Getting Help in Linux | Mostafa Mahmoud | Skillshare

Playback Speed


  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

9 Lessons (24m)
    • 1. 00 Getting Help in Linux Class III Overview

      1:19
    • 2. 01 Reading Documentation Using man Command

      8:34
    • 3. 02 Reading Documentation Using info Command

      1:09
    • 4. 03 Reading Documentation Using pinfo Command

      4:18
    • 5. 04 Reading Documentation in usr share doc Dir

      2:53
    • 6. 05 The whatis command

      0:44
    • 7. 06 The help option

      0:44
    • 8. 07 Linux Graphical Help

      1:58
    • 9. Exercise 4

      2:26
  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

11

Students

--

Projects

About This Class

RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux System Administration - RHCSA 8 - Class Three

Getting Help in Linux

Hi, I'm Mustafa Mahmoud. A Senior Linux Administrator and Online Instructor. I have been working as Linux System Administrator for more than ten years, currently devoted to teaching. I like to share my knowledge with others and help them advance in their careers.

Students testimonials - See what others say!

  • Siddharth Kumar: I really loved the course content and the way all details have been explained by the trainer, it will certainly help me or anyone else to improve their Linux administration skills.
  • Eric Voigt: Excellent overview of the basic skills, well organized and taught.
  • Suman Mandal: This course was useful to me. I have learned many things that were not clear to me. Thank you.

What you should know before starting

In this class you will learn:

  • Reading Documentation using man command.

  • Sections of the Linux manual.

  • Sections containing popular system administration topics.

  • Identifying man pages by keyword.

  • Navigating man pages.

  • Searching for man pages by keyword.

  • The apropos command.

  • The mandb command.

  • Reading Documentation using Info command.

  • Reading Documentation using pinfo command.

  • The INFOPATH environment variable.

  • Reading Documentation in usr/share/doc directory.

  • The whatis command.

  • The --help option.

  • Graphical help.

  • The gnome-help command.

  • The yelp command.

  • The shell built-in commands.

What's next?

RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux System Administration - RHCSA 8 - Class Four

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mostafa Mahmoud

Data Scientist/ML Engineer/Linux Expert

Teacher

Hello, I'm Mostafa. A data scientist, ml engineer, and Linux expert. I worked for ten years as a Linux systems administrator at Express, then I had the opportunity to turn to data science. Because of my passion for this field and my keen attention to detail, I got my Udacity certifications to work as a data scientist and machine learning engineer. The most recent projects I worked on were Finding Donors for CharityML, a full exploratory and explanatory analytics work project for Ford Go Bike company trips data, and creating a logistic regression to predict absenteeism. I'm working on improving my skills and looking for job opportunities that will help me in this direction.

Skills: Python, SQL, Linux
Applications: Jupyter Notebook, Google Colab, Weka, P... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
    Exceeded!
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

