German grammar - word order #3 relative pronouns & other tricky bits | Angelika Davey | Skillshare

German grammar - word order #3 relative pronouns & other tricky bits

Angelika Davey, Here to help people "learning German with a smile"

German grammar - word order #3 relative pronouns & other tricky bits

Angelika Davey, Here to help people "learning German with a smile"

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12 Lessons (1h 5m)
    • 1. Intro to part 3

    • 2. Infinitive plus zu

    • 3. Um ... zu ...

    • 4. Nicht oder kein

    • 5. The position of nicht

    • 6. Position of pronouns

    • 7. Relative pronouns, nominative and accusative

    • 8. Relative pronouns dative and genitive

    • 9. Relative pronouns and prepositions

    • 10. Was

    • 11. Welcher

    • 12. Interjections

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About This Class

Welcome to the third and last of my German word order classes!

In this class you will learn how to make some sentences a bit more compact. 

This class requires quite some knowledge of German and is the perfect addition to learning German with a textbook or tutor.

If you have only just started to learn German, you may not have learned enough vocabulary for this grammar class, but save it for later. You should feel comfortable with the first word order class German grammar - word order #1 the basics  and even the second one German grammar - word order # 2 conjunctions  before moving on to this one.

If you are an intermediate/ advanced student, then this class is for you.

In this class you will learn when to use 'nicht' and when 'kein' in negative sentences. You will also learn in which order object pronouns go, and you will learn about relative pronouns. You will get to practise for yourself either together with me in the videos or by completing your project.

At the end of the class you will have a better understanding of how German relative pronouns work.

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If you like this class, could you please give it the 'thumbs up'? 
Leaving a comment or even just the thumbs up will help other students decide whether this course is good for them.


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Angelika Davey

Here to help people "learning German with a smile"


Welcome to my Skillshare page!

I am Angelika of Angelika's German Tuition & Translation and I'm here to help you learn German, especially if you are teaching yourself. 

