Get Better at Perspective Drawing: Illustrated Wheel - Project 02 | Scott Briscoe | Skillshare

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Get Better at Perspective Drawing: Illustrated Wheel - Project 02

teacher avatar Scott Briscoe, Freelance Graphic Artist

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (1h 34m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Before Getting Started...

    • 3. Plan Drawing / Box Guide

    • 4. Building the Tire / Dynamic Rulers

    • 5. Modifying the Tire / Wheel Rim

    • 6. Inner Wheel / Spoke Guide

    • 7. Building the Spokes

    • 8. Adding Illustrative Style

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About This Class


It seems like a typical perspective drawing is very often a cityscape. My own interest in perspective came, instead, from trying to understand how to draw basic objects. Even basic objects rely on solid perspective in order to appear convincing in our drawings. This forced me realize that nearly all forms of drawing and artwork depend on the artist’s grasp of perspective to be successful.

I also want to show you a different approach to drawing in perspective. This class will utilize a tool, called the COV Rig, that helps artists draw very accurate perspective. In other words, there will be no guesswork on how to draw a realistic tire form and wheel in 3D. 


In this project, I will demonstrate, step-by-step, how to draw this wheel in two-point perspective. I will be working in Affinity Designer, a vector drawing program very similar to Adobe Illustrator. However, the construction techniques are just as applicable to other digital art programs like Photoshop and Sketchbook Pro - as well as pencil and paper.

This class includes:

  • How to prepare a plan for drawing in perspective. 
  • How to maintain accurate proportions while drawing in 3D. 
  • How to create circular shapes in perspective. 
  • Hands-on experience practicing with moderate to advanced guide construction techniques.
  • How to create and use Dynamic Rulers.
  • Plus several tips on how to embellish our drawing with a cool illustrative style.

So join me on a fun project that will enhance your skills for drawing objects in perspective.

Meet Your Teacher

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Scott Briscoe

Freelance Graphic Artist


That's me in my office, at my desk. It's usually the easiest place to find me. I've worked in the graphic design industry for the past 33 years. I've been happily married for 20 of those years and my family has grown to include two teenagers, a small dog, and three fish. I currently live in Orlando, Florida where I work as a freelancer. Away from my desk, I enjoy being neighbors with Mickey Mouse, continuing my struggle to master finger-style guitar, and riding my mountain bike on the beautiful trails found here in Florida.

