German grammar - the past tenses #1 - the perfect tense | Angelika Davey | Skillshare

German grammar - the past tenses #1 - the perfect tense

Angelika Davey, Here to help people "learning German with a smile"

German grammar - the past tenses #1 - the perfect tense

Angelika Davey, Here to help people "learning German with a smile"

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15 Lessons (48m)
    • 1. Perfect tense intro

      0:36
    • 2. Differences between the perfect & imperfect tense

      1:46
    • 3. Two important verbs

      1:46
    • 4. Conjugate regular verbs in the perfect tense

      5:10
    • 5. Regular verbs exceptions

      3:34
    • 6. Exception to exceptions past tense

      4:40
    • 7. Regular separable verbs with haben

      4:55
    • 8. Part 1 ge +en

      2:09
    • 9. Part 2 ge+change+en

      4:21
    • 10. Part 3 separable verbs ge+en

      2:05
    • 11. Part 4 separable verbs ge+stem change+en

      2:21
    • 12. Part 5 mixed verbs

      1:59
    • 13. Part 6 mixed separable verbs

      1:40
    • 14. Part 7 no ge at the beginning

      3:04
    • 15. Verbs with SEIN

      8:05
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About This Class

Welcome to the first of my German past tense classes!

Do you keep on forgetting how the verbs change from the present tense to the past tense? Do you often wonder if it's a regular or irregular verb or if you need to use HABEN or SEIN?

Then this class is going to help you!

In this class we will only look at German verbs in the past tense and we'll cover the following:

  • the perfect tense with haben
  • the perfect tense with sein
  • regular verbs
  • irregular verbs
  • separable verbs
  • inseparable verbs

If you are a beginner then this class might not be for you yet, but save it for later. Then, as soon as you are ready to learn about the past tense in German, you can watch the videos to help you along.

If you are an advanced student, you probably know everything in this course but it might be a welcome refresher.

If you are an intermediate student, then either watch all the videos to revise what you have already learned, or pick those that you are struggling with.

It doesn't matter how quickly you complete the course - it isn't a race - the important bit is that you can conjugate verbs in the past tense!

At the end of the class you will have a better understanding of German verbs in the perfect tense which will make life a lot easier when you want to be able to tell people in German about things you have done.

A few free coupons are  available:http://skl.sh/2jE5GRM

If you liked this class, could you please give it the 'thumbs up'?
Leaving a comment or even just the thumbs up will help other students decide whether this class is good for them.

Danke!
Angelika

PS when you're ready for part 2, you'll find it here: German grammar - the past tenses #2 - the imperfect & pluperfect tense

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Angelika Davey

Here to help people "learning German with a smile"

Teacher

Welcome to my Skillshare page!

I am Angelika of Angelika's German Tuition & Translation and I'm here to help you learn German, especially if you are teaching yourself. 

