Gamification: Motivation Psychology & The Art of Engagement | Rob Sutcliffe | Skillshare

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Gamification: Motivation Psychology & The Art of Engagement

teacher avatar Rob Sutcliffe, UI Designer / Developer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

46 Lessons (3h 6m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Why We Shouldn't Motivate With Carrots

    • 3. Dopamine: The Natural Reward Chemical

    • 4. Pavlovs Dog and skinners Rats

    • 5. What Naturally Motivates Us?

    • 6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    • 7. Section Summary

    • 8. Status

    • 9. Social Proof

    • 10. Giving Feedback

    • 11. Creating Rules

    • 12. Make It Difficult

    • 13. Stepping stones

    • 14. Reward Loops

    • 15. The Desire To Master

    • 16. It's Always Been About Meaning

    • 17. What Do People Really Enjoy?

    • 18. Creating Meaning

    • 19. the Art of Storytelling

    • 20. Masters of Contributing

    • 21. Give Them Options

    • 22. Let Them Fail

    • 23. We Love To Fail

    • 24. Status Seesaw

    • 25. Kill Your Ego

    • 26. Finding Community

    • 27. Loneliness Epidemic

    • 28. Let Them Help

    • 29. What's Stopping Us Been Us?

    • 30. Building Our Engagement Plan: Part One

    • 31. Building Our Engagement Plan: Part Two

    • 32. Building Our Engagement Plan: Part Three

    • 33. Examples

    • 34. Examples: Games

    • 35. Examples: Feedback

    • 36. Examples: Multi Sensory Feedback

    • 37. Examples: Progress Bar

    • 38. Examples: Multiple Feedback

    • 39. Examples: Continual Progress

    • 40. Examples: Loss Aversion

    • 41. Examples: Currency

    • 42. Examples: Gold Card

    • 43. Examples: Lottery

    • 44. Examples: Likes

    • 45. Examples: Engagement vs Motivation

    • 46. Thank You and See You Soon

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About This Class

This is a course that will teach you about human beings and what encourages them to do the things they do. This unique course is inspired not just from text books and science experiments, but from personal, first hand experience. Experience teaching children, managing teams and design applications. 

The curriculum is designed to be studied over several weeks, with each video giving you interesting concepts and studies to take away, think about and discuss with the tutor and the other students. You'll be encouraged to bring your personal engagement challenges to this course so we can build an engagement plan together.

If you're an application designer, teacher, manager or parent, the psychology to motivate your people is the same and by the end of this course you'll have built an incredibly simple engagement plan to motivate change in any community. You'll not only finish the course with your engagement plan, but the ability to easily reproduce it any time in the future you need to motivate change in a community.