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1. Intro to part 3: welcome to part three off my German word order videos. This is where it gets a little bit more complicated. So you're German. Should be pretty advanced by now to do this because we're looking at right. We're looking at the washing line again. Andi, we've got quite a bit of washing on the line now. Quite a lot, actually. And if we wanted to put some more on there were running out of space. So what do we do? We make it a bit more compact, and that's what we're doing in these videos. We will be looking the infinitive and with two instead of using deaths, we're also looking at home plus two and then missed. Is it Nishikata? Kaine? Where did you put it? Were daughter off object pro nails and relative pronouns and we finish off with interjections. How about you can't wait. I see you in the first proper video 2. Infinitive plus zu: okay. That's why we look at the infinitive with soul. Your mommy looked at us with double lest, and we said that it pushes the verb to the end on. We also said that it's used after introduction like an opinion, and we also said it's not always necessary. Well, now we're looking at another way by using the infinitive, and so and that can replace. Thus, if the subject off the sentence also appears in the dusk, laws gonna give you an example offer does it Morgan in Bosnia for passer? And we could shorten that to the offer. Morgan Dinh boss finished so for person. So we haven't got with Dust anymore and the fair passage at the end. We've now got for passing in the infinitive, which is fair person, and added the tool offer modeled in Boston it to third person now in spoken German. Most of the times we probably would just used us. And if you're happy with using that, that's absolutely fine. But just look at the two sentences, and you can see that the 2nd 1 is a bit shorter, a bit neater, that compactor. So it's a nice way, especially in written German to use sentences and to use and without dust. So let's have a look at some of them. Sentence starters. Could be. This is true. It's his tune. Does it cite Harbor? It's nice that I have time. How will be saying it's nice to halftime on? The answer would be s his tune site so harm Course that makes it a bit more general. A swell, because that doesn't just apply to me because it's nice for anybody to have time. Eubanks. That's very personal. I'm scared. What am I scared off? I have a young stars it in test Nick Bashir. I'm scared that I might not passed the test and to make that a bit more compact, have angst in test Need. Silverstein. So again, we got rid of the dust on. We use machine in the infinitive, and we added that it's been over. I regret, but over does this morning common come? I regret that I can't come tomorrow. I'm too short, not a bitch without the dust, but with the to It's but our more finished comments of Kernan because come, what's the verb that got pushed to the end and that's the one we need in the infinitive. It's void make. I'm pleased A slight meters exceed canon Lana. Now that's a sense that's not often used on the one that I'm about to show you. If you have been learning German with a textbook is one of the not the first sentence. But it comes up pretty quickly in the textbooks and you've probably learned it by heart. Best Fort Me See Kenan Salon in Pleased to meet You each Harbor Bush Lawson Okay, what if I decided it? If you have a Beschloss unless Equator armed in ski no gear and shorten that a bit kabash Lawson Reuter happened in ski notes again. It's a bit better, isn't it? It's clover. I believe Loberg does each pallet me and deutsche fascia. When we could shorten that, it slobber. But it man George to fresh tea in. Alright, your turn. We've got the starter is global on. We've got a sentence. Harbor Alice Freshman. Can you make two sentences with that one with dust on one without, and I give you a little bit off time. But if it's not enough, paused the video and only when you're ready played again on. I'm about to give you the answer. Now the sentence with us would be slow. But does it a list for stunned in Harbour and without dust, it would be initial over a list First London. So Harmon. And I hope that's what you just said for real. We'll see you in the next video. 3. Um ... zu ...: now is also a good time to talk about whom? Oh, only two. Gunshot. They were very similar to the sentences we did in the last video home to now. The dots in between means that there is something coming there. So it's not just on tours on something else to something else, and it means in order to although in English we most of the time don't say in order to us a bit frowned upon, really, isn't it? We just say to andan example, Elam, Deutsche teams on a finding best so fresh tea in. So if you look at the end bit, we've got the two on We've got freshly and in the infinitive. So with the n So he learns German Or he's learning German to understand his girlfriend better or really, in order to understand his girlfriend better all it sore means without on the verb in English has three i NJ. So without doing something zebra clarinetist Rossa worner often for care to act in So she crosses the road without watching the traffic again. We've got the tool there on the verb in the infinitive and shut to is instead