly. Or if you have a firmer touch, it'll take more pressure to hit maximum. You can do this in each individual software package as well, although I like to do it globally here, so it affects everything and then just hit X when you're done, your tablet will have a similar feature. One thing I'll do here is duplicate the layer and go up to filter adjusts. And let's just say color balance. And in this color balance window, I can drag a colour in the shadows. I can drag the cyan right to remove it and say I take the yellow, drag it left to add it. So I'm adding some warmth from the shadows, kind of do the same thing in the mids. And then the highlights maybe I'll add some cyan and take away some yellow. And then make sure preserved luminosity is on. It'll keep your values intact. And then instead of hitting OK, I'll say the, you know, the crate filter mask thing which I showed in a previous chapter. And then I'll take that and invert it. In this case, I'll just grab the paint bucket tool and fill it with black, which is the same thing as inverting it, right? So, so black means nothing will show through of this layer that I've just applied the filter too. And then they'll just grab a brush switch to white, back to the brush tool and just paint in where I want those changes. And I don't actually know where I want those changes. I'm just kind of making brushstrokes and undoing. I don't want it there, like I didn't wanna write there, so I'll undo it. And I'm just kind of, you know, auditing this process and seeing what each little place does. This is a good way to keep your colors fresh is the again, put it on a, put something on a new layer, put it in effect on that new layer, and work into it. And just, you know, not randomly but without too much care. See if you can find a little interesting pattern where you're revealing that effect. And again, I'm not basing this judgment on any kind of criteria other than Does it look good to me immediately? Does I am I like, ooh, that's cool, or am I not like that? Maybe some of this here. Okay. And then once I'm done with that, I can just right-click and say flatten image and that commits everything. Let's go up here and grab and Arab rush, which are in the digital section, which is looking for us, soft airbrushed, something like that. And I'll set it to multiply mode. I just kinda want the top of the image to be a bit darker. Reduce the opacity here. This will effectively vignette the image and bring your focus down toward the dragon is where there's more contrast. And even a little bit of vignetting around the ground here is good. And while I'm here, I'm gonna get some more aggressive darks for some. Ambient occlusion in the shadows. Now, don't wanna get too technical here, but ambient occlusion is where the shadows are the darkest. It's where the reflected light does not get into the shadows. So right below where the head is almost making contact with the ground, you get some darkening there. That's called the ambient occlusion. I have a whole video on YouTube about ambient occlusion. 20. Painting Demonstration: Procreate: Okay, here and procreate, let's start sketching something. I chose my tapered flap rush and I noticed that it has some odd lines to it that didn't happen in Photoshop. That's simply a spacing issue. Decrease the spacing and we have our brush as we expect. I'll hit done to kind of save that in my current session. And I'm on my layer here, just the layer that procreate makes warming. And I will start sketching. And I think what I'll do is I'm going to sketch this out. We'll character that's appeared in a few of my paintings and some of my own personal illustrations. He's got a big sort of head like this. You can see by the way, my brush settings are over on the left. Obviously, I'll decrease the opacity a little and the brush size a little bit more as beak is over here. Just like with the baby dragon from the Crito demo. I'm just roughing this n. I'm not committing myself to a fully resolved line drawing, although you could easily have this on its own layer, which it is, and then make a new layer over top and refine your lines. For those of you who are more linear, line-based with your art, which I'm not, I'm more of a painterly type artists, but for those of you who want the lines to be cleaner, oftentimes it's a good workflow too. Start this way. By the way, one conflict I ran into with my gesture controls is that when you push and hold with your finger, procreate brings up the eye dropper or sample tool, you click and hold and you can drag this around in sample colors. I previously had my gesture controls those setup so that a finger touch and hold would invoke the quick menu. I disabled that for this painting because I want the finger touch to invoke the sample tool here. When I push and hold the pen, it does not sample. My push and hold my finger. Get samples. That's just how I like to have it set up sometimes in this case, I want it that way. So I turned off my gesture controls accordingly. Of course, you can customize your gesture controls very quickly and procreate, and you can have different workflows. Okay, so I've got this little ABL character roughed in. And I think just for flavor, this is kinda the tree that he's perched on. And just for flavor, I want to just drag in a background color. So I'll go to my background color and I can pick it like this. Maybe something in the lights done. I'll make a new layer with the plus sign and hold and click to drag it below. And on that layer I'll just grab just something Flatley, a flat texture like that. And let's just quickly paint in. This is a layer underneath the lines, which is why the lines are still appearing dark over top of it. It's gonna paint in some kind of hint of trees and not even really painted in any kind of