Meet Your Teacher

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Rob Sutcliffe

UI Designer / Developer


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1. Introduction: Do you have a community that you need to engage? Do you have a team that you need to motivate, or can you not encourage yourself to just go for a run? Well, maybe it's all down to some basic psychology underneath all of these things. My name's Rob Sutcliffe, and this is my story. I was trying to get my students to do their homework. I thought, I know how about if I give them a lollypop if they do it on? My students all loved it. They were so happy they all want to do their homework. The next class, everyone did their homework without fail. A couple of weeks later, not so many students were doing their homework, and I couldn't really afford to keep buying lollies every class. But then they expected the lollies and then also students who before enjoyed doing homework . Suddenly, they couldn't justify doing that homework. They thought, Well, where's my lolly on the truth? ISS. This will happen even if you keep supplying the lodge's. It actually took me quite a few years after this, just through trial and error, to learn how to keep my classes engaged and to keep my students motivated and during class time would always have a lot of fun and would play a lot of games because I had worked out intrinsically what it waas that made them engaged. Later, I became a user interface designer for Web applications on through learning the psychology of what motivates people, I found a lot of similarities, and I also found a lot of people doing the same thing. Giving out lollipops they call it Gamification on Gamification is using a game like mechanism in a non gaming way. But what people tend to do is use a gaming element like some point's awesome badges, and they have no meaning around them. And they just stick it on that very much like the lollipops in the short run. People go, Oh, I got a badge for doing this. Let's do it again. But shortly afterwards, they get bored. And actually, the reason that they want to do in the first place has got lost from these years of teaching. And then it's an interface designer. I had first learned the hard way through trial and error on add Second, learned to research and find the psychology points on throughout this course will be looking at. Both will build a foundation in the psychology of motivation, looking at scientific experiments and seeing why we work the way we work. And then we'll look at the arts of engagement. This course is really for anybody. Anybody who wants to know how to engage and motivate people around. This could be your students. This could be your teammates at work. Your staff. This could be your community. This could be globally, the whole world, or it could just be yourself. So go ahead, sign up today and let's get started. 2. Why We Shouldn't Motivate With Carrots: So let me just explain what I was talking about in that first video. It was a little something called cognitive dissonance. Now, in 1959 to scientists Fasting and Carl Smith, they decided to do a little experiment because they had this insight. This might be true, and they would get a participant into a room, and they would have a wooden board with some pegs in which they would just have to twist the pecs around. It's a very, very monotonous, very boring task, and at the end of the task, they would say to the participant, You go and tell the next person to come in, please. And if we just give you some money, can you tell them it was really, really fun? You really enjoyed it. And if they gave the participant $1 they would go and tell the next person it was really fun. But also, when they followed them up later on, they actually genuinely said that they enjoyed it more. They genuinely thought it was a fun challenge, but if they paid that person $10 they actually follow up questions. They didn't think that they enjoyed the task at all this experiment's been done again. Let's run with two cola brands. A lot of people who had an allegiance to one cola brand were told to drink another Kohler and say that they liked it were rewarded either with $1 or $10. And the people who got the smaller reward went on to drink that Kohler again. In future, they genuinely believed they liked the cola. So this is called cognitive dissonance or cognitive discomfort. What really happens is in our brains. We try and make sense of why we do things. We've always known that our behavior reflect our beliefs. We believe something, so we act in a certain way. But what they found out in 1959 is that our beliefs can actually affect be affected by our behavior because we act in a certain way. We will think that we acted that way for a reason. Now what happens is our brains go well. I'm drinking this Kohler and I'm saying I like it, but then I got $10 so I'm just doing it for the $10. But if there's just $1 will go on drinking this cola and I'm saying I like it. $1? No, a lot of money. I must really genuinely like the cola. So the smaller reward actually convinces people more. OK, now I'm just gonna ask you to pause the video for a second and take out a pen and paper, or, as we using skill share, why not start a new project or even used the forums if you like? And then I want you to think of a time when someone has given you something as a reward to try and motivate you. It could be lollipops. The obvious thing is money, Anything physical they've given you and think about how it's affected your long term motivation. Now there's a chance that your long term motivated had improved, but it could be because of some other psychology points that we talk about in different chapters. So go ahead, pause the video, have a think about that. Write down your thoughts and then hit play again when you're ready. Way also talk about another experiment where we found out about the introspection illusion . This is where if you showed a participant to photographs of people and you said, who do you like more and they picked one of the faces. You then slide them a picture along the table. But this is a picture of a completely different person, and you say, Why did you pick this person? Everyone will pick it up or the majority of people will pick it up. And not only say yes, this is the one I like more but actually justify why they will come up with reasons why this was the person that they like more. They'll actually create beliefs inside themselves because of what they thought was their behavior. This experiment's been done several times, and it's it's come to prove that actually, we don't really know what we want in the future way. Get told sometimes and sometimes we get distracted by things, but our opinions of what we want in the future on exactly correct and this works both ways . The way that our memories work is that we connect all the different sensory impulses that we have at the time, the same way we interpret the world from day to day life anyway, but in our memory, with more likely to get it wrong, and it's more likely to be different to our experience of real life right now. So if there's two sensory impulses that conflicting, it creates a little bit of discomfort on our brain is just simply level it out, they simply go well. There was a reason for that. I did actually enjoy this brand of cola. I did enjoy the task with the pegs, and this is why, if I gave candy to my students, they're more likely to not want to do their homework in future because they'll look back at their memories and say, Oh, yeah, I did my homework, but I got candy. They won't look back at their memories and go, Yes, I did my homework. It was really good fun. I did a game, my mother got involved. It was some good community spirit. They'll look back and say, I did my homework because I wanted candy. And then memories of doing homework will be jaded and clouded by the candy whistle. Actually, make them once do their homework less in future. In this video, we learned that people don't really know what they want in the future and can't really justify what they've done in the past. We learned that sometimes our actions are a demonstration of our beliefs, but sometimes our beliefs could be a justification of our actions. We also learned that if you're going to try and buy motivation with lollipops or carrots, you risk the possibility of reducing long term motivation at worst and it best causing cognitive discomforts that will make the person just decide they may be like to subject all along. 3. Dopamine: The Natural Reward Chemical: So if carrots aren't gonna work and sticks aren't gonna work, what does work? Well, let's look at how we naturally reward ourselves. What naturally motivates us while they're several chemicals in our body that used Teoh a released to give us rewards for different things. If we go for a jog or we do something energetic, we get these endorphins. They make us feel good. We get serotonin, and this is what makes us happy. And if people are depressed, they often have have a deficit of serotonin and could be given serotonin to bring themselves up. But what I want to talk about is something called dopamine. Now, dopamine is this chemical that we've released into our brains to tell us that we've achieved our goals. It keeps us moving towards goals. It keeps his growing as people. It's the reward chemical. Now, the other thing to take a consideration here is that we actually crave variety. This is because there's different foods in the natural world and we need different vitamins to keep our body going. So if we just that sugar, this is a bad thing. Our brain lowers the amount of dopamine we get each time we take sugar the same way it word . Every single time we eat, fish will get slightly less dopamine because you can't live on just fish. We need to encourage our bodies to eat variety of food. But what we can do in our society is weaken, just eat more sugar. And obviously this is where addictions come from. And generally, if people aren't getting rewarded for achieving different goals in their lives and they are getting rewarded for chemicals, this can perhaps make them an addict of some kind. In the late 19 seventies, Bruce Alexander noticed that all the research that was done to prove drug addiction using rats was done with rats in tiny little cages. And he said, if I was in a tiny little cage, I would want to take drugs to And he built Wrapped Park, which was less of a simulation of the real world on more of a simulation of an idyllic paradise. And rats who lived in Rat Park had no interest or no addiction to drugs. About the same time, the American veterans were returning from Vietnam and they've all been taken. Heroin over in Vietnam was very common And the interesting thing here is the second they got back to America. They no longer had an addiction to heroin. In over 99% of cases, heroin addiction was proved to be situational and nothing to do with the chemical makeup of someone's brain. This is particularly interesting because it shows the amazing power of dopamine and how it's essential for us to continue living tohave reward systems built into our lives. A deficit of dopamine releases can make us seek elsewhere, like sugar or like drugs. Now I'm not telling you this to try and avoid you from becoming an addict, although I really, really hope that doesn't happen. I'm just trying to explain the power of dopamine on the way. It can control people to do different things. We're not going to. We're not going to try and manipulate people throughout this course, but we are going to look at how the brain works and how we can better get our reward senses . Working in this video, we learned that we are naturally rewarded with the chemical dopamine for achieving goals that help keep us strong and alive. Such is eating a variety of food. We learned that Variety does play a special role when it comes to motivation. We learned that in the modern world we could increase certain behaviors, the consumption of certain foods or even the consumptions of man made chemicals to stimulate regular releases of dopamine in the form of an addiction. And we learned that people will only do this if they aren't already getting regular dopamine releases from achieving natural goals that enhance their life. 4. Pavlovs Dog and skinners Rats: So let's take a look at how this works, to understand how behavioral psychology works and how dopamine works. And we need to talk about a man called Pavlov, and you've probably heard of Pavlov's dog. The old story goes that Pavlov had a dog, and he found that when he gave the dog food the dog would celebrate. This is a natural response. The dogs about to eat it wants toe lubricate its throat. Whatever else saliva does. And But what he did find is that if he rang a bell before he brought the food out over time , the dog would learn to salivate before it even saw the food. It would connect one response to the other. The food is known as a primary. Reinforces. At the belt is a conditional reinforce its a learn thing. Now pause the video a second and take a look at all these words. Some of these are primary reinforces, and some of them are secondary, reinforces or conditional reinforces. Now pause the video and see if you can work out, which is which. If you're having a hard time, you could open the discussion on right in there. Which one you can't work out or are you finding it really easy? You could maybe help someone else. And why not see if you can think of a few others. A man named Skinner found that if you removed the food and kept ringing the bell, the dog would eventually learn to stop celebrating. It would learn the behavior and then unlearned the behavior. But Skinner wanted to build on that. He wanted to see if he could control what the rats actions were. He gave the rat a small little button, and every time the rap pushed the button, it would get pellet of food. He found that eventually. Like I said, if he stops pushing the button, the rat stops getting food. He lunch thought. Well, how about if you give the rat food every four pushers? He found that if he stopped dispensing the food, the rat would carry on pressing the button for longer, expecting food to come out. But no, I'm not. Not a lot longer. He did then find that if he would randomly drop food pellets at random button presses if he stopped dropping the food, the rat would carry on pressing that button for much, much, much longer. This is quite helpful to us in prehistoric times. Let's assume that you're out foraging for Berries and you turn over a certain kind of relief and you find Berries under it the next. Let me turn over that kind of leaf. There might not be Berries, but your brain should carry on looking under those leaves because the chances are they relate in some way to places where Barry's grow in a slightly more fabricated world. It can be quite dangerous. If you think of gambling, for example, you pull the machine on you, pull the lever on the fruit machine, and sometimes it dispenses money, and sometimes it doesn't. But it does cost money, and in the long run, it's gonna cost you more money than you make. But yet you still see thousands and thousands of people pulling that lever. That's for the exact same reason that that rat will keep pushing that bottom waiting for that food pellet. Even if the food stops being distributed. The reason is that conditional reinforces will be much stronger if it's a random event. In this video, we learned that we can be conditioned to believe that certain actions will lead to certain rewards and these beliefs are the foundation of what makes up behavior. We learned that this could be at its most powerful when the reward is not guaranteed but is actually randomly given. 5. What Naturally Motivates Us?: Okay, so we've separated, primary reinforces and conditional reinforces. Let's were really look at the primary reinforces what is it that naturally gives us a dopamine release, which, without any manipulation the world will still get dopamine releases for doing these things ? Well, you've probably heard off Mass Low and Maslow created the hierarchy of needs, which is a pyramid on each layer of the pyramid has a different set of needs, and we need to accomplish those things before we can go up to the next level. If I just go through each of these levels, then hopefully you'll understand a little better. The very bottom level is our physiological needs now are physiological. Needs are things like food and water, the things that we actually need to survive. I'm sure you're already thinking, Yes, we don't require a lot of help motivating us to eat and drink water. But the next level after that is safety. This is where you want security and you want a permanent job. You want a pension, these things that tell us we will have food and water in the future. Let's get that sorted. The next layer above that is love and belonging. This is where we need a community which we connected. So if you think about the natural world, this is your safety. This is you won't get attacked by another tribe. If you're in a group, you have more physical safety. From that, the next they're above that is self esteem. Now the next layer is called Esteem Man Slow also split this into two halfs. You've got your basic esteem, which is like status and your reputation. This is where people approve off you, and the next they're up from that is your self esteem. This is where you approve of yourself and you feel comfortable in yourself, and we'll talk about this a lot more later on the next they're above. That is self actualization, and this is different for everyone. Sportsmen really want to be the best in the world at their sports, whereas people who play computer games really want to be the best computer games, and some people want to be the best computer programmer in the world. These are very personal to ourselves, and as long as it's not about the status, as long as we would still do it if people weren't watching, then it's not on esteem thing. It's this thing inside of ourselves where we want to be the best we can. It doesn't matter so much if we better than other people. It managed that we're achieving all that we can achieve. In this lesson. We learned that there are five areas or or levels of basic human needs, and here they are again. Now just take a look at the top three and consider which, if your current goals fits into which of these areas pay particular attention to self actualization and think about what this means for you. Take a look in the discussion and see what it means to other people on right up for yourself as well. 6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Now if we just look at that pyramid again, I want to make a defined split in these different needs that we have because some of them very much outside of ourselves, they're very physical in the real world. Like, for example, of food in the water and the job security, but also the lower level of esteem, that status and that approval all of the other ones above that the self actualization and the self esteem visit within ourselves. These air internal, we call these two types of rewards intrinsic and extrinsic rewards your intrinsic rewards of the ones which are inside you. And the extrinsic rewards are the ones out there in the real world. Now, throughout this course, we're gonna be talking much, much more about the intrinsic rewards, things like contributing to community, personal growth, deep human relations and less about things like money and fame and approval. This is because some of those extrinsic rewards have been proven, actually get in the way and distract us from these really more important intrinsic rewards . The thing is, the extrinsic rewards. Once we get to a certain point, once we have a certain amount of money. Once we have enough status we actually don't need anymore, and it's actually damaging to us. The more we get there's a thing called the hedonic treadmill on the hedonic treadmill says Once you have a certain amount of money and you go beyond it and you start getting sort of addicted to the dopamine bars similar to the sugar, you're going to get less dopamine every time you get more money. Every time you get a pay rise, every time you get told your amazing every time you get that status boost, you're actually going to get a little bit less of a reward, and this is gonna make you need more off it. But the intrinsic rewards we can keep happily working towards without any damaging detrimental effects to our health or without us damaging any of our other goals. There's a state known as flow. Now the thing with flow is it's a state that we get into where time seems to stand still and we have all these creative ideas and we just seem to naturally enjoy and be motivated to do the things we do and be oblivious to all those extrinsic things around us and flow is the ideal hyper state that we really want to be able to get ourselves and other people into , and we can't give people flow. We can't just give them that state, but we can create an environment for them to be able to get into it so we can create communities on. We can create meaning, and it will allow people to get into flow. But when we create things like status on, we create things like money, it's actually detrimental to people being able to get into flow air. In the book, Dr Daniel Pink argues that the later levels of extrinsic motivation actually lower our satisfaction actually been richer or more famous or having more social approval is actually lowering our life satisfaction things like reputation, which can be the reason that some people use points and badges on their websites to try and give, like reputation can actually damage people's experience. M i t. Didn't experiment. M. I t. The college in America. I didn't an experiment where they gave people three different levels of rewards for doing a task, and they found that more simple manual labor. You don't really have to think about it too much kind of task yuk unjust, Be motivated by the money. And the more you pay someone, the more my expect they'll be the better a job they do. But they found the more cognitively difficult, the more analytical the task, the more involved, some kind of creativity. And ideally, you would want them to get into flow state to be able to achieve these creative idea generating tasks. They found that the more they paid people, actually, the lower that they lower the results, the less they achieved so throughout this course will be looking at how we can create the environment that will allow people to get into flow. And this is from those top intrinsic motivations will be looking at these four main motivations community, meaning, mastery and autonomy. Autonomy is obviously the ability to make some kind of choice. This is the freedom that we all so desperately crave. Mastery is continuously improving and seeing that you're improving. This is why people can spend hours learning to play the piano beautifully, knowing I'll never be a famous pianist. They just want to improve meaning. This is why thousands of people contribute to Wikipedia without getting paid. They just have this sense that we we should share this information, this knowledge and we should build on this thing and community, which is why we hang out with our friends. And we love to go for a drink and go to a barbecue and sit with our friends. Would be looking at these four motivators why they're so powerful and how you can use today . We learned that extrinsic goals, the ones near the bottom of the pyramid in a modern, civilized society, their short term, they're unsustainable and they distract us from. What's more important, people's bigger needs that really drive them are intrinsic. And throughout the rest of this course, we're gonna be focusing on the four big intrinsic motivators community autonomy, meaning and mastery. 