Game Animation: The first steps of motion | Rob Munday | Skillshare

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Game Animation: The first steps of motion

teacher avatar Rob Munday, Game Animator

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (46m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Lesson 1: Software Intro

    • 3. Lesson 2: Squash and Stretch

    • 4. Lesson 3: Anticipation

    • 5. Lesson 4: Staging

    • 6. Lesson 5: Straight ahead & Pose to pose

    • 7. Lesson 6: Follow through and overlapping

    • 8. Lesson 7: Slow in Slow out

    • 9. Lesson 8: Arcs

    • 10. Lesson 9: Secondary action

    • 11. Lesson 10: Timing

    • 12. Lesson 11: Exaggeration

    • 13. Lesson 12: Solid Drawing

    • 14. Lesson 13: Appeal

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About This Class

Throughout this class you are going to learn the 12 core animation principles in bite sized easy to understand terms which will be the kicking off point for anyone who may have even a slight interest in animation for games! 

Each section will go into detail relating to that one specific principle as well as a brief software overview to get you started on your way to creating your very first animation for games. I will also be providing links to amazing free rigs, resources and reference along the way.


Meet Your Teacher

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Rob Munday

Game Animator


24 Year old with a massive passion for games, specifically animation. Making characters, creatures and props move is what makes me happiest, continuously striving to learn more, improve myself and my skills to land a role in the industry I crave to be a part of.

Multiple on going projects keep me busy but not busy enough to stop me sharing my passion and hoping I can inspire others!