off doing something begin Indie shut 100 out. So surely it's again. So they go into town instead off going to school. And that's the end of the video. It's your turn now. Think of free sentences one with all to one with all its or and one with lunch that, too, and feel free to let me know what they are. 4. Nicht oder kein: Let's all look at some negative sentences when we don't have something or don't do something. But when do you use next on? When do you use Kaine as a general? And Creek Room kind goes with a known Where is neat goes with a verb kind in the sentences is used exactly the same as mine or mine. So if it was a positive sentence and you have something if it waas einen or mine in oh, I now or my now or whatever the ending might be, it is exactly the same for kind. And it's usually translated as I don't have a something. An example is Harbert Kind Noto. I don't have come, and the emphasis here is on. I don't have a car. It's a noun. That's the important one, because I may have something else. I may have a bike at Kinda Kingda. He doesn't have Children. Do you notice? In the first sentence, we've just had kind us because auto is new to on. There is no ending and kinda because that's plural. Knish is used when you don't do something. So this goes with the action. Is Rooney finished in Deutschland? I don't live in Germany and the knish goes here with the action The born in cause I don't live there it come the finish Zeon. I can't see you again. The emphasis is on the I can't see you. So we need the knish to there. Have a tungsten test me to assure Ian. Oh, we had that sentence earlier wrong and again we got the mission there, although it comes before the superstition cause we're scared not to pass the test a little bit. Trickier is when we want to emphasize something. It's drink a kind and coffee. So here the emphasis is on Lee. I don't drink any coffee is the coffee. I do drink things, but it's not coffee, so the emphasis is on the known It's drinking. Finished Ganic coffee. Here the emphasis is on the drinking bitch, because I'll tell you my preference that I don't really like drinking coffee, which, by the way, is not true. I love it. It's where he kind fun sues ish again. The emphasis is on the fringe because I speak, but I don't speak French, so it's Kind Foncier's ish. It's finished Foncier's ish Zonda and Deutsche. Here we emphasizing on that. I don't speak French, but I speak German. Have you got a positive sins? It However, I know I have a car turned that into a negative sentence. You have a kind of. Now, how about this one? Now, here. When you're saying it, we won't actually emphasized the I'm cabinet ein out or it's habits. Why I don't just have one car. I have to. Now that's a bit of wishful thinking, but that's a situation where you would put missed in front, off the noun rather than kind. And that always assumes that you don't have whatever you have. Actually, more than that a Cabinet could eat counter on the negative sentence would be. You're absolutely right, a job kind of credit, Carter. But if I'm talking about some action cause I forgot my credit card and I now don't have it in my pocket or my back, Kabir Minor could did Carter knish in their Tauscher, and that's emphasizing again on the action because I have got a credit card. I just haven't got it on me. You turn. We have got forwards, plus kind honest got kinda Nick ish, FirsTier, Armonk Arbor and they're all jumbled up. Can you turn those six words into two sentences? One of the meaning I don't understand. And the other one saying, I have no idea. I'll give you a little bit off time, but as always, paused the video if you need a bit off extra time. If not, I'm about to reveal the answer. It's freshly Inish. I don't understand on the action. The the knish goes with the action off the understanding or not understanding and therefore the second sentence. It's Harbour kinda are long. I have no idea. I do sincerely hope that you're not saying that now I'll see you in the next video. 5. The position of nicht: So let's look at next again. When it does it go in a sentence. That's a question I get asked. Generally speaking, Finished. It goes as close as possible to the end off the sentence or clause. They should be Lord finished. Yeah, I'm not playing today. If the clause or sentence has a separable verb infinitive for past participle, they will go after neat. And that's because they go to the end off the sentence anyway. And that overrules it. So all the knish might be at the end of the sentence. If we've got to several reverb like Mitch feeling, which is to play with now in English, we can't stop there. We would need to saying who with? And that depends on what the rest of the sentences say. So it should be Lord Inish. Mitt probably would be something like, I'm not playing with you today or this game or whatever, and it's a several reverb, so the mitt needs to go after the next. The future 10 cents with the infinitive at the end. Very hard to finished. Mitch feeling on the past tense sentence. If you have a guest unfinished Mitt Bush beard. So the past participle is at the end. It also goes before adjectives which follow the verb. Chicken doesn't knish to flesh now, had this been a positive sentence, we want to set that the Children are polite, chicken doesn't