7. Section Summary: So we've reached the end of our first module of this course, and we've looked a lot at dopamine and how it's the natural reward system on. We've looked at conditional reinforces and how we've learned to almost manipulate those primary reinforces in the pyramid of the things that we actually need. But those core things that we absolutely need the things which get us into the highest state of engagement and motivation into that flow state. So this seems like a great time to ask you who it is you're trying to motivate on what you're trying to motivate them to do. If you would like to share this with me and the other students, please, but in the course discussion, or you can message me directly if you like. And then we can all work on this together. Secondly, have a think about those extrinsic goals about the badges or the carrots or the lolly pops , or just money, and how you've used extrinsic goals in the past to try and motivated. Engage yourself or your people to make this change and look at how it may have failed in the long run, or has it succeeded and please tell us about it. If it has, we'll talk more about the intrinsic ones later on. But for now, just really think about where it hasn't worked in the past. On let's talk about why it hasn't worked. Now you may have wondered what motivation or engagement technique I'm using on you right now to keep you motivated on this course. And this is the interesting thing here. You are already intrinsically motivated to take this course. You've invested time minutes and you've paid money. If I try and use a technique, then we risk the possibility of using cognitive dissidence against us. You might look back at it and say I only enjoyed that course because he used some technique . But actually you're already intrinsically motivated. And if you're trying to motivate someone to do something they're already motivated to do, you can only possibly fail. But if you look at those intrinsic motivators, we talked about mastery. You're definitely going to get that when you're learning anyway. Autonomy. You're making your own choices with your own way of working at this meaning this is a goal that you've chosen yourself because it means something to you and to the people that you work with or your customers or your family and community. You're going to be writing these up in the discussion and you're gonna be talking to other people in the discussion. And this is building a community, your helping others and you receiving help from others. And that's what a community is. So please make sure you use the discussion and let's move forward and look at the next section. 8. Status: have all the extrinsic rewards. I want to give status an extra special little mention before we get into the bones of this course and start talking about the rial, x intrinsic motivations and the real power that we have there. So if you make millions of pounds, or if people think you look good, then you get a dopamine release for your improved status. If you're driving a sports car, everyone goes, Wow, look, he has a sports car. You go, yeah, I have a sports car and it makes you feel a dopamine buzz. It's temporary. And as we talked about it before the hedonic treadmill, Once you have that sports car, you need a private jet to get the next boost from that method. So it's very, very flawed. But let's look at some of the times that people have used status, and it's been quite effective because out of all the extrinsic rewards, status is the most powerful because it's high up. That and that pyramid of needs its high up. And it's something that a lot of people perhaps don't have as much as access to food and water. So it's powerful, but it's also the easiest for you to supply. If you think off frequent frequent flyer cards, if someone gets a gold card for an airline and gives them extra privileges that can use a specific waiting lounge, maybe they get better food on the playing things like this. It makes them feel more important. And they get a status buzz from that, as well as the extraditions off the waiting lounge and the food. There's the look at my status. Look how great I am. So let's look at someone who's really used this status thing. Well, let's look at Facebook. I heard a quote recently that said, Twitter is where strangers tell the truth, and Facebook is where friends lied to each other, which I think is very, very true. There's certain tricks we can use on Facebook to get more likes and more comments, and this increases our status. If you have more friends on Facebook, you feel like, yeah, look at all these friends. Anti people will notice this. I must have a high Facebook status, whereas actually a lot of people believe that the more friends you have on Facebook, the less you have in real life and And if you've got a lot of likes on Facebook, you can get them through certain manipulative social behavior. You could write comment that says, Oh, what a bad day I've had today and it entices people to interact. And it's a bit of trickery that people use and similar to other things on the hedonic treadmill them or they use it the more they get dopamine release from using it, the more they'll want to use in future. Now the Facebook like is especially important because not only are we getting some social approval from that, some of that lower form of esteem and a little dopamine release, but we get a little buzz on our phone a random time, kind of like that food pellet for the rat in Skinner's box. So you're getting a random bit of status, which is a very important dopamine buzz so people can use Facebook to get that dopamine bus , but in a very negative way, and in a way that makes them want to get more and more of it in future and doesn't make them satisfied and doesn't make them motivated and engaged. It makes them more like a slave trying to work to get that next dopamine buzz. Now I know what you're thinking. You're thinking Facebook is very, very successful. And to that I would say I could see No, it could be very successful and also a drug dealer. They're only going to increase their success as their users get more hooked. It's not necessarily a positive thing, and it's know about motivation and engagement. It's about trickery on addiction. It also has a negative global impact as people have more friends on Facebook tend to have less friends in real life and aren't making genuine connections, but also because people can get approval on Facebook for having a specific, positive political opinion that they're perhaps not actually doing anything about maybe mentioning or war that they say is bad. But they're not doing anything to improve it. Whereas in the past, to get that same kind of approval, they would have to actually have to do something positive to try and help the situation other than just express an opinion. Okay, so Facebook rent over. Now, just pause the video a second and take a look at your Facebook wall. See what your friends are up to and see what activity on there is genuinely engaging. And let's have a discussion about it in the discussion section. We'll probably find that it's less about status on Mawr about one of the four intrinsic motivators that began to talk about in a later chapter. Let's see what you come up with. Another site that I think's really impressive his Stack exchange stock exchange have a Siris of different forums, the most popular ones called Stack Overflow. And Web developers use this to find answers to questions. And you'd be amazed at how quickly you can get a response on stack Overflow to a question. And the thing is, when you answer correctly, people vote up answers and you get little badges and little points. These extrinsic status points we kind of talked about earlier. But it's not quite so negative because people want to improve on this website partially because they can use it for a job application or or to get extra work, because there can show how helpful they were at mentoring others and and how knowledgeable they are on the subject. But there is also a certain element of wanting to prove to yourself that you're the master of that subject. It's not like Facebook, where you're just simply collecting approval from people. It's actually proving that you're a master in a subject, and that's quite good to get that feedback to improve to yourself that you're continuously improving at Web development or whatever their other forums are. And it's actually a very strong, intrinsic goal, which we're gonna look at in the next section. This video was all about status. We looked at frequent flyer points. We looked at Facebook and Stack overflow. We learn that status can work as a motivator, but perhaps not so much as an engage er. When status does successfully engage people, there's normally an intrinsic motivate underneath, and we can talk about this more in the discussion. Using status as a reward can be very powerful birds. I wouldn't consider it completely ethical 9. Social Proof: social proof is less to do with status, and it's more to do with that that comfort of blind to a community. But it's not always authentically belonging to a community. Sometimes it's just saying the right thing just to fit in. And some websites or some other people have kind of capitalized on this, and it's not necessarily a negative thing. This could be quite positive. If I use the Web site booking dot com, for example, you could be looking at a hotel, and sometimes it just pops up this little thing in the corner saying, when the last time someone booked into that Hotel waas or how many people are currently looking at that hotel? Now I've been to booking dot com in Amsterdam, and I know that they do a lot of its orations of their site, and they're continuously changing and continuously improving based on food back. And they've found that these little boxes actually seriously increase the amount of people booked into that hotel because they say, well, other people book onto it, so therefore I will. It's kind of like how if you're out in town on a Friday night on one night club has a longer line, and the others you think, well, everyone else goes there. This must be a good place. They must think like me. And it's sort of this following the herd mentality that social proof brings. Now people have used this. For example, if a restaurant writes on the bit on on the menu, this is the chef's special. You know, the chef's specialty, the favorite food. The sales of that food go up 13 to 20% because people say, Well, this is the best seller. This is what other people by Let's get this. In another study going back to hotels, they found that if they put up a sign saying, These are the advantages to reusing your towel, the advantages to the environment if you reuse their towel, it will have this positive effect on the environment, and this will make people reuse their towel to a certain extent. If they put up a sign saying this is the percentage of people who re use a towel, people are more likely to re use that towel because people like them also reused it. And even more specifically, if they said this percentage of people using this room. People in your exact situation do this behavior than they're more likely again to to reuse the towel and to follow the same behavior. We're gonna look at this again a bit later on. This is where we want to be a part of the community. It's not necessarily a negative thing. It makes us follow the herd a little, but it still let's still gives us some breathing room to be about an authentic person. We have to make thousands of decisions every day when we know that someone like us would make a similar decision, were more likely to just follow them. This is not a desire for status. We will do it even with the towels. If we're not being watched. This is often just because it's easier than having to make more decisions ourselves. Open up the course discussion and share a time recently where you were out shopping or you had to make a relatively small decision and you were quite easily or quickly swayed by just that people around you 10. Giving Feedback: Now it's eight o'clock here. Andi. I've just been looking at the videos that recorded so far, and I'm quite happy with them. And I've been looking at the quantity, and I'm like, I'm making a lot of progress it, and just looking at those It motivated me to carry on. So it's 8 p.m. But I've still got the Cameron. Hopefully, the neighbors are okay. I just wanted to carry on. I had this burst of motivation because I'm mastering the course in a way. I got feedback from looking at the files that it's going well. I'm improving and the courses you know, it's improving on making, making progress. And seeing that visual feedback was enough to give me some kind of motivation, some some best. Now we can get feedback in lots of different ways. If anyone's played a computer game before they will have multiple different ways of getting back to you. There'll be some kind of visual feedback. There'll be some stars flashing you because you've reached a new level will be a sound. You know you've won, you've got a new point, you've got something and it tells you that you're improving and it makes you want to carry on the same way. I just want to carry on. When I looked at my files on my computer down here and there's two kinds, I suppose of feedback. You can get that kind of that quantitative like my scores improved. I've reached the next level. Look at this number and you can get quality, which is where your experience is gonna change. And the best way that we do this and this is very specific to computer games is that maybe the difficulty level goes up and we know that we're playing on a whole new level. If you're into photography, you might have enjoyed the results you got from some photos, and then you perhaps joined a club. You're playing with a higher level of photography skills, and maybe you've got a new camera and you're improving at the same time as as is getting more difficult cause you're learning about new things, the affect, the quality of the photo. Now we talked about flow a little bit before, and this is a great time to bring it back, cause flow is how is the engagement in the enjoyment we feel when we're on the verge of our skill level where if it was, if it was too simple, would be bored and if it was too hard, would be stressed and we wouldn't be able to cope with it. But we feel flow when it's it's right there on our skill level. This is the exact level that we're comfortable with, and this is very easy to engineer this environment with a computer game. But the more we can try and engineer it in real life, the better. And one of the things that make it very easy in a game is the instant feedback. We like getting feedback, but if you go for a run, it might take you several months before you start getting feedback before you feel better. When you wake up and you breathe easier, it's not The same is if you have something instantly flash up and say you did well. I downloaded or running out recently and it tells me the speed that I was running out and it compares it to the day before and I was out for a run a couple of weeks ago and I felt down. I felt like the run hadn't gone well. And then I looked at the app which I had running on my phone, which I was taking with me on the run, and it said it was my best time so far. And I thought, Wow, it didn't even feel that hard. It felt like it was easier. But I am clearly improving, and that was the motivation that kept me going. That kept me going out the next time. So the more we can encourage people with these instant feedback to say you're improving, this is the level your acts, and as long as people carry on doing things, there are always gonna be improving, the better it will be to motivate them into engage them. In this video, we talked about mastery and we talk about how for people to know that they are improving. They need to see feedback or hear feedback. Getting the feedback instantly helps us associate it to the activity. One of the best kinds of feedback is for the activity toe actually get more difficult and for the experience to change if we can control the difficulty of the activity. So it's never too hard for the participant on never too easy, we can keep them in a flow state 11. Creating Rules: one thing that's really, really important to tell people they're improving is there needs to be some kind of rules around it. There needs to be some goals that needs to be a next level. There needs to be a new challenge ahead. Once you've achieved this, one thing it needs. There needs to be knowledge that there is a goal that you're working towards. But there needs to be rules that you're working around and the rules for running a pretty straightforward at the rules for recording this. Also, I think you can perhaps understand that there's a certain file type. There's a certain video length. There's a certain kind of quality, their specific rules that I need to be in to record this course and actually the rules help us be creative and explore a tive and get into a state of flow and to be motivated in an experiment where Children were left in a field with a massive, vast field around them to play in, that would play in a very, very small area of the field. But if they put the same Children in a park with boundaries, they know where the boundaries are. They know what the rules of player in that area. They will actually spread out further into more corners and find more fun, exciting things to do than they would in the vast, vast field. Because they know where the boundaries are on. The boundaries are important now. What you're looking at here is a game called Folded. Now the idea with fold it is. You have to try and work out how a protein is folded based on the different amino acids that make up the protein. And this is really important for medical science to be able to understand how different proteins work. Bi fold it, simply explaining the rules to the masses of how a protein is folded. It meant millions of people could get involved, find the shape of proteins on, move medical science along immensely. So what if we just learned we learned that boundaries actually make us more creative? It gives us more space to really enjoy the task and to come up with much more creative outcomes and rules essentially help engage us. So have a think for a second about the problem that you're trying to solve the people you're trying to motivate into trying, engage and think. Do they understand the rules of what you're trying to get them to achieve? Mentioned in the comments and let's have a discussion about it. 12. Make It Difficult: some very, very smart people got together and made this game to try and motivate Children or even adults to do their chores at home. And it's called Chore Walls and the concept of the game. Waas. Let's try and creates a kind of dungeon World of Warcraft kind of game and that encourages people to do that chores. And so the idea is, you make little missions and people get points for achieving those missions and with the points they can then go on by special items like an axe or a cape, or whatever people would buy in the world of Warcraft or in one of those other kind of dungeon sort of games. And this the issue with this is they were like, Well, how can we build in some level of mastery? This is building in lots of community aspect there and getting people together, and they're achieving things. But after a while they're gonna get bored. So what they did with chore wars is they built in extra little challenges you could do and these challenges of things like, Can you take out the garbage without anyone seeing you? Can you do something whilst singing a song, and they made a lot of fun challenges to not only make it way more enjoyable to do, but so people can get bonus points on bmore more points for actually achieving things outside off what is otherwise doing the laundry or doing the washing. There's a fun challenge to it, whether improving at how stealthily that taking the garbage out or something, which seems relatively unimportant when it comes to how the garbage gets outside the house but allows them to become a master in their own rights. According to the rules of this very specific game in a computer game, you can face a boss at the end of the level, which is where all the little skills you've been building up is you go along throughout the level, all come into play for this one big final battle to prove that you're the best to prove that your are the master and you've achieved on learn everything in this in this one, a lesson that's one level. And I used this concept quite a lot whilst teaching, and they would learn different things that different sections of the class and they would all come together in one communal game at the end of the class, and and that would be almost like the boss fights Now this, even if you win or lose, it creates quite a lot of adrenaline, gets people quite excited. It allows them to prove that they're the master and the dopamine rush the excitement. What you get if you beats the boss or even during the boss fight is huge and immense. So anything where people can have a kind of end a class game, they could kind of prove that they've succeeded all the all the aspects of the game so far . Very, very big. Very powerful things tohave in Jane McGonigal is book Reality is broken. She argues that the reason that Children paid so much computer games right now is because computer games have much better reward systems than are really lives. And she went on to develop the website super better now, in super better, we get to put our real life problems onto a site and recruit allies to help us out on complete tasks to move us forward without problem On one of the big features of it is the idea of a boss fights or an epic win where you get to draw upon all the skills who developed up to that point to fight a big challenge to to take a big boss on these final boss fights give us a huge amount of brain activity. They get us really excited and really, really engaged to do more to increase the difficulty. We don't really need to actually change the task or the speed the tasks done. We could even choose something seemingly unrelated to the task, and people will still have a feeling that they're progressing or moving forward. Also, we can prove where a master when we take on a final boss fight that brings in many different skills that we've developed for today's homework. I want us to discuss what challenges you could create around the task you're trying to motivate and engage people to do. That may not even be that closely related, but would add a bit of variety to the task and could make people feel like they're progressing 13. Stepping stones: having a big goal is obviously really important, said people know what they're working towards, to motivate them to get out of bed in the morning, having a big goal. A big vision of the future that you're working towards is really important, and that gives people meaning on. We'll talk about that later, but the goal in itself. You get a reward for achieving that. But obviously we need people. Teoh achieve smaller goals, so we have little stepping stone goals for me right now. My motivation is about recording this video, and this is just a small part of making the entire course. There's recording it. That's editing it. That's marketing it. There's lots of things out there about creating the course, but right now I have a very, very small, specific goal, which is making this video on. Once I finished this video, I'm gonna go into the next video. I'm going to start recording that it's gonna build and build, and eventually I'll have a whole course and I feel more and more motivated. The more complete against completion is its own kind of reward loop on linked in, they used to say, or please finish completing your website, your and profile. And they found that if they put little progress bar at the side and they showed it in complete, it vastly vastly increased the amount of people who would go in there and finish completing their profile because they hated to see something incomplete in there. Now, if it was a huge, huge task to finish that profile, people would get distracted and they would go, You know, You know what? This is too difficult. I'm not going to complete my profile. And if they if they have to log in to linked in and see their incomplete progress bar, it may even motivate them t leave linked in because of the uncomfortable feeling they get from seeing something in complete it. So it's important to split these tasks down into achievable little reward loops on. Ideally, at the end of each reward loop, there should be some kind of feedback. So me going out for one run on finding feedback on my app, lets said this was the fastest you've run or this was the further Steve Ron or this'll is pretty good. Let's compare it to other times, keep going that small little reward loot there, that small little achievement and that little bit of feedback is what keeps me going the next time. So it's very