Get Better at Perspective Drawing: Beginning with the Basics - using Affinity Designer | Scott Briscoe | Skillshare

Get Better at Perspective Drawing: Beginning with the Basics - using Affinity Designer

Scott Briscoe, Freelance Graphic Artist

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14 Lessons (2h 14m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:02
    • 2. Before Getting Started...

      2:09
    • 3. Types of Perspective

      7:48
    • 4. COV Rig Demonstration

      9:11
    • 5. Creating the COV Rig

      8:34
    • 6. The Horizon Line

      8:19
    • 7. Exploring the COV Rig

      5:12
    • 8. Perfect Cubes in 1PP

      17:47
    • 9. Floor Grid/Measuring in Perspective

      15:06
    • 10. Pt. 1: Auto-Magical Shapes & Measures

      20:53
    • 11. Pt. 2: Auto-Magical Shapes & Measures

      24:14
    • 12. Pt. 3: Auto-Magical Shapes & Measures

      9:59
    • 13. Project: A 'Not-So-Humble' Cube

      1:42
    • 14. Conclusion: What's Next

      1:18
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About This Class

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If you’re someone who has ever struggled with creating accurate perspective, or found it difficult to portray a strong sense of depth within your artwork, or have ever been bothered by the distorted shapes that often occur using standard perspective methods - I believe the insights, skills, and techniques shared in this class will be very helpful to you.

I discovered I really needed to have a much better understanding of perspective while taking an anatomy drawing class online. Turns out, good proportion, solid shape language, and accurate foreshortening all require a pretty decent knowledge of perspective - which pretty much encompasses any type artwork out there. 

As I thought about it, I realized that I had always struggled to create shapes in perspective. Finding the information I needed to get better at perspective was not easy. Most of the information I found in books and online seemed to be intended for the intuitive artist - someone who already draws what they see in their mind. I needed a more mechanical approach - a method that provides a process for achieving accurate perspective. 

I researched many methods for drawing in perspective over the course of several months. I was only gaining small bits of knowledge about how to create objects in perspective while I was becoming increasingly aware; as long as command of perspective eluded me, it would prevent me from being a capable artist. I became obsessed with the idea a process based method had to exist somewhere.

It wasn’t until I discovered technical illustration techniques which then led me to older art instruction books before I found any truly useful information. My rosetta stone ended up being an obscure, but filled-to-the-brim, website put together by Bruce MacEvoy whose passion for art, tireless research, and insightful essays have motivated me to share the results of my own explorations.

This class is a systematic approach to understanding and utilizing perspective.

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If you’re not sure when to use  1 , 2 , or 3 point perspective. Or, you’re frustrated with the distortion that commonly occurs when using the pervasive perspective methods available. Or, you’ve ever found yourself wanting to reproduce accurate size and distance - this class will certainly help you.

I will be working in Affinity Designer, a great vector drawing program currently available on Mac; and soon to be available on Windows. A free demo can be downloaded here. I will be reviewing the tools and workflows necessary for this class in Affinity Designer, but all of these concepts apply to most other drawing software, as well as, pencil and paper.

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This is class is designed to be the first in a complete perspective drawing course. My roadmap for future classes includes: 

  • Drawing in 2 & 3 Point Perspective 
  • Setting up your perspective drawings for maximum impact 
  • Creating Accurate Cast Shadows and Reflections, 
  • Axonometric Drawing (isometric, dimetric, trimetric)

After the ‘basics’ classes are completed, I will create additional stand alone drawing projects to showcase perspective drawing techniques in action.  

The class materials (provided with the class project) include:

  • Source Files for all of the examples used in class
  • PDF with Illustrations presented during class
  • Reference List

Please join me on an illuminating journey toward understanding, controlling, and using perspective - better.

*Update - I've posted two sample lessons from the class on Vimeo.