truthfully, and that needs to go together. So if they're not goes before the objective at works off manner and place at least Michigan , Oman A. Doesn't like reading novels. GAM being the manner Michigan is still the manner, non specific adults off time with our finished off London so oft It's the time and the next goes in front of that. And there we've got the time, manner, place. If you don't do something at a certain time or in a certain place or the certain manner, the next goes before that. Andi It also goes before propositions. It's really finished in Deutschland in its to proposition here on. If I wanted to say that don't live in Germany, the knish goes in front of that. If our lift midem booze I'm not traveling by bus Mitt is the proposition your enemy finished unm minor shoot site. I don't remember much. Well, don't remember about my school time. So, um is to proposition and it goes in front of it. And it depends on what you're emphasizing. Look at those three sentences. All the same words. Except that the knish it is not always in the same place. Well, it isn't in the same place why it's covered us out all night. Not being going to look at some cars enough decided. Actually, I'm not buying that one, so the next is at the end of the sentence. Counted us out on it. It's tough finished dust Oto. You can guess what the second sentence would be. Yeah, something like, Well, I'm not buying that car, but I am buying the other one. Nick ish Calvinists Auto. Now I've been going to look at the car with somebody else, but I'm not. The one is buying if the other person iss the one thing we can do. Yes, we can't put the NICHD in front off the verb because you know the past to be in second place. So that's a big no no, your turn. He had me does Brooke game. That's a positive sentence. How many negative sentences can you make with that? By using knish and again I'll give you a little bit off time. But please cause the video if you're not ready because I'm about to reveal the answer now. Well, shall I say the answers? See how middle school next game. Just plain. She didn't give me the book. So nichd up the end of the sentence. But because it's a past 10 sentence, the past participle is going afterwards. See how diminished dust Spooky Game are mine under this? She didn't give me that book. Actually, she did. Give me another book. See? Happening. Mere dust book again. See how does even became now? She didn't give the book to me. She gave it to him because by the fact that it was mine Next Z had made a spoke gave him he might understand me This book again. So again it wasn't her who gave me the book. Somebody else did. So four different sentences But having the next and the different position just gives it a slightly different meaning. I'll see you in the next video 6. Position of pronouns: well, he's learned where to put the verb on the time on a place What happens to object pronouns or actually object knowns? Where do you add the direct on a lot The indirect object and also weighed you out the pronouns. Okay, if you have a direct andan indirect object in the sentence And remember not every sentence of Scott them They're both knowns, then the indirect object. So the date If noun comes before the inquisitive, the direct object Kovar Mining Zone I know you so mine and Zonis the indirect object because he's the one I'm buying it for. And I Neuer's boots a direct object, which is the item that I'm buying. So I'm buying a new book for my son or I'm buying my son A new book based on that. How would you say he buys his daughter the new jacket and the answer would be and coast Zeina Talkto Denoix Yaka Zeina Doctor is Thean direct object. Dino Yaka is the direct object the item he's buying. So if both off those announce than the date if comes before the accused, you probably know wondering what happens if some of these are pronouns Yes. Okay, If both of those are in the sentence and both of those are pronouns, then the accuse it'd comes before the date. If so, remember the book that I bought Well, that I'm buying. So if we already know who it is four It was for him on what? It Wasit was the book. So we're using the pronounce So the accuse it if now comes first If cal for S m and not as the sentence was earlier on a call for M s no accuse it of first call for s team. So he buys it for her. It was the jacket d eca and for her How would you say that? And the answer is a coast Z here. Z was Deka When'd year waas think it was his daughter for her at cof z ear? So to remind you again if both of those are in the sentence and both of those are pronounce than the accuser tive comes before the date If What if one of them is unknown when the other one is a bro known? The pronoun comes before the now if Culver s mine um Zune. We replaced the book that's boo with it. But we've left mining zone. So therefore the pro known comes first Calver s mine. Um zone Or is counselor team I knew your school So this time we have left the book in there . But we replaced mining zone with theme. He buys it for his daughter and he buys the jacket for her. How would you say those two sentences? And this is what you should have. Ako ftse Zeina talkto So he buys it for his daughter. A coughed ear Dino Yucca buys her the new jacket. Pretty straightforward, isn't it? Well, I thought high in