important to break our tasks down into very small goals and have some kind of feedback, some kind of reward loop in there, and it should be fun. But the app in question is called Run. Zombies run and this their sound in your ear. And if you run too slowly, then you can hear the zombie is catching up with you, and if you complete it, then you unlock the next part. That story, and that is the reward. You get this extra little piece of story and you can get involved in it and you can pick up items is you're running around, which you build a little base with, and the base is relatively meaningless in itself, but they attach meaning to it through the story, which we'll talk about later. We are motivated to complete small, actionable goals where we can see results today. So the more that we can split the task down into small, bite size, achievable tasks, the better. We like to see things completed, so some kind of feedback that the task is done or the small chunk of the task is finished. And if we did want to attach some kind of reward, an extra piece of a story, imaginary item or even a badge provided it's to remind the user that they have achieved something, then this is where we would do at the end of one of thes reward loops. So today I would like the discussion to be about How can you break your tasks down into smaller, bite sized chunks, something as simple as keeping a jug of water on the table so people drink more water? Buying a jug is a smaller task. Filling a jug up with water is a smaller task, something like reviewing this course. If there was some way that we could break up the review so you review, write a sentence about a different aspect of the course. Then over time, this could build into a full on review. This would encourage more people to review the course. Unfortunately, I don't have control over that. See what you can come up with for your own tasks, and I'll be there in the discussion 14. Reward Loops: with the last video. We talked about a reward loops, and perhaps I didn't fully explain what I meant by a loop. If you imagine the little progress bar that linked in had, if you think of a bigger task if you reduce it down into smaller little progress bars, this is a loop with a reward at the end of the loop each time and you keep going. Maybe there's five different loops before you've completed your linked in profile. But each of those loops get to a little reward, so it knows that you're moving in the right direction and you get a little dopamine release before the big one. But one quite common technique to use its called multiple reward loops. If I give you an example for a second, if you're sitting in a bar with your friends and you're playing a card game, there's a The game is fun and you're getting dopamine releases when you play a good hand on your having fun with your friends anyway, so you're already written rewarded for being part of that community. By the end of each game, there's nothing stopping you put in the cards down and leaving. The game is over. You've had your dopamine bars. Let's leave that there. The idea of multiple reward loops. This is where there's two different goals to different sub goals you're working to at any one time. If you think again about the idea of something like the World of Warcraft, which you might not have played, I certainly haven't. But they're certain things you're working towards all the time. You're continuously collecting money because you want to buy some new armor or a new sword , but at the same time you're building experience points because you want to learn a new specialist skill. Now you might get to the end of one reward loop like get your specialist skill, but you're only a little bit off the reward loop of getting the specialist item. So you carry on to get that item, and then when you have that your yet again, almost back to the end off that skill level and World War crafts. Not the best example, because it's very addictive and some people have lost whole weeks of their lives on it. But if you think about the idea of having more than one reward loop at a time. You can really try and get people to stay engaged in state stay mentally focused on a task that perhaps is a bit more useful than slaying orcs or whatever they're doing in World of Warcraft. I've never played honest. Okay, this is my quiz up profile. Now Quiz up is a mobile app where you can challenge people around the world to quiz and it's Freddy quick so you can squeeze it in and a small amount of time. So I'm quite keen on this. And the thing is, when you take a quiz, you kind of learn a little bit about the thing you've been quizzed on, because if you make a mistake, you can learn about it. So this is my number one course, My number one quiz Name the flag. I've got 98% of completed of the questions that come up and named the flag. So because I like to have things completed, I'm really keen to try and get that next 2% but also when it's further down here, or even a this stage, when I complete a quiz, I see this screen and here you can see that I get experience points for the amount of questions I get right? So the amount of time I've played and when I get certain amounts of experience points, I get my next level up. And the important thing with the level up is I'm currently on Level 25 but when I get to Level 30 I get a new title and my current title I go back here is nori bang performer because I was playing beginners Korean and unlock this title. Now that looks like a status thing, but really no one no one else knows. If I got to level 50 of beginners Korean or Level five toe, unlock that title. I know that that's my happiest achievement is getting that title. So I like to keep up their similar to if I click on my profile. But there's thes badges down the bottom Now, batches could potentially be a cheap reward system we give people or they could be a status thing. But in this case, if we click on them, you'll see that this is for winning 100 matches and these different badges are for achievements that I've got and other people are gonna be much less interested in these thes air reminders to myself. Things toe work towards. So I know that I'm progressing in the game. So, as you can see, quiz up has the experience points, the percentage of the quiz I've completed, the levels, the titles and the badges on all of these different reward loops. Men that at any point in this game I'm very close to completing another task and getting another reward, which means it's very hard for me to put it down on. I'm getting lots of different dopamine releases for all these rewards at different stages, as its as the game is reminding me how much I'm learning about flags or about Korean and how much I'm progressing and mastering the game. Today, we learned that if we have multiple reward loops at the same time, there isn't any one point where people feel they're not near a goal and they're ready to just give up and leave. See if you can have a think about your task again, and this time I think about how you could create multiple reward loops. If I was trying to encourage someone to walk more, I might give them some recognition once they've walked 100 miles, but also every 10 miles they go out. Maybe they get some recognition for that, too, and maybe for losing a certain amount of weight. So there's potentially different things that could be working towards at different times. It's important for us to remember that the reward is going to be intrinsic. It's about them achieving the goal and giving them recognition and feedback for it. We're not going to buy them off with winning a free coffee, and we're not going to give them status. They don't become the emperor because they walked a certain distance. It's all intrinsic rewards. So go ahead, open the discussion, see what you can come up with and let's talk about this some more. 15. The Desire To Master: One of the biggest achievements I made as a teacher, which really, really helped improve my class was that I realized that when students are having fun, they just remembered more. They were more engaged, more motivated. But also they were they would pick more up. They would remember the what we were taught more because they thought this was fun whilst I was learning this, and it's attach is to more positive parts of their brain. So when we're when we're having fun, when we're enjoying ourselves, were more likely to actually achieve our goals and in the instance of education were actually more likely to remember things. If we're having fun, it sparks the right chemicals in the brain. It links what we're doing to the right things, things, the it links, what we're doing to the right sort of happiness memories. And if you think back to write the very start, when we were talking about different stimuli and how we remember things, if we remember something and it's attached to a happy memory, it's attached a happy stimulus, were more likely to want to go back to that place and re experience where we were then and what was happening. And it's enjoyable for us, for the whole rest of our lives with me. Reflect on that memory on that lesson, and this will obviously motor voters to want to do that thing again, playing back that running game where the zombies chasing me It's kind of a funny little story. It makes running seemed fun to me on When I think about going for a run in future, I go, yeah, that's the fun thing. No, if we don't, if we don't genuinely believe in the task we're doing if it's not fun, if we don't believe that there's a positive ending to it, then we generally shot down. If our brains can think of a more positive way we could be using our time, they'll they'll stop contributing. Even if you're physically still in the position, your brain will go. I'm no, I'm not dealing with this and it will back down and you'll shut down mentally as a person, we need to believe in the thing that we're trying to master for us to be able to master it , and this brings us on to the next chapter, which is about meaning and how we create meaning and how meaning effects us. So we can only really master something if we genuinely care about the thing we're trying to master. If we don't feel like it's important to ourselves or to the world, we just shut down and we cannot do it. Now take some time and think about a task that you tried to achieve. That was really, really important Really important to your own personal development or toe the company. You work for your school and think about how you at times just shut down. And you your brain just wouldn't give you the energy to work on it and think about how on what was boring about that task. 16. It's Always Been About Meaning: A couple of weeks ago, me and my girlfriend were driving back from the coast. After a long weekend away on, we stopped off at Stonehenge. Now I'm sure you've all heard of Stonehenge. It's a stone circle in England, and it was erected 4.5 1000 years ago. These may amazing stone structures that the man managed to pile up and build this circle outs off and were slightly unsure of exactly why they built it. But it's very, very impressive to see and to see what man could achieve with such primitive technology back then. Of course, it's less impressive when you see that in Egypt they were building huge pyramids, but it's still impressive. And if we look at the Stonehenge and we look at the pyramids will know that it didn't help people get food. I didn't help him get water. It didn't help people with those physiological needs. We can assume that people already had those things. People didn't live in them. It didn't even help them get shelter or warmth. And in both cases we believe that it was all about a tomb for people toe live on to the next world and we created some spiritual ideas around both of them. Perhaps at the time, they could've been slightly different spiritually ideas to now. But the point waas they were both about something bigger than ourselves. And the greatest feats of human achievement at the time were to prove that there was something bigger than ourselves. Whatever the belief was, they had. It is not important. What's important is they weren't put in the effort into producing a new fishing hook that would catch more fish or into some new agriculture. The greatest efforts were going into these huge or inspiring structures, and that's the That's the really important thing here that for these societies that succeed , they have to build these or inspiring structures to build a culture around them. First, the culture came about because they wanted that they attached themselves to the meaning that was created in those places on. Throughout this this module, we're going to talk about meaning the important thing with meaning is doesn't really have to make sense. But it has to invoke something in people that has toe be grandiose enough to inspire people , and that's what the pyramids did, and that's what Stonehenge did. And that's what we've been doing ever since their computer game Halo, outside of the computer game, created a whole community a while ago to try and get the entire community to kill one million aliens that were invading Earth, which sounds kind of boring to just kill a huge number of the bad guys in a game to just do it in quantities. But they rallied together loads of people, and they said, We're saving Earth here and they built such a impressive story around it that people believed it and they got together to fight for this cause, even though it was just a case of pushing buttons on a computer game for hours and hours. And even though people understand that it's a game, they still would rather follow in something that they believe in, that they have some meaningful attachment to the not have anything at all. If you don't have anything at all, then why do we get out of bed in the morning? We generally don't. Another game was called Pain Squad, and it's less of a game. It's more to help Children who have found out they have cancer, but it doesn't talk to them about. Like if you achieve these things, then you're gonna feel slightly better today, and it's gonna help you personally fight cancer. The story around Pain Squad is that that pain score tells the Children that they're fighting cancer together. It makes it sound like the child is actually personally on a mission to fight cancer and stamp out, and in a way, they are one child at a time. But it's that grandiose sense of meaning, that sense of or that they are responsible and they are in control and they can fight cancer that brings them together and gives them that power. And a particular favour of mine is the website Couchsurfing, who measured the success of their company not based on how much money it makes or how many visitors come to the website. But how maney connective meaningful hours the members of their community have. So they work out. They work out an equation toe work out how many hours couchsurfing, if you haven't heard of it, is like a hospitality website where people say I'm traveling to India. I need somewhere to stay and someone in India will say you can you can serve my couch, you can stay at mine and the amount of hours that people spend together they can't muscle up there. Subtract the amount of hours that people spend searching around on the Web site on their own, And that's the amount of meaningful hours that couch surfing is created. Now imagine you work there. Imagine your job was about creating that number of meaningful hours that's quite motivating throughout history. The thing that's made a difference between a strong, healthy culture and one that failed is that they have a strong belief system. When people create a story for people to believe in, it doesn't need to make sense. It just needs to inspire them and get people involved. When people have meaning in their lives, they're happier, more productive, healthier and they generally live longer, and changing the focus of a goal can create meaning. The same goal can have meaning if we just attach it around it or have a different focus. As a teenager, I used to believe in the ideologies of punk rock on the lyrics to different songs on. It led me to make specific friends. It led me into specific hobbies affected how I dressed and affected everything about my life. But in a way it gave me the meaning to have the energy to do the things I needed to do in a day. 17. What Do People Really Enjoy?: so the ES M is a new way of measuring happiness. It's a new tool experience sampling method I believe it stands for, and what they found out with the SM so far is they simply will send people a message, a random time and say, What are you doing? How you feeling? And all these participants reply, saying, I'm watching TV, I'm feeling a bit bored. I'm at work, I'm having a stressful time or I'm really enjoying this project. I'm sat in my car listening to music. It's really fun on belt given number on how great their experiences and what it is they're doing on. What they found so far with the SM is that actually what we think we're going to enjoy were generally wrong about it. And we spoke about this a little before, right at the start that people are terrible at predicting what they want and what they would have enjoyed in the past. And a lot of the time we think we're going to really enjoy sitting on the couch watching TV , because when we think that we're a little bit stressed and we just want to avoid it. But this is the interesting thing. The opposite of stress isn't the opposite of work isn't fun. The opposite of work is border. If you're doing the exact opposite thing you're doing when you're stressed out at work, the exact opposite of that has been really, really bored. People do not get excited about sitting on the couch and watching TV. They do it because they're drained of energy from a boring day at work on, because the whole day when they were stressed, the one thing they thought was gonna bring them happiness was that very couch. So the first thing to realize here is that there's two kinds of stress. There's de stress, which is when you're stressed. But it's out of your control. If your boss has been horrible to you, is making your life hell. You're stressed. It's out of your control. This is de stress. Then there's the stress, where it's in your control and you're doing positive things, and this is your stress. The your is from like euphoria. It's this euphoric feeling, and it's actually very invigorating and enlivening. People want to be productive. If you look at the computer game industry, you'll see how people will sit around for hours, and they'll do things to achieve things in a mythological world that achieve mawr on a computer game than they will in real life. And that's because of a lot. These tools we're talking about right now, all these foundations of intrinsic rewards, but it's also because they want to be productive. They want to be working towards a meaningful goal, and that meaningful goal could be destroying the evil enemies in a computer game. Or it could be achieving greatness at work or in the world or in the family. When we feel down, we're not suffering from depression was suffering from in action. We really, really want to do things, but we need to believe in them first. So the opposite of work isn't fun is boredom. And there are two different kinds of stress. We get de stress, but we get your stress as well and your stresses when we feel really engaged and we're really willing to put in everything with full of adrenaline, weaken do all nighters to finish a project. People naturally want to be productive. This gives us a buzz. We want to produce things, and depression is actually caused by inaction. So if you don't allow people to be productive, contribute and do things, they're actually going to end up depressed. So I've got a little personal task for you again to do today, and this is to think of two things. One is to think off an event in the future that you think will make you happy, and then the other is to think of an event in the past that actually has made you happy and see the difference for May. I assume that if I lived on a beach and just chilled out in the sun all day, I would be really, really happy. But when I think about my happiest moments in the past, they are hiking mountains, cycling, cross country teaching classes that were particularly difficult or generally things where I've produced a lot, and I've actually put quite a lot of work into it. So think of your two and right to end the discussion, something you think will make you happy in the future and something that actually made you happy in the past and have a think about how those two are different 18. Creating Meaning: So how do we create meaning well to create meaning? We create a story. If you look at the couch surfing example, it's a very, very simplistic, very easy story. It's a story of its the story that you create in your mind in pictures. When you think about the hours of connection, you have a vision of all these people around the world, all spending time together and enjoying new experiences and feeling the connection of humanity. And it has less of a kind of storyline with a defined ending. It's just a very positive kind of imagery to bring to mind, and we don't know what they believed about Stonehenge. But we know that they probably gathered on. They had some great stories about what they believe to be their gods at the time and similar in Egypt. They I would write higher graphics about stories about their gods, and these were the stories of the time. And this is what got people behind these things was the stories. So, for example, if you take my running app, I told you about earlier the Run Zombies app. It's the story that I unlock each time as a reward and it's what makes the running experience feel like an experience and meaningful. It's part of a story. I'm running to save humanity by collecting different items that I need to run to get them. And it makes my journey as ah Runner who's getting healthier seem pretty minimal compared to the huge story of saving a team of people and saving part of the human race. And, for example, the halo story about saving the world from aliens is it makes people feel like a hero, and it makes him feel like a champion, and they're feeling it with other people and they wanna do their duty. And in each of these cases, it's about people wanting to be productive, to to work towards this story that they believe in. And obviously, I'm sure you can imagine when I used to teach Children. If you make the reason that Calmer appears in a certain place about a comma who hides in different behind different words and and doesn't want to be in different places because they're scared of other words, then that story is a thing that the Children can relate to and get behind and feel a lot of meaning and it makes them want to come to class. I want to hide. Their comments in the correct place is now stories have a very, very powerful, very positive effect on our brains. You see, when we really deeply engaged in a story, if there is pain, we will actually feel that pain. And when there is pleasure, we will actually feel that pleasure. They've proved it with brain scans, but I can give you an example now, and you might not feel it at home because we're not on the journey of a story yet. You see, there's also another thing where you have to submit to the story. You need to in some way trust the storyteller, and you need to trust where the story's going. So sometimes a story will have a very gradual beginning. Teoh Easy win and make you believe the storyteller bond trust you, because when they take you on that journey, it's like you're actually reliving what the character is experiencing. You need to trust the storyteller, so we're gonna talk about community a little later. But the important thing is that a story is actually like having your brain hijacked you need to be a lot of trust built up before we'll be taken on the story by some. Meaning comes from stories. Stories kind of hijack our brains in a way. We have toe allow the story to take our brain somewhere because when were taken into that state of consciousness, we can feel pain and we can feel joyous. The character feels pale, enjoy. We need to make a decision at some point to submit to the storyteller. We need to trust them in some way. 19. the Art of Storytelling: Randy Olson was a marine biologist and he would lecture at universities, and he was amazed that he would lecture his