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1. Introduction: Ah, well, might not be the first thing that comes to mind when we think about drawing an object in perspective. It seems like a typical perspective. Drawing is often the cityscape. This class is not trying to be different for the sake of being different. Instead, I want you to think about the importance. Perspective has for almost any type of drawing or artwork. Also want to show you a different approach to drawing in perspective? This class we utilize a tool called the C. O. V. Rigg that helps artist draw very accurate perspective. In other words, no guess work on how to draw realistic forms in three D. In this project, I will demonstrate step by step, how to draw this wheel in two point perspective. I'll be working in affinity designer vector drawing program very similar to Adobe Illustrator. However, the construction techniques are applicable to other digital art programs and as well as good old pencil and paper. We'll begin with a plan drawing where we explore the style and dimensions of the wheel. Then we'll jump straight into drawing this will in three D. By the time we're done, we'll have a stronger knowledge about how to create circular shapes in perspective, plus a good deal of hands on experience practicing with moderate to advanced guy construction techniques. We'll also have a pretty cool illustrated wheel as well. So join me in a fun project. They want to enhance your skills for drawing objects in perspective. 2. Before Getting Started...: I'll be using affinity designer during this class. Anyone that doesn't have a vector drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator or even a painting program like Photo Shopper Sketch. But Pro can download an affinity designer demo using the link here. Affinity designer really is a fantastic vector drawing program suited both artists and graphic artists, and it's very reasonably priced. Affinity designer has been impressing Mac users for a little while now, and a Windows version is currently available in beta. During this class, you'll be able to follow complex guy construction techniques step by step, thanks to an amazing tool called the C O. B rig, The C. O. V. Rick is a simple but very powerful tool that allows artists to measure objects in distances accurately when drawing perspective. Its purpose is to define points in space that can be used to build the guide structures. Artists need to create objects with unbelievable three D appearance. I have two other classes on skill share that go into great detail about the C O. V. Rigg, plus more information on the skills and techniques. There are part of this class. If you feel like the vocabulary or the concepts in this class are unfamiliar, or you're simply interested in getting as much information as you can about how to become better at perspective. Drawing posits video and go get more acquainted with the fundamentals. The beginning with the Basics class introduces you to the elements of perspective and the C . O. V. Rigg. It also demonstrates how to draw perfect cubes in one for perspective, along with many essential perspective drawing techniques that taking on two point perspective class continues where the first class left off. It explains how to draw objects justice accurately in two point perspective while describing how to draw perfect circles in perspective and more. Now that you know where to find more information, should you need it, I think we're ready to get started. 3. Plan Drawing / Box Guide: that's illustrated wheel. This will be your class project. Feel free to follow along with me as I draw my version of a car wheel, create a cool of your own. This project is going to provide practice, using circles in perspective and working with dynamic rulers. What we draw in two point perspective in this project, I'm going to be constructing this wheel and nearly real time, so you'll get to see every single step. You might be surprised that you'll be able to follow along with me step by step and recreate the same exact wheel that I'll be drawing without any guesswork, thanks to a wonderful tool called the C. O. V. Rigg. We start by creating a plan of what we want or will look like, and then translate the plan into a three D drawing. Working in two point perspective, we'll finish the project up with a few clever line work techniques to give it some illustrative style. Let's dive in. We'll begin the project by creating a plan for our wheel. I'll just create a new document and accept the defaults for a letter sized work area while making sure I've chosen centimeters as my document unit. I want to turn on affinity designers, grids with the grids and access manager from the View menu. I like having the great available as I draw my plan because I can easily keep my shapes organized and aligned. I usually set the grid, as you see here. Standard grid uniform Spacing is once in demeanor, and the divisions are 10. I'm thinking that I want this to look like some sort of racing will. Kind of like would old Hot Wheels cars had back when I was a kid. I'll begin with the lips tool and draw a circle to represent the tire. I want to make sure that the snap pre said I'm using is you y design because it has a snap to grid option. Tip as a draw noticed the tool tip that updates the size of my circle. If you're following along after off the circle so that it's eight centimeters in diameter, I will fill the surf with black so it appears more like a tire. Next, I'll create another circle, making sure that I'm drawing from the center of my previous circle. I'm holding down both the shifting command keys to constrain this circle from its center point a size of 5.8 centimeters looks good to me. I feel the circle with white, since it represents the wheel inside the tire. This next sucker will represent the inside edge of the rim for the wheel all size it to 5.4 centimeters and give it a stroke of black and set the stroke weight 2.5. I'm drawing yet another circle that will indicate where the wheel is instead of it. Inside the rim. I size this circle to 4.6 centimeters, drawing another circle for the hub of my wheel, size to two centimeters and one more circle to represent the inner part of the hub sized 2.8 centimeters. Okay, I've sketched out the primary proportions for my wheel. Next, I want to give my wheel a standard five spoke look. I'll begin by giving the hub circle of Philip White and give this next circle a feel of black, which will help the spoke Stand out. I switched to the pin tool so I can draw stroke from the top center of the tire to the center part of the wheel For now, I'll assign this stroke black and increase the wait until it roughly matches the diameter of the center hub. This thickness is not terribly important because I'm going to adjust it further in just a moment. I do want to make sure that I signed at the but cap options, so it's ends appear square using layers menu. I want to choose expand stroke. This changes my shape from a stroke to a field rectangle. I guess I could have saved myself a step or two and drew this shape as a rectangle to begin with. But with a stroke, I can usually change the stroke way and get a quick visual on how wide I might want the spokes to be. I would use the no tool toe wind, the points at the top of my shaped by 0.6 centimeters and bring in the notes at the bottom 0.2 centimeters on each side. So I have this wedge shape. Converting the stroke to a field shape has left the shape with some curve points. So while quickly select them and change them to sharp using the convert. But I'll change the shape. Still, the white and move its later down, so it's below the hub shape. Since I want five spokes and I want them spaced evenly, I need to know how much to rotate my next book shape. To do this, I'll open my system calculator and divide 3 60 by five. A circle measured in degrees is, of course, 360 degrees, and five is the number spoke salon. You can use this technique to determine the rotation personage for any number of spokes, though now that I see the value, I need a 72 degrees. I go ahead and copy this value and switch back to affinity design. I want to take advantage of affinity designers duplication feature. To do this, I will select this would shape. Use the keyboard shortcut Command J to duplicate its layer in the layers palette. Make sure that my rotation target is set to the bottom center. Paste in the value are copied from the calculator and hit the enter key. This rotates. My second spoke into place. Now all I need to do is use the command. Jake keyboard, shortcut again and affinity of designer will not only duplicate my wedge shape, it also rotates at the same amount as the previous operation. I'll use Command J two more times to create a total of five spokes. This function works as long as the last duplicated shape it selected. As soon as I dis elect this last wedge offended, the designer forgets the transformation by you, and I'll only get a duplicate later the next time I use Command J to keep all the spokes together, I want to use a Boolean operation toe. Add these shapes into a compound group by holding the option key Walk clicking the button. Next, I will copy this interim shape and pasted above the compound spoke shape. Now I'll carefully drag this layer over the top of the compound spoke layer until I see this blue bar beside the layer icon and then release my mouse button. This tells opinion designer that I want to use that layer to mass My spoke shape our paste in the interim shape once again above the spoke layer and swap it still and stroke by clicking this little double arrow. But now I have a plan for both the excellent wine