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Transcripts

1. Perfect tense intro: 2. Differences between the perfect & imperfect tense: There are two ways to describe things in the past. In German, one is too perfect tense, and the other one is the imperfecta tense. As an example, a perfect 10 sentence would be taken Abacha guessing, and that could be translated as I have eaten and in perfect incidence would be us. And that would be translated as I ate in English. It doesn't really matter which one you use, but in German it does, because the perfect tense is used, usually just in spoken German. So when you hit, people speak. They used to perfect tense, whereas in Britain German, you normally find the imperfecta ends. So if you read a book, a magazine, a newspaper, an article online, if it describes anything happened in the past, you'll find it's written in the in perfect tenants. Rest of people speak, it's written. It's spoken in the perfect tense. Of course, you've guessed there are sometimes exceptions. Sometimes Thean perfect tense is also used in spoken German. In this class, we only cover the perfect tense, as that is the one you will mainly need if you do want to know and learn about the in perfect tens that will be covered in my second past tense class. But at the moment, it's perfect, tense only 3. Two important verbs: if you did, the present ends were course with me. You may remember when we looked at the irregular verbs that we came across a two very irregular verbs. Andi, I also said to you that those are very important because not only what we need them in the present tense, we would also need them in the past tense or in the perfect tends to be more precise. One of them was harboring. And here is the form again. Harbor toe Husted as he s Orman, hot via Harbin, yapped z Harbin. And the other one was designed to be It's been do best as the s woman ist v Isn't years ICT seasoned in the perfect tense? You will always need one off those two verbs, either a form of Harbin or a form off design. So it is really important that you know how to congregate those two, if you're not sure resign, Write it down again somewhere a piece of paper, or bookmark the to bits so that you can go back to it. And if need be, just come back to this lecture as many times as you need because you do need those two verbs, so please do not forget them 4. Conjugate regular verbs in the perfect tense: So what do we do with us? German regular verbs in the perfect tense. How do we congregate them to remind you again? Perfect tens consists of a form of Harbin and Zain, which we already covered in the last lecture on the past participle, which we look at in this lecture past participle goes to the end of the sentence or clause on, as in the present ends, there are regular and irregular verbs and exceptions. So in this lecture we're looking at regular verbs with a form off Harbin. And we'll have a look how the past participle gets formed. Just a quick reminder again. The form of heartburn Harbor du hast year the s hut near Harbin year happed z Harbin. But you did remember that one from the last lecture, didn't you? So how do we do the past participle? Let's choose the verb spielen to play. We get rid of the n at a g e at the front onda t at the end of the stem and we have Gush Beard. Mr It again with Maman to make to do we get rid of the e n the Atagi Onda teas when we have come on, Koran to cook. If you want to say you've cooked, how do you reform the past participle? Get rid of the end at the G of the front, the T at the end and you have good caught. I'll give you some examples, but the Gush Beard is how big intelligence beard. That would be one of the first few basic sentences you probably come across when you start learning the past tense. But what if you want to say a bit more? Have a guesstimate might informed? Get Allagash Beard playing the guitar with my friend yesterday. So the harbor has to be at the beginning. Second place, where the labs always usually always ist in German. But the good speech, the past participle goes to the end off the sentence, and everything else comes in between. We have a really complicated sentence, one with two closes. I have a guest on McMahon in foreign guitar like a speared five. You been most first close. I played with my friend yesterday, the guitar second close because we have to practice. I would not make sense to put the speed at the end off the sentence, so it's at the end of the clause, which means to past participle will be found in front of a full stop or in front of a comma . So be careful with that. If you come across longer sentences. Yes, of an example. With Mom, you have a minor house off guarding a Mac. Of course you have. You've done your homework. Didn't you have a minor house off garden? Guests on in a cougar mark on my homework in the kitchen yesterday. Come out at the end of the sentence. You have a minor house off guard guesting