students and explained to them about different types of sea life that lived a different depths of the sea. And despite the fact that he was a scientist and had scientific evidence, if they saw a Hollywood movie with that secret sure, in a different death, they're more likely to believe the Hollywood movie than the scientist in the Electric Fit. So he was quite curious about this. So he actually moved to Hollywood and he wrote a film, and he wrote a few films, and over time he learned about how stories work on the importance of stories. And then he went back to touring America and teaching other scientists about how they should explain their scientific research using stories. And he co authored a book called Connection. So he talked a lot about the story arc, and we think of stories is having a beginning a middle and an end. And and Randy confirmed this, and he explained the difference between a beginning, a middle and an end. He simplified it down to even the most basic story. Even the trailer for a film will follow that structure just in two sentences. It'll start like in a world where and in the beginning it will paint a picture of how that world is before anything goes wrong. The world is this. This is how it's there's everyday life. But then one day something happens. Something happens to change the world and sends the hero or the heroin or the group of people on a mission to try and rectify it, to try and get their lives back. And there's there's a lot of tension as a lot chaos. But then someone will will save the day and the whole world will be improved as a result. Off the original issue that they had, they overcome it and they grew as people and the world has improved, and the final ending of the story will explain how the world has improved, like what has changed, what hasn't changed in those people on, Ideally, in the ending, you leave the audience with an emotion, and Randi said, the best emotion to leave them with his hope. And if you watch a politician do a speech, you'll see how they follow that exact same pattern. And if you see a good scientist that he's talk, explain a scientific theory, they'll follow that same pattern. This was how the world waas. This is how it changed. This is what went wrong, and this is how we overcame that. And this is the emotion you should feel afterwards. This is how the world is. This is what we're going to do about it. This is how it will improve. Where's the emotion? So you follow this basic three part a story, and that's your story, arc for any story now, the seven different storylines. You can argue this a little bit, essentially the seven different basic storylines. And rather than me talking about the mall, I'll put in a pdf attachment instead. Another very interesting thing that that I took out of that book that I wanted to pass on is that when the writers of South Park the cartoon, they'll get a basic script out, and they'll see all the places that they can put buts and ands in there, all the places where they can connect different aspect of the story together, or have the two aspects of the story in some kind of confrontation. It's all about making connections and connections of what makes a great story. So Leslie, the only other thing that's really, really important story, and it would not be a successful story if it wasn't is it needs to be personal to them. You need to be able to relate it back to the person who is listening. They're always gonna interpret the story a little different or how you told it. But ultimately you're relating it back to the listener. It's about them, and this brings us on to. Our next chapter is about authenticity, and it's about who the person is, allowing them to be that person and express that people believe stories over facts. There's three parts 20 story are beginning a middle Ellen end, and if we can make connections with different parts of stories, we can use words like butts and end to make connections. The better the story is gonna be, the more it's gonna flow in the more meaning it's gonna have as a whole feel. Homework today is quite a big task. I want you to think of how you can build a story around your task take into consideration that the person doing the task is the hero of this story. So that third part of the story will come after the task. And the task will really be the second part of the story. If you're trying to motivate Children, obviously telling them that doing up there shoe laces will somehow stop an alien invasion is gonna be fun and Children and will get involved in that. But you might have to be a bit more tactful with adults if you wanted adults to stop driving on their own more because of the cost of the environment. To giving them the facts doesn't help but some kind of story around an individual who doesn't drive their own car on their own. So much is going to help, I think. A good quote to remember here is Joseph Stalin, who said One death is a tragedy. A 1,000,000 is a statistic and we're not talking about death here, but we are talking about statistics. People can relate to the story of one person. A 1,000,000 people is not relatable. A 1,000,000 people stopping driving cars on their own because of the cost of the environment is not a story that people can get engaged in. The story of an individual is. So go ahead and think of a story for your task and right in the discussion and let's see what we come up. 20. Masters of Contributing: so we know that what's really important to make people feel meaning is a good story on what's really important for a good story is if people can relate to the main characters if they can see themselves in the situations. I suppose we're all a bit selfish. Or maybe we're all a bit mentally lazy. But what they found when they brought out those original microwave meals of ready made meals where you stick them in the microwave and you can get on with your busy lives and eat some food that tastes horrible on. They found that they were incredibly unpopular. People didn't want to buy a meal that was ready made. They wanted to contribute something. They wanted to put a few ingredients in themselves and specifically with families. People wanted to feel like they were contributing to their family, so if they let people add a couple of ingredients, they would sell more. Read emails. A cake company called Betty Crocker in America found that with that, their cake mix, people didn't want to buy it. If they all they did was put the cake mix in a 10 and put it in the oven and take out a cake. But if they made people crack a couple of eggs into the mix, even if they could have added the same textures and stuff with synthetic ways, they found that by letting people crack a couple of eggs into the mix, it actually made more. People want to buy the mix because they felt like they were part of the process, like they were important tickle part of the cake making they wanted to contribute. This is called the care effect as well where if you buy some ready made if you buy some flat pack furniture and build it yourself, you tend to prefer it to the one you got from the shop because you feel more connection to it. Emotionally, you feel like you you would important part of building it so you actually like the furniture more. This is quite important to remember when you're getting people to contribute in your business or your school or your family or with your with your employees. Some companies have taken to do anything called a hack day, where they let any employees they want for the whole day just taken idea and run with it. and present back what they did at the end of the day. And this not only engages people more on the day when they're creating their own ideas, but it engages them or throughout the year, knowing that they were important for the company that their input was listened to. And this is because we all really just want to be heard, because when someone listens, it means they respect who we are as a person. They take on board our ideas, and this is really, really important because we all really just want to be listened to. We want to be heard, and we want our ideas to be validated in some way. This is because it it means that the other people respect you. We are as a person, and we want to be able to contribute towards the community so that we know were helpful. It validates who we are, even even if we just listen to, and then nothing's don't about her ideas. It's still motivates us more, and it still engages us more. So this model is all about listening more and taking on board what other people are saying , even asking for advice, because engages people and it motivates them. So the thing that actually makes will feel important consuming no status doesn't so much is that if people contribute to a community, they know that that community needs them. People want to contribute to a community. If we build something ourselves, we just like it more. We think it's better because we're biased than we think that the things we dio in some way better. So people like things that they built and really people want to be listened to. It kind of defines their existence. If there listened to have a think about a community over a project where you weren't listened to so much, you perhaps weren't allowed to contribute anything and think about how it made you feel about the community or the event as ah Hole for May. I used to work at a company where the senior management didn't really trust anyone in the company to make any decisions so they would go around and micromanage everyone and insists that they knew best and as a result of the people who did their jobs and so knew how to do their jobs best, tended to just shut down not be very interested and leave the company, which obviously doesn't help the company very much. But it definitely doesn't help the people either. See if you can think of a similar culture, community or event and write about it in the discussion. 21. Give Them Options: now I remember. Before Facebook came out, there was a Web site called MySpace, and I knew about my space for about a week or so before Facebook happened. But with my space, you could customise way more things. You could control the background yourself and have crazy colors in there, and you could control how your page was laid out. And people really enjoyed this at first because it meant that they could put part of their personality into it. It was their page. Was there space? It was my space, and that's what I loved about it. But actually, Facebook still lets you customise it to a certain extent because you can express your opinions in what you're writing and you can put your profile picture in there, and it's a bit easier for them. Teoh. Maintain it and upgrade because everyone's page looks kind of the same. If you think about the game chore wars we talked about earlier for giving little tasks, you can save up your points to buy a new outfit or a new weapon for your character. The outfit and the weapon don't mean anything. They're part of a story that we build together, and this gives them meaning. But also we get to choose which items they get. We get to choose their sword on, we get to choose their costume, and this means that we're putting part of ourselves into it. And this is what we enjoy in the design world. If you've ever worked with the designer or if you, if you are a designer, you'll know that if you show someone a finished logo design, they always go off. If you ever see a company redesigned themselves, all the comments will be people saying, Well, you should have done this. This would be better. This new logo is rubbish. At every designer knows that. You never show someone of finished logo. You show them three or four sketches so that the person that you're consulting with can say , Oh, I quite like this one. Let's let's change some things about it because really the reason that they wanted to work in the business in the first place is so they can put part of themselves into it. The best logo isn't the outcome. A logo, which they helped to craft and they put something into is the outcome because this motivates them, and really the best logo in the world is maybe no, even it's important is having the most motivated, engaged CEO in the world. There's a popular game show in England. I'm sure most of you have heard of it, and I'm sure they have versions will around the world. It's called Who Wants to Be in Marina? Part of the reason this is so engaging is because after each question, it's essentially just a quiz. But after each question, the contestant gets us to do you want to keep your money, or do you want to gamble it and try and double it on this next question? Now that's a choice that they get to make, and that's what makes it exciting program because they get put some input in and we get to sit at home and think about what we would do in that situation, gambling that kind of money. But not only this. There's three lifelines. There's you can. There's four possible answers. You can split it down into two. You could ask the audience to vote on what they think the correct answer or you can find a friend and you can use each of these lifelines once throughout your game now getting to choose when and how you use these lifelines. It's also a little bit of autonomy. You get to put a piece of yourself in there, and it's authentic. But it's very, very simple. And that's why the program so successful, because the areas that lets you configure on put yourself into a very, very simple areas. So it's it's it's a either or it's very simple to choose. We don't want to overwhelm people with lots of complex configurations. We want to give him very, very simple areas where they can say this or this. And this is why perhaps in my space didn't work as well as Facebook. A simple test in a cafe found that instead of having a single tip jar, if they had to tip jars and they were labeled tip here, if you like cats and tip here, if you like dogs, people getting to make the option of if they're a cattle, a dog person to decide which jar. They put their tip in men that the amount of tips they received went up immensely and they would change the labels of these tip jars every week to tip here. If you support this football team, what tip here if you put this football team and allowing people to make that option meant that the amount of tips they got really increased earlier, we spoke about how people really just like to be listened to on when we give them simple options. It's as good as listening to them. It's saying that their opinion is valid. We appreciate who they are. Keeping these options really, really simple means it's not complicated for people to understand, and people can get much more interested in the outcome. Think about the Who Wants to Be a Millionaire game and how simple the options are in that and how successful the game is. Think about a game show that you enjoy watching or a game that you enjoy playing and just notice how incredibly simple. The absolute core options that you make in that game are, for example, the game monopoly and how the outcome of the dice roll is out of your control. But whether you choose to buy or sell the property you land on and with you choose to buy houses or hotels on different properties at options. You get to make each round, have a think about games that you really enjoy and talk about in the discussion held. They're actually very simple options you get to make, but you do have to make those options to keep the game engaging. 22. Let Them Fail: we suck on. We love to fail. This is an improv acting mantra, and I love improv acting. I love it for this reason. It allows us to stand up in front of people, make a full line of ourselves, learn toe, laugh it ourselves and really learn to be ourselves. If anybody hasn't ever tried in perfecting, I would seriously recommend it just for your own personal growth. An experiment in a school asked to different classes. Two different tasks for one semester, one class was told. Produced as much pottery as you can. We want to be able to. We're going to away the pottery at the end of the semester, and whoever's made the most pottery gets in a. And they told the other class, make the finest pottery you can. We want the most intricate, interesting design pottery you can come up with. And at the end of the semester that people who were asked to produce Mawr pottery had actually produced more intricate, more daring, more interesting designs than the better pottery group. Now you think quality rather than quantity, But sometimes trying to produce mawr actually lets you switch off some of those you mustn't fail voices on lets you try more daring things. So the pottery that the class that were so the class that were us to produce more pottery they were going out there and they were trying all these different things just because of the sheer quantity of pottery they were making. And they ended up producing finer pottery as a result, because saying to someone, You can take some risks and you can fail. That's saying, I respect you. I trust you and I'll work with you If people feel that it's okay for them to fail, they're not only going to be more engaged in the activity and more energized, the more willing to put more time in, but you're going to get better results out of them. Allowing people to fail builds trust. Now just take a moment to think of a task one activity in the past where you haven't been very engaged and very motivated, and think about what the consequences would have bean if you had failed that task. Now for me, the obvious thing comes to mind, which is being back at school and how at school your grades were really important and you got in lots of trouble. If your grades fell and taking spelling words home, for example to learn those words. I wasn't very motivated to learn the ways I didn't really enjoy it and the consequences off . Failing to learn those words was getting lower grades and being in more trouble. I didn't feel comfortable if I had failed in that situation. So open up the discussion or write it down and let's see what you come up with. 23. We Love To Fail: So I assume you have the experience of sitting and playing a board game with your family, or maybe playing cards with your friends in the pub and in both these situations. If you think about it, if you have four or five people playing the same game, the outside you're going to lose. But you still can't enjoy playing the game and actually doing brain scans of people playing computer games. If they're doing a very tricky challenge and they and they die or they fail at the challenge, brain scans actually show that they still get the dopamine release. They actually got a very big dopamine release because our brain knows at that moment when we fail that were on the verge of our ability were in a flow state, and it knows that we're learning. If we fail, it means we're trying to do harder things than we're already capable of doing. So when you give someone the opportunity to try something difficult and to fail at it, you're keeping them in a flow states and you're motivating them. So risk actually keeps us engaged, letting people have control of a situation that they might fail that is going to keep them motivated. So why do we hate to fail? What the situations where we might fail something like our office or our school are designed to make us think it's a bad thing. And often we're bailing because we're not given the rules properly. We don't know exactly what the guidelines are and if you fail, but you weren't fully explained what the rules were. You get kind of a bit angry because it's not necessarily your fault that you failed. You could be operating at the best of your ability, but you hadn't fully been explained something that's bad management. Well, that's about teaching, or that's a badly designed website, or that's a bad parent. So if you have a child or an employee who gets mad when they fail, it might be the stigma you've attached to it now. Remember earlier we spoke about how Children in a park with designated fence around it and a designated play area will spread out mawr and find more creative activities to do around the park. This is because they know where the boundaries off the park. Our teachers want us to get good graves. They don't want us to learn. And this is the same problem we have in our businesses and in our companies. So in this video, we talked about how, actually with love, failing, failing is telling our brains that we're learning and we're progressing. And learning is something we enjoy because it tells us that we're improving his people and we're increasing our possibility of survival. We only hate to fail if we don't understand what the rules are and then were blamed for not understanding rules that weren't told. Tow us. Essentially, we need boundaries. Now let's open up the discussion and think again about the task or activity that you're trying to engage and motivate people to do and think about what the rules or boundaries are . And are people aware of these? I remember when I was teaching once I was teaching a very young class and I arrived to the classroom and the students had already gone into the classroom. Before I got there, a student was stood on a table, someone was playing with a fire extinguisher and I stop them immediately and I was about to get angry and I thought there quite young do they understand what they're doing. So I made him go outside the classroom line up, come back into the classroom of fresh on, went through each 0.1 at a time and explained that they could not do it on why they couldn't do it. So have a think about the task or activity you're trying to engage people to do and think about where the boundaries are and do they know about the boundaries? 