Transcripts

1. 00 Getting Help in Linux Class III Overview: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 and CentOS 8 Linux system administration RHCSA class three. In this class, you will learn getting help and Linux, which will include, reading Documentation using man command. 00:00:23.460 --> 00:00:25.905 Sections of the Linux Manual. Sections containing popular system administration topics. Identifying man pages by keyword. Navigating man pages. Searching for man pages by keyword. The apropos command. The mandb command. reading documentation using info command. Reading documentation using pinfo command. The INFOPATH environment variable. Reading documentation in usr/share/doc directory. The What is command? The --help option. Getting the graphical help, The gnome-help command, the yelp command, and the shell built-in commands. 2. 01 Reading Documentation Using man Command: Reading documentation using man command After completing this section, you should be able to locate documentation and research answers about commands. The historical Linux Programmer's Manual, from which man pages originate, was large enough to be multiple printed books. Each contained information for specific types of files, which have become the sections you see here. Articles are referred to as topics, as pages no longer applies. Sections of the Linux manual. Section 1, for user commands. Section (2) for system calls, (3) library functions, (4) special files, (5) file formats, (6) games, (7) conventions, standards, and miscellaneous. (8) system administration and privileged commands, and (9) Linux kernel application programming interface (API). To distinguish identical topic names in different sections, man page references include the section number in parentheses after the topic. For example, passwd(1) describes the command to change passwords, while passwd(5) explains the /etc/passwd file format for storing local user accounts. To read specific man pages, use man topic. The topic contents display one screen at a time. You can use the arrow keys for single line scrolling or the spacebar for the next screen. The man command searches manual sections in a configured order, displaying popular sections first. For example, man passwd man passwd displays passwd section(1) by default. You can use arrow keys for single line scrolling or the space bar for the next screen. And you can press Q to exit. To display the man page for the passwd command section (5), we will type man 5 password Note that, Popular system administration topics are in Section (1) user commands, Section (5) file formats, and Section (8) administrative commands. Administrators using certain troubleshooting tools also used Section (2) for system calls. The remaining sections are commonly for programmer reference or advanced administration. The ability to efficiently search for topics and navigate man pages is a critical administration skill. Let's try the basic man navigation commands. To open the man page of the man command type "man man". Press the spacebar to scroll forward (down) one screen PageDown also to scroll forward (down) one screen. PageUp to scroll backward (up) one screen. Use DownArrow to scroll forward (down) one line. And UpArrow to scroll back (up) one line. Press D to scroll forward (down) one half-screen. Press U to scroll backward (up) one half-screen. Press /string followed by string to search forward for string in the man page. Press lowercase n to repeat the previous search forward (down) in the man page. Or press N To repeat the previous search backward (up) in the man page. Press lowercase g to go to the start of the man page. Or press uppercase G to go to the end of the man page. And you can press Q at any time to exit the man page and return to the command shell prompt. When performing searches inside man pages, string allows regular expression syntax. While simple text such as passwd works as expected, regular expressions use meta-characters such as * , . , and $ for more sophisticated, pattern matching. For example, /o.t /o.t where dot will be replaced with any character. Note that, searching with strings which include program expression meta-characters, might yield unexpected results. Searching for man pages by keyword. A keyword search of man pages is performed using man -k keyword, Which displays a list of keyword matching man page topics with section numbers. For example, man –k echo The result here is similar to that of the apropos command. Note that, Keyword searches rely on an index generated by the mandb command, which must be run as root. The command runs daily through cron.daily, or by anacrontab within an hour of boot, if out of date. If man –k keyword command didn’t work try the mandb command as root first. Steps for doing this. Switch user to root user, then enter the mandb command followed by Enter. You will need to do this only if the man –k keyword command didn’t work with you. To go back to the normal user, you can press Ctrl+D The man –K command performs a full-text page search, not just titles, and descriptions like the –k option. Note that, a full-text search can use greater systems resources and take more time. For example, man –K echo man –K echo You can press Q followed by Enter to switch between result pages. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 3. 02 Reading Documentation Using info Command: The Info pages. In addition to the man pages, you can read the Info pages about a command, using the 'info' command. This usually contain more recent information and are somewhat easier to use. The man pages for some commands refer to the Info pages. We will start by typing info info in a terminal window. Use the arrow keys to browse through the text and move the cursor on a line starting with an asterisk, containing the keyword about which you want info, then hit Enter. Use the P and N keys to go to the previous or next subject. The space bar will move you one page further, no matter whether this starts a new subject or an Info page for another command. Also you can Use 'Q' to quit. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 4. 