dimensions for my wheel. What I need to draw. Next is a plan view of my wheel for Xena. Mention it will need to match the proportions that I've already created, and I can take advantage of offending designers grid system to help me out with this. I'm also going to use opinion designers guide, so this process is a little easier to see. In the video, I begin making sure my rulers are displayed in my work area, Then use the move told to carefully drag guidelines out of the ruler until they snap to my grid. At the edge of each of my shapes, I find creating guys. An opinion designer could sometimes be a finicky process. Right here you see me dragged from the ruler, but no guideline is created. The trick is to click and pause for a beak inside the ruler before dragging. I want to create a guide for both the top and bottom edges of all of these shapes for the wheel. With that done, I will use the rectangle tool to create a shape that indicates the profile of the tire. This shape is eight centimeters tall to match the height that the tire and ex wife do you and 3.3 centimeters wide, so my tire will be a little fat. Next, I want to create another rectangle shape that represents where the wheel is located. In this the view, this will be a kind of X ray view of the wheel, as if we're able to see into it. I'll assigned the stroke 50% black to make it easier to tell the wheel parts from the tire . I'll continue adding rectangle shape so I could indicate each shape that's in the X Y view . I'm using the guidelines to make sure all these shapes follow the same proportions. With this interim profile shape, I want to pull it inside the will shape 0.4 centimeters. I am indicating how deep the inner parts of the wheel should appear. I'm going to draw the hub shape and pull it in another 0.4 centimeters. Finally, I'll draw the inner part of the Hub and swap it stealing stroke. This gives me a bit of a visual landmark for the wheel and profile view. I want to connect all the shapes together so I could better understand how this profile should look. To do this, I'll select the pin tool. Set the stroke color to black and a stroke weight of 1.5. Then carefully connect all these will shapes together. Now we can see the inner part of the wheel is kind of bull shake. This completes the Z view of the wheel and planning view. Have enough information to begin drawing this will in two point perspective here have opened a prepared C O V rig that will set the orientation of my wheel to 72 degrees. This file is available with the rest of the class files. I've also gone ahead in place the primary line at the size and position that I want this wheel to appear in relation to the central vanishing point. If you choose to work along with me using this file, you will be able to draw the exact same wheel just by using our plan. Also included with the class files, the C O. V. Rigg, Dynamic Rulers and some guidelines. Let's get started. You can see the vanishing points and measure points are already in place, so we're ready to jump in and add edge alliance to the primary line to create the main box guy I'm using the now familiar color and stroke settings. This box guy is going to be the framework for the tire and wheel. The next step is to copy the primary line to use as a measure line for our wheels X wit. You may have already noticed that the primary line in this file is not eight centimeters tall, like our wheel in our plan. Drawing This is on purpose to show how easily we can recreate objects from a plan proportionally rather than feeling like we need to work at a 1 to 1 scale. Since we're going to be creating a perfect circle in perspective, we need to start out by building a perfect square. I'll rotate. Move my measure line to the left of the primary line and snap it to the primary lines base . I'll use the measure line to draw my first measure guide to the measure point on the right side, this intersection of the measure guide and this inch line marks the measure lines whip in debt. I will create a vertical back edge line to create my perfect square in perspective. This side of the box guy will be the X y view of our wheel. I no longer need this measure guy, so I'll delete it out of the way and move my measure line to the right side of the primary line and again snapped the measure line to its base. Quickly change the color this back edge line to match the rest of the box guy. Currently, this measure line is too long to measure the width of the tire for my wheel. I need to scale it to the right size to do that. Let's look back at our plan drawn in reminder cells that diameter of our tire. By selecting it and consulting the transform power, we see that it's still eight centimeters in diameter. Selecting the tire shape in the zebu reminds us that our tires should be 3.3 centimeters wide. If we think of this value as a ratio of the height and the width of the tire, we can simply switch to the system calculator to divide 3.3 by eight to calculate what percentage the Z death is of the wheels within high, the calculator tells us in his 41 a quarter percent, let's copy this value and switch back to affinity designer and the document. We're building the box guy. I'll select the measure line, make sure that I'm targeting its left anchor point and multiply this value by pasting in the percentage we learn from the calculator. Hitting the enter key re sizes. The measure line. So is proportionally sized to the height and width of our wheel. Now it's only a matter of using a measure guy to translate this with two Z death. We want our tire and drawing in the back edge line. I'm no longer need this measure guide or this measure line, so I'll delete them. Have enough information to finish adding upper and lower edge lines for the box guy, which I'll do by duplicating my existing edge lines and snapping them into place to complete the box guy I'll draw in this last back vertical inch line keeping with our layer organization protocol. I will select all the back edge lines, assigned them this lighter 10 of blue, group them and label them in the layers power in group that remaining edge lines and label them as well. That completes our main box guy. It's an accurate proportional representation of our wheel in two point perspective, but we need to add some more structure to this box guy before we can draw our wheel. 4. Building the Tire / Dynamic Rulers: In the previous lesson, we created a detailed plan view for wheel and Constructed, the main box guy. We've also established that the left base of the box guy represents the X Y view of our tire. Let's go ahead and construct our tire shape. I'm using the Ellipse tool to draw on a lips, so a part of it is tangent Teoh each side of the left face of my box Guy. I am carefully scaling my lips until I am satisfied with this intersection with the box guy . I can hold down the option key while scaling to temporarily disable snapping, so it's easier to make fine adjustments to the Ellipse. I need to rotate my lips so that it's minor Axis is aligned with, in this case, the Box Guy Z axis. So the Ellipse will appear accurately in perspective. Before I can rotate the Ellipse, I need to find the foreshortened center of this space using the cross line method. Then I can draw a line from the intersection of these lines to the right vanishing point to establish this box Guy Z axis. I'll go ahead and assign this line the Z axis color and give it stroke a dashed appearance and extended a little bit outside of this face and go ahead and name it as well. Now I'm ready to rotate this ellipse into proper perspective. We can see in this case the rotation is going to be very little because the Axis line is so close to the horizon line. I'll go ahead and adjust the Ellipse anyway, since our goal is to construct the main parts of this wheel and ideal perspective after rotating the Ellipse, I need to go back and check my tangent C one more time. I no longer need these center guides. So while delete them, I'll drive this lips into the front VRS group, so it's easy to find later. Then copy and paces lips into the back of the yards. Group noticed offending his designer. Will Payson object into a layer immediately above the selected layer? I want to use a copy of the original lips because I've already gone to the trouble to rotate it into proper perspective, since both faces of the Bucks Guide shared the same Z axis, this will help speed up my workflow. I'll give this new ellipse the lighter blue tent and reposition it within the box. Guys back face. Now I want to copy and paste each one of these Eclipsys into new layers at the top of the layers palette. I would use these to construct my tire shape while I still have extra copies that are easy to locate if needed. Later, I will hide the box guide out of the way for now and draw a line to connect both. Lipsky's attire is pretty much a squash still under shape. I'm drawing this line so that it's tangent to the top edges of both Lipsky's to indicate the top edge of my tire. I find it's a little easier to see this tendency if I extend the line a bit, passed the lips I am aligning with and then scale the line back in. Once I found the proper angle. By scaling this line to the ellipses apex, I know that I can then adjust this lines opposite in without losing tendency on this end. Otherwise, it's a see saw battle back and forth to try and achieve tangent C on both a lip shapes. I need to repeat this process too great. The bottom edge of my tire. I select all of these shapes and get them my stroke of black so we can see what we have. So far, the tire is starting to take shape, but it's currently looking a bit stiff. Let's press on. I select the top and bottom