Transcripts

1. Introduction: all shapes need to be drawn with perspective if the intent of the artwork is to Compagnie sense of Death. The realist. Have you ever wondered when you use 12 or three? Poor perspective? Do the office you draw sometimes appear warped, door distorted? Or maybe you're just not as familiar with perspective drawing as you would like to be. How do you artists create artwork with drama and debt? How do product designers achieve a presence that's so hard to ignore? How did character designers make us proceed either strength or vulnerability within their creations? The answer is simple. They understand how to exploit the power of percent. Minding the Scott Briscoe and I should briefly explain their own artistic background. I love art always have all of its power, its messages drama. I actually love all types of art. Whether it's drawn, painted, sculpted, film or perform, you get the idea. This'll class will cover the basics of perspective and drawing. Using one point perspective, I take the time to explain how perspective works, the illustrations and examples I'll show you have to start observing perspective in the world around you, and I will demonstrate how to use this wonderful tool called the C O. V. Rigg, begin withdrawing simple objects to gradually more complex objects. Always perspective. This is the first twice in the Siri's that will become a complete perspective. Drawing course over the coming months, I'll be using affinity designer vector drawing program someone to Adobe Illustrator. During the instruction of this class, I'll be demonstrating how to use many of its innovative tools and more clothes that help artists create and control the guidelines structures needed to build accurate perspective. By the way, these skills and techniques can be applied to other drawing software as well as good old pencil and paper. Fine class project reinforces these basic skills that are needed for understanding, controlling and using perspective that 2. Before Getting Started...: since I will be using affinity designer during this class. Anyone that doesn't have a vector drawing program like it or Adobe Illustrator or even a painting program like Photo Shop or Sketchbook Pro can download an affinity designer demo using the link here. Affinity designer really is a fantastic drawing program suited both artists and graphic artists, and it's very reasonably priced. Currently on a Mac version is available, but a Windows version is due to be released soon for anyone that is already familiar with affinity designer or used to using other drawing or painting programs and wants to quickly get up to speed with the tools and options in affinity. Designer. Feel free to pause this video and get a quick affinity designer tune up at affinities official training website using the link below. That said, During this class, I will still be explaining how I'm using the tools in affinity designer. As I go along. Instead of trying to think outside the box, we're gonna think about what's inside the box. The Humble Cube is going to become the basis for us to better understand perspective. The cube, or box shape is both simple enough and complex enough to depict accurate perspective. It provides all the lines and face is necessary to become the basis of almost any other shape. The box shaped is a visual aid that helps us better under stand perspective and its relationship to the viewer. Plus, it functions as an additional guides structure that can be used to create more complex objects. Here are some interesting examples of the box shape in action The artist is a product slash concept designer who renders his ideas in perspective with a very fresh stop. I can see frequently uses a box shape or box guide is a starting point to car his form out of. This is a great way to work because box guys help set up proper perspective for the overall form and also provide localized to find points in space that can be used for accurate placement of details. Let's get started 3. Types of Perspective: There are three main types of perspective one point perspective, two point perspective and three point perspective. It's important to recognize each so that I can make informed decisions about my composition and know what type of guys structure is needed to create my drawing. It's funny. Whenever it's suggested there are multiple types of perspective, my mind starts filling in a school car to determine which type of perspective will of best . Does a two point perspective drawing look better than one point perspective drawing? Is it a better demonstration of skill? Teoh drawing three point perspective, or is it the other way around? But it seems like it's mandatory that I show a depiction of rubber tracks in any serious discussion of perspective. I don't know of any other imagery that's become so iconic with perspective drawing. The reason is rumor. Tracks beautifully illustrate how parallel lines converge to a vanishing point, as seen here. In fact, all lines that are not perpendicular to the viewer will converge to a vanishing point. There is a slight caveat. Sometimes there were multiple vanishing points, as I will describe later on to identify 12 or three point perspective. It's crucial to note perspective is based on the viewers orientation with objects in the scene rather than a style of drawing. Here's the clock tower, this time in one point perspective. How do I know it's drawn in one point perspective, besides the fact that I'm the one who do it that way? The first indication I'm viewing the clock tower in one point perspective. The vertical lines are perfectly vertical or plumb. This occurs when the viewers direction of you is parallel to the horizon. The viewers direction of you is also parallel to the ground plane, which is obvious in a drawing like this one, where the clock tower is set in the middle of some kind of infinite void. The second indication the horizontal lines are perfectly horizontal. This occurs when the viewers orientation with an object is identical to the objects orientation in space. The clock tower square edges make it easy to see that the viewer is facing it directly in or in the clock hours, roof and slanted supports at its base. All the lines that are perpendicular to the viewer appear either perfectly vertical or horizontal. The remaining lines, the ones parallel to the viewer and receiving in death are all angled toward the central viewpoint in this illustration. Any sense of death comes from the lines running parallel to the viewers direction of you. My clock tower drawing doesn't demonstrate a sense of death as effectively as this illustration. Does the reflection pool the walkways and the rows of trees convey a sense of death rather dramatically. In this example of one point perspective, this works and photos to the photographer has taken advantage of the walkway. It's tiling, the benches that columns and archways to create another dramatic example of one point perspective. Moving on to two point perspective, this illustration has the same clock tower, but now it's viewed from an angle rather than straight on. I can now see two sides of the clock tower, but this is not what defines two point perspective. From one point. Perspective two point perspective still features the same vertical lines is one point perspective, but the horizontal lines are all angled east side of the clock tower receives to its own vanishing point. I can see the vanishing point on the left, but the one on the right falls outside my view This drawing contains the central vanishing point, just like a one point perspective. Drawing does. But since the towers orientation to the viewer has changed, the receding parallel lines are no longer parallel to the viewer. Now they need to receive to their own vanishing points. Notice that all the vanishing points are located on the horizon line. Also notice how angles get shallower as they approach their horizon line. If battles were to spray paint a green line on the clock tower and exactly the viewer's eye line, it would appear flat. Here's an interesting photo of a prefabricated building in two point perspective, it's obvious the photographer took great care in composing This shot because of vertical lines are perfectly vertical as they should be using two point perspective, This photo shows what often happens in snapshots. The vertical lines are slanting in unappealing angles. When the photographer doesn't concentrate on keeping the camera pointed level, it's often the goal of architectural photographers to make sure all vertical lines appear as vertical as possible. Fortunately, this is much easier to control when drawing two point perspective. Using three point perspective gives the clock tower a somewhat different character almost like it's looming over me. It wouldn't be hard to imagine my clock tower is a rocket ship. If it were, it might instead appear regal and proud. From this point of view. In three point perspective, there are no perfectly vertical or horizontal lines remaining. The miracle lives of the clock tower, now converging to some point in space above it all lines converged in some vanishing point . The viewer is no longer parallel or perpendicular to any lines on the clock tower. Three point perspective is usually the result of the viewer either looking up or looking down on the scene. When looking down, the vertical lines converge to a point somewhere below the clock tower. The image plane is always perpendicular to the viewer, so when the viewer looks up or down, the image plane rotates accordingly and is no longer perpendicular to the scene, since all parallel lines, not perpendicular to the viewer, must terminate at some distant vanishing point. This creates the need for 1/3 vanishing point. Here is a common example of three point perspective. This photo also has a tilted horizon line, something that could be fun to incorporate into a perspective. Using my cue prop, I wanna carefully position it so it's directly facing the viewer. This is being seen in one point perspective. My vertical lines of vertical and horizontal lines are horizontal. Now, if I carefully rotated either left or right, the cube is now being seen in two point perspective. The edges on this side are converging to their own vanishing point and the edges is on the opposite side are converging to their own vanishing point. Now the vertical edges are still vertical, hopefully depending 100 with how well I'm performing as a prop master. But if I killed the Cube intentionally Ford, these vertical edges old are now converging to their a new vanishing point. These agents still are converging to a vanishing point and these edges are as well. This cube is now being seen in three point perspective by the viewer. So does this mean a scene can contain 12 and three point perspective? Yes, it is the way the world presents itself to me every day. The type of perspective I see is entirely dependent on my orientation to the objects I see before me. So does this mean I need to always use the report perspective to get realistic drawings. Not necessarily. Remember in this photo all of the objects oriented in one point perspective to the viewer, I would encourage observation of the world around us to begin noticing, no matter how complex the object, it can be viewed from 12 or three point perspective. Enough lecturing. In the next class, I will demonstrate how to draw a basic Cuban one point perspective with and without the C. O. V. Rigg, a perspective tool that you won't want to live without. 4. COV Rig Demonstration: the circle of you rig will be the primary tool used to create objects and scenes in perspective. It works both as a measuring tool and as a visual reference as a measuring tool. It provides reference points that I can build my friend work of vanishing lines and scale objects accurately so they fit comfortably in a scene as a visual reference. It helps me judge artistically how much death I can depict in my scene. The circle of you rig also helps me keep track of and managed the tangled web of vanishing lives and measuring points that are needed for perspective. It's a simple tool that opens the door to complexity. It grows in the dance to the project at hand. It'll be much easier to demonstrate some of this goodness by watching the circle of you in action. So how does this C o. B thing work? How will it help me draw perspective better than what I'm already familiar with here? I am an affinity designer. I'll attempt to draw a perfect cube in one point perspective. Years ago on our teacher demonstrated a procedure to create guidelines that help artist visualize objects in perspective. I've seen versions of this method repeated in several books and videos. Online sense. I just wanted to demonstrate where the typical method falls short. By the way, this is not a part of the class that's meant to be followed along with its simply a reenactment of the first struggle I encounter When attempting perspective. It might seem like it was a small struggle, but it's what launched my search on how to draw a better perspective already have a vanishing point in the center of my document. Next, I would draw a perfect square that I want to become my perfect cube. I will create my vanishing lines by connecting corners of the square to the vanishing point . I have all these nice guidelines now, but where do I put my next line so that I know that the death of my cube will equal my squares, width and height? I understand that I somehow have to make a judgment call to compensate for the four shortening that occurs when drawing three dimensional objects in space. I guess I'll just have to make a judgment call. I will say that here looks about right now. I can connect everything up and I have a cube. It might not be quite perfect, but it looks pretty good, I think. What if in our director or simply the needs of my drawing require that I have another cube that is physically the exact same size is this When I've created but needs to appear closer to the viewer? I know that objects appear smaller as they get further away and larger as they get closer to me. So this shouldn't be too hard to work out. I'll copy this nice looking cube. I've already worked so hard creating and move it to the other side of my vanishing point. Obviously, this doesn't look quite right, so I'll flip it horizontally now. I will proportionately scale a larger because larger indicates closer. What do I have now? It doesn't look quite right just yet. I think this part that side here isn't a line properly with the vanishing point, I will create a new vanishing lines for my second que. Now I can move these points so that they're in proper line. OK, but this cube looks like it might be longer in debt than it is. Why? I guess I should move in the side a little bit till it looks better. All right, How's that? Now that I look at it, my second cube seems like it's floating a bit. I could continue fiddling with the Cuban to it all looks right, though I think this example is enough to determine that more information is needed to draw these seemingly simple shapes the way I want them to appear. I will try the simple illustration again, except this time I'll enlist the help of the C. O. V. Rigg. I will start with the two squares already have. Here's my starting point and use the C O. V to correct my perspective errors. All that anyone needs to know for now is the C. O. V. Rigg is defining several points in space that I can use to construct accurate perspective. I will begin with the central viewing point. It's at the same position as the vanishing point