03 Reading Documentation Using pinfo Command: Reading Documentation using pinfo Command. After completing this lecture, you should be able to research answers using GNU Info documentation. pinfo is an info file viewer or a program for viewing info files. The man pages have a formal format useful as a command reference, but less useful as general documentation. for such documents, the GNU Project developed a different online documentation system, known as GNU info. Info documents are an important resource on a CentOS or RedHat Enterprise Linux systems because many fundamental components and utilities, that are either developed by the GNU Project or utilize the info document system. You can specify which page you want to read by passing it as an info page argument. This argument contains the name of an info page. The program will then search for it in the current directory, /usr/share/info directory, and /usr/local/share/info directory. The search path can be adjusted by INFOPATH environment variable or in the configuration files ( .bashrc_profile or .bashrc ). You can use the pinfo command only, to show the top of the info tree, which is the info topics directory. You can press the right key or the Enter key to choose the highlighted topic. Press the left key to go backward. Press d to display the directory of topics. Press PageDown or Space to scroll forward (down) one screen. Press PageUp or b to Scroll backward (up) one screen. Press U to Display the parent node of a topic. Press DownArrow to Scroll forward (down) to the next hyperlink. Press UpArrow to Scroll backward (up) to previous hyperlink. Press / then type string to Search for a pattern for example nano. You can press the q key to exit. Info documentation is structured as hyperlinked info nodes, this format is more flexible than man pages, allowing thorough discussion of complex commands and concepts. Like man pages, info nodes are read from the command line, using either the info or pinfo commands. Some commands and utilities have both man pages and info documentation; usually, the info documentation will be more in-depth. Now I will show you the documentation of the pwd command using man, info, and pinfo commands so as you can compare between using anyone of them man pwd. info pwd pinfo pwd pinfo pwd The pinfo info reader is more advanced than the original info command. Designed to match the Links text web browser keystrokes, it also adds color. Info nodes for a particular topic are browsed with pinfo topic. New documentation nodes become available in pinfo when their corresponding software packages are installed. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 5. 04 Reading Documentation in usr share doc Dir: Reading Documentation in /usr/share/doc Directory After completing this lecture, you should be able to research information using the Red Hat Package Manager documentation. In addition to man and pinfo, developers may also choose to include documentation in their application's RPM distribution package. The Red Hat Package Manager ‘RPM’ is an default open-source and most popular package-management utility for Red Hat based systems like RHEL, CentOS, and Fedora. This tool allows system administrators and users to install, uninstall, query, verify, and manage system software packages in Linux operating systems. When the package is installed, files are recognized as documentation are moved to /usr/share/doc/packagename. /usr/share/doc/packagename. Software package builders may include anything deemed helpful as a complement to but not duplicating man pages. GNU packages also use /usr/share/doc directory to supplement info nodes. Most packages include files describing package distribution licensing. Some packages include extensive PDF or HTML-based documentation. Accordingly, a useful package browsing method is pointing a browser of choice. For example, Firefox to file:/usr/share/doc file:/usr/share/doc file:/usr/share/doc file:/usr/share/doc directory, to show the index of the doc directory. Some packages come with extensive examples, configuration file templates, scripts, tutorials or user guides, some documentation is sparse. Some packages include large user manuals or developer guides, or electronic copies of related published books. Note that, Developers may choose to bundle extensive documentation in a separate RPM. Many packages also include developer documentation, such as an Application Programming Interface (API) specification, provided in a package with a name ending in this devil or similar. Packages may include additional files such as headers. Useful documentation, usually only needed for software development or compiling. I hope this has been informative for you, and I would like to thank you for viewing. 6. 05 The whatis command: The 'whatis' command. A short index of explanations for commands is available using the 'whatis' command, as in this example. 'whatis ls'. This displays short information about the command, and the first section in the collection of man pages that contains an appropriate page. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 7. 06 The help option: The '--help' option. Most GNU commands support the '--help' option, which gives a short explanation about how to use the command and a list of available options. Let’s try this option with the 'cat' command. cat --help cat --help as you can see it gives a short explanation about how to use the cat command and a list of its available options. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 8. 07 Linux Graphical Help: The graphical help. Don't despair if you prefer a graphical user interface. The Gnome Help Browser is very user-friendly, and it provides painless access to the man and info pages, where the system documentation at man pages are easily browsable with a plain interface. You can start it by entering the command "gnome-help info:info" "gnome-help info:info" or by typing "yelp info:info" and you will get a browsable Info page about the info command. Similarly, 'yelp man:ls' will present you with the man page for the ls command. Note that Some commands don't have separate documentation because they are parts of another command, such as 'cd', 'exit',and 'logout'. They are part of your shell program and are called shell built-in commands. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 9. Exercise 4: Exercise for explanation to food, the basswood commandment beach administrative section. To search for the main bit of the which command, using men and approval commands. To show the enthalpy change for the touch command. To show the dome of the input v, using the VM full command. For the index of the SNS users, they ship Slashdot directory using Firefox browser. To get the information about the echo command. Using the command for afford explanation about how to use the command and the list of available options using the desktop. Option. Two of the cat command graphically using the command. Thanks for viewing.