24. Status Seesaw: Stanislawski was putting on a play in a theater in Moscow, and he noticed the in a scene with a clear status divide like a king and a peasant. It was played so naturally someone can play high status very easily, and someone could play low status very easily. But then, in a scene with two friends, side by side, it looked really unnatural and really disingenuous. And he found this quite surprising because when he went into the dressing room after rehearsals, he noticed how on the same level people were and how natural their friendship looked. But if they can act natural offstage, how come they can't do it on stage? Well, why he noticed was were never on the same status level, were always one's higher on one's lower. And when we agreed to be friends with someone were more in a state to see. So with one of us going up and the other one helping and then then lend, lending their hand down to help the other one up, and maybe they push one down and mock them and then they fall over themselves, and this is really, really important for any community, and we need the community for engagement, and we need it for motivation. In England, we thoroughly enjoyed watching someone else fail, and we love mocking them for it. We call it banter on the really important thing with banter is if one of your friends messes something up, you have to joke about it. You have to make fun of them, and then you have to put your hand down and help them up and be a good friend. And the reason this is so powerful is if you think back to the Animal Kingdom, it's like we're showing our teeth. We're saying we are aggressive. We can hurt you, but we're not going to hurt you because you're a friend and that's more powerful and more community building than just letting it go. It's saying I'm powerful and uncompassionate on. Those two things combined make a very, very strong friend. In Olivia Fox Cobain's book The Charisma Myth. She talked about the three aspect of someone's personality that draws us to them and make us feel connected to them, and these are presence, power and warmth. We talked about presence a little earlier because we talked about listening to someone and how this makes them feel validated or given them options, which says that we care about who they are. But power and warmth are quite well illustrated by this example. Showing our power is like showing our teeth saying We are strong on when we don't attack with those teeth But we actually help the person we're showing our warm. Olivia argued that if someone shows power but not warmth, we fear them because they could use the power against us. And if someone shows warmth but not power, we aren't afraid of them. But we don't feel they can help us. So it's okay to allow people to make fun of each other when they fall down. And it's okay to have people make fun of you when you fall down. But what we have to remember if somebody succeeds, let's not pretend that they are a success there, just the person that succeeded this time. And if someone fails, that person is not a failure there, just the person that happened to fail this time, it's okay to joke when someone fails, it's something, but we need to remember it's just this one time and another way that we can really engage people is if we fail first. I used to teach kindergarten classes and it was very, very difficult. It was like herding sheep, and I used to try and do lots and lots of energetic, active, open singing, acting like animals, things that would get them really, really engaged in the class. But before any even a kindergarten age, before any of them would make fun of themselves on look silly in front of each other, I had to do it first, and the second I, the teacher, had had dropped my ego and started just playing and being silly the second they could all do it on, the more fun we had as a class today we talked about how, with our friends we know on the same level, but on a status seesaw, with one of us helping the other and then them helping us back, or one of us joking that the other and then them joking at us back mocking is a good way for us to show our strength and our warmth, as is helping each other for a community to thrive. No member of the community is a success or a failure. They just have failures and have successes. And sometimes to help people know that it's okay to fail. It helps if we fail. We show our weaknesses that we asked for help. First, do you have a fear of failure? Order. The people around you have a fear of failure. If either of these is true, the chances are that you're not see soaring up and down with your status. Maybe you're holding that top position, and you need to make a demonstration by failing first. Or maybe you're holding that bottom position, and maybe you need to just mock a few people a little bit. Also, take a moment to think about how your brand is personified online or in print. Is it showing up as a person, or is it showing up In either case, think about how you could demonstrate failing first and let's talk about two in the discussion 25. Kill Your Ego: So I'm on camera right now and I'm speaking to maybe 1000 people, depending on how many people What's this course fingers crossed. It might be more like 10,000. Andi, I feel relatively comfortable, certainly a bit nervous, but I remember when I was at university and I first had to stand up in front of my whole course and do a presentation, and I was so scared that I'd written all the notes down so that I wouldn't forget anything . And I'm holding my notes in front of the class on my hands. Start to shake so vigorously I can't even read the words. I'm just a man stood at the front of a classroom, fanning myself with a piece of paper because I can't keep my hands still. Why, we said, terrified of public speaking. Apparently public speaking, is a bigger fear than death. How is that? The reason is because I ego is afraid of dying if we stand in front of people and we lose the mask, the pretend personality that we were our ego thinks it's dead. Our ego thinks it's really it's the equivalent of our physical body jumping out of an airplane. Now the sad thing is egos can't connect with other egos and people can connect with egos. People connect with people. So this layer that we attach around ourselves to keep us defended from any attacks or when we're told were a successful person because we succeeded at one thing. We want to keep that that idea. We want to keep that identity so we make it part of our ego and we stick it around the person inside. That's really, really important for us to be able to chip away at that ego so that we can connect Israel people because if you're with other people, it allows you to be yourself. And it's saying, I respect you and you respect me and who isn't engaged in that This is very, very motivating when you can shop as yourself and make decisions as yourself and feel comfortable entrusting in the people around you. Certain companies have started doing what they call five minutes of fun before a long meeting on what they do is sell for five minutes. They'll play a silly, silly game that will get them out of their heads on and makes them look ridiculous. on makes allow them to make mistakes in front of each other. And by doing this five minute little exercise when they go into the meeting, people have taken that ego off. That ego is no longer in the room there, showing up as themselves at anyone who's been a long business meeting will know that a lot of people say things just to look smart, and that can wait 20 minutes. And then another person says something just to try and defend themselves because they made a mistake and they don't want to admit it. And this could take another 20 minutes on the entire meeting and be wasted on people's egos throwing things around, ravenous, being able to communicate with people and build something together. Obviously, this works well in the classroom, and it could work well online as well. If you're willing to show up as a person in your online community than so will your customers, and if we're trying to motivate people to do something, it's about letting them have that choice. If they authentically not their ego. But the authentic person inside is making a decision, then they'll always be motivated to do it and they always be engaged in the task. So in this video, we learned that our egos have a fear of death that is a strong as our physical Selves fear of death, for connection, toe work, though we need to kill this ego off and we can destroy this ego or take it down a notch by looking silly and allowing ourselves to fail. So for this video, I want you to think about the people that you're trying to engage in trying to motivate and how they're showing up in the physical or the online community. Are they showing up with their ego and is their ego trying to hold on to that top seat of the status seesaw? If so, what physical or online activity could you do to let them kill off their eager to help them have a bit of silly fun? And let this the person inside who desperately wants to be free of that, that ego break out and have some fun 26. Finding Community: we learn more about each other in one hour of play than we do in a whole year of conversation Now we learned in the last section that for people to really connect, they had to be themselves. It had to be an authentic thing for them to connect. And this section is all about community. And I think community is probably the most important module here, because in our modern day world we can get some autonomy that certain things we get to be in control of a lot of things. We can get mastery. We can learn a musical instrument or after a sport in our free time. And there's so many options for us to think of something to master. And there's so many different areas where we can try and find meaning and trying to find stories to get involved in like games. But community is actually one of the ones at the lower end of that hierarchy of needs. It's the one that we crave the most because of our phones on our busy lifestyles that we pretend that we have. We actually don't have much opportunity to really connect with each other and when we do, It's no always a genuine, authentic connection. Maybe it's a Facebook conversation, maybe which wearing toe battle for some kind of social dominance, And it's not a genuine, honest connection. So in many ways, community is the most powerful of all of these, because is the thing that people are lacking the most. So love and belonging or community is actually quite far down the hierarchy of needs compared to this other stuff. Yet in our modern day world, it's actually the thing which we lack the most. Now take a moment to just reflect personally on situations when you're not around people who are happy to be on a status ceaser with you, people who either act quite submissive or they act quite more important and think about how it actually effects your impulsive behavior, and you might go search for dopamine releases elsewhere. For May I remember starting university and having lots and lots of friends around or what I believed were friends at the time. But I seem to want a drink while off alcohol, which suggests that perhaps I wasn't getting the dopamine releases from the community and I needed to seek them elsewhere open discussion, and I know this is quite a personal one, so if you don't want to share, that's fine. But please make sure you spend some time thinking about it. 27. Loneliness Epidemic: There's lots of reports in the news at the moment about how people have gained bristly, lonely. They call it like a loneliness epidemic. It's not far off for we've been brought up to believe this idea of survival of the fittest and how it's every man for themselves and you have to fight and be the best. But actually, if you read Charles Darwin's origin of Species, he mentioned Survivor the fittest about twice, and he mentioned the importance of community and compassion and connection all throughout book. So it's probably safe to say that even the scientists believe that we need community. But really, let's look at our genuine physical Selves. We get hunger, so we know we need food and we get thirst. So we knew we need water. What? Loneliness is actually painful. We feel the pain of loneliness, and this is what tells us we need to connect to human beings. It makes us feel safe because back in prehistoric times we would have had to be in a community because different people may have different skills that they can taunt, contributes, and if we got attacked, we could defend ourselves. It was a way that we knew we could survive in a group, so we're naturally hardwired to require that connection and for that connection, to be trusting. It can't just be people around us. It needs to be a thing. We genuinely feel Israel and is beneficial to our survival. But unfortunately is a bit of a stigma around saying that you're lonely. If someone said they were hungry, you'd say, Well, let's get some food But if someone said I'm lonely, everyone would want to run away It's It's a scary thing for people to say, which makes it actually harder for people. And if we look at the statistics, the number one cause of premature death causing 45% of premature deaths is loneliness, whereas only 30% is drinking and only 20% it's to do with obesity. And when you remember what we spoke about earlier about how if people aren't getting the dopamine releases by reaching their goals, one of which is community, then they might turn to drinking and just increase the amount of drink they're taking so that they can get more and more dopamine releases. Or they could use sugar and just keep increasing the amount of sugar they're taking in, so they keep getting increasingly more dopamine releases to cover up where they're lacking and reaching their goals like community. So there's a fair chance that the reason that people are drinking and eating too much is also to cover up the lack of community that they feel. The thing is, when we feel like we're under attack or we're out on our own, we actually our brains trick into a different kind of mode of thinking where we look for aggression and we try and defend from it. And when our brains in a defensive mode, it makes it hard for us to help others and actually make genuine connections. And even when we're sleeping, our body will be producing more quarters all so that if we get attacked in the night, we can jump up and defend ourselves, which will increase the stress levels. Makers get less sleep, make us less possible for connection, and it's a downward spiral from there. But science has proved that a very, very small amount of genuine human connection can snap us back to the real world. We know that connection is one of the really, really important motivators here because we actually feel physical pain when we are no around people. We feel lonely and we can be around people that were not connected to. And we still feel that lonely. We need to trust the people around us to be rid of the loaning this feeling, and we're quite skeptical off people who say they're lonely. So we're not so readily happy to admit if we're feeling a bit lonely at some point the same as would be happy to admit that we feel hungry sometimes certainly not with people that we don't trust so much. But a few seconds of genuine human connection can actually snap us out of this feeling on Bring us back to the real world maker. See things how they really are Now Today's homework is a little personal again, so feel free to just write it down. If you don't want to share it, I want you to take a look at your Facebook feed. I want you to look at your acquaintances, people that you met on holiday. Once on, people used to work with and notice how on the outside everything seems to look like They're having a great time, and they're always really, really happy. But look at some of their comments and see if you can maybe read between the lines a little . And actually, maybe they're desperately reaching out for some connection. But they just don't want to say that they're feeling lonely at that point. And also perhaps look for some of those impulsive, addictive behaviors that we talked about right at the start, of course. 28. Let Them Help: The important thing with connection and community is it's not about quantity. It's about quality, people who feel lonely. We've done brain scans on lonely people on people who feel connected and found that if someone feels lonely and they're showing a picture of someone in danger, they have less brain activity. They feel less empathy because they're in. They're in survival mode. They're worried about self preservation that can't help others. There's a game called Farmville, and I believe it's a Facebook game. It may still be a Facebook game, and people build on online farm and they tend to their crops and they build a bigger farm when they get more money. Now a lot of people in this game actually spend more of their time hoping other people they would actually donate some crops to another farm. And it's a way of connecting with their Facebook friends. They can, they can say, Look, I want to help you with something on, although it's just a game. Although it's just some crops or a pretend little drawing of a cow, it makes people genuinely feel more connected, and we know this because we know that when people feel connected, they're more likely to help others. And when someone is helped in the game Farmville, they're more likely to spend more time helping others. And when we feel we're contributing, this is when we feel most connected. Of all. There's a thing called the Benjamin Franklin Effect. Benjamin Franklin found that if he asked people for help, they would become a friend quicker. He could ask an enemy to help him with something, and they would soon become a friend. The thing is similar to how people like to give their advice to validate their existence, and it helps build them up. People like to help others, so if you ask someone for help, it helps build that connection. And the best thing you can ask someone to help with is advice, because it allows them to put something of their authentic self in. So when we ask people for advice, they feel more connected and they feel the better sense of community. One of the rial building blocks, one of those genuine intrinsic reward systems, is about contributing to a community not just being in a community, but being part of the community on helping contribute towards it, So when someone receives help, it brings them back to the real world. In a way, it lets them lower their defenses, and it makes them more likely to go out and help others. And it creates a general culture of helping, and people genuinely like us more if we let them help very much like how, if we fail first and allow people to take the higher seat on the state a seesaw, they can feel more of a sense of connection and feel more like on the same level. So have a think about the community or the people that you're trying to engage in, motivate and think about where you could ask for their help, either helping you or helping another member of the community. As an example, I was once working at a company on We needed a logo for a new product. I told everyone in the company to submit a simple sketch of an idea they had for a logo and then let everybody vote on what was their favorite. And this let everybody contribute to the idea of a logo and contribute their votes for what they thought was the favorite, which made the company feel more engaged in the process of developing this product, see if you can think of some other ideas on mention them in the comments. 29. What's Stopping Us Been Us?: When I first started teaching improvisational acting classes to help people kind of self grow and get out of their shell, I realized that it also helped build a great community because people could show up authentically as themselves on. One thing I won't do right at the start is I would ask people, What is it you're scared off of just getting up and saying anything in front of people? And there's a few different things that people chose. But one of them, Waas, I'm worried I might look stupid, so I thought, Well, let's get over that. If we if we make sure everyone looks stupid, then no one's worried about looking stupid, so I would force everyone to get out there and do something really, really daft. And it's quite interesting because going back a few years before that, when I first talked in kindergarten classes English, I would try and make the the classes really engaging because kindergarten is like herding sheep. They will go anywhere and their brains a crazy active. So I wanted to be doing lots of jumping around acting things out. I like to teach things like animals because we could act like the animals and jump around the class. And I found the even Children as young as three or four have already got these barriers in place where they don't want to look stupid to make, to make it okay and make them feel safe to look stupid. First of all, the teacher had to look stupid if I would jump around the room like a frog. All of the Children wanted to join in, but until I had done it, they didn't want to look stupid. It takes, it takes up, won t begin that process. Someone needs toe jump in and drop their ego first to allow the rest of the community toe detect part. And what better way of contributing to your community than being the 1st 1 to look stupid? The other things that I found really stopped people in inhibited them from being spontaneous and saying the first thing that came into their heads was that people were worried about offending someone. And we know from the banter stuff before that. If you're if you're saying what's authentically true to you, then there's nothing offensive about that. People really connect what's true about something and Another thing was that people were worried that they would get it wrong or it wouldn't be the best or the clever of star the funniest response. But we know that that kind of worrying about failure is just because they don't feel comfortable in entrusted in that environment. I find the things that really allow people to be creative on, to be motivated and engaged is if they feel it's safe to look stupid. So encouraging stupidity and playfulness and creativity is what's really going to help people get engaged and motivated in anything. If you're trying to just encourage yourself a drink, more water, if you can make the way that you do it a bit funny and a bit silly, or the way you reward yourself a bit silly, it's much, much more enjoyable because we really feel alive when we get to drop our egos so much like how sometimes people need you to fail first, or the social proof experiment where people are more likely to do something someone else is done. Sometimes you need to take the lead first, when it's somewhere something where people might look a little strange. We generally worry about looking wrong or strange or offending people and generally look to others to see how we should be acting. When we create a culture where it's OK for people toe act as themselves, then that worry is removed on were more likely to do things if we can do it in our own creative, fun way, which involves a community, how could you encourage the people in the community? You're trying to motivate and engage to do things in a more creative and fun way? The website Chore Wars that we looked earlier suggests that people get more points if they take the rubbish out without anybody seeing them or silently, or if they can do a specific task in a short space of time. Then they get more points for that, and it makes it a very fun, creative challenge. At my current place of work, we use a business social network to communicate with each other, and there's a strong culture of using silly animated GIFs to express your point, and it makes people really enjoy coming back there to the community. So what ways could you use this technique in your community? Have a think on. Let's talk about it in the discussion 30. Building Our Engagement Plan: Part One: so we have all the information we need, and we're just about ready to create I engagement plans Before we do. I wanted to remind you of a couple of psychology points from the absolute beginning. These going to help make sure that our engagement ideas relate back to what naturally motivates people. If you remember right at the start, we talked about Skinner's box, and Skinner used to put rats in boxes and give them food pellets when they pushed the button. And if they stop pushing the button, he stopped giving them food pellets. But sometimes he would give them food pellets at a random time. Based on a completely random push of the button, they would get food pallets. And if you did that when he stopped giving them food bullets, they would keep pressing the bottom for more time because they were still expecting some food to come. This is because we naturally crave random events. We in nature, things are naturally uniform. They happen at random times on one way. That someone's used this to their advantage was in Stockholm, where they used a speed camera that would find people for going above the speed limit through it. But also, if people went below the speed limit, they were entered into a lottery where they would win the fines for the day. This really encouraged people to stop speeding along this stretch of road. Now you could argue that this is trying to buy. They're trying by their motivation, but not really, because if you don't speed through the speed camera, then you're going to save the money from the fine anyway, So you're already sit saving money. You're making money by not speeding through that speeding camera. But the random event of the game of who wins that jackpot each day is very motivating, and this gives people a dopamine bus. Another point I'd like to remind you off right now is that we crave variety. We need a variety of food. This means that we need to move to different places to get different food. So we like a variety of environments to a certain extent. If we tried too much food and we tried to many environments, it's not safe. So we require a certain amount of variety. This is the website daily challenge from you health, and they have a Siris of different educational tracks, which you go on for 30 days to conquer clutter or learn about eating habits or emotional enrichment, for example. And if I just look at my challenge for today, it's given me the daily challenge of spending 10 minutes being creative right to take photos or think of a way to reinvent an old dish. And tomorrow I'm gonna have an entirely different task, which is also going to help me learn to be more creative in some way. And the idea is that you have a tractor thing you're aiming towards, but it gives you a completely different task each day that you don't know what that task is until that day. So it's a little surprised there's a certain amount off random event there as well, but its variety. I'm working towards this goal with very different tasks each day, and this is one of the things that keeps us naturally motivated because in nature we crave that variety. So