I used in my first illustration attempt, but now it has more context which will become or parent. As I continue describing how the C O. V works, I will go ahead and recreate my vanishing lines for the smaller square next I will create not a vanishing line, but a measure line from a corner of my square to this point at the bottom of the sea. OVI, like this NCLB rate, provides reliable points in space that I can use to measure depth in perspective. I refer to this as measuring auto magically. It's not really magic because it's based on rules of perspective, but it's still kind of feels that way. Now. I can complete my cue by simply following the guys structure. Already, my cube seems to be more solid and believable than in my first attempt. I am more confident with the result because no judgment call was required. Next, I need to work on my larger que. This brings me to the next valuable element of the C. O. V. Rigg, The Horizon line. It's another reliable point space I can use to help me with my perspective. Drawing already suspect, my larger cute might be too high in relation to the horizon line. Both cubes. They're supposed to be the same physical size, only one closer and one further away so that Onley visually they should appear different sizes. To correct this, I will create what's called a measure line. This indicates my view. High for the horizon, intersex Mikew. Look for more on this Later, I will do some basic math on the system calculator to find the scale percentage between my two tubes. I can now resize the measure line in defending the designer by typing at simple equation, which comes in very handy. Now I can see that my larger cube really is too high in relation to the horizon line. I will quickly move the larger cube down so that it sits properly in relation to the horizon. Again, I will be covering this concept in much more need to a little later. Now I can drama vanishing lines for the logic. You always the same method to measure the depth of this Cuba's I did on Smaller Cube and finished drawing this side. Now I feel like I have a much more accurate representation of the two cubes. Large acute no longer seems to be floating both of your planet on the ground, Even with just simple line drawings, I'm getting the sense that both of these cubes are the same sides on Lee, This one on the right appears closer to me. I will hide the C o. B and take a closer look. Here is the previous attempt and my improved version. I will make this a rise in line visible. Now look at the difference. Here are both drawings side by side. I hope that anyone can see the obvious improvements in my second attempt, the greater sense of death, improved accuracy and how simple it was to create. I didn't need to fill around to find precise measurements and death. I was able to use visual aids to place my larger que properly at the depth I desired. C o B rate makes it possible to accurately measure in place objects in depth using relative points in space. For example, the C O. V Rick, help me translate the height and width of a square shape to create a perfect cube. Are you feeling intrigued about what other ways? The C O. B rate can help us drawn perspective. In the next lesson, I will walk through the steps to build a CEO, be rigged from scratch and follow up with a discussion on how it all works. In the context of a perspective drop 5. Creating the COV Rig: the C. O. V. Rigg provides a way for me to draw perspective with control and confidence. The previous lesson. Get just a glimpse into how the CEO beery can be utilized in this lesson. I'm going to demonstrate how to build the C O. B before we get started. Here's a quick look at what we're going to be building. It's really a very simple structure. This exercise is important so we can see how the C O. V rigs individual elements relate to the way we view our world in perspective. Back in affinity, designer, I will create a new document. I will set its size to nine inches by 12 inches, which is a popular size for our paper. And until portrait, I'll begin creating the circle of you rigged by selecting the lips tool and then clicking and dragging in the work area. I'll hold the shift key while dragging to create a perfect circle. Consider my shape within the work area. I will open up the arrange dialogue and choose center horizontally and sinner vertically. Two sides, my circle. I can type in any value I want in the transform power, even equations like five times two. Besides, I make the 90 degree C o. B will influence how will be measuring objects in depth. While I am drawing in perspective, I can base the size of the 90 degree C O. V on the format of chosen, which is 9 12 inches. But this demonstration I will choose to create a CEO be based on 1.5 times the format size . This could be put to use with the following formula 1.5 times the format size. Times two is equal to the 90 degrees C O. V diameter. I will have a closer look at this concept in the next video. With the constrain widget activated and my Centrepoint chosen, I will enter 12 times 1.5 times two into one of the input fields and hit the enter key. My 90 degree circle of you has been sized to 36 inches. Now My document doesn't hold my 90 degree C O V. I'll fix that, but making sure have my move tool selected and making sure nothing is selected in my document by pressing the escape key. A couple of times, I'll click the document set up button and change the documents with and height to 40 inches . I'll make sure anchor two pages selected, and the center anchor is selected here now. My c o B fits nicely to set the appearance of my C o V. With the move tool, I will select the C O. B and changes properties so that it has a filling done by pressing the four slash keep. Then I'll make sure that I am targeting the object stroke in the color palette. Now I will select sliders for my color control and see him like a It's my color mark. They know doll in 100% magenta. I need to change my stroke with 22 points. I will quickly create their horizon line by using the pin toll on make sure snapping is turned on by pressing this button with page layout with objects chosen from the pull down in the top to a bar and create my line. I'll give it a green color and change its name in the layers palette to horizon. Thats vertical line will be the median line. I will give this an orange color and name. It's layer media. I will create the baseline, duplicating the horizon line, holding the option key, releasing options so it snaps and name. It is well, since I know that I will be using these colors over and over to build guide rigs throughout my projects, I want to create an application power. An application palette is a swatch palate, but I can select any time I need it. It's global in affinity design to create an application palette. First, I will attach the swatches palette from the dock by dragging it out by its cap. I will then choose at application palette from this man. Affinity designer gives me an empty palette ready for me to add the colors on one. I will select the 90 degree C O B. Make sure that it's stroke is in the forefront here and then click the artist's palette icon here. Now I can rename the color by right clicking on it and choosing renamed field. I can also go ahead and give my palate and name but using ringing power from this menu. How will name it? Guys rigs. I'll finish up by adding the green and launch colors to my palate is what next I want to add both a 60 degree and a 40 degree C O V for visual reference. How do I do that? For that matter? How do I know that this current circle of you represents 90 degrees? First, I will demonstrate how I can measure my current 90 degree C O V. Then I will show two different ways I can create additional CEO. Please. I can create a 45 degree line holding down the shift key from this cop station point to the left diagonal measure point. I'll make this line 100% science. And at this color to my Godric's palette, I'll create another 45 degree line holding down the shift key from the top station point to the right diagonal measure Port. What I have here, the top station point is a 90 degree angle for my two lines. Meet these lines. Both meet at the horizon for intersex, the 90 degree C O V. This tells me that indeed, have a 90 degree C O V. Next, I will create the 60 degree C O. B. This time I will create a vertical line holding down shift from the top station point to the center of the C. O. V or to the central viewpoint and the transform palette. I will change its angle to 30 degrees, duplicate this line using command jet, which gives me a new layer. Then our changes angle to 330 degrees, which is 3 60 minus 30. Angle between these two lines equal 60 degrees. If I extending to the horizon line, I have snapping points to draw a 60 degree C. O. V. Using the lifts toe. I would just label this C O B to 60. I should also label my original C O V 90 degrees just to point out, this is not the same as taking the 90 degree C O. B and scaling at 60%. To see what happens. I will duplicate must 90 degree C o V with Command J and multiply its size by 0.6. I can see that it's a little larger than I wanted to be. I will use a different method to create a 40 degree seop. This time I would use a formula, which is the method I prefer. I know that my C o B measurement is 36. The c o B angle I watch create is 40 degrees to help me out. I opened my system calculator. I need to change the view to scientific toe. Have access to the trick functions. Now I simply follow the equation. 40 divided by two equals 20. I'll click tangent and multiply by 36. The result is my diameter. Use command See to copy this result in return toe affinity designer Now I will duplicate command J my 60 degree C O b. And then with the constraint, Ligitan able and center is my target paste. In the new new amateur, I will label this layer 40 degrees. Either method works fine and either method can be used to double check if the other was successful. The last element I want to add is the format at nine by 12 inches in the center. To do this, I will select my rectangle tool great a rectangle, enter the size into the transform palette and use the arranged dialogue to center Our changes stroke to black said it to dash and rename its layer. I will finish up with some housekeeping while I'm in the layers palette. I will select all the objects of the main C O B structure and group them with command G. Now I'm able to quickly hide the C O. V is needed. This completes my C O B rig. Now it's your turn to complete your first gov rig. They enjoy me in the next lesson where I explore its elements and demonstrate what they can do. 6. The Horizon Line: this lesson will focus on the importance of the horizon and show how it can help me compose my drawings artistically as well. A swarm the mechanical basis for positioning objects in perspective, the horizon is a very important landmark. It perspective drawing. Not only does it represent for Sky meets Earth or, in this case, water, it also defines the viewer's eye line in vertical space. For example, in this photograph, that horizon reveals the photographers online whether she was standing or kneeling down. Our point of view has now become my point of view. As I look at her photograph, the same rules apply for a drawing. This illustration shows that arise in line is located exactly at the viewers. Byline also noticed. There is a point where the rise in line intersects the primary object. This gives me points in space that I can use to measure and position elements in my drawing their horizon line that I learned RV point and the point of reference where their horizon intersects the primary object. The horizons relationship to the ground plane is called a view hot in this illustration. The view height is also represented by this radius in the 90 degree C o. B. The view height is measured from the grand plane or baseline to the viewer's viewpoint. The landmark on the ground plan directly below the viewpoint is called the Station point. So do the view distance of you high always need to be equal? The short answer is no. But having these measurements be equal is certainly possible. For now. I will keep these measurements equal to help make my explanations clear, have established that the Horizon Line is a fixed point or lying in space. Viewers island or viewpoint defines the view high the distance from the grand plan to the viewpoint. The view high defines where the horizon on lines or intersects with objects in the scene. I can see the effect the view high has on a scene with following Siris of illustrations. This illustration suggests the viewer is average height and standing on level ground. Looking at a clock tower, the viewer's eye level defines the horizon line position in relation to the clock tower. Here, the viewer sitting down now they're horizon appears lower in the scene, which changes its relationship with the clock tower. The important take away is that the objects in my city will have a consistent relationship with the horizon because its position in the scene is defined by the viewer's view high. I suggest that the viewer is sitting down in the scene on the right, but it could just as easily be composed from the viewpoint of a small child. This is one way the Horizon Line serves as a tool I can use to help tell the story. It's used to great effect and comic books and graphic novels. The concept works just as well for photography and cinematography. This illustration viewers looking up at the clock tower. Not only does this comes the horizon line to shift even further, it also changes the angle of the image plan to the scene more about that when I discuss three point perspective in a later class in this last illustration, the viewpoint is from above the clock tower looking down at it. If the viewer is either looking up or down the horizon lives. Importance as a measure component is shared by another point in space called the fixation point again. More on this when I break down three point perspective in the first he'll be. Demonstrations quickly showed how the horizon line Help me locate a Cuban death to see this in more detail. Here I have a guy and a primary object now become the viewer, and this is a scene before me. This means the Horizon Line represents Mile High Line or anyone else's island who happens to be looking at this drawn. This box is the exact same height as a guy here who is also the same height as the viewer. If I duplicate this guy and scale them smaller, where does he need to be placed? I know that objects that received from my point of view gets smaller in the distance but were dark place him, so he still feels like he's standing on the same ground is the original guy. Currently he seems too short if I move them up now, seems too tall. The answer, of course, is his high line needs to be aligned with the horizon line once I reposition him with his eyes level within horizon, he seems to correct height with his feet on the ground. I could do the same thing with the box, but this box in his current position. I know that this point is aligned with the horizon. I'll create a measure line to indicate the relationship of the object to the horizon. This becomes my point of reference and duplicate and arbitrarily scale it down. The next step is to align my point of reference back with the horizon. This demonstrates one method I can use to place the objects in depth for proper perspective . The same logic holds when I scale both the guy and the object larger so they appear closer to the beaver. Here's another example of the same scene where now the viewers maybe