low to think of really intelligent sentence Come up with this. Angelica gives the students a video, So translate that sentence into German and then replace announced with pronounce when you should end up with four sentences. So the 1st 1 with both noun Zenit 2nd 1 both pronouns on the third and 4th 1 of them being the noun and the other one the pro Now and I suggest you pulls the video again to give you some time to think about it, get pen and paper and write it down so you can compare it with my sentence in a minute and I'm about to reveal the answer. Number one Angelica kept Dane student in on video. Angelica, keep change to dental the date If on video the accuser tive number two a Millikan keep s in . So now we've got the accuser tive before the date If gives it to them Angelica kept in and dust video whom Angelica Gift s Dean student in That was easy was that I'll see you in the next video. 7. Relative pronouns, nominative and accusative: relative pronouns. First of all, what are they in English? There works like which who or that they say, if you having to repeat a noun and they relate to that. Now, for example, you got two sentences. I saw my new neighbor. He's nice. It's nothing wrong with that. But most likely, we would say, Well, if you wanted to make it sound nicer. I saw my new neighbor who is really nice, or I invited my new neighbor for a coffee. He's nice again. We probably would have said I invited my new neighbor, who is nice for a coffee. When it comes to learning German and relative pronouns, there are four things to watch out for. Very important in English. The relative pronoun can sometimes be omitted. Instead of saying that stood car or that's the next car, which I want to buy, we quite often just say that's the next car I want to buy and German. You can't do that. You've got to put it in the sentence, and a lot off students struggle with that because they're translate literally. They're thinking that's the next car I want to buy and forget to put the relative pronoun in there, so that's very important. Which one you need to use Depends on the gender off the gnome. Oh, you we go again. Is it Dad? Need us more plural, Andi. It also depends on the case. Is it the nominative the accuse it if the data for the generative case Andi they push the verb to the end off the clause or sentence just like via dust. And when and all those other words those have you've done my cases calls? Well, most likely remember a grid like this or you probably have seen it on Facebook or in any other textbooks ORP interests. Except this one is not quite the same as the one in my cases course. Now in the nominative case, which is the subject off the sentence, the relative pro lounge means who or which or that and it is just like in the cases and that stair deed us and plural d. The direct object is three whom which and that and that should look familiar as well. In the accuser tive Dean, remember only dare changes to Dean the other to stay de dust Indeed the indirect object the day tous meaning to who? Or to which deem in the masculine, feminine dare Neutra Dean. And now we have a change. That's what put it in bold in the plural. It's not Dean, it's demon on. The generative is completely different. So that's the possession. That whose? Or off which on that is Desson in the masculine and the neuter and DeLand in the family and plural. So let's have a look at some sentences in the nominative case. First sentence. Dima. Not much of a sentence, really, is it? I should have said Dusty Stamen. But the Emam is the subject on the second sentence. Ev, our guest on in Kino. So he waas at the cinema yesterday. If I wanted to say the man who waas at cinema yesterday, what I do is start with them. Um, I add a coma. Then we need the relative pro now because we don't want to talk about the man or he again dare guest on em. Kino, Remember, the verb goes to the end. They're Monday guest on in Keene. Over If how isn it see how to make a horse in? I wanted to put those two sentences together by saying, The woman who has helped me yesterday is nice. I would say if how Remember the comma de mi ago. Orphan hat, Isn't it dust coming him? It's a subject s heist, Ahlu. How would you say the rabbit, which is called and the answer is That's convention. Thus, although heist on the plural sentence dick in Nashville in in Garten's isn't knock line, how would you say the Children who are still small are playing in the garden? And the answer to that one Kingda Tina Klein's and feeling him done right to the accuse it . If so, there's the man justice DeMann. It's hard being in God's ear, so the man in the first part is the subject. But in the second sentence he is the object. Because I am the subject. I haven't seen cuisine. So if I wanted to say that's the man who I've seen or actually would just say, That's the man life seen remember in German. You can't leave it out. You have to add it. That's a stepmom. Dean, Excuse Ian Harbor, remember, Live up needs to go to the end now. De FAO is net harm busy guesting a Toffan. Okay? The woman is nice, but we want to say the woman who I have met yesterday It's nice And we do that by saying defoe de guests anger tossed number isn't it? Does canon shin heist holo What we already know. The rapid is called Horrell and that's a subject. But I