now we're ready to start filling in our engagement plan, take out a single piece of paper and split it into four boxes. We're going to fill in each of these four boxes with all of the ideas we've had and we've written in the notes and we've discussed throughout the last four modules of this course. But as you do it, think about these last two points. If we can get a random event or some kind of variety into this task, it's going to really, really help motivate people. So, first of all, in the top left box, look at your notes for mastery and think about all the stuff we talked about in mastery all the stuff about giving feedback about the importance of goals and rules. Think about the boss fight, where they bring together all that they've learned so far for one epic win. Think about reward loops and how you can develop multiple reward loops so people are working towards more than one goal. It's a time to keep them involved. Next, look through all of your notes on meaning and think about inspiring or in people. Think about how count serving had the idea of hours of connection to motivate people, and it made their employees feel more motivated and think about what the story is around, what you're trying to do and how you can create a story in the bottom left box. Think about autonomy. Look through all your notes and I'm toe autonomy and think about how you can let people be themselves and let them contribute. How can you listen to people? Give them the potential to fail? How can you make sure that your status seesaw is moving back and forwards, and no one's creating too big an ego and in the bottom right box? Look through all of your notes of Reston about community and how. How can you make this playful and enjoyable for people? How can they show up as their authentic self so that they can connect to riel people and not have some shallow, loose connections? So fill in or for office boxes? As much as you can get as many ideas and thoughts of how you can use thes four intrinsic motivators to engage your people, the more time you spend on this, the better so really, really fill it in with as many ideas as you can on when you're done, move on to the second video, your engagement plan, Part two 31. Building Our Engagement Plan: Part Two: now, as you are filling in the first stage of your engagement plan, you no doubt were reluctant to put some things down. Thinking about the type of person who you're trying to motivate, you're trying to engage, and that's fair enough. But really, there's only three different kinds of people out there, and this is different aspects of ourselves who are more dominant at different times. A child's more controlled by there's of emotional, impulsive self, whereas an adults more controlled by their intellectual self. Burt's essentially we we both still have these aspects of ourselves, and an adult still has that childish kind of emotional, impulsive aspect of themselves. And it's actually stronger because it's more repressed and a child does obviously have intellect as well as anyone who's work with Children. All know there could be more smart than us, sometimes in a chip and Dan Heaths Books switch. They talked about the elephant, the rider and the path as the three different areas that you need to try and motivate to cause change management. And the elephant is essentially the emotional, childish side of us, and the rider is the intellectual side. On the path is the environment so the writer can control the Elefant, obviously, but only for so long. If the Elefant feels it's bean to controlled by the rider and it's not getting getting to do anything playful and it's not getting to act upon those emotional aspect of itself, it can run away. It can take control, and it could just run off and do its own thing. And the path just helps guide the two of them and makes it easier for them to get from a to B. Let's take the example of trying to quit smoking. You can intellectually know that it's bad for your health, and so you should not be smoking cigarettes. But if that emotion emotional, childish part of you hasn't been humbled to be playful it all during the day, it's going to want an emotional outburst. And the reason that we smoke is because of some emotional connection from advertising or from experience that we had in the past with friends whilst smoking. It's an emotional activity, so trying to just explain to the intellect that smoking is bad is not going to motivate someone to stop smoking. And then, if you think about the path. If there are cigarettes on the show on the table in front of you and you're trying to quit , it's going to be much easier to pick one up and start smoking. But if you have to go into another room and go through a cupboard or something, then it's going to be harder. So there's Mawr barriers to make you think about what you're doing. So let's look back at our engagement plans. Yours is going to look quite different to what I have on the screen right now because you're going to have words written all over it. All these ideas you've had throughout this whole course about how you can use the intrinsic motivators of mastery. Teoh engage people more. You'll have all these different ideas were in down there. Now I want you to go through each of these individual ideas and try and identify if it's motivating someone's emotional self. The Elefant. If it's motivating the intellectual self, the rider, or if it's about affecting the environment, the the path. So go ahead and just pause the video and write down a little e, a p or an R next to every single one of those. Now you're going to notice it's a little bit elefant heavy. Let's say this is partially because that original hierarchy of needs that we talked about this is what's naturally motivating Teoh humans, the animals inside of us. Our intellects are always that smart, and what I intellects think we want is normally security above all else. So we're not going to have that much intellect on there. But we could have a few path things to do with community to do with the milestones, the rules. This is all about the environment around us. If you found that like most people, you may have only one or two things which relate to the intellect or not at all, then why not just turn over the sheets and ignore these call intrinsic motivators and just think about how you can better explain to the intellect and explain and control the environment? Toe better motivate. So now you should have your full original intrinsic motivators. Mastery, meaning autonomy and community all fill them with all the ideas throughout this course and a few thoughts on the back of how you can better explain to people the importance off doing the task you're trying to engage them in and how you could perhaps affect the environment to make it easier for them to accomplish the task. 32. Building Our Engagement Plan: Part Three: now remember the game Who wants to be a Millionaire now? A couple of things about this game. First of all, obviously, there's autonomy. We talked about it in the autonomy section. There's mastery because you move up different levels. You get more money each time. As you get more questions, you you move up. There is actually an element of community because you phone a friend at some point and to phone a friend, you have to have a pre arranged with several friends who you could possibly phone at the time. So you've already spoken to your friends, and there will in it for you there watching the show as you're on, and and I imagine quite a lot of your other friends would choose to tune in. But also there's meaning. There's no story around it, but it's a very or inspiring event, the everything about it building or very much like Stonehenge or the pyramids. It's an event that you'll remember for the rest of your lives, and if you were in the audience, you would feel that because of how they drag out the suspense and make it will very meaningful. But also it's incredibly simple. Now take out your engagement plan again. It's gonna look something like this, but with a lot more words on. And now you're gonna have a little ease and ours written a liver as well, and this is kind of gonna work as a brain storm. At this point, you're going to go through each of these and cross a lot of them out and choose your absolute favorite what you believe is the most powerful one thing from each of these sections. So, for example, if we're talking about the meaning and we're trying to appeal to adults who are quite intellectual, then it's gonna be quite similar to Who wants to be a Millionaire. And we're not going to have a story so much as try and build. Or so perhaps the idea of a story we would cross out at that point. And ideally, we're gonna end up with one thing in each of these boxes. If none of those things have an R next to them or api next of them, then switch over to the other side of this sheet and just ensure that you are going to appeal to their intellect and you are going to control their environment in some way to make it easier for them to achieve the task. So you should have maybe six points at most. If you did choose to perhaps have two for one of these sections because there's two things you really, really liked. Then you may have eight at the absolute most, you're gonna have eight points. And these are very personal to the activity that you're trying to engage and motivate yourself, your community, the world to achieve. So I can't really give you much more help than this. Unless you add this to the discussion, you're just gonna add your your 4 to 8 bullet points off what you're going to do to try and motivate and engage your community. And the more you can link these together, the better. And there it is. This is your engagement plan. But finally I want to leave you with a really, really important point. Back in the very first video, I mentioned Gamification. Now I avoided using the word Gamification throughout the course because it's a bit of a buzzword that some people have really cheapened down to just meaning Let's stick a leaderboard somewhere. But if we think about what it actually means, three idea of turning something into a game now games of the most engaging thing that people have ever come up with. But what makes up a game? Let's take a look. There are four things that differentiates a game from a task on the four things that you need to make something a game. Our feedback rules goals on one of a thing Now. We talked about feedback, rules and goals in the mastery section, so we were already quite well up on this. But the final thing we need to make something a game is from the autonomy section, and it's optional. It is not a game if you force someone to do it, and it's not engaging if you force someone to do it the second we tell someone, this is what you have to do. All the engagement we've built up is lost. I remember two different managers. I usedto have it. Two different companies earlier on in my career on one used to call me into a meeting and say, Here's all the ideas I've had. Go away and do them and the other manager used to call me into a room and say This is the project that we need doing. This is all the aspects that we need to work on. How can you help? And you can guess which of the two managers engaged me and motivated me most to go away and do my work on which job I left within here. So go ahead. Let the master it's make it meaningful. Let them build authentic communities and let them choose. 33. Examples: It has bean over three years since I recorded the original course, and I'm coming back to add some videos. So this next section, maybe in a slightly different style to the rest of it, I've had some absolutely fantastic feedback and reviews from some of you. So thank you very much for those, but even bigger, thanks to the people who have given me some recommendations and feedback of things to add one of the most common being a section off examples. Most of these examples apply to software or applications, but hopefully you can use them as inspiration for other areas. And please write to me and let me know how you're using the skills you've learned in this course. I would love to know. So this next section is, um, quick fire examples that you can come back to and use as a reference. I will explain why each of them works or does not work, and there will be a couple of tidbits off new information. So let's get started 34. Examples: Games: way. Talk too much about examples off Gamification. I wanted to give you an example of a game controversial. I know when you watch two people play a tennis match, that match is split into sets. Each of those sets are split into games that are made up of points. This might seem a little pretentious. Why can't the to people just hit the ball backwards and forwards count all the points? And then whoever gets the most points wins because that's not much of a game, is it? That's a tennis test. The person who's best that tennis will win the game by adding these games up into sets and then adding those sets up into the final match. There's always a possibility that the underdog can come back. They never that far behind. They can just get a bit lucky. That means not only is the winner or was ultra focused, they need to stay on the ball. The loser always feels just a little bit back a little bit behind. They could just about breakthrough. It also means it's not really fair. You might be the better tennis player and lose a match of tennis and it's that dynamic that keeps us watching and playing sports. I believe football is really popular or soccer, depending on where you're from. Because underdogs regularly win, the best team in the world can lose because they just conceived one single goal, one tiny slip up somewhere in the game. It's not very fair, but that's what makes it a game. Most of the time, the tennis player will win a match, But not all of the time. Since I originally recorded this course, I've seen more and more online courses or books or articles about Gamification that have commonly missed the point. If an application and some points, some badges and some leaderboards, and every time someone does a task, they get some points. And when they do enough tasks, they get a badge and then they're in a leaderboard with all the other people and their higher because they got the most points. That's not a game. There's no game there at all. If you take a dice out and you roll the dice and you get a five and then you put the dice away, you didn't just play a game. You just rolled the dice points badges and leaderboards are gaming elements. There is no gaming mechanism behind them, unless you and one throughout this course I've provided you with some of the psychology points that can help create a gaming mechanism. If that game happens to have a leaderboard, so be it. Tennis has a leaderboard, but that is a gaming element that is not creating a game. If people take a quiz and get points for answering the questions correctly, they just took a quiz. They didn't play a game. Seeing yourself the top of the leaderboard is unquestionably motivating, but seeing yourself at the bottom is very demotivated. Providing someone with a badge because they completed 10 tasks feels good because we can't differentiate between a physical world reward in a digital one. But then the person feels like they did the tasks to get the badge and not because they want to do the tasks and they'll be less likely to do them in future. Because off cognitive dissonance towards the start of the course, I had a special video about Skinner's box about how we become addicted to and love random events. It provides the element of chance the underdog can still win a game of tennis. It's that element of chance. Very few of the examples I'm about to give you half that element of chance and therefore can't really be called Gamification. I'm talking about motivational strategies, really, For the most part, points, badges and leaderboards don't really come under either of these. They're gaming elements that might help how a little bit from time to time. But as we just talked about, they can actually reduce our motivation. I can tell you, from actual classroom experience as a teacher that the leaderboard thing is terrible. Some students are in the bottom half and will always be in the bottom half. Don't ruin their motivation. Some students don't even have to try that Hard to be in the top half don't ruin their motivation. Giving people badges because they completed a task is telling them they did the task for the badge and not because they wanted to reducing the chance of doing them in future. Don't ruin their motivation. The following examples are a mixture off Gamification and other engagement techniques. Points, badges and leaderboards are neither of these things 35. Examples: Feedback: feedback is essential to relate goals to activities. For example, going for a run. We need the feedback off, seeing us feel healthier and losing weight to make us motivated to go for a run in future. Everybody's had bathroom scales for decades now, and yet somehow we're all overweight. So the feedback alone isn't quite solving that problem between eating the doughnuts and seeing the weight. Come on, this is quite a bit of a gap. You might have to eat quite a few donuts before you see a difference, so the feedback isn't related enough to the activity. Fitbit reward people for taking a certain number of steps a day and even reward people for ensuring they take a certain number of steps every hour. The instant feedback massively improves our self control. We don't actually see the improvements in our health or in our bodies from the 10,000 steps we took today, but we can see a meaningful number and we can see that we're mastering our ability to take lots of steps in a single day. However, once our motivation has moved over to getting this big number in our Fitbit app, and not that feel good feeling we get from doing exercise. We're now Mawr inclined to stop exercising. When we miss a couple of days, we start feeling bad about not completing our step challenges for the day. And the reason we were stepping was to get that Fitbit score and not to feel good anymore. The instant feedback is essential, but I feel like Fitbit have polluted it with a lack of understanding about some of the stuff we've talked about with progress bars and badges. Another issue to look out for with instant feedback is that it's not too often there's a thing called myopic loss aversion. Myopic loss aversion taught us that people will do worse at trading shares. If they see the value of the share every single day rather than maybe once a month, the value of any share will fluctuate wildly between one day and the next. There will be crashes and surges that make people have an emotional response about their money being invested there. These surges and crashes are anomalies that are normally ironed out over the course of a month, so you will just see the shares gradually rise. This could just as easily applied to something like your weight, which wildly fluctuates every day for many different reasons. If you start going on a diet, it will crash very fast and then completely stopped dropping at all. Weighing yourself once a month would actually give you more accurate results as to how your overall diet and exercise regime is going so instant feedback is essential, but continuous feedback is probably a negative. There's a possibility that Fitbit might actually do better if it kept all the data to itself and just told us you've had a good workout today. Here's a reward on the days where we do have a good workout. Another example that people bring up all the time is right back on Joe lingo again. Sorry, Joe lingo Joe Lingo have a fluency score. It's a nice metric for how close to mastery you are might keep people motivated to keep pushing on. However, the real world feedback off going into a bar in Barcelona when it says your 80% fluent and finding out you're probably closer to about 5% Fluent is a massive de motivation. The feedback duo lingo is giving us about how close to mastery we are is nowhere near the real world feedback we actually get, and that is a de motivator. So we need instant feedback to relate the goal to the activity. But that feedback has to be accurate, or it could be potentially very de motivating. And to completely contradict that point, getting continuous feedback may just highlight anomalies and not give us an idea of how we're actually doing. So We need to be very careful that we're giving someone instant feedback. That's also honest feedback. But it's on something that actually isn't gonna fluctuate too much. This is a very big challenge for you. 36. Examples: Multi Sensory Feedback: this'll is an application I've been playing with a little bit recently. Called Elevate. It helps us hone our math skills and improve our writing and reading skills. Toe. Get them to a really advanced level. Now it splits them into really, incredibly easy little tasks, and some of them are like word association. Which of these two words is associate ID to this one word, But it adds all this extra sensory information so guessing, which is the word most closely related, means that this space rocket will fly a little bit faster and keep it away from the bottom of the screen. This adds a level of meaning to the task by making it. We're trying to stop this space rocket from crashing when we complete a short task to get all this different feedback about how smart it thinks we are now and have we improved or unimproved. This is quite meaningful to because it's not pretending we've improved just cause we used the ATM or sometimes actually goes down. So it's genuine feedback about how well we did today. We do know that this means some days we're just gonna do worse. That myopic loss aversion issue means that means we might give up on the app at the wrong time because our stats are doing worse. But that's a risk they've decided to take. And I think it was worth taking. Now, when we get all these tasks, we end up in lots of different reward loops that we'll talk about next. But we're also going that instant. Feedback on what's interesting is it's a multi sensory feedback. There's no only a cool animation. There's also sounds, and it's very bright and fun. Now when we get those good sounds and those good animations, we relate them to the feeling off accomplishment we got from completing the task on. Then, when we complete future tasks, we get a double feeling of achievement because those sounds and animations remind us of the previous successes. Just showing the score at the end would make this app really boring and would give up on it very quickly. But now, just like the animals in Skinner's Box, we relate the feeling of achievement, of improving our mastery to the sounds and animations that the APP shows us. When we accomplished something positive feedback or reinforcement should not just appeal to our intellect into tap into our emotions to and we're going to please our emotions with sights and sounds with a multi sensory feedback approach just like this elevator up. 37. Examples: Progress Bar: probably the most common example off Gamification is the Progress bar on linked in the Progress by is popular because it's so easy to measure linked in have told us that since they added this Progress bar to tell people how complete their profile is, the number of people who have gone on to complete their profiles has gone up by a huge amount. They have since created all kinds of extra features around it, like telling you exactly what you need to do next to move the Progress bar along a little bit. But why does this motivate us? Apart from maybe a small feeling of mastery that we've perhaps improved slightly improving our profile, there isn't really an intrinsic motivator here. In fact, there's something quite different to anything else we've looked at. When we have an incomplete task, a certain amount of our mental energy stays. With that incomplete task, we have open tasks in our brain. We need to remember stuff about that task. There's a little niggly feeling. Oh, I must complete my linked in profile. The Progress Bar is a brilliant visual cue. It's like a full stop saying you're done with this task you've completed it. As best as anybody who works at LinkedIn expects it to be completed, you can now free up that part of your mental energy again and use it on something else. So we're motivated to fill up this progress bar because then we can alleviate that part of our mental energy we were using on this task. Now this means that a progress bar could have a potentially negative effect in the wrong situation. Bloomers Organic was a Russian psychologist who noticed that waiters working in a cafe in Russia would have a photographic memory of customers orders which weren't yet complete. Once a customer had paid their bill on left the cafe, the waiter would almost instantly forget what they had ordered, just like the linked in profile the part of their brain that was nagging them about. You must complete your linked in profile. You must remember this customer's orders could now be relieved and rest. We call this the Cigar Nick Effect. Now, if we look at this Progress bar on Joe lingo, you'll see that once I've completed foods one once this progress bar around foods one has completed, I can then rest that part of my brain that was remembering. I needed to work on that or remembering the tasks in it. This gives me a good feeling I can rest part of my brain. I feel good. I'm motivated to do that. Unfortunately, it means we also forget the words in food one. Here, Joe Lingo have helped motivate us to spend more time studying by pushing to get his progress bars complete. But unfortunately, as a result, it's made are studying worse progress Bars are a phenomenal tall to motivate people to complete a simple task, but should never be used if we want them to take something away from the task, for example, in education. 