detail, but just block it in. Let's have the color, kind of grade eight itself to a more orangey tone. The drawing you see there is nothing to write home about. It's just the barest of starting points. Anyway here I've got just a basic Brown tricolor to block this in. There's no such thing as a tricolor, but it's just brown. And here with a heart round brush, I'll continue. And now back to my outer layer. You back to my tapered flat brush, which retains its settings. They know that when I change it at the outset of this sketch, those settings will be respected by procreate. Now. I kinda wanna just increase the brush size, sort of map out the light and shadow on this guy. It's pretty basic. I think we'll have the light coming down from above and illuminating him sort of like this, will cast a bit of a shadow on the tree like that. And the whole thing actually is going to be darker like the owl is going to be overall darker than the background. So I'll go with something like this as a simple block in and make a new layer, click the n, set it to, let's go down and set it to overlay. And this will allow me to block in just some colors. I'll grab a brush. The heart around here, which is actually, you know what? Let's try the watercolor around. And the owl's head is bluish. So this with this watercolour brush on overlay mode, I can just start blocking in basic colors. I can also try changing the layer. Let's see, soft lay, hard light. Maybe Hard Light is a nice one for this. Kind of insists gets color a bit more thoroughly than overlay does. There's a nice sort of orangey tones in the belly. It's gonna block and just some color transitions almost at random here, decreased the brush size a little bit. Not random, but like I wanted zones of the head. I want the head to be mostly blue with like some reddish nist. And the IRS maybe just indicates some some reds around the eyes. Just dissolved very loose, right? So just kinda giving me a basic palette within which I'll work on this whole thing. You can even use the Hard Light mode to block in lighter stuff like the whites of the eyes here, which I'll go in with a light yellowish tone. And the drawing is super rough, but that's okay. We will continue to work at this. If I went in sometimes at this point, I'll hide the line layer and see what it's looking like. The only thing that doesn't look very good though, because all my values, my, my shading was included in my line layers. So I kinda need to line layer for now. But what I'll probably do is start merging things down. And to do that, I'll click on the icon of layer two and say merged down. Then click on the icon of layer three and say merge down. And now I'm basically back to one layer, which is as you guys know, how I like to work. But you could easily have made a new layer over everything and worked on that. And that way if you did that, you'd have a fully adjustable you're fully adjustable layers underneath. So in terms of using layers, there's no there's no right or wrong to any of this stuff is just how ever you want to work. But now that I'm on one layer, I could like get my smudge tool right. Like a start smudging the surrounds, decrease the breast size a little bit. On the oil brush, by the way, just in the painting category, money, OIL brush, smudge tool. And this will allow me to almost get the sense of hair. Or for in this case, this owl is so very little guy. And I can really sculptor shapes with this. You know, I can, if the eyes are too big or too narrow or wherever it is, I can just sculpt into this. This brush doesn't really paint its own color. It paints the colors that are already there, smudges them around. So if I want some of that yellow. Drag the yellow into the head. If I want the blue, I can drag the blue upward into the yellow background. So it kinda takes where you start your stroke and takes that color and merge that just, just like it would if this were oil paint. Wherever your brush starts, your brush picks up that color. Whatever color is on the canvas physically. And smears that around us, increase the brush size a bit. And just start taking those, that tapestry of color that I laid in which looks so rough and it's dumbing. It still does, but I'm now giving it a bit more complexity by way of getting all these little soft edges mingling with each other. And this fluffy little owl is starting to take shape. Alright, this point, let's go back into my chalky brush, which is a very controllable, squarish brush, got a bit of texture, but nothing too crazy. Well, what I'd like to do is I'll sample some of the blue here, reduce its value. That is, make it darker. And I can start using that as some of the shadow tones here. Another good way to work with shadow tones, I'll show you a new way has go to make a new layer. Set that layer to multiply. As we've seen many times, it's down, sorry, it's up here, multiply. And then you can reduce a layer opacity a little bit if you want. Then I will grab my, I'll just grab my hard round brush with what edges on. And with that, I'll get a light color with a large brush size. And whoops, not that big. Undo that, reduce the opacity and start darkening these areas of shadow. And again, it might be worth it to actually go into that brush setting and change the spacing lower hit Done. The nice thing about Multiply mode though, is I can pick any different color and use that as my darkening shadow pass. So let's see. The wing is gonna cast a shadow here on the body. The body itself is turning under here. So this is where you can start adding that dimension to your character. And even though my paint strokes are very rough, slowly but surely every step of the way things get a bit tighter because I'm making drawing decisions every step of the way. If for those of you who are newcomers to art, you