in a Kushida must Before he was killed, the gunman been self done. My homework yesterday in the kitchen, before or into the cinema two closes Kamat is in front off the corner, established by getting a court you have a guest on for money kindle in a cougar court or a long one. The cab a guest on for mannequin and a crawfish by getting a coughed, however, has had Internet Kaltschmitt over to you. What are the past participles off Lanman who won shaken packin Colston? Maybe you can post a video, have a think about those, possibly even write them down on When you think you know the answer, switch it back on to see if you're right. And here are the answers Past participle of Lammens Gilleland from her Ellen got hurt. She can go shipped pumpkin Carlson the coast work Make some sense of those words. So spielen Machin coffin land. And who'll? And chicken packin Kalfin using any of these So he have a du hast don't have every sentence with the harbor Choose some different ones as well. 5. Regular verbs exceptions: So in the last lecture, we looked at regular verbs with Harbin, past participle, G E stem and the tea. So now we're looking at the exceptions, which I'm sure you're were half expecting anyway. Weren't you an extra E? If the stem ends in a d N or a T, you may recognize some of these words from present ends verb endings, because we're having the same problem here. Our beytin for Get rid of the end at the G at the front. Put the T at the end. Try and pronounce it God by it's not possible. So we have the extra eat. Got a bite? It unfortunates the same unsorted baden. Get rid of the end. We have a D ending again. It's difficult to say so. It's good Bar did often in get rid of the end. We're ending with an end in the stem, so it's good ordinate Vaknin, go vague, knit, exciting and good size in it. Basically, even if you can't remember these three letters the D N and the PTI. If you're trying to form the past participle and you can't pronounce it, it's most likely because you're missing any. But there are some verbs there are still regular, so they're still full of the same pattern. Except they don't have a G at the front. One type of herbs are those which end in even. They don't get the G at the beginning for Took our feeling for example, It's not good photo coffee it it's just photo coffee It we are Guillain past participle is area. Get dealing deity but CNN. But see it also verbs beginning with B EMP and air G Miss Fair, sir. Don't get the G at the beginning balloon. It doesn't end up to be good, Ballooned. It's ballooned position. Jigen position. Stellenbosch stage, but silent. But side at ceiling at Sears for Kalfin coast Ferdinand Fedayeen Faizo Confesor Such do and sisterhood All those fun of the pattern off getting rid of the end, adding the tea. But don't have the G now a lot of verbs that begin with B B empty and air G misfire. There are also irregular verbs, so we will come across the these again at a later date. So just to recap it all again, we do not have a G At the beginning is the verb end in even. Oh, if the verbs begin with B M and G Miss Fat there and we had an extra E. If we can't pronounce it, I see it the next lecture. 6. Exception to exceptions past tense: In the last video, I told you about some exceptions and I forgot to mention something, so we have some exceptions to the exceptions. You remember this slide. I told you in the last video that if the stem ends in a D or a T, we need an extra e. And I set that's because we couldn't pronounce it. Otherwise. We can't really say that, but it's got by touch. The same goes for Gabon data tool, go obstinate. It's very difficult to say Go out and touch and net. What I'd forgotten to mention is that not every verb stem ends in an S. Needs dx3. I did say though, that if you come pronounce it, you need the X-ray. So I now have a list of words for you. And before I tell you whether they need the extra E or not, I thought I'll let you work it out yourself first. Have a look at these verbs and have a think. The past participle. Will it need the extra E? Now I'm about to go and show the owner says, if you're still trying to work it out, pulls it, and carry on when you're ready. But I will now show you the past participles, these verbs. And we have, but gate knit. The vastness, ballooned, the land. The Loic nipped a Fnet. Go alternate. Good. Good talk, nut, fab band, get net. How well did you get those? Did you manage to work out when we need the extra E because we couldn't really pronounce it without the e. Now I can give you the rule. You need to next tre e if the stem ends and the consonant plus the n. So we have but none. So we got the Gn, we fought the Fn, Fn-1, but not in balloon or below in a slightly different I'll talk to you about that one in a minute. Like none. Gn, Fn-1, Ottoman dn, fashion and talkin and psi Chenin. But we don't need it because we can pronounce it. If the n follows a vowel, an AA, or another N. And I did say balloon and was a special one. It's the long o sound. And so this really isn't the age because we know H is not a vowel, is a consonant, but it's the H together with the o in front of it, which makes it a long sound. So we have ballooning and that can just easily be set as ballooned lambda1. Although it is a continent, it is. And what the owl, it's fine. The land. Vinyl. We go viral vaccine got two vowels, even and abandon, where we actually have 2n. But if you can't remember these rules, what I said in the last video definitely still applies. If you can pronounce it, it most likely needs the extra. 