edges of the tire, switch to the no tool and click the joint Kurt and close Kurt action buttons to create a close shape. Then I'll select all these shapes and swap the stroke to the filled the tires, looking more like a tire. Now to keep the layers palette toddy. I want to go ahead and group and name these shapes, even though I like the way this tire shape is coming together. I know that a tire side, she easily bulge out a little bit, and our current shape has very flat sides. I want to extend my tires profile to include some both, which I think will improve the tires overall silhouette and enhance its final appearance. I returned to the wheel plan document so I can add this detail. I want to use the Ellipse tool to indicate where this tower bulges outward. I'll go ahead and change the stroke colored or white and select the you I design. Snap preset, then draw a new circle from the center of my wheel to about here, which is 7.4 centimeters in diameter. I draw one more new circle to indicate where a tire normally pushes out near the wheel at a diameter of 6.2 centimeters. I need to update my horizontal guides as well to include these two new circles. Now I can add some profile to the Z view of the tire shape. Once again, I'm using the grid lines and guides to help me keep all of the tired oil parts of line. I think my tires bulging just a little too much. Raising tires tend to have pretty sturdy sidewalls, and I just want a little bit of bows to relax the tires profile for the final drawing. Since I don't have anything to snap to between my grid lines, I'll open up the grid access manager again and change the number of divisions to 20. This gives me the point. I need it for the amount of bulge I was looking for. Then I'll return the grid back to 10 divisions and closed the grid access manager. I think that looks about right for this type of drawing. I'll go ahead, duplicate this profile shape to the opposite side of the tire didn't flip it horizontally. I'll also duplicate both of these profiles down to the lower part of the Tyrus well, and flipped them vertically. This looks more like the profile for an actual tire. Now I need a way to translate the rest of this plan so I can finish drawing the wheel in two point perspective. I'm going to create what I call dynamic rulers. Their purpose is to help me measure out all of these will shapes in my three D drawing. Because we were working digitally, we can take advantage of the elastic nature of these rulers. We can rotate and skill them as needed to recreate are well planned accurately in two point perspective, let's take a look at how this works. I'll create the X Y rue, the first since we're constructing a wheel shaped I can construct this ruler either along the X axis or the Y axis and achieve the exact same results. I've decided to create this ruler along the y axis, since all of the guidelines we need for the realer are already in place. With the Pinto selected and my stroke said to the Y axis color, I'll draw vertical line the height of my tire. Now I create a ruler. Tick mark. Each of these guidelines thes tick marks don't need to be any certain link their thickness . In fact, there's a good chance I'll adjust both. If I have any trouble seeing these tick marks in the two point perspective drawing, I want to change the color of this tick mark where the wheel part begins. This gives me a visual landmark on the ruler self. I'll do the same on the other side of the room. I want to select all the parts of my ruler so I could group them together and named this Group X Y ruler. I need a zero as well, and I think it will be easier to see where to place the tick marks for it. If I had guidelines for the sea views, vertical landmarks, it looks like I should have left my grid division said to 20 so I could snap to this profile shape easier. No, problem. I'll just reopen the grids and access manager and change the divisions back to 20 and just leave it that way. I mean, careful to not miss any landmarks as that place is vertical guides. I've learned the hard way. Taking your time doing this safe you tire meant confusion later. I purposely didn't add any rear profile to the will because it won't be visible in the final John. That's not always the case. If we're drawing a complete car for these wheels to go on, it's possible we could see the back of these wheels on the opposite side of the car, depending on the view angle of the drawing. So plan accordingly. I do think we might see just smallest indication of a bulge on the opposite side of the tire in our current drawing, though, but I don't know for sure yet. With the vertical guides in place, I can go ahead and create the Z Ruler in the same manner I created the X Y ruler. I'll start with a horizontal line and give it the Z axis color, then draw the tick marks at each vertical guide vocation. Since I already have the main bucks guy constructed back in my drawing. Based on the original tire profile, this additional profile would need to be extruded from the box guy. We've already looked at a couple of ways to do this in previous lessons, but the dynamic rulers give us one more option, which will see pretty soon to help us out with this. I want to make the tick marks that indicate the original tire profile very prominent. So while sign in the measure color, then select all of these lines, group there and labor the group Z rule with a dynamic rulers complete. I'm ready to copy the Z Wheeler. I returned to my two point perspective, drawing and paste it in. I'll hide the tire shapes and unhygienic box guy. I need to position my Z ruler on my box guides so I can use it to measure along the Z axis guideline. I'll make sure I have the snap set page layouts with objects, so my ruler has a better chance of locking into place. I need to alarm the red tick mark to the front edge of the box guy and make sure the ruler extends just a little water than the box guides Back edge. I can treat this ruler a lot like a measure line, but with a big difference. Instead of drawing a measure guide to an established measure point, I will instead use the ruler to locate a new dynamic measure. Point somewhere on the horizon line. Let me demonstrate. I need to create a measure guide from the other red. Take Mark to the back corner of my box guy. Remember, these red tick marks represent the Z with of the wheel and therefore the Z with of the box Scott as well. Now I need to extend this measure guy to the horizon to create a new dynamic measure point . This creates a relationship between the box guy, that dynamic ruler and the dynamic measure point. I'm then able to duplicate this measure guide and snap it to the outermost tick marks on my ruler, which are two ticks outside of the main box guy Where these measure guys intersect. The topsy excess inch line will indicate the widest part of the tire profile. I'm able to use the 45 degree principle to extrude and measure along the Z Axis line Auto magically, I want to hide the ruler and measured guys temporarily so I can create some new edge guides along the box guy. This additional set of guidelines will let me show and hide Onley parts of the guys structure we need to see in the layers palette, which will prevent the number of guidelines in the work area from getting overwhelming. I'll recreate just these two edge guides for the moment. Then I hide my measure guides and extending this new guidelines for this is how I can use a ruler to extrude a shape. Since this construction is getting a little crowded with guidelines, I'm taking the time to create a snapping point where this parallel edge and the measure guys intersect. Then I could snap in the beginning of my vertical edge guy. While I am still working up at the top of the box guide, I'll also go ahead, indicate the extrude on the back with another vertical edge guy thing. Go ahead, extended down to the lower edge guy. We can see here that these guys don't all match perfectly. Then again, I'm also zoomed in over 9000%. It's really easy for me to get to particular when working in a victor application. Obviously, this very, very small misalignment will not be visible in the formal drawing. Those that work in a raster based environment or with pencil and ruler don't have to worry about the temptation to seek perfection. Those of us using affinity design. Next, I'll finish extending this frontage guide down as well. How to measure guys out of my way again and create the last two additional parallel edge guides. I'm going to hide the front part of the box guy, then create the parallel edge guys to the left. Vanishing point. We can see here at the bottom haven't extended my right parallel edge to meet the new vertical edge. Guy Island had the front part of the box guide, so we can better see what's going on. I just need to extend the lower edge guide Ford until it will intersect with the vertical edge guy. Now I can hide the front part of the box guy and finish connecting the guys at this corner . I need to extend this other edge guide forward and extend the edge Guide at the top is well , then had a vertical edge guy have created a new extruded face in front of the main box guy . When I didn't have the front part of the box guy, it's easier to see. I want to go ahead and create the remaining edges for the back extrude. The next step is to organize the layers palette. I will select the Edge guys in the front group and label these as Level Plus two. This lets me know that this plane of guidelines is two ticks of the ruler. Ford from the main box guy actually should make this name a little clear and add fr for front. I want to group these edges for the back extrude as well. I'll label these BK Level Plus