this guy's younger sibling, in this case the horizon will align with the guy just above his waist because its sibling is perhaps half its height. Again, I complaints the guy further way in depth and realign him to the horizon. Line the same thing with the box. The view high in combination with the horizon provide a relationship with every object in my scene. What if the viewer's view Hot is taller than an object in the same here? The box is a size suitable for my guy to sit down. In this scenario, the horizon line doesn't intersect the bucks because I know the horizon is always equal to my view. Height. I can still use it to position. My box went. I change his position in depth. I will create a measure line that I can use to establish a visual relationship between the box and the horizon line. Now it's simply a matter of using it to position my box correctly. I should point out these objects can be placed in any position left or right, because their depth remains the same. I noticed that during each of these examples, I'm able to move objects in depth without knowing or using any actual measurements. Onley needed to use relative measurements. Objects are always relative to the horizon line and other objects in the scene. This is another example of measuring are magically by establishing fixed points in space like the horizon line with the view. Hi, I'm able to position objects accurately within the scene. Also note. Since I've been working with rather loose measurements, this hopefully shows that the use of these tools isn't restricting the artist who are measured plan and they will sketch out the placement of my primary forms going forward, I will be introducing more tools and methods that work on magically. But I will also be demonstrating how to work with exact measurements. I lives relationship to the horizon line, and its relationship to objects is easily observable in the physical world, and I think it's important that consider these implications, even if the horizon is invisible in a particular scene. For example, if I'm indoors or if it's obstructed by trees and buildings, my eye line still reveals our horizons position. No matter where I am, I've demonstrated a few ways. The horizon is used as a measuring tool and axes a composition tool, helping me make my drawings more engaging and impactful. What I haven't looked at yet it's how the Horizon line axes an anchor point for vanishing lines, and the next class I will demonstrate how to create objects using one point perspective, using the c O. B. Rick 7. Exploring the COV Rig: now that I've built my C O. V. Rigg. What's next? I realize that the C. O. V is just some circles in a few lines, but these features actually represent so much more. I should point out that the only reference I've found to the seal the framework at all comes from Bruce McEvoy's website. I'm incredibly thankful that he has shared his knowledge of perspective with the art community. Let me explain a bit more about the C. O. V. Rigg to create a drawing in perspective. At minimum, I need to know what my primary object is and what the viewer's viewpoint is in relation to that object. Also need to understand how much of the scene can be taken in by the viewer. You must, like myself, haven't approximately 90 degree cone of you, including peripheral vision. My clear stereo vision, though, falls within a 60 degree cone of you. This means anything outside of a 60 degree account of you begins to appear increasingly blurred in the context of a perspective drawing anything that falls outside the 60 degree cone of you appears increasingly distorted. The circle of you rig is that construction tool based on the cone of you. This outer circle represents the 90 degree cone of you. This illustration shows the basic circle of you, Rick. I will be talking about each of its elements as they become relevant. Back in the landmarks illustration have laid before many of these elements occurring physical space. The Gov. Rick contains all of these same landmarks. If I return to the c. O. V. Illustration, notice that I'm looking at my seen through the circle of you. In other words, my senior drawing will be placed inside this construction tool. This illustration shows two additional circles of you or CEO V's, with the format indicated as well. The format represents the paper size or screen size I've chosen for my drawing. Here. The format size matches a 40 degree circle of you, the format community size in relation to the C. O. V, but should not be larger than the 60 degree C. O. B. Any portion of the drawing that falls outside of the 60 degrees C O. V will appear distorted, which I'll demonstrate further in just a bit. In the previous lesson, I chose to create a C. O. V, based on this formula 1.5 times the format size Times two is equal to the 90 degree circle of you diameter. The first part of this equation determines my view distance, one of many factors working together that will allow me to measure death accurately in my drawing. The view distance is represented by the horizontal radius on the CEO. Be read. What do I mean by view distance, the view distances measured between the viewer and the image plane. The 90 degree C O. V is also located on the image plane. If my image playing were to be further away, my view distance would be longer, and my night and greasy OVI would be larger. Accordingly, my drawing is part of the image plane as well. For this reason, the image plane is often called the picture plane. I think of the image playing as if it were painted. Glass of viewer sees a given seeing through, like a sliding glass door or a picture window, the viewer standing at some arbitrary distance in front of the glass and seeing a scene with objects at some arbitrary distance behind the glass. This world behind the glass is then able to project itself onto the glass. The three dimensional world behind the glass now appears on a two dimensional planes seen by the viewer in front of the glass. I am able to define points in space that create relationships between the viewer and objects within my drawing, without getting into all of the math involved, to explain exactly how perspective works. The general idea is perspective is based on a relationship between points I can define with a right triangle, which is a triangle that contains a 90 degree angle. There is a handy math property that says scaling a triangle proportionately preserves all of its internal angles. As I can demonstrate here, this means I can take real world relationships and measurements and skill them down until they fit within my drawing format. I use the value of the longest edge of my format size, which was 12 inches to fill in the equation. Remember, in any part of my drawing, falling outside of a C ovie gets increasingly distorted. It then makes sense to base the C O. V on the long edge of the format to minimize any possible distortions. Some of you distance was calculated using 1.5 times 12 which equals 18 inches and equal to the radius of my 90 degree C O. V. To get the full diameter of the C O. B only needed to multiply 18 times to to get 36 inches in the lesson. I was able to take advantage of affinity designers capability, allowing a question to be in or directly into the transformed dialogues input fields. Now that I have a seal, be ready to go, I will build my drawing inside my format size. The structure self contains the fine points in space that helped me create measure objects in perspective. I think demonstrations are a lot more useful than extended explanations, though in the next lesson I'll be taking a closer look at the horizon line. 8. Perfect Cubes in 1PP: in this lesson will be building perfect cubes. In one point, Perspective will put the c o b big toe work and see how it helps us build objects in perspective, always properly scaled and foreshortened. It was hard for me to get past the assumption. One point perspective is just a simplified form of perspective. Drawing to help dispel this myth. Here are some examples of one point perspective that can be observed every day. Here's a good one. Every car I can see in this picture, either heading in my direction or crawling its way forward is oriented to one point perspective. I can visualize the box guy that encloses each vehicle. The cars. They're not the only objects in one point. Perspective. The road, the overhead signs and the lamppost all are as well. This is a reminder. The civilized world, for the most part, is arranged in order straight lines. Another great example is found indoors. Furniture is typically arranged along the square walls of a room. The coffee table sofas and chairs in this photo are all placed squarely in this room. If a viewer stands with her back to any of the walls in this room, the entire room will be oriented. In one point perspective, this room is arranged in much the same way. The beams on the ceiling enhance the feeling of perspective. If I look closely, though, I see that this chair has been slightly turned. If I were to enclose it inside a box guy, I would see that it is oriented in two point perspective, the two large figurines on the heart or oriented in two point perspective as well. This photo shows how objects pointed in both One point perspective and two point perspective can exist together in the sea. It's also a nice way to break up the rhythm of easing just one type of perspective in a drawing. Let's take a look at how to draw one point perspective with the C. O. V. Rigg. I have the C O. V Rick I created in less than five open an affinity designer. I want to create a perfect three dimensional cube, and this time I'll explain each step in detail. In order for objects to be able to exhibit depth in a perspective drawing, I need to be purse personal where I place my objects in the scene, let me demonstrate. Using the rectangle tool, I'll create a perfect square by constraining the width and height by holding down the shift key and forced the shape to draw from its center by holding down the control key. At the same time, I have a perfect square with level horizontal lines in plumb vertical lines. The two indications of one point perspective, believe it or not, also have a perfect Cuban one point perspective. Even though it doesn't have any dimensionality. Why? Because of its position in relation to the central viewpoint, I will have guidelines for the parallel edges with a pen tool. By the way, I like to make my vanishing lines thin. I usually set a stroke, wait between 0.2 point five points and use the VR color from our custom application. Power B R stands for visual raise. If anyone's curious, you recall, all parallel lines will converge to a single benching point. Therefore, these lines will go from each corner of the Cube to the central viewpoint. It's now apparent keep viewed from this viewpoint has no signs visible because no guidelines fall outside of my shape. In other words, there are no parallel edge is visible to the viewer to see this a little better. Home I Q prop is close to the central viewpoint, as I can. None of the side should be exposed, and only the edges around the front face should be visible to the viewer. I'm trying to hold this keep as close as I can in one point perspective. By the way, if I move, the Cube left a right while keeping the same orientation. As I get further away from the central viewpoint Mawr, the side becomes exposed in the same manner more. The top or more of the bottom of the Cuba become exposed as I move it up. Damn. If I move the cube diagonally away from the central viewpoint, two sides of the Q become exposed again. The further the queue gets away from the central viewpoint that mawr the sides are exposed before back. To defend any designer in my cube, I need to create a new square away from this interview point so I could draw. It was invisible perspective. I will group this center square with its parallel edge lines and then hide it for now and select the to intercede OVI so I can change the stroke color to 30 per cent magenta, just so they will be less prominent. I will create a new square to the left of the central viewpoint midway between the edge of my format and the median line seems to be good. This way, one side of the cube will be visible. I will create guidelines from these points on my square. If I create a guideline from either of these other two edges, it's easy to see that it won't be visible to the viewer. From this perspective, these guidelines will define the edges of the cube that are parallel to the viewer and also define its side. But how far back in depth do I need to go so that these edges terminate to create a perfect you Without the C o. V rate, this becomes a guestimation with the C. O. V. Rigg. It's just a matter of knowing where to put a measure guy. I would draw a line from a corner of the square to the station Point or Dagnall measure point on the C O. V. I will give this my MP color, which stands for measure points notice. What about warns? Line intersects this edge got this intersection measures the Cuban death. This is another example of measuring auto magically drawing a vertical line holding shift from this intersection to the guideline above creates the back edge of my cube. Since my Penta was in line mode, I can hold down the command key and click this in point so that it appears solid and I'll be able to continue adding notes to complete my shape. Having affinity designer snap feature enabled helps to this queue. Looks really good. How? I know I have a perfect you, for that matter. How does this technique work? I want to explain Maura about this technique and talk about how it works in perspective. With the help of the c O. V. Rick, I will quickly create a new document and create a square pretend that this is a top down view of acute. I'll draw a 45 degree line, constraining it with the shift key from this corner to this corner and give it the MP coat . This connects a corner from the front face of my cue to the back base of my cute this simply demonstrates, a 45 degree line drawn from one corner of a cube will intersect. It's opposite corner at a depth equal to us Whip. Let me show this another way. I'll make a measure line and snap it to these corners, all a sign that the measure color. And now I have a mind that is the same with as my cue. Now I will reposition let's line so that it snaps to the outside of the cube. If I draw another 45 degree line from the end of my measure line, it will intersect the cube at its back corner. Further evidence a 45 degree line can be used to determine a distance based on the width of a line. One more example. This time, I would change the length of the measure line. If I select my measure line, go to the Transform Pallet. Make sure the constrained widget is deactivated and choose this anchor point. I can divide the wit than half by dividing by two with an expression in the input field. A quick note on resizing lines in the transform power. If I have the constraint which it enabled when I type a new value in one of the input fields. My line will just disappear if this ever happens while you're working simply indu and check to see if the constrained widget is enabled. I'm going to create another 45 degree line. From the end of my measure, I can see that I am now intersecting my cube at this midpoint. If I select the key, the Transform handles will confirm the measure line intersects at the midpoint of my cute. This proves that I can take a line of any with and use a 45 degree line found on a point in depth equal to that which I will be referring to this as the 45 degree principle. As this course