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1. Introduction: Hi there, everyone. My name is Robert Monday on 25 year old and I am a gay man America. Ever since my second year of university, I was showing animation on. I fell in love with it. I love the way things moved, all of how it was done. I love Disney and Pixar. Anything about motion? I absolutely doll. So if you're watching this video that you are most likely the same, you have shown some interest in animation. You want to know how things are done. So these classes, they're gonna be put together to help you understand how and why these things that don't We're gonna look at the 12 animation principles which put together any piece of animation. Each video will be its own principle and the examples from me and others on the Internet to show you how and why these things I don't an emissions actually, a very personal thing. Me personally, I love doing Katou knee animation. I love the way things can spend in stretch and squash and break. You can break rigs and it'll still look correct. We all know is things differently. Seal, develop your own style of very quickly as long as what you're producing. It looks good, and it looks like it could are. It should work. There's very rarely a wrong way of getting to that point, which is what I love about animation. If you're like me, you can draw. That will be extremely transferrable skill for you, since it could be translated after game, animation very easily will go briefly go through the software available to you and the software that I use, as well as a few of the tools available to you to help you in a minute. And then we were big. Jump into the 12 principles and to help you get on your where Don't forget to share reference throughout the entire process. Just share on discussions. Forum is a picture is a video from again from a film from animated their wares doing moves to the wear. Something feels Does it feel now It's explain why you like it. I'll be doing the same. I'll be posting lots of reference specifically from games because that's what I specialize in that at the end, the class is gonna end with a simple project. It's gonna be open ended is gonna be creative. You're gonna have a lot of room to do what you wish with the skills you've just acquired. And then me and others are gonna help you give you feedback so you can improve. I thank you for listening, and I invite you all to join in my passion that let us begin. 2. Lesson 1: Software Intro: Hi, everyone, and welcome to the first lesson today. So I'm gonna briefly go into the software available to you before we start jumping into the principles. Because obviously you struggle following the class if you don't have a piece of software to do so So we're gonna jump right in with the free software first, which is blender. If you go to blend of dog, you can download this software immediately and get started in modeling. Animation rendering has a lot of good tools which are freely available. I'd recommend using this to follow along with this cast. However I use Mayor, sir, the terms may or may not be different, so I always recommend reading documentation that comes with a software you choose. The next software available is actually Frias. Well, if you are in higher education, so if you are a college or university, you can go to the auto desk education community website. Sign up. So you just it's put your email address on there. You put in a few details regarding your education, where I, the institution Europe and the reason you want the software. And then you can download all software for free with no limitations of. Then you can't make money from anything you create. Obviously, with this class, when I'm gonna be making money, so you have no issues there. I personally use Maya. So I'm gonna quickly go into a few a few tools available in May that get started. Teoh anime. And it's we have some very simple tools. So you have the view part here up to the set centerpieces of you part to never get the view part. You hold all the middle mouse to pan around, keep hold of all left, click to rotate. If you haven't object selected. We've been saying your rotate around the object and hold All right Click. Will Ben zoom once again? If you have AH, object selected, you'll zoom in on the object rather than a random location in the view park. Speaking of objects, if you want to create something, you'll have tabs along the tough. The one way wanting his polygons, they wanted to create sphere. Simple is clicking the part sphere and then click and drag and release. You create this fear. It's nice and easy. Pressing doubly on the keyboard with an object selected ill is the sharp cut for move, so you'll see the object. Low care appear the move. Low care. You can move up and down in its axes, and you can move it all around like that controls that, like most of the programs doesn't do. It holds quail off history. So if you've made a few mistakes, just keep it in undoing. You'll eventually get back to a well e rotates an object so that without come in useful for walk cycles. When you want to rotate the arms and legs, you can write it on different axes. Azi commit the move and our scales and object. So yep, that's pretty self explanatory the men were going to be looking at for this car is the timeline as well as setting keys in Maya, the shot cut to set key is EST. So would you have the object selected? Just double check it selected. You press the S key and you'll notice they'll be a little red line on the Times lighter, which means that he is being set. It will keep all attributes translation your rotation on your scale. Basically, while Key Friend does in software is it tells the software where an object is, how it's rotated and how scaled it is at one point in time. So at the moment we have our turkey enabled, which basically means if we drag along the time slider and move the object, it will automatically create a key for you. This is really good for blocking and keep ours is that it means you have to keep pressing us. There are times where setting your own keys manual it is beneficial because sometimes the software can make mistakes. However, for the purpose of these classes, auto Key will do is perfect. So as you start moved and then the object moves with insane and if I move the other way, well, that moved the other way and set another K with all the attributes, Cade. But there are more advanced things in Myer, such as the graph editor. However, we won't be going into that today because it is quite advanced feature, which will be using a little letter on. So for now, I would recommend reading any documentation that comes with a software. Whichever software you choose get to know the software, get to know it's personal. Sharp cuts, how to create geometry. The generally usually have a little area on how to one a minute using that software. So I would recommend reading that documentation and then we'll get ready for our next lesson. Thank you for watching. 