might think that the line drawing is where you figure out all your drawing decisions and you can approach it that way. However, another way to approach it is to start with a very loose line drawing where things are only generally figured out very broadly, are arrived at and use the painting process as a way to tighten up your image. And then that's the way I choose to work most of the time. And what's nice about that is you can choose, you can let the process help you choose how far you want to take it. Whereas with you always need to start with a very tight line drawing, which is certainly okay. But if you always need that, it might be difficult to follow a process that allows you to be fully creative because you might feel roped in to your line drawing. And that's something I used to battle with. I used to really require a very worked out line drawing where, you know, every eyelash who was included. Now it's just the opposite. But that's just, this is just my own art journey. Everyone else or everyone's different and you might find great use in starting with very tight line drawings. So all this advice is take with a grain of salt. I mostly in this class, I'm, you know, these are just little anecdotes to keep me talking as I paint. But most of the time, whoops, I didn't mean to do that. Go back to this color picker. Wanna get a big shadow to show the plane change of this owl. I think at this point what I'll do is I'll go into the liquefy tool with a big brush size and the push feature. And let's just see all it's on a layer writes. Let me go. Merges layer down, click it, merged down, then go back into the liquefied tool. And the white my settings are there and I can just move this guy sculpted around. This is tons of fun. A bit more tilt to the head. The Irises are not looking in the same direction. I'll fix that later. It's one of those things that you can do with the painting. Be it traditional or digital, like this painting, opaque L0, which we are here. This would be considered like similar to an oil painting or something or an acrylic painting. Just paint right over stuff. Just like the baby dragon. I'm really interested in squishing things together to make it cute. And just pull this around. Alright, let's go with that. Just clicking on the adjustments tool to exit that dialogue. I think at this point I'll start working on C u. Then we get another one of my brushes. Let's go get the, and let's try to rake brush. And you've got to play with the brush size, something like that might work. Let's see if we can work up some lights on his belly here or is upper chest you a slightly lower brush size. Now the thing with brushes like this rake brush and I mentioned this in a different section of the class is it can you really start looking repetitive because those rake strokes are, by definition, noticeable patterns. That's the whole point of this brush. It makes that rake like pattern. So it might be helpful at some point to go into your smudge tool and start smudging this around, but I'll put a generous helping of strokes with this brush first. Before I do that, I want to fully silhouette the character here. This is a crucial bit of negative space I'm working out here. Anyway. What I can do now is just switch over to this much tool, which I'm still on that same smudge brush I was earlier. And just continue to smudge out some of these rake strokes. So some of them will retain their identity and some of them won't. Some of them will just get smudged. And I'm gonna try and lose the blend. A lot of these colors as the owl is sort of this perched on that tree. I don't want to have a whole lot of information there. I kinda want it lost. Trying to use very directional strokes to move in the direction of the fir. So if the hair is flowing over the chest, I'm trying to have my brushstrokes move in that same way. It's kinda like how you can paint hair without having to paint hair. Let the direction of the stroke imply some of that for you. So, you know, as the hair just kinda jets out of his head here, I'll use the smudge tool to help me do that. Want to work on the perspective of this. I two, it should be partially hidden in perspective there. Okay, let's go back to the brush and the Irises are starting to bother me. They're not, they're switch my brush as well. Sometimes I can always zoom in of course. So when I'm painting and procreate, I'm constantly switching from the Apple pencil, which I use for all my brushstrokes. But as you know, zooming is done with your fingers rotating and sampling is also done with my fingers. I'm also, I'm always switching. You develop a kind of muscle memory from switching that pen to active on the screen to held by your pinkie so you can activate the smudge tool with your finger. Anyway, let's go back to my rake brush here and start getting some variety of brush type into the eyes, constantly going back and forth with it, back and forth. Let's see. Let's feel like I need to just shake up the colors. Let's make a new layer. Let's go set it to, let's say Color Dodge, zoom out. And I'll go in with, let's go with air brush, soft airbrushed, low opacity, big brush size. Let's put in some of these Autumn colored lights. This is where my choice of painting tool, which is the, the Wacom tablet I showed you in the intro. It's feels different than painting on glass, like the iPad has a glass screen, right? And the Apple pencil is this hard sort of plastic pencil. For me, the use of that interaction so much, I mean, I use procreate sometimes. But of the three apps that I've demoed in this course, procreate is my least use, not because I like it the least, it just I don't find myself on the iPad all that much. So for me I'm a little bit slower. In procreate. I wanna make a new layer, set it to multiply mode. And still on my