goes along, let's take a look at how this principle works in perspective with the C. O. V. Rigg. This next bit of theory can be rather mind it took a while for this stuff to sink in for me . Let me just say the more we practice these techniques, the more we work our way through these lessons. While adding to these based techniques, the theory will become much, much clear. We call back in the c o B lesson. When I created the 90 degree C O. V, I repealed, it was indeed 90 degrees. With these 45 degree lines, wherever the 90 degree C o B intersex either their horizon line or the median line, it creates a 45 degree angle to the viewers. Point of view and perspective. Are you with me so far? Next is a series of illustrations that will put the 45 degree principle in the context of a perspective drawing inside the C. O. V Ri In this illustration, I'm looking down on the Cube I created in the C. O. V. Rick. The arrow in the middle shows the direction of you toward the central viewpoint I keep is just to the left of the central viewpoint. At the bottom is my station point, which also functions as a diagonal leisure point. Remember, the station point is located directly below the viewers Point of view. Red lines represent the viewers 90 degree cone of you. Both of these lines point toward Dagnall measure points. Thes blue dashed lines represent the rays, imaginary lines drawn from the viewers point of view to a location on an object notice where they intersect the cubes, front and back edges. This reveals the amount the side of the cube is exposed to the viewer. I'm showing the be raised to help with this illustration in better context with the perfect cube illustration. I just created back an affinity designer in this illustration. I've taken away to be raised and have been a measure line that is the same with as the queue here. I have added the orange 45 degree line used to measure A with in depth the 45 degree principle in action, and I've added a blue parallel edge line so that I can see where the 45 degree line intersex it. Notice that both of these lines continue past the queue, just like they did back in my perfect you've illustration. When viewed in perspective, these lines will converse. To appoint the blue Parallel Edge guide will converse to the central vanishing point because, in perspective, all parallel lines converge to a vanishing point. The Orange measure line will converse to the left and measure point, which acts as a type of vanishing for since the 45 degree measure guy is parallel to the 45 degree line on the Kona View. They were shared the same benching point in perspective. I've got a nationalized with the blue parallel edge guy in the Orange measure line just for visual representation of how this might appear in perspective. I know that's a lot to take it for. Now, just take it as theory. There are two takeaways to bear in mind. First measure perspective is possible, using the C. O. V. Rigg and rather easy to pull off to second, the principles used to measure in two D. The 45 degree principle, for example, also work in three D perspective and will be able to use some of these principles and surprising ways as well, learning lessons that follow. Now let's get back to drawing some more perfect Hughes. First, I will do a bit of housekeeping in the layers palette by selecting all of the layers that contain the elements used to create my cube and group them with command G. I will give it a name Cube one. Now I will hide my cue. Okay, I want to build another perfect cube shaped, but this time it will be an open cube, kind of like an open box or possibly the inside of a square room. I will own hide my original square in his edge lines. I need to draw a line from this corner tow opposite diagonal major point on the C. O. B. I just used the 45 degree principle to connect a corner from the front face of my cue to a corner on the soon to be back base of my cute Let me show you a handy technique for creating snapping points where guidelines cross at the moment. I don't really have anything to snap to at this intersection. It's fine to eyeball it as close as possible. If I missed the intersection a bit, the thickness of my stroke line will likely hide any mistake. But if you're picky like me, you can use this method. I will select the measure guy, and with the move tool on holding the shift key, I can proportionally scale on angled line without changing its angle. I will scare this measure God until it reaches its intersection with the edge guy. Notice how I can't really see what I'm doing here because of the tool handles. If I press this high selection while drawing button, I can see much better if I press command why I will enter outline of you and I could just this intersection even better I can. Zuma's faras I'd like to make it as perfect as I want. Anything over 2000% is really entering the land of diminishing returns for most projects, though another thing I want to mention about snapping an affinity designer. Sometimes it might seem like you're not able to snap to an object. Affinity designer only remembers a certain amount of snap candidates at a time when you're working with a work area full of objects and are faced with this situation, simply hover your mouse over the object you wish to snap to. After a moment, you'll notice that it flashes. The object is now a snap candidate. Okay, back to my open Cube. Now I'll complete the Q by creating the backside with another square. Since I'm drawing this cube in one point perspective, I know that all of its back edges will be level and plumb, so a square works perfectly. Then I'll connect these edge lines inside the box. I now have an open box shape I can see inside of you might be wondering how I know which corner to connect to which Dagnall measure point. The answer is I really can't go wrong as long as I connected corner to a Dagnall Majin point that is opposite from it. I can also say to myself, Where would a measure got across an inch guy? I'm going to use my open cube to show you what this looks like. What if I had instead chosen this corner and then went to one of its opposite? Daniel Measure points. I still intersected, guy at a point that will still correctly indicate the depth of the box using the same corner. I can go to this diagnosed measure point and still properly measure death. This technique is based on the 45 degree principle. The width or height of a level or plum line translates. That's link an equal measurement in depth, thanks to the C O B rig and it's Dagnall leisure points and it's already properly for short . I will take a moment and group this open box, name it and hide it. Let me quickly demonstrate how to create a cube with two sides visible. I will make another square with the rectangle tool and holding down the shift key so I can constrain its proportions. I will located some distance above or below the horizon line and some distance left or right of the median line. I have the front side of my cue. I will end the parallel edge guidelines. This time I need three. I would draw measure line to indicate the death. Since I'm creating a box shape, I can work from this single intersection to great both of the sides. I will make sure that I'm drawing a vertical line but holding down the shift key up. Now I can hold command and click on my last point so that it is solid selected and I can continue my shape by snapping to the edges of my square. What's up completed the first side. I have enough information to complete the top. I will start at this point holding shift. I will create a horizontal line over to this edge God, All this left is to complete this shape. This exercise demonstrates the core principles necessary to create accurate perspective the process becomes second nature after some practice. With these techniques, I can create perfect cubes in perspective that air properly foreshortened and exhibit the correct amount of side exposure based on its distance away from the central viewpoint. It also doesn't matter what size the cube is because it's measurement in depth is based on its size. This knowledge also helps me think about the composition of my drawing. If I want my objects to display any dimensionality, I need to be conscious of their placement in relation to the horizon and median lines in this illustration. I've created a bunch of cubes just to point out some of the observances I've discussed during the lesson. Sign. Exposure increases as acute gets further away from the central viewpoint. If the cube side is along either the median line of the horizon line, it won't be visible to the viewer. So far, I've been creating my cube shapes without any regard to real world measurements. In the next lesson, I will be creating a floor grid which not only build that place, Ramallah, GIC stressed on. It also introduces how to measure in depth, using inches, centimeters, miles, whatever my needs, maybe 9. Floor Grid/Measuring in Perspective: in this lesson, we'll learn how the CEO be rigs. Baseline will help us use real world measurements in perspective. The baseline allows me to define the scale of objects and distances. In my scene. Half of the baseline is equal to the 90 degree. See all these radius, which is based on the view distance. Recall that the radius of the 90 degree C. O. V was calculated by multiplying the formats long edge by 1.5. The formats long edges 12 inches. This means my 90 degrees C O B radius is equal to 18 inches. So now that I have this value, how will it help me measure depth and perspective. I will create a floor grid to demonstrate how this works. At 1 to 1 scale, have a fresh copy of the C. O. V. Rigg I created back in the earlier, less an open hearing affinity designer. I will create a vanishing line from the edge of the baseline to the central viewpoint. Next, I will create a guide from the left Dagnall measure point to this station point now going to make a horizontal line from the intersection this creates with this venturing line to the median month. This horse on a line represents 18 inches of width in debt has been automatically shortened in perspective, using the guideline drawn from the end of the baseline to the central viewpoint. Since I've drawn a measure guy from a Dagnall leisure point. Actually, I've connected to Dagnall measure points. So this just happens to be a true 45 degree line. I can use the 45 degree principle to define the back edge of the first box in my floor grid . This also means this line represents 18 inches in depth from the baseline. This box shape that's created then represents an 18 inch square box in perspective. We could visualize this a bit better if I create an 18 inch square from the baseline. That's not in perspective. Now it's easier to see that this square, the one in perspective, is how this square would appear when rotated around its base in late, flat on the ground, continuing on with the floor bridge, I'll create another measure guide from the left agonal measure point to where the horse on a line intersects the median line. I'm going to create another war is on the line from the next intersection created by the last measure line in the vanishing line. This new box I've created also represents an 18 inch square box in perspective. It's been automatically scaled and foreshortened. If I continue the same pattern, I will continue creating 18 inch square boxes that received toward the horizon line. I am simply creating a floor grid on top of the ground play. Let me show you a short cut for creating all of the measure guides. This time I will slick this measure guy and duplicated with command J. I get a duplicate that layer in the layers power. I will switch to the no tool by President, a key. Now I can select this point and snap it to the last wars on the line I drew. This is a technique I used to speed up the creation of guidelines and dash lines. I will select this horizontal guideline and holding the option key. It will create a duplicate as I move it into position again just to speed things up so I can cover more of the ground playing with my grid. I will select these points on each of the horse on allies and carefully dragged them horizontally until they snap to the outer edge of the C. O. V. Rigg. Now I want select all of the horizontal lines and stretch them until they snap to the opposite side of the C O. V Ray up. I need more lines in death, so I'm going to duplicate this line with command J. Switch them to the no tool with a select the point that intersects the baseline and use the transform pilot to move it left negative 18 inches. By typing in the equation, I will repeat this process one more time. Now I will copy this line again and snapped this point to the center station point. I can copy this line and snap its point to the other end of the baseline, Then operate two more lines on the right side. Last, let's continue the grid line in depth. A couple of more rose. I'll hide the C O. V. Rigg so we can see the floor read better. Has these great boxes receive in debt? They are Bakley scaling for short, I'm able to take advantage of yet one more auto magical measuring device based on the same principles used to measure out the cubes death. Since each of these boxes measures 18 inches in width in debt from the floor grid, I can use this as a measuring device. For example, this line here marks 72 inches in depth, which is 18 inches times for If I need you to place an object 16 in debt, I need to just draw the base of the object on this horizontal I've. This creates a nice way to place objects accurately on the ground plane. I'll just create a quick, randomly sized box here. Six. Beating death. Also note. We learn here that the ground plane doesn't become visible in the drawing into laughter 54 inches in depth. Remember this rectangle with the dashed line represents our nine by 12 4 Let's take a closer look at the floor grid. Notice how stretched the first row of the grid appears compared to the rest as they receive in distance. In fact, the first row accounts for half of the distance between the baseline and the horizon line of the C. O. V. Rigg. This stretching decreases significantly at the 60 degree C O. V. and it's far less objectionable at the 40 degrees. Gov. We can now see why any objects drawn outside the 60 degrees he'll be would likely appear distorted without the c o. B bring. The artist is faced with a only a blank sheet of paper when they begin that perspective drawing. There is no indication of where the 90 degree cone of you exists in relation to this paper . We've seen the importance of the C O B rig and the need to draw within the 60 degrees C O. V drawing outside of the 60 degrees C. O. V causes even mawr distortion when we're using two and three point perspective. With this understanding, we can make better decisions on how to compose our drawings to achieve the amount of perspective we designed. Let's look at another way to position objects at a specific death without having to build out a floor grid. We know that the length of the baseline from the station point to its outer edge of the baseline is equal to 18 inches. We've used that with to measure a distance and depth, using the 45 degree principle and the floor grid. There should be a way then to skip the tedium of building a floor grit and just measure the distance we want more directly, I will demonstrate how this is done. I'll start by creating a measure line on top of the baseline from the station point to the end of the baseline. This gives me an 18 inch measure line. I'm going to scale this line by multiplying it by four so that it will be 72 inches