7. Regular separable verbs with haben: So now we know how to congregate German regular verbs for the perfect tense. What about separable? Verbs? Now the perfect 10 still consists of a form of Harvard and design and the past participle and at the moment was still only covering regular vogues which take Harbin. So the same applies to this lecture. These separable verbs are still regular. But unlike in the present ends where the prefix and the stem of the verbs were separated, for example, Mahdi Two hours. So the vert waas off my hyung. And in the present ends, we separated into a Mahadi tour else but a suppose participle in the perfect ends, you put them back together. We just have the G in the middle. Let's look at it a bit more closely on I give you a reminder from one of the early electrics. Mom, remember how to form it again? We got rid of the n left with a stem, ma at the G at the front, on the tee at the end. We have Demotte. Yep. So so much which could be too close. We already know the verb Muhsen and we formed it as Gomaa So no, we have. So come on. So we've actually changed? Muffin asked me, did before into Goma and just put the prefix in front of it. Another example off. Mom, If two minus two closed. And ALF Mahama, of course, is to open. And we know Martin changes into Grandma. So now it's Oh, come on. Our Paulen! To collect Holan, we would have done going So therefore, uphold it changes into up gored. I'm Carlson to shop. We already had Kalfin get rid of the end up. The G and the tea would have been good coughed. So now we have I Inga coughed. It was actually quite easy, isn't it? Now, this is over to you. What are the past Participles off? Al Stellan so hurt. And Vic shaken else Packin Mitt Vaden. Pause the video for bitch, Maybe write it down. What do you think are the answers on And why have I got exclamation marks next to between? So post a video. Okay. Are we ready? There are the answers. Were you right? Stellan would've been brushed age. So therefore abstinence is off the stage, hurled in good to her and therefore to hurt record Shit. Remember t at the end. G at the front, worshipped on. Therefore, Vicar shipped is for Mexican else park in packin. We would've had a compact. So therefore outspokenness else compact on the exclamation marks. Did you remember it? Reagan would have been girly that with the extra E. And that, of course, means Mitt Rayden also has Theo extra a mitt graded Well done. If you call them all right, it's a matter of fact. Do you feel confident enough to do your own? Can you make some sentences with some of those separable verbs using any of these? So don't always have a carb. Change it around a bit. Post them in the discussion board if you like, and then we can have a look. I'd love to see what you have written. If you don't want to post, um, sort of publicly, then send them to me if you like, or just keep them to yourself. And that's the end off the regular verbs with Harvin. The next seven videos They're not very longer cover still verbs that get conjugated with Harbin, but those are irregular, and I'm sure you really looking forward to them, aren't you? I'll see you then 8. Part 1 ge +en: Okay, You ready for some exceptions, this 1st 1 you're going to like because it's nice and easy. Some verbs do not have the T ending. They still have the G at the beginning, but they keep the e n ending. Let's have a look at some examples fun to catch in the past participle. It's just good fun. So you still have the GED at the beginning, But no T. Just keep the verb fun carpeting, fish, Cawthon recalled. The fish have a did in fish. Gibbon gave you the fish gibbon just half the G of the front because there is no t ending, it stays E n Lezin to read, changes into gullies and has told us Broccoli's in. Did you read the book? Another example. Lesson Now that's normally only eat used when animals eat, unless sometimes people tell each other off for eating like an animal. So that would be good. Fressin again. No t ending Messan is good medicine on fashion diversion. So they're actually nice and easy to remember over to you. What are the past participles off? Howerton, Hargon And often, based on what you've just learned, Andi, I'm going to show you the answers. You ready? Gogean got argon girlfriend. Well, then, if you got those, feel free to