airbrushed. And I want to continue to work on some of these shadowed areas. Let's go with a redder color again, I accidentally changing the layout of my color palette. And then let's reduce the airbrushed size, bring up its opacity and I can maybe even use it to block in just some of the feet. But again, the abl is resting on the tree in such a way that it's really dark shadow there. Things are largely being lost. His feet can be really, really suggested. And there are also covered in fluff. And I can use this multiply layer that I'm on to indicate little shadowed areas in the wings and trying to make my shadows always have color to them. It helps keep the image colourful when your shadows don't just go dead gray. This is sort of a color theory topic. If you keep your shadows colorful, it'll help keep the image feeling colorful. By extension, I don't like that stroke to undo that 11 thing about procreate because the Undo buttons all the way down there you can, you can set up gesture controls if you want. But because I have to travel just those few inches to hit the undo button, use it less and less. So, which is a good thing I find in procreate, I commit more to my layers or to my strokes. That's making you layer just accept the default normal mode. Let's go grab a painting brush, try this wash brush. And I want to sample this blue. And let's go get just some lighter parts of the, of the vowel. I kinda wanna more hairy brush. So let's go with this old, old brush. It's called the one I used for my smudge tool. Actually, this is nice. It kinda comes preloaded with a bit of texture and it has a smudge equality to it as well. Which is why I've chosen for the smudge tool. It's literally got a smudge equality, which ties right in with as much tool, but even as a paintbrush, kinda nice. Okay, so I'm combining all my layers down, just back to that one layer. This allows me to paint opaque UI over everything. And I'm just working on those irises and the eyeballs in general. And what I like about how this is starting to shape up now is there's a clear layering of brushes and brushstroke, like different types of brushstrokes. Obviously different colors and suddenly different values like that. Iris is not just one dark color. It's got just variations. And now here I am adding some more color variations to it, but that's already on top of something that has a variety. And my general view on things is that variety is interesting. Now it's not the default, like it's not a be-all, end-all. It's not like you all only need variety to be interesting. Like you need some things to be harmonious too and repetitive to some degree. But variety is really the key to interest. And it's a kind of a form of contrast. If you think of like value contrast, that's what our eye detects. That's what we're attracted to. And variety and mark making and brushstrokes and brush widths and brush type and brushed length and brush opacity. Those kinds of varieties are also forms of contrast. And it's any type of contrast you can get in there. We'll help make things interesting. And again, it's not like you need constant variety in everything every time. You do need to balance that with some very predictable things as well. For example, the two eyeballs should be the same size. They're in perspective, so there's slightly different because of that. But, you know, it would make more sense for the, for the adults to have eyes that are the same size rather than variety and the size of the eyeball. So you know, there are times where of course you don't want that. But in general, when it comes to your market-making, variety is really the key. So that hopefully can help explain why at the beginning of this painting, I was working with pretty broad like air brushing or soft brush marks. I remember when I colored the hours had blue. I was using that hard light layer with watercolor big brush. And things happened pretty quick, like delay in happened pretty quick. But if you look at the brushstrokes and making now, they're much smaller and they're much more controlled even though there's still sketchy. I'm not trying to say they're fully in control. They're still pretty sketchy, but they're there, smaller there tighter. They're more intricate, let's say more delicate maybe is a better word. And I'm scrutinizing things more like I'm undoing a little bit more and smudging little areas just to get the, you know, you can see me working on this beak right now. I'm working this transition, this three color transition like blue at the top, sort of violet in the middle and orangey red at the bottom. I'm working on these small things now. And this is a natural progression for me in an, in an art piece. I do tend to do the lay in pretty quickly knowing that my job with the lane is not to be totally accurate. Also, this being digital media, you can change anything at anytime. There's really no restrictions there. It's not like a watercolor where, you know, that first stroke you put on that first wash you put on is going to dictate the rest of your strokes or it's going to at least have a big impact on them. Same with oil painting. Even though oil is pretty malleable or acrylic, you can scrape it off the canvas if you wanted to. There's still that physical imposition there, whereas digital just doesn't have that. You can just go over stuff. With impunity. And it's really cool. And I'm excited for those of you who are truly getting started with digital painting, you're in for a treat like hopefully this class eliminates the daunting part of it and gets you to the fun part of it because it's, it really is fun when you're able to just manipulate stuff around like this. Yeah, so but that's what I'm doing. I'm slowing down, shrinking the brush size a bit zooming in. Although I still try not to zoom into