two. I think of this group as a positive level playing because it's outside of the main box guy . I need to add this top edge line that I neglected to create earlier For the back extreme. I should group these remaining edges with fr level plus two. I want to drag these new groups down in the layers palette so that all of my layers are stacked properly. Then I will take a moment to 10 some of these edge lines so that we have a better visual indication of which guidelines are in front and which aren't back. 5. Modifying the Tire / Wheel Rim: with the extruded planes for the front and back of the box got in place. I'm ready to add the additional of lip shapes for the tire profile. I'll hide the main box. Got out of our way. Switch over to the wheel plan document copy the X Y ruler and paste it in my two point perspective, drawn. I want to align this really with the front edge of the front level to plane. This will allow me to scale this ruler to match this plane and therefore match the size of the wheel. If we look back at the wheel plan, we can see that the rulers first tick mark indicates the widest part of the tire profile in the zebu, and we can also see how this circle should appear in relation to the tire. Back in the two point perspective drawing, I want to duplicate this edge line and align it with the first tick mark on the ruler. I decrease its stroke and change the color so it will be easier to tell the guidelines apart. I need another guideline. Align with the first pick, mark up from the bottom as well. I'm creating guys on this outermost plane that will help me place in the lips for the tires . Out of profile, I need to create a pair of vertical guides so I'll duplicate the X Y ruler. Change the name to just ex ruler and change the name of the original ruler to Why Ruler? Now I want to rotate the actually where 90 degrees so I can use it to measure out my vertical guidelines. I'll give it the X colors well by opening up its group and selecting the green tick marks and changing those to red while leaving the blue as is, I need to align the ruler so I can use it to measure along the x width of the box guy. I also want to scale it so it's closer to the size of the box guys. Left face, I could draw a measure guide from the end of the ruler to the back edge of this left face. This ruler does not need to be used to extreme my box guys, So let's with matches the box guys with both vertically and horizontally. It might seem a little strange. We can use a ruler in this manner being able to arbitrarily scale it to fit our needs and still measure inaccurate shape. But this really works. Then I'll extend the measure guide to the horizon line. I could move this into the measure line to the first tick mark because it's opposite in is fixed at the dynamic measure point. I'll duplicate this measure line and reposition it to the opposite tit mark. I will hide the X ray look to better see the intersection of the Measure guide and this edge line. He created vertical guide on this level to plane and create another vertical guide. Over here, I can extend both of these guides down toward the lower inch guy. I don't need to be too concerned about how close that intersect this edge line, because only need these guys to position on the lips. These measures guys have done their jobs, so I'll delete. I want to copy the Ellipse from the front face of the box guy once again and paste it into the front level to group inside the layers palette. I'll give it the green color and position it inside my new guides on the Level two plane when I, um had the front of the box guy. We can see how this new ellipse will update the form of the tired zooming in. You can see where the green and lips crosses over the blue lips, which means that this shape will also influence the tire silhouette. I'll copy this new lips and pasted inside the tire group. After I finally get its feel said to Black, I'll talk with the shape layer off and on so we can see the fruits of our labor. This might seem subtle at the moment, but this detail will go a long way to increase the believability at the tire in the final Drawn Let's hide the tire group and put away these two vertical guys that should be with the Level two group. I want to reposition the Y Ruler and basically repeat the construction steps I just used to create the outer profile for the back of the tire. I'm still not sure that this lips will be visible to the view or given how subtle the front of lips is. I'll just have to build it to find out. I need to scale the realer vertically to fit the foreshortened back plane from here, it is the same procedure as the last time. I'll duplicate thes edge guides and reposition him at the first ruler. Tick. Duplicating this inch lines has the benefit of keeping these new guides included with the back plane level to group. Now I'll talk with the wide ruler off and their ex ruler on. I need to reposition the X ray earlier so it will measure along the back planes. Top edge line. I'll skillet a little larger than the width of the back plane and then create a measure guide from the outside edge of the ruler to the back edge of the back plane. Then extend the measure guide to the Horizon line to locate the dynamic measure. Point as before, I relocate the measure guide in one tick mark and duplicated over to the tick mark on the opposite end of the ruler. I'm going to find the BK Level two group in the layers palette and select the top layer of the group. When I later within a group is selected, the Knicks shape I draw on the work area will automatically be included in that group immediately above the selected layer. I should hide the X realer out of the way so we can see better. Now I just need to create the vertical guides on the back plane. This time, I'll copy the Ellipse from the back of the main box guy. Each of these ellipses are rotated the same amount because all of these planes shared the same Z axis so I can duplicate any one of them. I make sure that I paste the Ellipse into the back level to layer and said its color to the lighter green. 10. The last step is to scale the lips into place. Let's check to see if this lips was worth the effort. It's hard to tell in this view. I'll go ahead and place a copy of this shape with the tire group and fill it with black, as I talked with layer on and off. It's pretty settled, but we've given our tire a proper silhouette. This move on can't create the Level one extruded planes. I love how the Z ruler and its associated measure guys hide the tire and display the front level to plane. I'll go ahead, display the front of the main box guide as well, so we'll have another visual landmarks. It doesn't look like I need to create the back level one plane because it won't be visible to the viewer. So we'll just worry about creating the plane at the front. I can take advantage of the inch lines in the framework that's already part of the level to play. This should help the next planes construction go a little quicker. I could reposition this measure guide to this ruler Tick mark, which indicates where the level one extruded plane should be located didn't extend the measure guide. So what intersects the top edge line? Now I can create the vertical edge guide for this new plane. This provides the landmarks I need to create the parallel edge guys to the left vanishing point. The work area is getting a little bit crowded with guidelines. So while hide the front of the box guy, do you create the vertical guide for the back edge of the level one plane? I have all the edges for the level one plane. So while quickly hide these other layers out of the way in arranging group the guidelines into the fr level one group. I also want to position it properly in the layers palette. Looking again at the wheel plan. This is the part of the tire would want to draw next. It has profiled to the tired just outside the wheel. After refreshing my memory on which take Mark to use, I'll switch back to my drawn, find the right Oiler and reposition it along the Level one plane. This is going to be the same procedure we've already seen that this project is good practice. Working with a complex set of guidelines to create multiple insect shapes, I'll place my new horizontal guidelines within the Level one plane, then Tuggle on the X Ruler and reposition it. I need to create a new measure guide to locate the dynamic measure points in position. The measure guides on the tick marks I need on the ex ruler, and I'm ready to draw in the vertical guides within the Level one plane. - I want to find my lips shape and copy it into the level one layer and skill it into place. I'll go ahead and place a copy of this ellipse into the Tyre group and said it stroked a why this tire starting to look pretty good. I wanted a white stroke to the level to profile shape so we can see how that affects the tires of parents. Once again, I want to look back at the plan to make sure I know exactly what shape I want to tackle next and which ruler tick marks are associated with it. We are up to the wheel. This means that I'll be using the blue Take marks on the X and Y rulers. It also means that I'll be constructing the shape on the main box guides. Front plane. I'll sit at my work area with only the front of the box guy visible. Position the wide ruler and create my guidelines. I'll trouble on the ex ruler and my measure guides and then create the vertical guidelines. I need to duplicate the Ellipse and scale it into place. Then place a copy of the wheel shape of lips into my tire group. I'll go ahead and give it a feel of white. I could see the wheel shape is leaking outside of the level one tire profile shape. To fix this, I can copy