make some sentences with those again and post them if you like. I'd love to see what you're writing. And that was the first exception. The next one coming up in the next lecture. See you then. 9. Part 2 ge+change+en: Okay, let's have a look at some slightly more difficult. Irregular verbs. They don't have the t ending. Just like the other ones. The sin of the G of the beginning. They keep the e n ending, but they change the stem. Let's have a look at some examples. Heads. And now we know we've got the g e. We keep the Ian, but the stem Hells the vowel, the e changes to a no. So it's go wholphin vac often another one where the e changes to a no give often see in changes into good SoGen other examples could be fending. It just got funded. Bash in Kabul on he even go hoe button your turn. Now, based on this, can you have a guess what? The past participles are off, Lucan, three years on election. Okay, I'm about to give you the answers. So if you're still thinking that maybe pause it otherwise, here they are, Google Logan, Before gosh war, I'll give you some war. What are the past participles off? Streit in s and Lincoln and I cannot give you a bit of time. And the answers. Ah, ghostwritten Gessen Tongkah. Now how can you learn those. You could make a list with verbs, and you can learn them. A probable couple. Realist, I have to say in all my years of teaching, adults are Finger may have met to buy now maybe three who actually enjoy making more couple realists and half the time to learn them Most off us haven't got the time. And don't really like doing this either. The other way is to keep on using them. Just keep on writing sentences where you need past participle. It's which you can do for homework again. If you wish on, you can send them to me or put them in the question and answer board. We'll just do it for yourself anyway. Um, at the end. Awful. Those lyric elect Irregular verbs. There will be a list that I give you with a lot off irregular verbs. I'm sure they're not all on there. I'm sure you can find lots more, but it will be a start for you. You can use that. Check things if you're not too sure. Make educated guesses which vowel could change into which get used to them. Read a text sometimes is a good idea to read a German text. Not for what the text actually is about. But to find certain things as an example past participles, have a look at them and try and work out. What? The vor boss in the infinitive. After a while, you will get a feeling for it on. There are less chances off you getting it wrong. You may even get them all right. Anyway, which case you can ignore everything that I've just bumbled on rumbled on. Muscle down Anyway, I'll see you in the next lecture. 10. Part 3 separable verbs ge+en: So in the last two lectures we looked at the 1st 2 exceptions. Do they apply to several of lips? Off course they do. So some separable verbs do not have the t ending. They keep the n ending but they have the G between the prefix and the stone. And if you look at the first lot off examples, you should recognize almost the verbs Unfunded escape and four Lease in Now to lectures ago we had funding Gibbon Lease in I thought I give you something easy again after the heart One last lecture. So funding was good fun and therefore unfunded nist underfunding given we have given So now it's Oscar given Lezin wasn't Kleasen on and with a prefix full We now have four goalies in and the same applies to those. You should recognize them as well because earlier on we had fressin mess in Russian. So we didn't have Russian but we had pleasant and medicine. So now we have selfless and which is else golf lesson else messing housing the medicine on abduction up conversion. So, based on those nice and easy examples, what are the past participles off Unho written half else talking. And unlike post a video, if you have to. If not, here are the answers on Go Halogen. Havel's guitar gun on Google. Often nice and easy again, wasn't it? Can you guess what the next video will be about? I'll see you then. 11. Part 4 separable verbs ge+stem change+en: So in the last lecture, we looked at the separable verbs, which are irregular because they don't have the t ending. They have the prefix followed by the G E on day. Keep the end ending on the last lecture. They didn't change the stem, but now they do. And if you look at the verbs, you may recognize again the main verb or verbs because of three here, health in very often see in On a few lectures ago, you learned that hey, often the past participle is go whole phone very often give often and seeing gets organ. So now that we have a prefix like Mitt Health Vic VFA Nancy, and you just need to put the prefix in front off the past participle. So it's mitt Go Holson! Vek girl. Often I'm gets organ just like it was before up Nayman. Now the past participle of Neiman is good, Norman. So therefore, it's apga Norman House progression the past participle off a heinous good bargain. So now it's else Cobb often whole haven past participle off Hebron is go Hoban. So therefore, now it's ho ho, ho! Been over to you have another good guests. What do you think are the past? Participles? Off unbeaten Havel's ison and L Strengthen? I'll give you a bit of time, but if you need more, just pause on. Have a good thing. All right, look. And the answer. I'm good. Border house. Good. Listen, else could talk in, just like before. These are a lot more difficult to learn, so don't be too annoyed. If you didn't get them right, you will do eventually See in the next lecture. 