that much, but it helps me to retain perspective of the whole picture, but dooming him or I want to and when I feel like I need to and just working this up and you know, we're at the point now where that crude drawing that I started with is suddenly looking like workable. It's much less crude. It looks like I kinda planned all this BY didn't really like I had the design of the ABL in mind, I suppose. But even if I didn't have a previous design of this apple, I still would have approached it in the exact same way, rough out of a sketch that doesn't look like anything good can come of it and just start working at it. And sometimes those things evolve into your best art pieces. I mean, I paint characters like I have a green monster character that I've painted for ten years now if, if you've seen my website, you've definitely seen him. And that started as one of these sketches that I had no idea what I was doing. I just blocked in this ball character. Round characters tend to err towards the cute Seaside, which is something I'm drawn towards like it has, and much like this apple is very round. And suddenly the green monster was born. And I was like, well that was fun. Let's keep painting that guy. And then slowly, but surely I evolved his character design the more I painted them. But this is sketching like This is so fun. Okay, so I want to add some lights with a software rush to like where the cheeks are in this area. I'm thinking of a form that is like this. Let me demonstrate with this red line. If I were to draw forums across the Alice head, it would kinda look like this down for the eye socket and then out for the cheeks. That's the topology of the head and like the belly is this around sort of ball shape. That's what I'm going for. So as I adjust the light and shadow transitions here, I'm really, really conscious of the three-dimensional form that I'm rendering. This class doesn't get into fundamentals of form. That's a different class. And again, I have classes that offer stuff like that. You can check, well, my YouTube videos for all kinds of information on that fundamentals of drawing and painting aspect. But always like no matter what I'm doing with these fancy, fancy digital tools, what drives everything is a fundamental drawing discipline. You know, I practice drawing for years before I picked up a paintbrush, I would do life drawing, where that is where you go to a classroom and draw the nude model. I used to go to 23 times a week for years and years I was regimented it. I would go at least three times a week or at least twice a week for five years straight. And I built up a drawing foundation that way. And you might think that's silly. I'm sitting here drawing a cartoony as well, which is not too hard to draw. And I'm talking about complex figure drawing. But it's really the discipline you get and the knowledge and skill set you obtain from drawing the figure, which is complex and very demanding of you, which allows you to draw a simpler things but with more confidence. Well, it allows you to draw anything with more confidence. And it allows you to make, to take a simple design like this apple and give it a kind of sophistication that, that maybe wouldn't have if you were just a beginner artists, just starting out. And when I say sophistication, I mean like just believable form and color and edge and value and stuff like that. Even though this is a simple design, there's still a lot that goes into it. Getting to the point here where I want to start wrapping this guy up. I've got my OIL brush out at a pretty high opacity and I will sample the background. And what I want to start doing here is carving out with a light color. Just kinda carving out the final silhouette of the head. I think I may be extended the left side of the head here a little too far out. I want to just continue to sculpt into that. I'd like the oil brush because it's got a bit of a blending property to it kind of interacts nicely with the paint that's on the canvas. The more you kinda dragged stroke around, the more it blends. To a limited degree. That is, it won't blend as much as the actual smudge tool. So just continuing to work in and out of positive and negative space here with this OIL brush. And I'm just waiting for that bell to go off. That tells me that I'm done. I feel like some of the colors are starting to get a little too similar elected. The head is still looking a little too blue to me. So I'm in the greens like the cooler greens, the greens that are toward blue. And just want to see if I can maybe eliminate some of the blue newness or augmented maybe with more of these greenish blows. And what I'll do is decrease the opacity and try and get some of those greenish Blues, maybe here in the upper chest as well. And then if it becomes too much, I will grab the smudge tool and smudge them in. Go back to the regular Brush Tool, continue working this way. So for me, the painting and even a sketch like this is all a big search for that final look of the brushes that, that I personally enjoy. I don't have any exact criteria of how to achieve it, other than it really surrounds variety and having enough variety to keep the audience guessing. Like I don't want the audience to ever know which brush I used for the entire thing. That to me is not interesting because it takes away from the illusion, from the art. I want the audience to like enjoy the brushwork on a level where it's like it's unexpected. And you know, even, even as seasoned digital artists can't tell exactly how I did it. And even me like I don't even know what brush, I don't know what brush. I'm gonna use one section to the next. That's sort of how I work. And sometimes this leads you into subpar pictures to be sure, like it's not like a recipe for success. But for me it's digital software. One