long. This causes the line to fall off my art board. We use the lines exposition scene here in the transform how it to find. I need to increase the width of the art board by 52 inches. After pressing the escape key a couple of times and choosing my move tool with the wiki, I will open up my document settings dialog. I can type plus 52 in the with input and make sure I locked the target on the right and click OK. The entire measure line is now visible in the work area. Now I can create a measure guide from the end of the measure line to this Dagnall measuring point on the C o B Ri. I can see this measure Guy crosses the median line at the point where the fourth floor grid Square measure 72 inches and death. This, of course, means that I could make my measure line any length I need in order to place an object in death. Let's take a look at a practical example to test what we've learned. Let's say I want to place a five inch cube nine feet away from the viewer in my drawing. First, I would change my measure line to nine feet long by typing the expression 12 inches times nine Inside the width. Input in the Transform Power. This again causes my measure line to fall off the art board. I can see here in the transform palette that I need to add 36 inches to its wit so I can see the whole line making sure nothing in the workspaces selected and making sure I have my move tool. Open up document settings and add 36 to the width of the art board, the same as before. I will now create a measure guy From the end of the measure line to this diagonal measure, point the intersection this guy creates with the median line is 100 8 inches for nine feet and death. We can see this clear if I proportionately scaled my measure guide by holding the shift key and snapping it to the media. The transport pallet tells us is 100 8 inches and whip. The 45 degree principle means that we have the same value and death. I have my death measured. Now I need to scale Mike you based on its placement in depth, I will against, like my measure line and changes with the five inches the size I want my cute up. Now I can draw scale guy. From the end of the measure line to the central viewpoint, this will be used to find the width of my five inch measure line. When it's located nine feet in depth, I will locate where my measure guide intersects the medium line, which represents the desired depth. I want to place my five inch cube. I need to draw a horse on a live from this point to my scale guy. This represents five inches in width at a depth of nine feet. All that's left is to create a square using the rectangle tool and snap it to this new measure line. I have the front face of my five inch cube rendered to the scale. It would appear nine feet from the viewer. I can position this square anywhere. I want horizontally, left a right in my scene and maintain this nine foot death. Next, I want to reverse this procedure and find the size and distance of this cube that was drawn previously. I just read only size and plays this Cuban space when I created it. But now I want to know what size it is and how far away it is from the viewer. Since I have determined that I'm working in a 1 to 1 scale, and I know that my 90 degree C O. B. Has a radius of 18 inches. I have enough information to figure out how big my cube is and how far away it is. I'm going to create a measure line based on the cubes current wit. Now I'm going to hold my shift key while I slide it over until it snaps to the median line . Holding shift constrains the movements perfectly horizontal next I'm going to draw a scale guide from this into my measure line to the central viewpoint. Now holding my shift key again, I can proportionately scale my scale, guys until it snaps to the baseline. I would just repurpose this measure line again by dragging it left until it snaps to the media line. Now I just need to manually scale the measure line until it snaps to the scale line I created. The transformed palette tells me the actual size of this cube, which happens to be 7.95 inches. All this left is determined its distance in depth. Since I've already indicated a point in depth on the median line with this measure line I control measure guy. From this point to the Dagnall measuring point, I have a choice in how I want to perform the next step. I can either scale this measure guide until it snaps to the baseline like this, or since I know my night a greasy overseas radius, I can use the transformed palate. By choosing this anchor point target, make sure I have the constrained widget enabled and type in a height of 18 inches. The last step one that's easily overlooked is to then manually proportionately scaled the measure guide holding shift till it intersects the media mine. The transformed palette now reveals the point in depth with the value of the measure God's with We see the cube is 79.945 inches, or about six feet eight inches away from the viewer. There is another way to place objects accurately in depth that we've already looked at in the horizon lesson. I used the horizon mining injection with the view high to place objects in the scene. Oh, methods work equally well, and I use all three depending on the project. I really appreciate how the C. O. V. Rigg provides both mechanical and visual assistance to help me drawn perspective. The fact that I can measure accurately automatically means that I can measure accurately with real world units interchangeably. The flexibility I have with the CEO veto work without worrying about literal measurements helps me stating creative mode. The visual cues provided by the Horizon line median line and the inner Ciorbea's help me to position my objects to great the visual impact I want for my drawing. Hopefully, you will be as big a fan of the C. O. V. Rigg as I am in the next lesson, satisfied that I can create place my keeps accurately and death will start looking at the Cuba's. A box shape will be exploring different ways. The box shape can be modified building on the techniques you so far by carving up these keeps into new shapes. 10. Pt. 1: Auto-Magical Shapes & Measures: we've seen the seal be big. Help us draw perfect cubes and a measured floor grid. The CEO be rigged. Makes this possible because it provides reliable points in space, so it should follow The objects we draw with the C O. B rig should also provide reliable points in space. We can use this lesson. We're going to continue using the C O. B rig. We're going to start modifying box shapes and we're gonna learn about some really cool on a magical construction techniques were goingto take all that we've learned so far and start filling up our drawing tool box with essential perspective skills. I have a fresh version of rco v. Rigg already open an affinity designer, and I want to create a tall box shape that might represent anything from a building to a cereal box. Let's say my shape needs toe have the proportions one by five. By mine. This means that the front face of my shape will be a one by five rectangle. I can use the rectangle tool to draw my shape inside the foreman area and use the transformed palette to enter in the exact values for this exercise, I want to continue to work in inches. As the unit of measure, I want to position my shape left of the median line and let the horizon line intersecting just above its midpoint. Hedge guides are always the first step to making our shapes into three D objects. With snapping on, I'll go ahead and create edges from all four corners of my shape to the central vanishing point on the subject of snapping that the fault presets, an affinity designer, have worked very well for us so far. But as we start to get more and more elements in the work area, these presets failed to be is accurate. There are simply too many objects clustered in a small area. What seems to confuse both the snapping tool and us? Fortunately, we can fine tune opinion designer snack settings and create our own presets. I want to adjust my snap setting, so the tool gives preference to no points on guidelines and shapes. To do this, I'll quit this drop down error beside the snap button To open up the snap settings. We can see that affinity designer ships with several handy presets. I want to create my own custom set by uncheck ing. Snap to God's snap to spread and snapped a margin and check snap to shape key points and snapped object geometry. Click this icon here by the presets, pulled down and choose. Create preset. I'll make my presets simply points and click OK back to box building. I need to create a nine inch measure line in order to find my shapes debt, using the same method we've already seen to create a cube. I will draw Measure guide from the end of my measure line tow opposite diagonal measuring point. I can see where I need to draw the back edge of my shape from this intersection up to this edge line you Luna says. I'm working frequently. Toggle to outline mode, using command. Why this helps me see where to place my lines better. So how accurate did these lines need to be? In my experience, it's really easy to keep zooming in and continue filling with line placement. Once you examine the in past 2000% though it really won't make much difference to the final draw. Another feature of affinity designer I like is turning on hide selection while driving with this button. It turns off the display of the transform handles when I'm manipulating objects in the work area. Sometimes when im trying to precisely place a node affinity designer wants to help me by snapping two objects in the work area. Other than where I want this now, I can temporarily disable snapping by holding down the option. Key is, I moved notes and objects around with either move or no tools. With all that said, now, I can just complete my shape. This gives me a three D box shaped that measures one by five by nine. Since I'm going to be creating a lot of shapes in this example, I need to start managing my layers palette. I was like the letters that make up tall box shape. I want them to have a feel of white and group them with command. G Group needs a name. Now I will slip in group all of the guidelines used to define the tall box. I'll call it guys, hide the group and drag it inside the top box fruit. That's better. I'll be coming back to this shape later in the lesson to modify further. So it's a good idea to keep everything and keep it tidy. Next, I want to create another box shape. Only this time, instead of following a specified set of measurements, I would just draw something that looks good to me. This will be a flat box shaped like this. I will just position it here somewhat. A line with my call boxes. Base notice. This is placed well below the horizon lines. We'll see a lot of the top exposed once it's being completed. I need to create that edge guys from each corner. This time I want to turn the death by just selecting a point here and draw a vertical line up to this edge guide. I'm thinking this might turn into a warehouse type building. I will go ahead and complete this side shape. This Fox also needs a top, so I create and horizontal line from this point across to this edge guy and complete the top shape. Now I have to simple boxes. The tall box has been built to a measured size, and the flat box has been somewhat sketched. Let's not forget to keep the layers palette organized as we go, I'll quickly sort these elements just like the Taliban box. So let the flat boxes main elements. Give them a feel of white, grouped them, give the group and name selecting group the guidelines named this guides. How did the guys group and drag it into the flat box group? So everything is to get I want to make this shape more interesting than it currently is. To do that, I want to create another box shape that rests on top of my flat box that is smaller. In fact, I want it to occupy this quarter of my shape, since I didn't bother to measure off this box when I created it. Selecting the front face that transformed palette tells me that I have some difficult decibel numbers to work with. Rather than start over or try to adjust what I already have, I can employ one of my favorite auto magical measuring techniques. What I need to do is find the center of the top of my shape. If I draw vertical measure line from the front edge to the back edge, select my move tool and display the rotation center, I can see where the center of the measure line is, but it doesn't appear to be the center of my box shape. The reason this measure line does not account for the four shortening that's occurring in depth. Let's take a better approach. I'll open up a new document to help me explain how this all works. We're going to create a randomly size rectangle in the workspace. With its selected, we can see these transform handles mark the centers of each side of my shape. I'll quickly just switch back to the document with my flat box and select its top shape. Unfortunately, we see the transform handles don't account for the Fort Shortening any better than the measure line. Switching back to my new document, I will grab the pain tool, make sure I'm in line mood and draw a line to its opposite edges. Now I'll draw another dying a line for these edges, looking at where these diagonal lines cross locates the center of this rectangle. If I select it and turn on the rotation center, we can see that this is true. If I select everything and scale it, My diagonal lines still locate the center of the shape, as we've seen in previous lessons. Whatever we measure auto magically in two D also works in three D back to the document. With my flat box, I shall drove diagonal lines connecting the corners of the top of the flat box. Now I will create a horizontal line from where these diagonal lines intersect to the edge of the box and stretch it out until the connects to the other side. This is looking much better. The horizontal line shows me where the center of this shape is in debt. If I select this top shape again, we can see how much different the center is in depth versus the shapes. Actual center. I'll go ahead and draw life from this intersection to the central viewpoint. If I stretch it out to the front edge of the box and select the front face the transform handles tell me that this method indeed marks the center of my box shape. I don't need this measure line anymore, so I will delete it. I should also do a little housekeeping in the layers palette by selecting the sinner guides , grouping them and labelling and drag them to the flat box work. Finding centers is a technique will be using a lot. The center guys have divided the top of the shape into quarters, and we're now ready to add the second level to the warehouse building. I'm going to draw a line from the top edge to the bottom edge of the front face. I can use this guy to indicate the height for the second level of my building. I'll drink the lineup and snap it to this center line. Now I just need to use the rectangle tool to create the upper front face. I'm going to create guys from the top edges. I can use the center line to building the back vertical edge and finished drawing in this side. All that's left is to draw in the top. I'll start by drawing a horse on the line from this shape to this outer edge and complete the shape that's organized earlier. Palate. By selecting all the new shapes for the talk and filling them with White, group them and name the Group second level and drag it into my flat box group. I'll just drag the remaining guidelines into the flat box groups Guides group. I could quickly hide the guidelines away and have a look. We can use the fine sinner technique to