12. Part 5 mixed verbs: This is a short lecture, but some verbs are irregular because they do have the t ending just like regular verbs. They also have the g e of the beginning, just like regular lives. But the stubborn changes just like the irregular boat we show you some examples booking in bringing now changes to go hot Scott, the G e on the tea. But the stem has changed from bring tuba. Good block, Dinkins. The past participle is good. Act so again the G at the beginning, the t at the end. But the stem has changed completely. Brendan, it's changed to go behind t e the beginning t at the end. But the stem has completely changed your turn because there aren't that many words who do change like that. But what about Kenan Lenin on Davisson? Can I give you a few seconds? Maybe If you need longer than that, pulls take a much time as you need. Okay. If you didn't pause it, I'm about to give you the answers. So if you don't want to know yet definitely Paul's. Otherwise he answers. Ah, there comes the numbed good post Hedden Zita school boost. Would you have known that if you didn't, You will after Well, it takes time. See you in the next lecture 13. Part 6 mixed separable verbs: back to separable verbs. Some separable verbs do have the t ending. They also have the G between the prefix on the stem. Just like a regular one. Let the stem changes here as well. And if I said last time that there aren't that many, there are even fewer who are separable. Remember bringing playing and change to go bust. So therefore Mitt blinking is Mitt. Robot Denker, we have dinking and the past participle is good dust. So now Nafta ankan the past participle is not adopt, Brennan, We had good Bunge house. Bill Lemon is all school bond on the one for you is only two this time. What are the past participles off else? Kenan? Andi Hellhole. Movinon. You know the answer. Here it is. Else could come. Homegirl front. And that's almost the last lecture about the irregular verbs that go with Harvin. We have one more. And then we finished everything with Harbin. See you then. 14. Part 7 no ge at the beginning: I bet you thinking by now, surely there can't be any more irregular works. Well, there is one more thing. Do you remember this slight when we looked at the irregular verbs? Andi, I was telling you that verbs beginning with B M End Air G, Miss Fats Air. Don't get the G e at the beginning. Now, these were all regular ones. So they have the t ending. So at sailing at sea, it for Cal from fair coughed, etcetera, etcetera. Now the same rule applies to irregular verbs. Now you may recognize bits here again. Behi oaten. We've got Well, we did have earlier on Hyo Jin and hydrogen. The past participle would be good. Hydrogen, the G at the front. The stem doesn't change on the end stays, but because behind and hasn't got a G, it just stays us behind in at Kenan. No, Earlier on we have Kenan, which would change into good comment. We have the g e. We have the t ending that the stem changed. It wasn't good. Cunt. A cannon nog. So therefore it's air cunt. Fellow human changes into fell or on so no g again. Andi, Another one for you have a good guess? What are the past? Participles off but show Ivan and feeling fact Gessen. So you know they have to start with B E and e m P on DVI are. But how does it carry on? Have a guess On Dhere are the answers the Sri bourbon and fooling fact guessing along the verbs. Sorry. All the irregular verbs I have spoken about in the last few lectures are on my hand Out plus more. I'm sure I've for gotten some I'm sure there were some that I have a found. If you find any more, do ask them yourself. But it gives you a good start. And if you ever do feel that maybe you can't sleep at night, why not read some irregular German verse? Then again, maybe not. 15. Verbs with SEIN : So after having had ALS those lectures off the perfect tens with heartburn, we're going to have a look at the perfect tense with sign, because if you remember, already told you that some verbs do not get conjugated with happen, but instead they use design with the past participle and just as a reminder he's been do best as he has history Isn't is ICT Zinj. It may seem a bit strange because it bitten off course means I am, and that's what it does in the present tense. It doesn't mean I am. You are etcetera. But as soon as you