of the best parts about it, you know, the appropriate or Credo or Photoshop or whatever. It really nurtures exploration like you're not, you're not wasting painted this the thing with traditional media sometimes, especially when I was a student on a budget, I always felt like I was wasting paint when I would do little throwaway sketches in the sketchbook because guage cadmium red, that's like 15 bucks a bottle, like you can't just waste that. Whereas with digital you don't have that problem. Waste away. There's, you're not you're literally not wasting anything, maybe time, but you're not wasting that either because any kind of exploration, in my opinion, is worth it. Because the whole point of exploration is to lead you somewhere. And that's what I feel like I'm doing here, even though I've been digitally painting for a long time now. And I still feel like I'm playing around in a giant sandbox and having a unique experience virtually every time. Here I'm grabbing a smudge tool and kind of smudging this tree into existence. The background is intended to be blurry almost as though it's shot with like a shallow depth of field or something. So the owls in focus and the background behind him is blurry. I'll even smudge out some of the tree here. Alright, to finish this up a little bit, I want to add some sharpness. I'll pick the selection tool and I'll just draw a few selections here around the cheekbone, if you can call it that, pushing the add button will close the selection. Maybe the other cheekbone here, again, pushing the add button when I'm finished with that selection, maybe a little bit around the eyes that at least the part of the eyes that are the lightest hitting Add again with all of these selections. Then I'll go in to the paintbrush tool with a very soft air brush. Soft brush. Oops, hit done there. That mean to bring that up low opacity, high brush size. And also on a new layer set to screen mode. And this is just gonna be a lightening pass. Let's see, some kind of neutral warm color should do the trick. And just with my air brush here, maybe you need a slightly brighter color. It's going to brush into that 01 thing I never mentioned in the tools section of this class. If I want to alter my selections, like I want to add a bit of feathering. If you press and hold the Select tool, it'll recall this window. And now I can say go to the feather option and feather this out a little bit, which again, just add some softness. So if you ever want to modify your feathering, you can still do that even after you've kind of started painting with those selections. So now hopefully you guys can see it's pretty subtle what I'm doing here, but I'm just brightening these sorts of cheekbone areas here. And you can see the feathered edge gives it that softness. Otherwise, your selection has a pixel hard edge, which is not always the most aesthetically appealing thing. I'm gonna bring back the selection tool, add another freehand selection around the belly here. Being careful to carve out the shadow of the beak. I don't want to affect that. Hit Add. Again, let me feather that even more. And with my brush set to a low color somewhere in here, some, something of splits the difference between the warms and cools. Something around the greens like a grayish green maybe and a big brush size. It's continued to lighten this part of the owl. And then to exit, that'll just click the selection tool again. And now I'm back to painting. I can go grab my smudge tool. Smudge the surround. Whoops, I'm on the layer, so I'm just smudging my screen mode. So let's just click this, merged down. I always do this in procreate because my layers are not visible all the time, right? This is why in Photoshop and I really like to have my layers always visible so I can just physically see what I'm working on. On the iPad. There's just not enough screen space for that. This is also why I personally like to work on one layer because I didn't have to worry about what information I'm working with. It's all just on that one layer. But that could be just a failure of management on my end. If you're a more technically minded than me, you might enjoy sorting through that information as you paint. Every, every artist is different in that regard. Anyway, just like the treatise gets, just like the Photoshop Sketch, I feel like I could work on this here and procreate till the cows come home. But what I will do is just make a few last smudgy marks, still trying to be brave with them. And to keep that feeling of a sketch. And let's just spend another minute or so on this and we can call it done. I didn't really end up spending much time on the trees. But if I wanted to just maybe offset the trees color, I'm I've got my brush tool out. This time is just a normal air brush. And I'm just brushing in this greenish hue that I had from my screen pass on the album. And maybe I need a smaller brush size though to hit some of the smaller branches and just adding a bit of variety to the tricolor. In this case, bringing in some green which I've painted trees for a long time now and would the bark of trees, they contain a lot of color. So I'm trying to not just have like a, you know, orangey, reddish brown, trying to have different colors, like even maybe some of the blue of the owl could be found here in the tree. And then maybe I'll even overdo it like here. I'll just overdo it a little bit and then get this much Tool and smudge that in. And just let the software mix these two hues or however many hues are on there. Just like you would do with oil paint. Wet into wet oil paint or wet into wet, a watercolor or acrylic or Bosch, anything. Whenever you work wet into wet, you're letting the medium do a mixture for you. And all you can do is just maybe helped guide it. And depending on the amount you