help us find where objects need to be placed, so they distributed equally in depth. This is useful for placing streetlamps along. I wrote. For example, let's do something similar and build a widely spaced fence around part of the warehouse. I'll just create a simple fence post here and often drag a copy to about here to build the rest of the fence along the side. We could take advantage of affinity designers built in features like the measurement values in the Transform pilot or the Arrange dialog box. But those tools will not help us to place the fence post in debt along the left side of the building. Already have to fence post, which give me the distance offense post should be distributed. I need a way to find where the next post in the roads should be placed. First, I will create horizontal guidelines for the top and bottom of the post, and I will go ahead and draw guidelines from the first post to the central vanishing point . I can already start to see how the fence will take shape. I'm going to create Dagnall eyes between each corner of the two fence post. Already half now I'll draw a horizontal line from the intersection of the diagonal lines to this post to the right. This marks the centre of these posts. This next line is drawn from this point on the first post, where the center line intersects the second post. I need to extend this guideline until it snaps to the bottom God. This intersection marks the placement of the next vertical post. I'm just option dragged the second post created copy for the third Post. I can quickly prove this myth its accuracy by selecting the 1st 2 posts and option driving a copy over to here, we can see by the snapping guys that the third post is face perfectly to finish out this Vince rope. I'm going to stretch out this horizontal center line to the end of my intended road. I need to draw a line from the top of the second post to the center of the third post. This line needs to be extended down to the lower guideline. Again. I'll option drag a copy of the third post to create 1/4. Now it's only a matter of repeating these steps to create any number of fence posts along the front. Let's turn our attention to the fence. For the left side, I need to create a measure line to mark the distance between two of my current posts, drag it left and snap it to the first post. I just need a measure guy from here to the Dagnall measuring point. This intersection, of course, tells me where my first post along the left side needs to be placed up. I will now use the same technique I used to find the third pole in the front, starting with the dagger lines to each corner of the posts. I could have also wrap this center line used for this row of post, but that option might not always be available with my center indicated I need to draw the guy from this intersection to the central vanishing point. I could now draw a line from the corner of the first poll where the center line intersects the second poll. I'm going to extend this line to the lower guideline. This marks the position in depth for the next poll. I could drop my third pole. From this point to the upper guidelines already have a center line. I could just create another line from the second pole to the center of third pole and extend it to the lower guideline and create another pope. I will speed up the video while I create a few more poles repeating this procedure. - One other thing. Before we leave this example, I can also extend this role a fence post forward toward the viewer using the same technique . Let's extend the upper and lower edge guys forward up. Also extend this center line forward. Now we can draw a line from the second pool to the center of the first pope in an extended until it intersects the lower guys up. I'll create another post at this intersection. I will demonstrate this a couple of more times so we can see the effect up this'll. Technique is applicable to all shapes, not just been spoke. It's great for adding additional details to other shapes is well think columns in front of a building or tables in a banquet hall. I'll just finish this example up with a little housekeeping. - This process might seem like it's a little tedious because it iss. It also might seem like we're entering the land of diminishing returns because we're drawing multiple guidelines lines that don't appear in our final drawing just to create a single line that does appear in the final drive. This is the price of accuracy, but I have to say I also find it kind of therapeutic. I've seen interviews with artists that draw these highly detailed pencil drawings, the ones that have every pore in the skin and every hair meticulously rendered. They'll often say that they find drawing all these details is very common to the money. 11. Pt. 2: Auto-Magical Shapes & Measures: I think my tall box needs some more attention. How about creating equally divided horizontal lines around it, so I might appear to be a martyr and glass building? Let's look at a method that creates equally spaced lines measured locally on an object. I'll start by creating a vertical measure line the height of the tall box. Aesthetically, I think I can space my lines half of the boxes with to get the effect I'm looking for. I'll create a horse on a measure line here at the top, then divided in half using the transform palette. The width of this line is actually irrelevant, but I can use it in this case as a quick visual to see how the shape would look when divided up with lines of equal to this size. Let's let the front face of the tall box just to get a reminder of its height. I see that it is five inches in the transform power, since my division lines are based on half of this front faces. With that value would be 50.5 inches. Five, divided by 50.5 equals 10 which will be the number of times I want to equally divide my talk box and hide. I will slip this decline in Duplicated in the layers palette 10 times with command J. I'm going to be creating a vertical ruler to help me place my guidelines. I'll move one of these lines down to the base of my box in the layers palette. I will select all of my duplicates, open the arranged dialogue and click the space vertically. But this makes creating ruler take Mark's very easy. Now that I have my ruler, I will select all of its elements in layers power, create a group with command G and name it. The next step is to draw guidelines for each tick mark of the ruler to the central vanishing point. I will do that. Now notice that I've left these lines black. In this case, my guidelines are also lines I want displayed his details on my building. Once there are completed, I will proportionately scale each of these lines so that they snapped in the back edge of my box. Now that I have my call box divided equally vertically, I still need to divide it equally horizontally. To do this, I will simply create a guideline from this upper corner to this lower corner on the side. Notice where this red guideline intersex each of the black lines. This marks were all we need to build each of my vertical lines to divide my box equally in depth. Now it's just a matter of drawing in all of my vertical lines. First double zoom in and create my first line at this first intersection. Then I can option drag this line to the next intersection. I just need to repeat this step as I follow the red guy across my tall box shape. Once that's done, I just need to drag each of these lines out vertically so they attached to the edges of the box. I could repurpose these take marks on the ruler to create the division lines on the front face in the layers. Pilot, I'll open up my ruler group and select all of the take marks and copy them to the clipboard . Hi, the ruler and pace back the tick marks. I don't need the top of bottom line so I could delete those. I'll select the remaining lies, change the color to black, change the stroke, wait to match the lines of the right face and scale them all to this image. Now all that's left is to add the line down the middle, which is easily drawn using affinity. Designer snap feature the tall boxes turning to look a lot more interesting. Time for some housekeeping. I'll drink my ruler into my tall box group. I'll select this red guideline and added to the tall boxes Guys group. I'm cutting the red guides layer and pasting it inside the guides group in the layers palette. Then select all the new lines, grouped them with command Jay, label them details and drag it into the top box group. Our warehouse could now use some more details to. You could use a few baby doors along its sides. We need a way to measure out the placement of unequally spaced features like these. This time I will build a horizontal ruler to add these door features to my warehouse building. Since I didn't bother to mention this building, I currently don't have any idea of the death of this shape. Let's figure it out. I'll draw measure guy from the back edge of the warehouse to this Dagnall measure, point now I will proportionately scale it until it's even with the front edge. This is basically the same procedure we used to find the death of an object in the floor grid lesson using the C O. B rigs Baseline. Now I will create a measure line from this corner of the warehouse toward my measure guide . I need to spend a moment to make sure my lines intersect. Proper notice. These lines are stretched way out to the left of my object. I could hide my tall box in the layers palette to avoid any potential confusion. I'm going to create a vertical line that will become the first tick mark for a custom ruler built using this measure line. Now I will option drag a copy of this tick line where I think maybe the edge of the bay door would be on my warehouse option. Drive this line to indicate a plausible width of a bay door. That's the whilst. Like both of these lines. Option. Drive them to create another be door the same size right here. Maybe there is yet another bay door closer to this edge as well, so I'll coffee and drag out another set of declines. I'm going to option drag a single tape line where I think a normal sized door might be located. An option drag one more copy for its with that should do it. I should go ahead and select all these ruler lines and group and label them in the layers pounds from here, I could start drawing measure lines from each of these. Take March to the Dagnall measure point way over there. That would give us the result where after, but it will also require a fair amount of zooming and panning the work area. As we connect up the guidelines, I want to make this process a little easier. First, I'll select this tick line at the end of my ruler and duplicated in the layers pilot two times with command jet. I want to get them all the green color as well. I'm going to select one of these new book It's and snap it to the other end of my measure line. Now I'll sweat these tick allies and use the arranged dialogue to space them horizontally. I have agreed to decline in the center of my ruler. The only reason I have created these green Take Mars is just a crude. This next procedure really works. I'll slit her ruling group in the layers palette. Now I'm just going to scale horizontally till it's fit somewhere in the same zip code as this warehouse. I'm going to draw a measure line from the intake of the ruler to this corner of my box shaped instead of the Dagnall measuring point. Then I'm going to extend this measure line by scaling it proportionally with the ship key until it snaps to their arrives in line. Affinity designer allows me to change net presets While I am manipulating objects, I'm using this feature to help me get my guidelines. Snap to the horizon. Where this measure line intersects the horizon line becomes a new diagonal measure point that's localized to my box shape. I would draw a line for each of my tick lines to the new Dagnall measure. I'm going to change the color of the measure line from this centre, take mark to green just so we know where it iss. I have indications of where all of the warehouse doors are going to be located. On the left side of my building each point where one of the measure guys intersects the lower edge of the left side of the box. Marks were a door line will be located. This tangled lines in the work area is becoming kind of noisy and confusing. In this case, I know that I'm only concerned with where the measure guys intersect the bottom edge of the left side of the box. Because this is the edge my custom ruler is attached. I'm annoying where the measure guys might intercept anywhere else. Before I draw these doors, I want to open up the black box group in the layers palette and display the fine center group. Next, I want to wrap this center line from the top down the left side of the box. Notice that it connects perfectly with our green center measure. Guy, dependable on a magical measuring winds. Once again, that's car about those doors. I want to create a couple of guidelines that will mark how tall I want my doors to appear. I would draw a line from this front edge of the warehouse to the central vanishing point indicate the top of my large bay doors. I'll make another life from about this high to the central vanishing point indicated normal sized doors. Starting at the far end, I will create a vertical line from hard. The measure line intersects the bottom edge up to the height of the bay door. I'll find the next intersection and create another vertical line. It's not uncommon to feel a little bit of vertigo when looking at this web of lines. How do you guys that you don't need helps? Which is perhaps the main benefit of keeping the layers palette organized? Using different guideline colors and line waits helps tell one type of line from another. And just practicing. Drawing with perspective guides goes a long way as well. I'm just complete all of my door guys. - I wanted to look like these door openings or car from a solid shape. So instead of drawing the doors on top of this side shape, I'll modify. I'll hide the ruler and measured guys. I could slip the shape that makes up the left side of my box shape. Since that shape is part of a group I can no longer directly selected with either the move to or the no tool end up selecting the entire group. Instead, I do have an option of digging through the layers power and selecting it there. But that seems spit Lee. What I can do then is hold down the command key as I click on an object to select within its group after I've selected one object Intergroup conflict. Other objects that are part of that same group without needing depress the command key. I need to have the no tool for the next step. If I just click on a line segment, I create a new note. However, if I try to click and drag my line bends and curves, which is not what I want. In this case, I could snap my new Noto one of the doorway guys. They continue adding new nose and change the shape of my object to follow. The guys are created. That's a nice all the details. I think a couple of doorways on the front side, we'll finish things out nicely. Correct These guys that indicate the height of the doors around to the front. I could just draw a couple of larger bay doors and a size, I think looks nice. And how about another normal door here. I want to modify the front side as well. When I select it with a no tool, though I don't have the ability to have new nodes. That's because Affinity designer remembers. This is a rectangle. In order to enter this shape further, I have to click the convert to Curves Button. If I needed designer, they burst this shape into a curve. Now I'm able to add notes, as I