bought it. It harbor s which is the object could coughed. How would you say in the rabbit which I bought is called on? Did you say this convention That's issue coughed hover high Star low Qin Dash Village him garden Char Busia Montag is Ian too long sentences. We want to put the bit or compact. The Children who I have seen on Monday are playing in the garden. And you would say that like this You can know d h I'm want a cosine harbor. But at the end of the clause spielen in gotten you now have my permission to take a break, have a coffee, go for a walk, gorgeously watch a bit of telly and when you refreshed, come back to the second part off the relative pronouns. See you then 8. Relative pronouns dative and genitive: Did you take a break? Yes. Then you're ready for part two off relative pronouns just to remind you of the grid again, we've covered the norm relative and the accuser tiff. And now we're looking at the date. If in the generative so dated for the masculine and neuter, you need demand for the feminine, you need dare on the plural You need Dean in. And when we come to the generative unique destiny for masculine and neuter and DeLand for feminine and plural Okay, in the date, if Dust is chairman now he's the subject at the moment. I'm not the date, if yet so the nominative it haveem iBook ashamed. I have given him a book as a present. And the theme here is the indirect object. And now I want to talk about the man to whom I've given the book. And that would be Does this DeMann So it stays as it is, but we need a comma deem on book. Ashamed. Don't forget the verb of the end harbor. Thus is there Monday me on Washington Harbour. How isn't it? Yeah, but you did to off garden. So what about the woman who's nice But it's the woman who I have helped the door open. She's nice. Defoe dear. 52 Alcohol certain Harbor its neck and it's your turn again. Does convention heist hollow? It's Charb team via circuit given so you know want to say the rabbit whom to whom I was given water is called hollow on you say that does convention day. Mitch must've given harbor. Has Tarlow on the floor a one tick in Nashville Name Garten. Yeah, bean and I'm ice could coughed. You want to say the Children to whom I've bought for whom we would say I bought an ice cream are playing in the garden and you say Kingda Dean and it's a nice coughed harbor Spielen in gotten on the generative dust is Dammann. He can design a torta. So in this case, Damon is the subject of the sentence of the first sentence. Is the subject of the sentence in second sentence. And Zain Ataka is the object of the moment because she is the person who I know. But we want to say that is the man whose daughter I know. So does this demon Desson Torta is Kenner and that has now turned into the possession. If I was in it, have it your own zone on tell. Elected so again he froze subject in the first sentence issues the subject in the second sentence. He'll Zune. Her son is the object, but we want to say the woman whose son I have taught It's nice. We say that Defoe dear than Zune You interested harbor its net and it's your turn again. That's king sh left yet it's come to design and Fatah. So the child is now asleep. I knew his well, actually. It's Father. So we want to say the child whose father I knew it's now asleep on you. Say it us. That's ckent destined. Thought it come to lift Yeste Onda plural de Guindos stealing him garden Have you Kamata on Monta cuisine? So I want you to say the Children whose mother I have seen on Monday are playing in the garden on. Did you say that like this Kingda deal and Monta Monta cuisine harbor feeling in garden? Guess what you can do now. Take another break because we haven't finished 9. Relative pronouns and prepositions: you're probably wondering why I'm doing another video on relative pronounce. Surely we've covered everything or three genders and the plural all four cases. What more could they be? Propositions? What happens if there are propositions in the sentence? Exactly the same as with any other sentence. If you have storage, forgiving owner home and lunk or vida in the sentence, you need the relative pronoun in the accuser tive case. So you need the Indy dust Saudi If you have up house out, sir. But I giggled uber mit Naxalite phone or two. You need the date, if so, deemed their deem or demon in the plural. And if you have a non ALF Inter in need, move onto four. What's tuition? Just like before you need to decide. Is this a movement or a position? And then you know whether you need the accuse it if or the date If on gun start also hope in a heart Tots Vaillant Vegan Unit The generative So Desson Deal. Desson Deal. Let's have a look at some sentences there. You had to adjust. You have a Vasa food scene. So the boys Thursday I've got water for him. So if I wanted to talk about the boy who I've got water for is thirsty. I say day humor. Food. Dean, if you've us, Ahab had just because food is followed by the accuser tive he conducts feeling in garden cabinet in and on ice Coraghessan. So the Children who has been eating an ice cream with are playing in the garden. You've got Mitt. Mitt is followed by the yes date. If so, Deakin under Mitt Dean in an ice cave. Gessen Harbor Spielen in garden Your turn Voice Their month, The harbor it 1st 14 How would you say, Where is the man who have got something for? They're stiff. How to space Medea? How would you say there's a woman that you speaking to? There is there month douches Tinto him. How would you say? Who is that man that you standing behind and again paused the video? If you want a bit of time, paper and pen, right the sentences down and then compare with what I'm about to show you. So the 1st 1 would be Who is the chairman? Fudan at us Harbor On the 2nd 1 there is Defoe Mitt there do placed on the last one. There is the month hint er deem douche taste. Did you get those? Well done? If you did, guess what? There's more. I'll see you in the next video. 