3. Lesson 2: Squash and Stretch: Welcome back, guys. We're gonna jump straight into our first principle today, which is squash and stretch squashing stretches. Arguably one. The most important principles in animals should be that feature film are again because it could be used to show so much it can use to show impact, such as if you're hitting a golf ball when you feel a golf ball. In real life, it feels really rigid, really solid. However, if you managed to slur footage down our locker images, you'll see that when the clip impacts the ball, there's a lot of squat, squashing stretch going on in games. Jak and Daxter is a very good example. It's a very cartoon again, and they use squash and stretch extensively to show impact to show spring to really kind of throw that cartoony feeling across to the player. Even in real life, our faces are extremely squashing and stretcher. Look at this gentleman here is skin is very malleable and because of that, it opens up a love space for emotions, emotions which we didn't think we could do. But they're actually easily doable with the human first, so I've actually create a quick example for you using the ball Rick, which I provided in the project. If you wish to try this, you can download the rig. I will be on hand to show you how it's done. If you need to do is ask, you can mess around. The rig is easily to put easy to play with, so I'd recommend doing that. So here we have a ball. This one has no squashing stretch applied. It's just bouncing up and down. As you can see, it looks very lifeless. It has no sense of where it has nursed. It's just not very appealing to the eye. It's just bouncing up and down. It's very drab and very dull. Next to it, I have a one, has applied squash and stretch to it. As you can see, it looks just so much nicer. It's a lot more character to the ball. It's simply a bouncing ball. But he just looks nicer. It feels nicer. It feels like the ball has a sense of ball human wit. So we'll friend by friends so you could see what's going on. I have exaggerated these just Teoh kind of get the point across. Generally, things will be this exactly right elicits a cartoon again are a cartoon if each film squashing stretches used, usually exaggerated in these caskets. So here you'll see on steep all goes down. Gravity is taking a toll on the gravity is pulling it down. You could exaggerate its a Mick extremely stretched. If it's a very fast action, a lot of stretch really help sell up there. Help sell the speed. However, in this one, gravity comes down and impacts upon impact. The ball then compresses it squashes. It may intended this entire volume, so it's volume gets spread out, but you can definitely feel that impact is it hits compared to the loom, which is just I want to get lifeless so you feel the impact of because the impact is so great. Every action has an opposite reaction. It comes down, and then as it springs up, it stretches back out because of all the fast start up from this person. As it starts reaching the pinnacle of the bounce, it starts toe get its original share back. However, I have exaggerated this, so the top of the ball reaches the pinnacle before the bottom, so as the bottom of the ball captures up to the rest, squashes against lightly, and then it comes down again, gets its original value back and then repeats. So from this, you can see how important squashing stretches. It looks so much nicer. I'll show you a couple of examples in games where it's done. Extremely exaggerated, however, that you kind of feel the pose. You feel the action. It really adds that kind of character to an animation. So here you'll see of watch of watches, an extremely good example. Just because the characters use caution. Stretch extensively, sometimes over the top, we call these Samir friends smear friends they used in cars they used in games they're using. Games is generally pretty limited because it can be pretty difficult to make Samir friends work well. In three day, however, people over a blizzard of Don't actually amazing job on the characters of Overwatch to use squash and stretch to make actions snap to give them fast to make them like, easily read to the player. Squash and stretch, as you could see from all the examples have shown, is extremely important, and I hope you join me in the next lesson so we can continue this journey 4. Lesson 3: Anticipation: Hi, everybody. And welcome back in today's lesson. We're going to take a look at anticipation. Simply put, anticipation is the idea that to convey in actions about to happen, something has to happen previous to the action. So say you're about to swing Assad. The anticipation. Fostering an Assad would be bringing the side back eternity about it, then get ready to unleash that side swing. It'll also help American action appear more realistic. If you can imagine somebody jump in. If they just jumps from a standing position, it look a bit off. The anticipation comes from the bending of the knees, ready to release that fast. I have prepared an example here from a previous project to demonstrate what I made. So the anticipation in this animation is at the very beginning. The animation is her firing a gun. So the anticipation far that gun being fired is the character Texas. Step back to Bette's apart. The way of the gun and the fast that's about to happen should the character instructions about to unleash this attack so she takes a step back to support the way. Otherwise she may lose balance, and then the gun fires and then she recovers. So the anticipation and this is the first time firms, which is simply the step back, step back. That's the anticipation in games. It can also be a case of weight shift, depending on the action, once again going back to jump in when you jump, sometimes most the time. Unless it's a very super responsive gives, such as a fighting game, you'll have a slight bit of anticipation where the character moves down in the knees bend. In games, you expect responsiveness. When you push a button, you want an action to happen, so there will be anticipation. There. However, he may be a bit more soul in feature film are traditional two D animation. Anticipation could be used a lot master, say characters about to walk in. Another character may look off screen toe. Anticipate that action happening, sir. There look offscreen. Then the next character walk in. Or if they want to pick up an object, the answers patient would be looking at the object or ready to pick up from today's brief lesson. You should have hopefully picked up what anticipation is and and I hope to see in some of the animations in the future. Until then, I'll see you in the next lesson 5. Lesson 4: Staging: hi, everyone, and welcome back to their windrem straight in with our third letter, which is staging. So staging an animation is Thea of drawing the