the level one shape pasted above the wheel shape, then select bow shapes and use an Intersect bullying to trim the will shape inside of the level one shape. We could stop right here and have a very nice looking tire. The subtle profile shapes really add to the believability of the tire. The ability to control this type of detail makes learning how to construct objects in perspective worth the time and effort. But why stop here this? Build the rest of the wheel back in the plan. The next part of the wheel is on the same plane as the outer part of the well. It's just a matter of adding the guidelines and another in lips to the front of the main box guy are X and Y rulers are already in position. I just need to create another set of guidelines for the inner edge of the wheel. Here are building the horizontal guidelines and measure guides, then build in the medical guidelines, - duplicate the ellipse and scale it into place. I'll make a copy of this lips, put it with the tire group and give it a black stroke. The inner part of the rim is done 6. Inner Wheel / Spoke Guide: Let's consult the plan before we draw the next element of our wheel. The wheel has an insect ring before the spoke area. We haven't constructed an inset plane on the box God yet, so that will be the next task. I'll switch back to my two point perspective, drawing, then hide the tire and will shapes and make the Z realer visible. I also need the front of the main box guy visible. I remember to use the red take mark to base my measure. Guys dynamic measure part. I'll go ahead and build both insect planes at the same time. I place the measure, guys, you cement your guys to locate the vertical edges of both inset planes. Extend these vertical edges down to the bottom Parallel edge guy. Draw inches to the left vanishing point for the bottom of the plains. And for the top of the plains, I need to display the back of the box guide so I can see the intersection for the back edge lines. I'm create both back vertical edge lines, then had the main box got out of the way. I want to select the front set avenges set the color and group them. I'll name this plane if our level negative one. The negative number singer defies this plane is inside the box guy. I'll organize and group the lines for the other plane as well, and name it fr level Negative, too. And drag these layers between the front and back, the ours in the layers power. I'll make a quick trip back to the plan to make sure I know which really take marks I need to use to construct the next part of the wheel. As always, I need to place my wire ruler along the front edge of the plane where I want to place the horizontal guidelines. Scale the roof of vertically to match the perspective for shortening of this plane. Create the horizontal guidelines that will help me size the ellipse that's associated with this plane. I will swap. Rulers, reposition the ex ruler, create the measure guides and draw the vertical guys onto the plane. I'll again copy and the lips already have from the front of the box guy and paste it onto the level negative one plane. Then skill your lips into place. I want to copy and paste this the lips into my tire group. I probably could have relabeled this group well, but that's no big deal. Then change the shapes field to black. We can now see this part of the wheel taking shape. This lips needs to be trimmed inside the inner part of the rim. To do that, I'll copy this interim shape and pasted above my in a wheel shape so that both of these shapes and once again use the Intersect bullying operation to trim the inner wheel shape. That looks much better. Let's go back to the plan and see what's next. I want to create the hub shape before we get to the spokes. We can see that this shape will be on the level negative two plane we've already created back in the two point perspective, drawing hide everything I don't currently need out of the way and make the level negative too plain and the UAE ruler visible. I quickly repositioned the wire iler, then create the horizontal guidelines. Taking a quick look back at the plan, I noticed that the inner part of the hub is also on the same plane. I think I can sink sometime if I go ahead and create the guidelines for that shape as well . I'll swap a rulers and reposition the extra alert to the proper location to measure on this plane. Create the measure God's then draw the vertical guidelines. - Now I can go find an existing ellipse and copy and paste it into the level negative to plan, then scale it into position. I'm going to duplicate and skill this of lips for the inter have as well then copy and paste. Both of these ellipse ease into the tyre group. I'll give the outer home shape a fill of white and the inter help shape a stroke of black. We can see both of these shapes look like they need to be trimmed down to fit inside the inner wheel rim. I will do these one at a time. I'll copy the inner wheel room shape and pasted above the outer hub shape. Select both shapes and use the Intersect Boolean operation. We can see that the inner hug shape only needs to be trend the slightest bit. I'll paste the interim shape above this shape, so let both shapes and run the Intersect. Boolean once again on this missing from the wheel are the spokes. Let's take another trip back to the plan and review what we need to do to create the spokes in the X Y, view the spokes or taper slightly into a wedge shape. In the Z view, we can see they are actually slanting in from the outside of the rim toward the hub. To recreate the spokes in perspective, we need to build a guide structure that contains the points where each spoke intersex, both the outer rim shape and the inner hub shape. We will build this guy's structure right here in our plan. I want to carefully select the compound group that contains all the spokes in this hub shape. I will option drag these elements down below to a clean part of the work area. In the next several steps, I'm going to be breaking this structure apart. Just so it's a little simpler to see exactly what's going on when we use it as a guide. During this video lesson. That said, Here's the breakdown I could no longer see the spoke shakes because they're filled with White House, select the spokes, change their stroke to blue and change the field of none. Next, I want to locate this compound group in the layers palette. Open it up to find the mass shape and drag it outside of the group. I want to copy the shape to the clipboard with command. See, now I select both the former mass shape and the compound group and run the divide operation . This operation uses the top shape to slice through the shape it's above and keeps all of the pieces. We can see some of these pieces in the layers palette, and they're still selected. It's good they're selected because all we really want to keep is the top shape. All command Click on the top shape to dis selected in the layers Palette impressed the delete key to get rid of the other shapes. That leaves me with this spoke shape that's been neatly trimmed by the inner will shape. I'll remove the field and give the shape back the stroke of blue that was lost during the divide operation. They don't paste in the mass shape previously copied to the clipboard. Get rid of this bill and change it stroke to blue as well. Now I want to give the inner hub shape fill of white. I want to enclose this guy's structure in a square shape. I'm dragging a marquee to select all the shapes in this structure and then try and drag it over until the snaps to this major grid line. So will be easier for me to align the square. I want to draw to it. Unfortunately, the current snap preset doesn't recognize the grid, so I'll switch over to the U R design set, then try and drag it to where I wanted one more time with the rectangle tool. How draw square to the bounds of this structure, Then get rid of the square shapes. Phil also want the stroke for the shape to be green. I see. I need to bring in the square at the bottom a little bit. The spoke guide is now ready to be put to work. In my two point perspective, Drum 7. Building the Spokes: before he put this spoke guide to use. Let's select and group all of its elements together and name it spoke guide, then copy and paste it into the two point perspective. Drawing. We'll display only the front level negative one layer because that plane can things the inner part of the wheel, which is where the spokes begin. I'm going to try switching back to the page layouts with object snaps that to see if I can get the spoke guide to snap to this upper horizontal guide that's on the level negative one plane, then skill the spoke guide proportionally until it reaches the lower horizontal guide on the level negative one plane. This matches the spoke guides size with the inner will circle that's in perspective. Think of this as if it were a strip of paper with these two circles drawn exactly the same size. Then we folded one side of this paper strip to match the angle of the level negative one plane on the box guy. While the other part remains perpendicular to our view, I want to quickly switch to my points to snaps that then create a horizontal guideline from this intersection where one of the spoke lines meet the outside circle to the front edge of the level negative one plane. When I extend this guideline to the right, notice the symmetry we have with the opposite side of this spoke. We actually have similar symmetry for all five spokes. Now, when I create a guideline from here to the left vanishing point, I've indicated both of the top spoke line locations on the Ellipse. That's in perspective. I want to continue to create guidelines for the rest of the