put in and you can help control it affects my brush tool. I think some of this blue is actually interesting. Want to sing a little bit of it, a little more of it. And some of these areas, it just helps harmonize it. So it's a weird color choice for sure to put blue in a tree. But because there's so much blue in the ABL and it's kind of only on the animal's head. I feel like this is a and okay, move to do. I might even try and include some blues with maybe a harder, maybe drawing brush in where the, where the belly is not that much. Undo that. I think that was my Apple Pencil glitching a little bit. Sometimes it does that. Sometimes the Apple pencil, at least my Apple Pencil, will give me a stroke that's like a 100% opacity when I don't, you know, I clearly don't mean it to be. Maybe some brushes are more susceptible to that than others. Painting. Let's go with this stuff. Go brush with very low opacity and just try and work in just hinting at some of these blues last ditch effort to help harmonize this picture as much as I can. My thoughts on my basic thoughts on harmony here before I close out as you want to feel like colors weave together in your picture so you don't want anything to be like, oh, it's only blue here and everything else is not blue and it's only read here. You know, I run the risk of this picture of making the head of the novel the only blue part and the picture, and making the chest and belly the only reddish orange part of the picture. And the tree is kind of its own little brown color. Try and find some way, Like I say, of weaving these colors together. So, you know, a little bit of blue in this case shows up in the tree, shows up in the belly. A little bit of warmth from the belly shows up in the blue head, which it currently does. You can see those like purpley strokes and the ears have that reddish goodness in them. That's really helping achieve color harmony. Again, as I said before with the fundamentals, this class is not about the art fundamentals. It's about, you know, using the software. But again, I have other classes. I've had pulled digital painting Series, a trilogy of digital painting series. That is me tackling a painting from start to finish. And in that series I talk all about my thoughts more way more detail about color harmony and how to preserve color, preserve your drawing fundamentals while you're also going after interesting color and brush work and all that stuff. You know, the applied stuff. Here in this class. Hopefully these sketches are giving you a taste of the applied stuff. But without, you know, I'm not going too deep into the lecturing of those fundamentals. Just playing around with a pen brush here, by the way, putting in some calligraphy. And then if I feel like I've overdone and I'll just smudge those strokes away. This all adds to the painter leanness of the work. Hopefully. But when I start doing this, when I start doing this little piddling, stuff like this, I know that I'm reaching for more things to do in a picture. And whenever I am at that stage, I know from experience that that means I'm done. I should just not bother with doing anymore that to talk about saving, procreate automatically saves your work. Brushstroke. By brushstroke, it saves every stage. All you have to do is tap on the gallery button at the top left and you'll be able to load your previous piece as well as any other piece you've ever done in procreate. It's really nice that way. So there's, so there's no actual Save button. To export it though. Click on the wrench icon, then click on Share. And I like to save it out as a JPEG. And it just does that. You can save it to wherever you want. You can post it to Twitter or Instagram, or you can just push this Save Image button and procreate will ask your permission to access your photos album, just hit OK. And now you're painting will show up in your regular photos album, which then you can share however you want. And that wraps it up for all three demos. I really hope they helped give you additional insight and maybe some inspiration into the digital painting process has for the class, I want to do one more quick segment where I discussed the homework options, things you can do to practice what we've learned here. So I'll see you there for one last chapter. 21. Homework Ideas: Okay, so homework assignments for this class are pretty self-explanatory, but I do want to provide a bit of personal insight into what I recommend you do, assuming you're someone who's getting into digital painting. My first recommendation is that you practice the topics in this class in the order that they are presented. So at first, that obviously means getting your hands on one or multiple pieces of the software. And if that includes Photoshop, remember, get the free demo first, don't buy it yet. That way you can test it. Krita is free as you know, and procreate. You have to buy that unfortunately to use it, but it's only 999. So the risk isn't very great. Of course, with procreate, you need an iPad which is much more expensive. So I would only try procreate if you already own the iPad. And you don't need an Apple Pencil to start either painting with your finger. It's a little more limited, but it still works just fine. You'll still be able to get a very good sense of what the software can do and how it interacts with your thought process. Ok, so in whatever software you choose, try dragging windows around, modify the interface, get a feel for what windows are accessible with, what menus get a sense for the variations on each window. For example, how the color picker can take multiple forms and display the information in multiple ways as I showed you in the interface section of this class. Interact with those windows, resize them, dock them in weird places and undock them and get a sense