viewer's attention. If you have an action, you want the action to be the center of the screen. This is done in a variety of ways to draw the views, tension, it, computing the camera angles. It could be using lighting. It could be using timing, strong poses. All these things encompass what staging is. Think of an animation. A za theater. When you watch a player in the theater, the eyes are always drawn to the action that the director wants you to see. The same is in animation now in game animation. Specifically, this becomes a little more difficult because you have dynamic cameras. You have powerful effects. You have lots of stuff happening at once. You have multiple animated characters. The men where that games handle drawing the viewer's attention is very strong animation person, which can be used. You can see that using silhouettes in my oppressing the seven K in engine will then make you have a black silhouette rather than all the texture and stuff, drawing your attention The whole point of staging in games is to draw the attention, make actions really clear on screen. So at the moment I've got personal character here, the actual animation. She's about to charge up a very powerful shop, and then the shot releases and pushes it back from the past so they posing needs to look good from all angles. I'll use this positive example from the side view. You can see what's going on. Tris, bracing herself, ready for the impact of the shop. She has a strong posture of the back of foots planet and ready her arms out about to brace against the fast of the weapon firing. After you have the anticipation before this, you kind of get German idea what she's doing. But the pas knees look good from all angles in a game in a specific in the camera is going to be kind of that. So you need to be able to see what's going on from the game camera. But it really helps to have strong Posen from all angles. So look at the front. Can you see? Can you tell what she's doing? Can you tell? You can see that likes nice and straight from the front post, is bracing. She's ready from this lesson with hopefully distinguished that to get good staging in games . It's a team effort. You've got to worry about the camera. You've got to worry about sound. You've got to worry about what's going on in the scene at the time. The animation is a very important tool to help the staging, and again, I'm actually you have strong poses that are very easily readable. So the play knows exactly what's going on. Thank you for watching. We'll see you in the next lesson. 6. Lesson 5: Straight ahead & Pose to pose: hi, everyone and welcome back. So in a jump straight in and look at the two different approaches to odds on a mission. So the 1st 1 that we have is straight ahead. Actions, which is into traditional two D animation, is the process of drawing every single for him in an animation officer. I haven't done it this way in this example. But if you can imagine going through every single for him here and tweak in and making it look right from every single friend, that is what straight ahead action is as its benefits. It could make the action look very smooth and fluid and realistic. However, it can be difficult, especially if it's traditional two D, drawing to then mento in the kind of volume and the maintaining the volume of proportions of the character in post pose. Yet nail you times you nearly men beats of the animation. So in this walk cycle you start with a contact person, and then you jump to the passing purse and any gym to your second contact, and then you come back to your passing and then you contact. So that's your five key friends for this one on a mission anywhere. It's a bit rough, since that's not finished. But you can kind of see why I'm good getting I hear you jump from your post. He opposed to you post your purse and then from here yet didn't go in between these positively going between one and nine and to start in another action. So on this for him here, you'd have a bit of down movement because you wits falling on any kind of catcher. So you bring it dips down a bit, and then she pushes herself back up, and then you do the same between all the men poses. So you're going in between again. And then you go from that poster, that person in between again. And then from this you get post opposed generally allows you toe thinking about your actions. Maher allows it kind of nail those keepers is it helps you with the timing. And it helped you kind of sell the action in your man poses, and then you can add a flare later on. Generally speaking, imposed opposed it also key in software, every single item of the rig rather than just keying in particular past the rig, you'd go in and you would stop keying all parts of the rig. Just a meant consistency is so the first key frame yet. Make sure your press, as you can see, there's a lot of other keys here cause it's being tweets that then you jump to your next one, which is nine. You keep all your controls and then you go through your key poses and make sure you came. Every single controlled you go along on different Riggs. This is done in different ways. However. You can usually download a script online, which will select all selectable objects. Are will select all your controllers. It's all just a bit of research, and then you can manage to go from there generally because the software interplay between key frames for you. So between 19 if I got rid of if you watch it. But there is no keys on any of this bit here, but the computer kind of nerves and the software knows it gets a journal idea of what you're trying to achieve. So interplay between the frames fire. This is really useful. It's a very good time saving method. However, it does mean Sometimes a computer can make mistakes, and then you have to go in and start tweaking from there. After Twiki curves to make them look cleaner in games, it's it's really dependent on the animal, some people for to animate straight ahead. Some people for post post, some people fair, a blend of birth. It really depends what you're comfortable doing, what you taught and have you talk, and then you can kind of your own thing, your own style into it. From there, I personally prefer post pose. When you do in game animations, they need to be responsive as possible. So when you play a presses the button, they expect to see some kind of feedback from that button press. So I feel that post oppose EDS in the ed's kind of selling in action. If you can kind of feel what the action supposed to be, I think posted poses a good it's just a good method to you is for me personally. So I hope today you've learned the basics of what, straight ahead and post poza, and we'll see you in the next lesson 7. Lesson 6: Follow through and overlapping: Hi there, guys. And welcome back. So today we're gonna be talking about follow through on developing action. These two principles are very closely related to the old