spoke lines in the same manner . I can skip this point because it happens to be located exactly on the level negative one planes front edge with that part done now, match these guidelines with perspective, God's drawn to the left vanishing point. So now each spokes outside edge has been indicated in perspective. I want to hide the level negative one layer, then display the level negative two way I'll pull out of guide so we can see that the spoke God's inner circle shape matches our hub shape in perspective. On another drawing. The perspective foreshortening might be such that we would need to scale our spoke guide a little bit to match the shape, size and perspective. But in this case, the current scale is fine. Now I want to create another set of guys based on where the spokes intersect this inner circle shape. Since I don't have points available at these intersection, I might as well switch back to the page layout. Snap reset so I can align the guys to the level negative two planes front edge a little easier. I'll change the stroke color of these guys to a lighter orange, so we'll be able to tell the outer guidelines from the Inter guidelines. They're not continue to create the rest of the horizontal guidelines. It might look a little awkward that the spoke guys edges, not aligned with the level negative to play niche. That's okay. I'm finding that edge wouldn't change the position of these guidelines in perspective. I'm ready to create perspective, guys for the inner part of the spokes, I will quickly switch my snaps that back to points to and natural of the Inter spoke war zone of guys with perspective guidelines almost missed this more than that right below the horizon. It would help us to see things better if I change the stroke color on these guidelines To the lighter orange. The spoke guide is Dennis Job, so I hide it out of the way, then re display the level negative one plane. It's simply a matter of carefully drawing a line from the intersection of the orange perspective. Guideline on the level negative one ellipse to the intersection of a light orange guideline on the level. Negative tulips. I'll switch my pen tool and draw these in. Now I'll set the stroke color to black for these lines. Then continue carefully building all these spoke lines one at a time. - I'm not really sure how visible this spoke is going to be on the final drawing, if at all. I will go ahead and draw it in for now, and we'll see how it turns out when I display the tire group, it looks like only a sliver of this book would be visible. I'll go ahead, finish drawing it, but I think I might end up getting rid of it later. I have all the spoke lines in place, but I need each of the spokes to be enclosed shape so I can build him with cover. I'll demonstrate one way we can change the spoke lines to enclose shapes. I can select one of the spoke lines and scale it from its center while holding both the shifting command keys. Then repeat this process for this next spoke line. I want to make sure this line is long enough. So when it's connected to the other line, the final shape won't interfere with the curb of the inner part of the wheel or the hub. Now I can select both minds. It's like the no tool and use this action button to first join these lines, then use the clothes Kerr button to complete the shape. I repeat these steps on the remaining spoke lines. - I should clean up the layers palette. I'll select all the spokes shapes and group them. They don't select all these guidelines for the spokes and group those as well. I could group these guides and the spoke guide together so they're all in one group. Let's display the rest of the wheel and tire and then feel the spokes shapes with wide. I object the spokes group into the tyre group just below the hub shapes. Then I want to locate the shape that indicates the inner part of the wheel rim, copy it and paste it above the spokes group. I need to fill the shape with color so it will work as expected to use as a mask, so I will simply swap the feeling stroke. By the way, a stroke will work as a mask as well, but the mast elements are only visible inside the stroke itself. They know what. Carefully drag this layer on top of the spokes group layer until I see this blue bar beside the layer icon. I didn't release the maps. This. We use the shape as a mass for the spokes and trim them nicely inside the wheel shape. I'm still not liking this slipper spoke this only just barely visible. Other than that, I'm pretty happy with how the will turned out. This wheel definitely looks like it could be on a hot Wheels car. Even though this is a flat line drawing. The tire has nice form, and it's easy to see the wheel itself has a bowl shape. We were able to recreate the spoke angles properly in perspective as well as it stands this drawing would serve very well as a mechanical drawing, but I think this will could benefit from some extra illustrative style. 8. Adding Illustrative Style: zooming in. I can see that I need to make some changes to the layer stacking. I'll drive the interim layer up in the stacks, so part of it stroke isn't getting hidden. I would like the outer part of the wheel and spokes to be a single shape. This is going to take a couple of steps begin by selecting the outer rim and inner wheel shapes. Duplicate them with command J. Hide the original layers for both shapes and run a subtract bullying. This gives me a nice single ring shape for this part of the wheel. I'll open up the spoke group in the layers palette and go ahead and get rid of this spoke that only shows up as a sliver when shapes are very close together like this. Not only would this spoke not read well in the drawing, but it also creates a point of unwanted attention. This liver will likely draw the eye of the viewer. Who is going to wonder what this bunny shape is? I want to add the spoke group and the will ring together with the Boolean operation. I want to pull the smash shape out of the spoke group. When I select both of these shapes for the bullion, I see affinity. Designer doesn't like that idea. Notice the ad operation is unavailable. This is probably because the spokes or group no problem. I'll just take a different approach. I'll select the spoke group and l group it using the group command under the layers mean with the spoke group shape still selected, I could run the ad Boolean operation to combine them all into a single shape. Then I'll go ahead and try to combine the spokes with the wheel ring. Using the ad Boolean once again success. I want to give these spokes of softer appearance. I could go back to the plan view and create a radius to help me around the edges between the spokes and the will ring, which will take a bit of common effort. Or I can simply cheat. And just around these edges with a vending designers corner tool, calling this a cheat is not really the way to think about this. There are parts of a drawing that demand. The structure is exact. You it is possible. Then there are parts of the drawing that rely on an artist's own sensibilities to convey the drunks message earlier. We recognize the value of the wheel being drawn as accurately as possible. Being able to control shapes in perspective through understanding sound construction techniques is a great skill. The half. At the same time, it's a bit unrealistic to think that we should use these techniques. For all the detail, elements of a drawing is low. If we're being honest, creating all of these construction guides can get conversant. Hey, I'm not saying we've gone to all this effort for nothing far from it. Taking stock of our current work, we haven't really saw the looking tired. Well, thanks to the efforts were made to create different planes to position the Ellipse sees. But I think the real value isn't what we've learned during this process. Creating the planes helped us understand how inside ellipses work in perspective the next time we drop well, instead of creating each of these planes, we could instead simply scale and slider. Our lips sees along the perpendicular access to achieve a similar result much quicker. The construction methods I'm sharing are there to help us teach ourselves how to draw. If we don't understand how to draw a shape in perspective. No problem. We've got our construction guys ready. We can draw any shape and evaluate how each line adds to its believability as we g o. After practicing, drawing different shapes in perspective with construction guys, I bet you'll surprise yourself how well you can skate shapes now with fewer guys. Use the construction guys until you have created a solid foundation for your drawing and then work on free hand in the remaining detail. It saves time and effort. Plus opens the door for you to add your own artistic flair. I have justification back to the task at hand, using the corner tool. I will slip these two points and give the spoke holes a little bit of rounding. If you haven't explored defending the Designers Corner tool before the warrant, it's really addictive. I want to do the same to the remaining spoke holes. Once again, this detail is not perfect, but the rest of the drawing nearly is. That will go a long way to convince the viewer this rounding we're doing is accurate as well. Next, I want to add a bit more detail around this hump shape after selecting the shape, swap its field of black, then duplicate this shape with command. J. I want a stroke, but no feel for this shape, then scale it proportionally from a center. To make this a little less prominent. I will dial down its stroke weight 2.3. I will copy this interim shape once again to trim this new detail shape pasted about my shape and click intersect. I want to do