did previously to finish out this side as a final touch, I'll add horizontal lines on the insides of each of the doors on the left to get this buck shape more of a three D appearance. I could do the same for the doors on the front, but instead of horizontal lines, these need to be drawn to the central vanishing point there. That's not too bad. I will go ahead and organize the layers palette and hide the guidelines. Let's hide our building shapes for a moment and look at something just a little different house shape. I want to take a brief look at the challenges. Angled lines like the pitch of the roof compose. I want to create to how shapes the same size Onley. One will be rotated 90 degrees from the other. I also want the box shape of the house to be to buy one by two. How about that? The base shape doesn't account for the roof because we'll be adding the roof to the base shape in a moment. First on indirect angle size two to buy one to become the base of my house shape. Opposition it. So the shapes midpoint is just above the horizon line and about midway between the edge of the format and the median line. How option. Drag a copy to the other side of my format that will become house number to a bit later. Let's add some edge guys. I need to indicate the depth of my house, so I'll create a measure line. I can drag it so it snaps to the outer edge of my shape. I'll draw a measure guy from the end of the measure line to the Dagnall measuring point. This gives me a death equal to its with. I'll go ahead and build in the right side of the house by creating a vertical line from this intersection to the upper edge guy and just finish out the shape. Now I need to turn the front side of my shape into an iconic how shape. To do this, I will go ahead and find my center using the diagonal line technique. Thes corners will connect together, and these corners will connect together. I had my center, so I'll just create a vertical line from the center to the top edge. I want the peak of the roof to be the height of this line so I can just multiply its height by two in the transform Power also let the front side shape and converted to curves. Switch to the no tool and avenue no new the center of the top edge and snap it to the top of the vertical guideline. There's an iconic how shape I can go ahead and drawn image guy from the top of the roof to the central vanishing point. The problem I have now is where to create the back edge of this roof line. Well, I've been working with cubes and rectangles. I've been able to take advantage of the fact that package for the top or bottom always aligns with the back edge of one of the sides. In this case, I just need to repurpose the measure line. I will snap it to the peak of the roof and drawn measure guide from its into a Dagnall measuring point. This intersection indicates the depth of my object. Now I will connect all these points together like so notice how much more for shorten an angle face appears versus the right side of this house. Go ahead, clean up my layers palette before moving off. - Let's take a look at what happens when I filled out this. How shape with the roof line running horizontally rather than parallel to the viewer. Always begin with the edge guys. They're easy and you know you'll need them sooner or later anyway. Create a new measure. Lines. Snap it to the outer edge. Create a measure guy. I can now draw this side, beginning with a vertical line from this intersection to the upper edge guy and finish the shape. I will find the center of this left side with the diagonal lines method. I need to create the vertical line from the center to the top edge. Now can I use to transform palette to scale and extend this line like I did before. Yes, Looking at the Transform palette tells me that this line has been automatically for short with the edge guides recalling the first example. This line was 0.5 inches. I can simply multiply this new line by tooth. I let a new note to the side shape and snap it to the top of the guidelines. If I draw a horizontal guidelines from the peak of the roof toward my outer edge, it reveals the problem. Completing a house shape in this orientation and vertical line is not correct. Can I then just make a line based on the angle of the roof line here and drag it over? Let's see what happens. That doesn't look right, either. This problem needs to be handled by creating another set of guides specific to the right side of the shape. Even though this side of the shape isn't visible to the viewer, I will go ahead and complete the guidelines for it anyway. First, hide the measure, guys, out of my way draw a horizontal guy from the back left edge to this edge. Guys here next I will create a vertical guide from this intersection to the upper edge guy . I don't have enough information to great diagonal lines. To find the center of this space. I'll draw vertical line from the center to the top edge of the roof. If I draw a line from the outer edge of my shape to this vertical guide, the roof angle now appears correctly in perspective. It's worth comparing the final edge of the roof to the one I tried to copy over the first take away from this exercises. If that shaped looks wrong, it most likely is wrong. We've also learned we can always fall back to using the method that helped us create a part of the shape in the first place. Unfortunately, there are not always nifty short cuts available to create every shape in every situation. As shapes get more complicated, replicating them in perspective does as well. A little more housekeeping in the layers palette, and we're on to the final example 12. Pt. 3: Auto-Magical Shapes & Measures: based on everything we've learned about so far, let's look at it very useful but complex. Take me. That will help us at really convincing features to our shapes and perspective. But this example on my eye, both my houses and make the tall box visible. I don't want to see the Details group, though, so I will hide it. What I want is a base for this tall box, something that surrounds it and makes it appear like it's resting on a plant. This base will surround the bottom of our box, kind of like a picture frame. I want his corners to join at 45 degree angles. To do this, I need to start by extruding a shape from the box shape already half to get started on. He done hide my guys group and finished drawing in the back edge guide here. I need to create a measure. Line the distance I want to extrude my shape. Let me just create a quick to the example in a new document, I will create a regularly sized rectangle. I'll duplicate this rectangle with command J, then scale it proportionally larger from the center. Notice how the top and bottom of the rectangle seem to be scaling further from our original shape than the sides are. I want to move all of my edges out equally, something like this. This is what I will refer to as extruding shape the cause in the context of our perspective . Drawn the shape and pulling out will be another three D shape. Let's get back to our drawing to see where this is going. I want the extra distance to be 1/5 of the whip of the tall box, so I will create a measure line the width of the box. It should be one inch in the transform palette. I'll divide the with by five to get my desire with, I could move it to this outside edge of my box. They create an inch guide to the central Vanishing Point. This will be the first edge of my extruded box. Normally, the next step might be to create a measure line that would be equal to the death of my tall box, plus the total distance I want to extrude, Then snap it to the end of the small measure line here. I could use a measure guy and a Dagnall measure point to find the back edge of my shape. But all of that wouldn't help me to find the front edge for my extruded shape. Also need to account for the four shortening that will occur based on the shapes, angle and distance from the viewer. So we'll take a new approach. I'll go ahead and create a measure guy from this measure line to the Dagnall measuring point. This provides us with an death. Now I'll create awards. I'm a bad line from this intersection to the other edge of my shape. Then I'll move the measure line till its office it in snaps to the edge of my shape. Next, I will create a guideline from this into the measure line to the central vanishing point. If I heard the measure line and this measure guy, we can see that I have a square perspective in this corner of my shape. We can also see that it has quite a bit for short Now I want to create a line from this corner of the square to its office, it which gives me a 45 degree line in perspective. I'll extend this line until it crosses this outside extruded edge line. Then I will tidy up the intersection. This intersection marks the front edge of my extruded shape. I can draw a horizontal line from this intersection to the other side of my shape, but at the moment, I don't have a left edge yet to snap to. To remedy that, I'll just I hide my measure line and move it until it snaps to this other edge of my box shape. I need to create an edge guide from its end to the central vanishing point. If I extend, this edge got forward. I now have three sides of my extruded shape completed. All this left is defined where the back edge is located. I won had the tall boxes original measure line and measure guy. This let this extreme measure lines and changes color degree, and it's stroke way to one point. Now I need to drag it over until it snaps to the end of the original measure line. I could draw measure guide from this end of the extreme measure line to the Dagnall measure point, I'm sending myself up to use the same technique for the back edge that I used on the front page. I have enough information to create a cube in this back corner by drawing a war zone guy from the right edge to the left edge. I could draw a line from this corner of the Cube to its opposite, then extend this line until it intersects right outside edge guy. All I need now is to draw a horizontal line from this intersection across to the other side . The first phase of my extrude is complete. The next step is creates a vertical guys that will represent the bevel shape I want to wrap around my building. I want the part of the extrude that touches the building to be taller than the outermost itch. To do this, I'll bring back my small measure line and snap it to this edge of the top box. I want to rotate it 90 degrees and snap it to this edge. The Nevada's lengthen half using the transform. This represents the inside high to the extreme. I'll duplicate this line and representation it by snapping it to this outside front corner . Now I'll divide this line in half. I can change the stroke weight of both vertical guides, so it doesn't seem so claustrophobic in this area. This short line represents the short side of the devil. The angle created between the heights of these vertical guides will cooperate A nice, gentle slant. I need an edge guide from the tall vertical guy to the central Vanishing Point and another edge guide from the short vertical guy to this inter vanishing point. I'll option drag copy. This short vertical guy can snap it to this opposite outer edge. This new vertical guy needs an edge guy to the central benching point as well. I also need a horizontal guy drawn across my box shape from the top Vertical guy Oh, manually created vertical guide for the right back edge by drawing a vertical line from this intersection to the guy that bucket I have enough information to build in the extruded shape. First, I will build in the furniture by snapping to these points, then operate the next shaped by snapping to these points. If I feel both of these new shapes with white, we can start to see the bevel profile of the shape. I will snap to these points to create the upper part of the right side of the extra, then create the lower part of the right side extreme. I could feel both of these shapes with quite as well. That's still in the left edge, which is only partially visible to the viewer. I just need to snap to these three points, feel with white, and we're finished with the extreme. I don't want to leave the layers palette in its present state, so I will quickly tidy it up. - I think I love high. The warehouse building shape can create a quick horizon life. Now I can hide the C O. V. Rigg. There, we have to building rock structures car from box shapes. In one point perspective, we used an inch measure unit for the tall building while we just followed arm used to create the warehouse. Both turned out well because both are built using accurate perspective. Best of all, these skills and techniques are not limited to one point perspective. They all work Justus well into in three point perspective 13. Project: A 'Not-So-Humble' Cube: it's time to create a perspective project of your own share something drawn using the C, o, B Rick and any of the techniques described during this class. This exercise is for you to simply practice drawing in perspective. You're not trying to create anything more. The museum in this exercise. Hey, I get it. There are other demands and distractions competing for your attention. So why worry about creating a project for starters, watching someone else toss A Frisbee does not provide the same knowledge and experiences tossing a Frisbee yourself. It might wind in the bushes some way the first time he tried. We need to make sure we know what we think we know. It's important to get familiar with these tools and techniques and practice them while it's all still fresh in your mind. Posting a project proves that knowledge and skill were earned through doing truly. That's the only way we can learn anything. What I hope to see and everyone's project is experimentation over a finished masterpiece discover what shapes are possible to create, based on what's been learned so far. Become aware of what I didn't talk about during this class. Carrots what you know, by working out a problem that wasn't specifically covered in this class. This part of the process is about growing your understanding. So share something you've drawn in one point perspective, using the C O. B rig and the skills and techniques, especially if it's a not so humble cube. Feel free to post any questions you have about this class, and I can't wait to see your project. 14. Conclusion: What's Next: Wow, That's a lot of information about perspective. Thankfully, we can go back and re watch anything that happened while we were checking area. I can say about a shadow of doubt. My drawings and my confidence in them have improved exponentially since I learned the importance of perspective. The real breakthrough for me was the CLB rig with it. I can easily avoid perspective distortion just by drawing within the 60 degree C o. V. I can take advantage of box shape so all my forms exist in accurate perspective. And I really love the fact that I could draw using either real world measure units or I can stay in creative mode while taking advantage of automatic vehicle God structures. I think hardly mentioned that I'm a big fan of the c o. B. Right. Not only do we know how to use this simple but deceptively powerful tool, we learned a lot about how it works as well. So what's next in future classes? I'll be talking about 23 point perspective. How to create accurate shadows, drawing curve shakes in perspective and more now that we've got a pretty good handle on the CEO of the rig. I want to focus some classes around complex, fully realized drawings in perspective as well. There's a lot more to come and I want to see you there.