38. Examples: Multiple Feedback : if somebody is trying to complete a long task, may be one that takes several days, and they were showing a progress bar. Remember what we talked about right at the start of the course about cognitive dissidence? Their reasons for completing this task are less about the intrinsic motivations that brought them there on and now Maura, about completing this Progress bar. It is essentially eroding their motivation the same way that giving my students lollipops eroded their motivation to do their homework. Now this is fine for a short task, but for a longer task, there's a possibility they might give up half way and go. Oh, I don't even care about this Progress bar anyway and stop doing the task, which they may have actually completed if the Progress Bar didn't exist. A tall kind of like my students homework with their lollypop rewards. So progress bars are grateful, short, small tasks. But what if people are trying to accomplish a long task? Well, we could break it into a Siri's off smaller progress bars. But then there's the possibility that once one is complete, they will take a break and never come back. Let's look at Joe lingo again, but this time for something they've done very well. Joe Lingo has a Siri's off different loops, a Siris of different progress bars, but they overlap in different ways. We do have these short progress bars for each subject, but we simultaneously have our daily goal progress bar running somewhere in the background . Imagine the example that you have completed food one for the day. You've completed one of the micro subjects, but you haven't yet completed your daily goal. You're gonna stay on studying until your daily gold progresses complete, by which time you'll be halfway through the next subject, and you might as well stay a little bit longer to complete that subject to multiple reward loops are overlapping progress bars. So when one progress bar is complete, another one is close to completion, keeping us staying a little bit longer. This can unintentionally make our tasks slightly more addictive, and sometimes these are called compulsion loops, so be careful of going over the top with two money progress bars 39. Examples: Continual Progress : one off my favor. Applications at the moment is a simple Pomodoro application called forest. If you don't know what Pomodoro means, it's where you set yourself a 25 minute timer and refused to be distracted for those 25 minutes who work intensely for 25 minutes and then you can take a five minute break. Forest ensures you don't use your phone or visit certain websites on your laptop. Whilst you're in this 25 minute, intense working period for every 25 minutes you complete, you see a little tree grow in your forest. Now this is your reward. This is your feedback that you did well and it's a unique feedback, so it's going to stick in our memories more. Remember what we said about multi sensory feedback, but it also gives us a sense of autonomy because we can choose these kind of trees. And as we get better or further into the app, we can unlock different trees, too. So really, it's just showing us the feedback, and it's sort of like a progress bar. Two. We get more trees than more focusing we've done, but now there's a sense of autonomy to because we can decide what tree we want to try and plant next as we complete a 25 minute task uninterrupted and stay on focus with developing on our ability to focus intensely, a skill that people are losing rapidly and is massively valuable today. What could be a more mastery worthy skill than being able to focus for 25 minutes? So each of these trees shows are improved mastery of focus on. We can compare each plot of trees to the day before, but it's in no way saying, Well done, you did better this day or worse. This day is just showing us our feedback, showing us that we've done well for several days in a row. And then forest app went and put the icing on the cake and gave us a really meaningful reward to, which is that they will plant riel life trees, depending on how well we do as a group. So we have the autonomy to choose. The trees were seeing this beautiful feed back. We have the meaning because they're planting these trees for us. We're mastering one of the most useful skills today. Then they went and added a feature where we can do it as a group so people can do the same 25 minute focus time as a team, whether they're in the same room or even if they're distributed. You could have a study, buddy the other side of the world and you both use the forest app at the same time toe. Hold each other accountable on build on your sense of community by doing these poor adoro timers together. What is essentially just a beautiful way of showing us a progress timer actually ticks every single box for us making an engaging platform. If you only check out one app, I urge you to check out the forest app. The makers of forest app have recently come back with a new breakthrough sleep town. This stops people from using their phone between the time they go to bed and the time they wake up. But this time the APP will be building a new building in our town whilst we sleep instead of planting a tree, unlocking more buildings, the better we get at not playing with our phone in our sleep allows us Mawr autonomy as we improve at sleeping. The simple act of making a progress bar or giving feedback could be turned into everything that we require in a game in one go just like forest app or sleepy town. The feedback can be made beautiful and memorable, but we can also make it part of a community. We could make it meaningful, we can master it and we can have a level of autonomy. Please check out these APS. 40. Examples: Loss Aversion: Theo. Last app I showed you was called Forest App, and there's one feature I didn't tell you about because I wanted to save it for this video . If you failed to complete a Pomodoro timer. If you accidentally go on YouTube in the middle of the 25 minutes or you make a phone call , then you will end up with a dead tree in your forest, which will make it look unsightly and remind you of what a bad person you were on. Old example of this was a Facebook game called Farmville. It became incredibly popular on one of the reasons was, if you didn't log in every day and water your pretend crops in the game, then they would die. The game didn't try and reward people for doing well, although it did that now it was punishing them for not playing. A recent example in The News in the last couple of years is how Snapchat is made very addictive because it forces friends to form a chain where they message each other every day , and if they stop messaging each other, they break that chain. There is some psychology about how we hate losing things we've already earned more than we like earning something of the same value. We just call this loss aversion. If two friends on Snapchat have a 200 day chain, they've got a lot to lose. Now this is a very negative emotion to be making someone feel I don't really condone adding , This is a feature, but this is a technique out there that people are using. There is an app called Jim Packed, which will make you pay for missing a gym session. It gives you a pain that forces you to go. This is pretty much the stick approach to motivation, something which I told you right at the start. I don't agree with this plenty of really engaging techniques we can use The app to do ist gives you comma points for completing your tasks, which you can used for various things inside the application and will punish you if you don't complete your task on time by taking away your precious karma points. It is very motivating, but it's not very pleasant. One technique that many app designers have used from snap chapter to do ist is to punish people for not doing tasks that they want them to do as we know. People will now be doing the tasks to avoid the punishment and not because they wanted to do the task, and it will reduce their desire to work on it in future. 41. Examples: Currency: It's like a chore wars. Or more recently, we've had a bitter car bounty task or fit ocracy. These absolute as have a fantasy character in the game. We get to name it. We get to decide what they wear. Even this gives us a great sense of autonomy. It makes us feel more connected to the task with doing If a teacher can find some way to relate the class to something that students understand care about or have just chosen, they learned far better. If we're trying to change a habit and we get to just decide what we call the habit that makes us want to change it more. The website super better. One of its riel drives that made it popular was that you get to decide what you call your tasks. I don't think they even called them tasks. She called them quests. When I was a teacher, if we played a team game, the first thing I would do would ask each team what is your team name? If with time, even let them draw a quick logo to stick on the board? That's autonomy. Instant engagement, simply allowing users to choose an avatar can engage and motivate them or to participate if we take habit occur is an example. You unlock this in game currency now, it would be kind of boring if we just said Who has the most currency? That wouldn't be a game at all, But they can trade this currency in for items that their character can use Now. These don't really do anything, but they provide an element of meaning. There's autonomy because the user chose what clothes or what shield or what sword their character in the APP has. One of the things we like about money is we get to decide what we spend it on. Virtual currency is kind of the same. We can decide what we spend it on. It doesn't need to really be useful. It's that act of making that choice that people enjoy. Joe Lingo has an in game currency called Ling Gots. Now these currency can be traded for new lessons or it can be traded for new activities. You can buy new outfits for the little our character, which I think is brilliant. But there's this weird, weird thing where you can buy a streak freeze where they've chained together. How many days in a row you've been practicing and you can freeze it for a day. We've already talked about the problems with cognitive dissonance, where there's two reasons you're learning. One is to achieve The award on one is because you wanted to learn on how your potentially eroding people's intrinsic motivation by having this second thing in place now a streak is absolutely one of those. But you are reinforcing that. That's why they're doing it when you allow them to buy a streak freeze. Essentially trading the in game currency for a excuse to not have to learn for the day is now making not learning a reward. This is again a long term de motivator, and I might be being a bit harsh on Juro lingo yet again. But maybe that's because I've seen so many people say they're going to learn a foreign language and then give up, and it was normally dueling goes fault. There are plenty off game if I task APS like Hobbit tikka or Bounty Tasca, and the rial beauty of these APS is they allow the user a certain level of autonomy, giving them in game currency that they get to decide what they spend it on. That's enough autonomy to keep people coming back and using the APP again. 42. Examples: Gold Card: most airlines offer a gold platinum silver card rewards scheme. Certain frequent flyers get different colored cards and are allowed into different lounges and get different perks on the airplane, the value of the rewards and the perks. It's not really that great if you fly a lot, it's worth having a frequent flyer cards with an airline, so you can unlock those rewards. But why does one person get the gold card and someone else? The platinum? The reason the platinum cardholder just feels a bit more high status. They sharp at the airport and they walk straight into the lounge and they get treated better. Having someone hold the door open for you at an expensive hotel doesn't really mean too much now that we have automatic doors and security systems. But people will pay a premium because they feel high status. Having that they're now, Most of us would probably say they're not that bothered about status at least to each other . But deep down people kind of like that. And although you're not too bothered about having the airlines platinum card, what about loss aversion? What about that when the airline tells you you didn't fly their airline enough, and you can no longer use the lounge. Now you're back with the peasants. Having status might not mean much to you, but losing it off. If you drink at Starbucks a lot, you might have a Starbucks loyalty card, and you get free things and gimmicks with this one of them. You get a free slice of cake on your birthday. That's nice. I can't imagine anybody going out of their way to go to Starbucks to have an individual slice of cake on their own. You probably rather have a big party somewhere fun and share a cake. But you might occasionally find the excuse to go into Starbucks for half an hour earlier in the day and have your slice of cake. Now, when you don't drink enough Starbucks and you lose that cake now you're gonna miss it. It's not really about the cake. It's that feeling where you walk into a coffee shop and get handed a free cake. You feel like you run the place. Walking straight into an airline lounge and showing your platinum card makes you feel like a king. But never forget. Status is an extrinsic reward and by which I mean people will never be satisfied. There will always be a higher status position Foursquare used to make people the king of a specific location because they visited there a lot. The real reason for giving someone status is because you can take it away now they have something to lose. I believe a Starbucks reward card or a platinum frequent flyers card can be great motivators in the short term. But it's not a particularly socially responsible way to motivate people. I would recommend, always steering away from any mechanism which gives somebody a highest status, especially if it is temporary, were trying to trick them to perform activities using negative emotions. People are only going to be okay with that for so long. If you have to resort to sticks and carrots, even know understood these videos 43. Examples: Lottery: with the speed camera lottery. This is probably a very overused example off Gamification, but I think it's a great example. Firstly, a little proof about how instant feedback can motivate us. We've had speed cameras on the road for many years, and if you're in the UK, you get charged something like £30. If you speed through one of these cameras, I've only been caught once myself, but a lot of people still speed through them now. At some point we put up these screens that literally just say what speed you're going as you drive through them. Seems kind of weird because you've already got thing on your dashboard that says What speed you're going. It's just giving you feedback in a slightly novel, different way toe How you're used to seeing it Now this this feedback is mawr effective than the thing where you charge someone £30 for driving through it. Anyone who still doubts that sticks and carrots aren't particularly effective for motivating probably wants to spend some more time thinking about this. But one town in Sweden managed to get us to avoid speeding even more often. They still punish the people who speed through the camera. They get a charge in the post. But now that money goes to pay for a reward. For the people who didn't speed through the camera, well, that's no Gamification, is it? That's just rewarding people for not speeding. But wait. The money was all pulled together for the whole month and put into a lottery where all of the non speeding cars were given an opportunity to win the whole amount. Now there's a random event. Now we know random events are exciting. We're in Skinner's box now. If you regularly drive down this area of road your going toe, always make sure that you don't speed, because now you're increasing the chances that you're gonna hit that jackpot this month. I sincerely hope this didn't force any cyclists to take up driving just to get into the lottery. But now every well intentioned driver in this area has an extra reason to not speed through this camera. There's a great sense of meaning, as together, everybody is making this road safer. Unfortunately, the more safe drivers there are the small of the winning something as simple as giving people a financial reward for doing good can be turned to kind of a game by pulling it together on making it a random event. Who wins it? 44. Examples: Likes: Of course, I can't do a section giving examples off motivational and engagement techniques without talking about the like Button the like button taps into all of our strongest motivators, but probably all the worst motivators to we sort of score points for people approving of our post or a picture. Or are quote. These points rarely go into an actual leaderboard, not when we can see on the application. Anyway. They just give us a temporary status, a status we can easily lose with our next post if it gets less likes. Each, like is social proof, a sign that we have made the community happy. That they approve of us. Making other people happy and approve of us is an extrinsic motivation. It's not inside of us. We can only partially control it, and as such, no amount of approval will ever be enough. The more we have, the more we will crave on addictive cycle. And, of course, nothing is more addictive than a random event. If we have notifications on our mobile phone, we might get events at any minute of the day or night telling us that somebody has approved of us even if we don't have alerts on our phone. When we log into the website, we will see a number and that number is relatively random, telling us what a good job we did of uploading that photograph. They have even been some theories that Instagram will not send you the like exactly when someone clicks the like button, but we'll send it at the perfect interval to get you more hooked in future. It might be a conspiracy theory, but I wouldn't be surprised. So fair. Every item we post on social media, we get a status score. We get a social proof score, depending on how many people thought it was a good move. It's social proof, but it's also public. So it's our status and it's a temporary status. Our next post could be better or worse. We can lose everything if the next post isn't good enough and it's a random event as each of those pings comes through to our phone playing havoc. By the way, with our limbic system and causing us long term stress, we feel good. We get that dopamine rush like we've achieved something more than anything else we know, like buttons are a massively successful way of engaging and motivating people, but also use all of the worst, most negative techniques that we know I would never, ever use these on a platform. 45. Examples: Engagement vs Motivation: e. I hope you find this examples section a useful reference for you to come back to again and again when you need a refresher about Gamification engagement on Motivation. I wanted to leave you with a little bit of food for Fort because I've used engagement on motivation almost interchangeably throughout this whole course. But there are, of course, times when these two things are in direct conflict with each other. Motivation is obviously the thing that makes us do something, and engagement is obviously how engaged we are in the thing once we're doing it. On obvious example is reading Block posts online. The ones that make more people motivated to read them also make people engage with, um, the least. We've known for a while that people are more likely to finish a book online or on a Kindle than they are a riel book, and that they'll remember and engage more with the rial book than the Kindle version. So, using this one example, reading a book on a Kindle or reading the printed book, The thing that motivates us to read Mawr is the thing we engage with least the Kindle. If you see a block post gold. 10 massive conspiracy theories he definitely want to click on It sounds interesting, but also you want to click on it because you know you don't really have to engage that much with the material. It's gonna be quite dumb that duo lingo example from earlier. How the Progress Bar. Actually, it inhibits our learning because the whole advantage of a Progress bar is that once it's complete, our brains can let go of the information. We can free up that mental resource, and that's the exact opposite of what we want to do to learn. Actually, the whole application of Joe Lingo is very motivating. It's very easy to just click on it and take a little five minute course, but it's incredibly on engaging. I've recently been working on a project to help people motivated and engage in language, learning and everybody. Everybody who's learning a language seems to use dueling go there very motivated to put the five minutes in a day, but most of them, it's because they can do it whilst they're watching TV or on a bus or even on the toilet or one person, even in a lecture. People are motivated to use Joe Lingo precisely because it's not very engaging. All of the examples and all of the techniques I've given you should be used in varying amounts. You have to sort of make your own mind up. There's gonna be times when something as basic as engagement and motivation, it's very easy to measure how many people read a block post. It's not so easy to measure how many people engaged fully with the post. It's easy for Joe Linger to measure how many people took one off their classes. It's not so easy for them to measure if they really learn anything from it. Most systems and applications are focused solely on getting people motivated to do the thing, some of them even short term motivation. And that's why points, badges and leaderboards air so popular because if you measure the short term motivation, they do quite well. But if you measured it two weeks later, you would realize that were incredibly unsuccessful. Engagement is much harder to measure, and that means there's probably more opportunities there. You're a business owner, something like that. You might want to consider that your application might do better, focusing on how engaged people are. There's very few things on the market that do that 46. Thank You and See You Soon: Congratulations. You've made it to the end of my course. And thank you so much for taking the time toe. Work your way through this on. Learn how you can motivate and engage yourself better and your community on the world. I really, really hope you enjoyed it. If you have any feedback at all or anything you'd like to recommend, please message, mate. And if you'd like to leave a review or tell others what a good time you've had, please do so I hope to see you again. Another course against it.