Kate this our hub shape. Remove it still and give it a stroke of black. This gives me some separation between the spokes in the home, but I don't want the change from the Slanted. Spoke to the black hub to appear quite this a brook. To soften this transition, I'll select the stroke tub shape and then click this pressure button in the stroke Pilot clicking at the top of the profile dialogue as a new no to this profile line. I select this first note and drag it down to create this kind of hump shape. Notice that the opposite note comes along for the ride as well. When I did select the shape, you can see that this line has some dynamic to it now where the stroke goes from thick to thin as it wraps around the shape. I don't have the effect on one yet. I want better control where the thick and thin parts of the stroke appear on my shape. I also think I want each spoke to have its own transition line, so I need to break up this single round shape. To do this, I'll switch to the no tool and add a note right here. They break the line at this node with the brake action button in the top toolbar. This existing no looks like it's in about the right spots. All go ahead and break it allowed another note and break this shape again here and do it again here as well, then had one more note and break it once again, up at the top. Now I want to select and delete this part of the shape, then delete this part as well. I'm now left with an illustrative line that now makes this spoke to help transition look more gradual, which is closer to what we sketched in the plan drawn. Let's take a closer look at this detail line at the top spoke word intersex. The interim she ate creates another unwanted point of tension. I'll zoom in to add another note so I can break this line before it intersects this edge, then delete the remaining part of the stroke shape. That's the effect I was looking for. Now that I've added these looser lives to the drawing, it makes these other stroke shapes start to look rather stiff. Let's see what happens when I had the same type of effect to these other strokes as well. I'll select the interim shape, opened up the pressure dialogue and create the same bell shaped profile as before. I like the thick and thin appearance that has. But once again, I'm not happy with where it's then and where is thick. I can remedy this. If I convert this shape to curves using this button in the top toolbar, then break this shape at his top and bottom notes. I want this stroke toe have a little more weight, so I will increase it. 2.7 now have the thicker parts of the line on the left and right sides, and it gets thinnest at the top and bottom notice how the thicker line here help separate the rim shape from the hump shape. I think that sub detail can benefit from the same treatment, so I'll create the same effect on it as well, then increases stroke white 2.5. I want the same transition for the outer part of the spokes is I have for the inner part of the spokes. I'll find a copy of the inner wheel shape in the layers palette copy and pasted above the spoke layer. Then swap is filled to the stroke. I'm repeating the same method I used earlier. I'm anti notes to this shape, or I think it should break and leave the amount of line I need to help sell that this part of the spoke gently angles inward. Then I can delete the parts of the shape no longer need. Select my remaining lines, then use the pressure dialog box to give them the thick and thin appearance. Also want to increase the stroke with This helps pull this part of the wheel toward the viewer. I think it's past time I needed up this spoke shape where it's leaking outside of the wheel . I find the hour will shape in the layers palette and copy and pasted above the spoke layer . Rather than use the bullying again, simply use the shape as a mask, much better. Next up. I slept this profile line on the tire and use the pressure dialogue very the stroke. With just a stroke, wait a little thicker, then break it at the top and bottom. That just leaves this other child profile line. I want to go ahead and break it close to where it passes outside of the tire silhouette. Once again, use the pressure dialogue to vary the stroke with increases stroke. Wait and then play with this center known in the pressure dialogue. I wanted to seem like this. Part of the tire profile is catching a little more light on the upper right side of the tire. I like how that looks. So are changed outline of you to select the tires front end shape, then copy and paste it to the top of the tire group. I'll get rid of its field and set the stroke toe white. This time, I want to get a little more creative with how I break this shape to help sell that there is more light on the top right of the tire trim. The shapes was only visible in that area of the tire. Use the pressure dialogue once again to set the profile, but this time I want to pull the outside of the profile all the way to the bottom. This will cause a stroke to taper down to nothing at each end. I'll also bring the sinner note over to match the other profile shape. I want this. I like to be more subtle than the outer profile shape, so I'll need to decrease its stroke. Wait, I'm not quite happy with a wheel hub yet. I want to change. This looks so it's part of the wheel. Rather than part of the void inside the wheel. I will select the innermost hub shape duplicated, scale it in a little bit and change its field white scale it down just a tiny bit more. I'll find the Z axis in the layers palette and drag it up to the top. Then slide this new shape along the Z axis to the right. This gives the center of the hub. I must dimple the parents without the black centre. I'm also getting more visual separation between the wheel rim and the hub. I still need to trim down this innermost hub shape to the inner part of the rim. After locating the interim shape in the layers palette, I'll copy it and pasted above the innermost hub shape, select both shapes and run the Intersect Boolean operation. Last set of details, I want to add is to give the wheel some thickness that's visible through the spoke holes. This detail is going to take the drawing away from an actual hot wheel style wheel, But since this will is the star of the drawing, I'll be okay with that. I want to scroll down in the layers palette until I find the wheel spokes group inside the tire group. I'll duplicate this layer with command J. I want to modify the spokes group layer that's below the other one. This layer will not need the mass, so I will delete it. I also want to swap the fill color to the stroke. I want to reposition this layer and to do that I want to be able to see the Z Axis guy so I will display it again the stroke version of the spoke layer still selected. So I'll zoom in and note the relationship. This center note on the left has with a Z Axis guy, you know, we'll move the selected spoke ship to the right while making sure I move this shape along the Z axis. I'm arbitrarily setting a thickness for the wheel appearance to an amount I think looks good. I'm going to zoom out to see how I like it. I think it could be just a little thicker. After re selecting the shape of the layers palette, I had a little more thickness by moving their shape further to the right. That's more like it. I want to trim the shapes that indicate the will thickness away from the edges of will, matching the style when used. The indicate that spoke ankles with the layer selected again, and the note to selected I want to set the round of spoke corners are still creditable. The modifications I want to do would cause the rounded corners to reset, so I need to first convert this shape to curves. To do that, I will use the convert to curse command under the layers menu. Now I can end it the shape and keep the curves intact. I'm going to break this note where nearly intersects the spoke edge. Then add a note over here and break this note as well. I'll do the same on this part of the shape into this shape down here. I want to zoom out so I could see the whole shape in the layers palette. We can see that I now have this shape broken up into several smaller shapes. Only want to keep this three shapes that are visible inside the spoke holes. I'll select this top most layer to see what shape this actually is. I don't need this shape, so I'll trash it. I want to keep this next shape, but get rid of this one. I'll keep that one and get rid of this one. After selecting this last shape in the stat, it looks like it was unable to separate itself from the outer part of the shape. No problem. I will use the no tool to select points that are not part of the shape I want to keep and delete them and continue working this out of shape. down until it's all gone. For a final touch, now slipped three meaning shapes and open up the pressure dialogue and just the profile to the familiar bell shape. I think these strokes could stand to be just a touch snicker, but I only want the shapes divide a glimpse of the back edge of the wheel. Finally, I'll quickly hide the Z axis and the rig elements, and there's our will. I will include this file with the class file so you can explore my result if you want to. In this case, we've gotten a lot of practice working with circles in perspective, using dynamic rulers and working from a plan. Creating the circle Guide for the spokes gave us a new way to think about God construction . I can't wait to see your will project for your will. You can change its style, the number of spokes, if any, its size and thickness. Wherever your news lead you, that's it. For this class. There's always more to learn about perspective drawing, and I hope to see you in the next class