for how that software responds to your clicks. As I've hopefully demonstrated in this class, all three softwares and even more than I haven't shown here, are very comparable in terms of what they can do. So often what your software choice will boil down to is how the UI feels, how the user interface fields. You don't have to worry about being limited technically, the software is all good enough these days for your artistic ability to be the main driver. So set aside some time, brew a cup of coffee, and get a sense for what the interface on various apps feels like. Okay, idea number two, open a new canvas, just accept the default values of that new canvas and play with some tools. I would start with the brush tool and just make a few marks, pick colors, pick different brushes that you see by default on your screen. Every software will have their own brushes preloaded because we looked at in Photoshop, I had a lot of my brushes in there because it's actually kind of a pain in the neck to uninstall brushes in Photoshop, going back to the defaults and then reloading your own. So while your brush window and Photoshop will look a bit different than mine, you'll still have a lot of brushes there to use, including of course, the brush pack I provided with the class. And like I showed you, you could always go on Adobe's website and get those Kyle brushes, but pick different brushes, make brushstrokes, makes them selections, scale it, rotate them, flip them, apply a filter to them, feather them, warp them and skew them, all kinds of stuff. Then go ahead and apply that to different layers. Get a sense for what it feels like to make a new layer, knowing what layer you're on and painting and then transforming that layer may be switching the layer mode if you're new to this, especially if you're coming over from traditional media, this is where things will really feel alien to you. Also just the sense of using a tablet. I remember when I first started, it was such a disconnect for me to not look at my hand. You know, when you're drawing with a pencil or painting with a brush, a real brush, you can see what your hand is doing. But with a tablet, you're not looking at your hand, you're looking up at the screen, unless you're using procreate with the iPad or have a pen display, then you get around this because you are literally drawing on the screen. But in my case, I have just a regular Wacom tablet as I showed you in the intro, there was an initial disconnect between where my hand was and where my eyes were and it took me probably a week to get over that. And if you feel that way, don't worry, it becomes second nature pretty quickly. Trust me. But by the way, that's the whole point of this recommendation. Don't start painting yet, just start exploring without the added pressure of producing art. I think it'll make for a much more graceful entry into the medium of digital. So, yeah, build up those abstract canvases with random brushstrokes, different textures, you will inevitably discover things that you probably wouldn't have gotten to if it was your goal to paint something. Alright, once you feel you have satisfied that part of the assignment, now you can get into painting stuff. I recommend starting simple. Choose something that you're already good at painting. Maybe it's a portrait or a character or a cartoon or whatever it is, pick the thing you can do most easily and go ahead and try and paint it. And when I say painted, I mean draw it or sketch it or paint it. Apply your existing art skills to create it in the digital medium, you will for sure find things you like, and you'll find things that you can't do very well yet. And I don't mean in terms of your art ability, even if you're an expert level artists, you will find things that don't meet your expectations. Maybe the brushwork doesn't quite look as good as it does when you're painting and oils, or maybe certain things or waste slower in digital, that will happen and you have to identify those things and work them out. Those are like little kinks in a hose that you just have to locate and unravel so your creativity can flow. One big recommendation I have here is keep your canvas sizes low, something like 1200 pixels and the largest dimension or 1500 pixels. Don't try and create some huge 5 thousand pixel canvas because your brushes won't respond as well on that canvas. Remember, brushes for the most part, our stamps that get repeated. And the bigger the canvas is, the more repetitions that brush will make. Therefore, the harder it will be to achieve good-looking brushwork. Smaller canvas is much more friendly and it's faster with your computer to and yeah, feel free to paint the exact same things I'm painting in my demos, if you like, my procreate. Oh, go ahead and do the exact same character and, you know, try and follow the exact same steps that I took. Now my art process might not work for you if you're someone who wants to do a more final line drawing, makes sure you do that. Please don't conclude that the way I do it is the best or only way to do it. This is where you should really access the wide world of YouTube. Choose an artist who like and maybe they have some videos available and see how their process works. Chances are after watching this class, you'll be able to understand what they're doing as far as using the software goes. Alright folks, I think we can wrap this up. I just want to say thank you for checking out this class. I really, really hope it helps ease your transition into digital art. And believe me, when I tell you it is tons of fun to work this way. You can use digital as a hobby, as a profession. I use it for both and really use these tools to help you grow as an artist in ways that may have not been possible otherwise. So I wish you all the best and happy creating.