10. Was: more relative pronouns. Just two more short videos about some alternatives, and the 1st 1 is of us, meaning that or which it only exists in the neuter form Onda after certain conditions. For example, after indefinite words like Alice, everything into us, something needs nothing feel or fearless a lot off on Venus or vinegars a little. I just give you some examples. Does Fant ist Alice? Us escaped, so the holes eats everything there is which there is escape. Finished field Isis Nish. NIST. So there isn't much it doesn't eat which it doesn't eat. If you were to translate it literally, is there a at worst 1st 2 missions east. I see something that you don't see and that, actually without the yet If the of us must only exist, it's a German equivalent to I spy with my little eye, something beginning with whichever letter. I'm sure you've all played this as Children. So if you want to play it again and practice your German, easy of us must only exist also after dust, a neuter adjectives used as knowns. So dust vaz it marker is there in percent literally translated. That would be that which I do is very interesting, but of course we wouldn't say that in English, So that would just be What I do is very interesting, and you could have said that as well. Vasi Maher is there into Sunday, but sometimes we just have the dust in front of it as well. So really, emphasize, you know, the things that I do are really interesting, or does the stash limbs DeVos Mukasi income? That's limb stir. Flim is an objective means Matt that's limbs to sort off the worst. That's the worst that could happen to me. And again, we need the vast there. It's also used when it refers back to a whole close monkey ish women that's in mash Bassma . So tomorrow I'm going swimming. That's the first clause, which is always fun. So we use of us because it doesn't relate to one word. It relates to the whole close, escaped with a feel for Kieran Dash notch, fastest guns, blue defender. So there is again lots of traffic in the town, which again relates to the whole close. I find really silly, whole stupid. It's actually true at the moment and you turn. I understand everything and Gillick ASUs or literally, that I'm guilty casus, which I'm sure you do. How would you say it in German? Shall I reveal the answer? Here it is. Each fresh, Dear Alice. Thus Angelica's act. Practice that sentence. It's a good one to say I'll see you in the next video. 11. Welcher: on one final alternative for relative pronouns. Not so much for speaking in German more for writing. So I thought I'd better tell you about it because you may come across it if you reading a novel, for example, and that's very here. Now, very is a funny word because it's never easy to find in the dictionary because actually, it's vanish plus the appropriate ending. And it means which so in the nominative, masculine very share has got the ER ending just like dear. They sure for feminine with e ending but like D i e and the neuter Very yes, it's an ES rather than in a s invasion implore. And then in the accuse, it'd very Shin e n and then the date if she m e m. And there is no generative on some sentences. Thus ist amandine Kenna. That's what we would have set two videos ago. But you may also see the system on vacation that's defrauded. Otago Board Stock Hut that's a stiff are very hard to get bored stuck out. You may not come across it at all, or you may do at least you know now, so this is probably the shortest video from this part because that's it 12. Interjections: found. Finally, before I give you some worksheets to do, let's finish off with a little bit off fun with some interjections. What are they? You may ask Interjections are words like Oh, yes, no. Well rule. Oh, well, what? That's in English, Of course, an interjection is apart off speech that shows the emotional feeling off the author these words or phrases constabulary own or be placed before or after a sentence. Many times an interjection is followed by a punctuation mark, often an exclamation point, and in German they're not affect the world order because they are separated from the rest off the sentence by a comma, you could even separate them by an exclamation mark. But if they're part of the sentence, you need the comma there. Let's have a look at some. Uh uh oh, oh is himself. Oh, I give up and you can tell when you hear it. The comma is the breathing space, and we could have just as easily said it skips off. I give up. But just like in English, we don't always say I give up, we may say, Oh, I give up So this game, self yet thirsty a Ah now I understand again You've got the breathing space there. So it is like this. If