talking about something in the past on dure using a past participle, then it's not I am anymore. But it would be translated as I have. So all the sentences you come across in a minute are all translated as I have in English. But first of all, why? Why do we have some verbs that take Zain and not home? And there are two reasons. One of them is that they talk about movement, movement from a to B. It's enough! DeutTel uncle, filing our start to driving in England and I drove all the way to Germany. I move from a to B esten in Park, a gunman. He left his home and then went all the way to the park again. He moved from a to B, isn't she? Eagle often started skiing at the top of the mountain and then went all the way down again from A to B. And that explains why we say a harbor ful speigel spirit and not been for Spanglish Beard. Now you've learned that feeling goes with harm on when you play football. Although there is a lot of movement, it is on one football pitch. You're not kicking the ball from Stadium A two stadium. Be. You're just staying within one pitch, and the same goes to dancing. When you're dancing, you would saying Harbor, get tensed because you've danced on one dance floor unless you've had such a great time and you don't want to stop dancing when the evening is finished and you decide to dance all the way home. In that case, you will just set. It's been the houses get tensed, but that means you've done from a to B instead of walking, you were dancing, which probably think won't happen very often. Second reason they talk about the change of position. He's been all focused undone. I stood up or has got up In order to get up. You have to sit down first. So his change of position sitting down, getting up. It's south Gava. He woke up. He would have been asleep first. Otherwise, you can't wake up. So again, change your position, the slightest for dorm. The meat perished in order to perish. It has to be good first. So again, a change. So how do we do it? It's actually nice and easy. First of all, the run, many verbs that take sign on those words could almost be learned, and the past participles are formed just like those with harm. We have regular verbs, irregular verbs, separable verbs. Let's have a look at some examples of regular verbs for organ to follow. Get rid of the N at the G at the front E at the end, afloat Jordan to joke. Give you the N G at the front. T at the end. Good job. Some examples off irregular verbs. Fliegel to fly kept the n have the G at the front, but the stem changed on. We've got good flu organ game to go the same thing with kept the end added the G at the front on the stem changed and we've got Gungan and some examples off some separable verbs. Uncommon Member E N stays. In this case, the stem stays as well, but the G e goes in between the prefix on the stem under common and the same is alpha. Often it's a regular verb, but because we have the prefix the g e goes between elf on Dragon on, we've got off. I want to show you two more examples. Um, you may recognize theme ain verb, Stan. Or perhaps jealous A stand on sh Laffan of those. We're on the list for the irregular verbs that take happen Stay in waas Just undone past participle and the past participle of sh laughin was gosh laughing on those would go with Harbin caboose. Larson, the prefix now doesn't make any difference to the verb. It just goes in front if it so we have all focused undone and I English last But in this case the prefix changed the meaning and therefore it now goes with Zain often already mentioned. I inch lower from with gotschl, often establish laughing. I slept, but it's been anguish, laughing. I went to sleep and again as a change of mood of a but not movement. Well, hopefully not change a position because I was awake, and then I fell asleep on the list that you will see in the next lecture. I think I've got every verb that you need to know. But there is a possibility that I may have missed one or two, um, separable verbs where the prefix has changed the meaning off the verb. In that case, you may need to have them, but I think I've got more, and then we got a little exception. There are two verbs that don't imply movement or change your position, but they still take sign. One of them is actually the design to be, so we wouldn't saying a habit. So how's it visit with thing been toe house, a visa. The other one is the only one I really cannot explain. There is no movement and no change of position the opposite, but it takes sign on that Bligh bond, which is to stay. I always find it strange because it feels like everybody else is going. But I'm staying. There's no change of position. There's no movement. The good news is it really is only those two labs. So it would be it's been. So how's ago? Believe I stayed at home As long as you remember that one. You'll be absolutely fine with the verbs that take sign. Have a look at the list. Lunge. Enjoy that there aren't that many.