you were starting a new sentence therefore no change in the world order. I do so not also careful there were. Therefore you're in the restaurant. You've looked at the menu and you decided what you want. Eyes or hey, you must I beer on China pizza Just like we would do in English. The waitress comes all the wayto so I'd like a beer and a pizza. But Aysel, as some of the other ones as well, can also be used as part of a sentence. In which case it follows whatever word order rule there is. I also keep the stock warn You noticed I didn't stop for a breather, but meaning off like so there is cake. I just noticed the difference between those two sentences. I want to keep the stock cool. We were told there isn't any cake and I just found out There is so there is cake. Well, the sentence 2nd 1 escape taco. So if I found out there is cake, I go back to the others and tell them so there is cake If you notice the 1st 1 The word order did change because we needed the verb in second place. Second sentence after the comma. No change this ice. That means Or that is to say, now we couldn't have that sentence on its own. So we need a little bit beforehand. For example. This is like it's in or that's sized. It gets the Hausa. So it's full PM. That means I'm going home now That's I snitched. Does it finished? May are brighter. That's not to say that I will work anymore in game time. On the contrary, people accused me of being scared. And I say in being time fish of a kind angst, even if it's a giant spider. Actually, I don't know. On the contrary, I'm not scared. Somebody's telling you. German is difficult and you say I am getting tired. Deutsche is in for. On the contrary, German is easy again. There's a bunch in getting types of consumers ish. It's storage now. Here it's not. On the contrary, it's more like in contrast, in contrast to French, German is easy and therefore we need to follow the word order rule again. Yeah, yes, you'll know that word? Yeah, his first Yiddish. Then again, the breather after the year. Yes, I understand you. Yeah, the Julie's marriage. Minor house off gum? Yes. Off course. I'll do my homework. But under on Borten. In other words. Or put it in another way with undergone warden her off to home. So put it in another way. Stop smoking it. And a lot of Alton. It's a site in the house. It again. In other words, it's time to go home. No, Very cool. Okay, you'll so well. Well, then. Yeah. No, we Gates. It's very colloquial. Very informal. You wouldn't say this if you're talking formally with somebody. So if you were going for a job interview, do not start by saying now we gets well, you wouldn't say. Well, how's it going? You would say, How are you? If you wanted to say anything? No. Dass ist up by new Barschak. Well, that's a surprise. All these You could of course, sit without it. That system. But I knew, but I shall not a surprise or fig. It's You don't need the now in front of it. But those are the little subtleties off a language. No new sort of the meaning off. What a surprise. No new vivienda Been like, Oh, what have we got here? As in what is a price? Is this No, that's two year best sort of meeting off. Fancy meeting you here. What is the price? I didn't expect that. Nine No. Nine, It's just steered is finished. No, I don't understand you. Nine The tulips. Marriage, minor house off guard. Finished. I hope you never say that. What? Not to be anyway. No off course. I won't do my homework. Moon. Well, now no. And then see Ellis design. Well, breather to be perfectly honest. But again, this is one that's often used Not as an interjection known to it, especially me. Now I certainly won't do it. That has to be with the right word. Order the verb in second place. Noon two X s free. It probably only used that one. If you're talking to a child, we Zuma smart money. Yes. Don't do such a thing a little. But again, that's definitely one parents use with their Children. Don't touch it. It's yuck! Whatever they might find on throw in the park faster sneaked on buses Zanzi if you're talking formally or these do If you're talking informally, you see Thies to Zuma. Amanda's you see breather. That's how you do it. CNN's finished. Does this mind power plants then you see? Are you blind? That's my parking space Place Zoo as in right? Well, then zoo a ma yet fired, right? That's me Finished for today. You would say that at work or before going home. Zoo? They're comet in the sniper, right? He's coming to the pub. Yeah. Oh, well again. Very spoken. Yeah, Done. Mostly fuelled Taco. Oh, well, looks like I have to cook anyway. Yeah, there has to pesh doubt. Oh, well, that was bad luck for you. Fish teensy formerly again. Or fish these two informally again. You understand freshly stew Zuma among us, you understand? That's how you do it Fresh, teensy nicked. Thus it's mine Power plants. Don't you understand? That's my parking place. The exact as I said, the exact e harbor can get. As I said, I have no money v exact Muhanna Truly minor house off guard. As I said, off course, I'll do my homework and for your chance Now, this is obviously difficult to practice those interjections as individual sentences. Just have a thing where you might be able to use some of those might come up some really good ones, share them if you like. That's the end of this video.