relate to the same kind of end girl. So follow through generally means if there's any loose items on your characters, such as hair, you have blue times of clothing you'd have maybe some props, maybe a fat belly or maybe breasts these would all have follow through. Apply to them. Overlapping action is more a case of the timing of things that the idea that everything doesn't move at the same, Retz said. In a walk cycle, it's very rare. You have your arm swing at the exact same time. It's always overlapped in some way our farm to kind of add a bit of realism and natural movement to the animation. So I've got an example here from a previous project demonstrate what both these are. I wanted to pay particular attention to the portions around this character's neck as well as its stomach. You'll will give you a very good general idea of what's going on. You'll also notice drag ticks affecting this animation, so drug kind of it comes into your follow through. So when your character doesn't action items saved a dog with ears. If the dog is moving forward quickly, the ears drag with the wind, and then it'll overlap once the character stops. So I'll show you what I mean here. So particular attention to the Persians and the stomach. A special. So as the character jumped up, you'll see the stomach starts to drag down because one of gravity in two of the wind effect the Air Force that's getting pushed down on the stomach. And then, as the character reaches the apex of his drum, you'll see the stomach catches up. It kind of doesn't reach the same point is the character until a few for Insular, which has a nice bit of it, just makes it feel like this character house of volume and substance. You'll also know is that the potions do this them as the character reaches their backs, the portions and carry on going in the same direction because they are following through. Then, as the character spends on lands, you'll see that drag once again, is pushing these portions of woods because of wind and inertia, and then the force of the land makes the Persians once again follow through into the body. All these Persians have varying amount of change, our resistance behind them. So this one here has the chain, which is bouncing off of which is once again marvel lapping action. It stops all the Persians moving a one time, making them look really drop and mechanical. Speaking of mechanical. That's where overlapping action still exist. But not, too, is a bigger extent. If you have a machine, they are generally programmed to be a very linear in motion. Say you have a robot, will be programmed to move in a specific where you'll go from here to be in in the most productive way possible, rather than having this natural motion and feeling so from today's lesson, hopefully have learned a bit about follow through an overlapping action in the importance of it to make your animation looking a lot more dynamic and live a lot more realistic shows that you haven't understanding a farce and inertia and drag all these external forces affect any character in game animation is absolutely makes it more interesting visually to the player. If you had a character that had lots of loose clothing that was just still. It looked very dull and drab. So I thank you for watching this lesson and we'll see you next time. 8. Lesson 7: Slow in Slow out: Hello, everyone, and welcome to you next lesson. So in today's lesson, we're gonna be looking at slowing and slow out to put it basically slowing and slow. Our is the idea that any action is no this constant purse, sir. Most actions you'll start slow in the middle of the action. You'll speed up. And then at the back end of the action, you'll slow down again. A good example of this would be standing up after in down. So when you got to stand up, you kind of public a farce. Raisi sell for you, Then exert that faster and stand up. And then, as you stand upon regain bones, he'll slow down again of prepared a quick, practical example. Foyer is just two balls going side to side. As you can see, the one in blue is a constant speed. The one in red has slowed and slow our applied to it, so we'll go frame by friend. The red ball starts lower that it speeds up in the middle, and then it slows down again towards the back end and then speeds up in and slows dominate loops around like this. You can see it looks a lot more natural. It looks like Mark visually appealing rather than just a constant speed. Now in software, you can actually see this using the something called the Graph editor. So if you select the object you want to view, so they were at this moment we want to select the red Ball You would go to Window Animation editor on graph editor. From this, you can see the curves of the object because we're only going left and right in these that access. We can just click those that exceeds and you'll see you'll see that the curves nice and smooth. It starts out slow turn, and it speeds up and then slows down in the back end. If we look at the blue ball, you'll see there's that is just a very constant linear speed, which will then move around. It's very dull and lifeless, as you can imagine when there's more than just a ball on the screen. When you've got control, your hands and your fingers in your legs and your hips slow in a slower becomes a lot more difficult if you're looking at a lot of nodes in the graph editor. So if you can imagine This is just one part of the bar. This is just a translator. Z, When you've got a rig, you have translate, you have Rotich, and sometimes you can have scale and all these keys are gonna be all over the place. It's gonna look a mess. But if you tackle an animation a part time and apply slowing and slow out to each individual rig control, or rather and tackling the Riggott ones, it's gonna make your life a hell of a lot easier if we're to apply to D principles. Basically, at the beginning of the animation, you'd have more drawings and then in the middle you'd have less drawings and then towards the indeed off ma drawings to kind of get that slow Inslaw effect. But because in software we have the graph, it, er it basically cuts out the middleman regarding that using slowing and slow is important for stuff like walk cycles. It helps you kind of admired realism. There are times where constant speed is needed. If something as previously mentioned, is mechanical and it's set toe go a constant rate than slow in a slower What is important, However, in most natural animation. Sloan aslo out. It's gonna help you get a convent in motion. It's gonna help. You kind of bring the animation to the next level. So I hope today you've learned about slower and slower, and we'll see you in the next lesson. 9. Lesson 8: Arcs: Hi there, everybody. And welcome back. So today we're gonna be tackling the principle of axe. Simply put axes the understanding that must natural actions such as walking, running, jumping they'll all follow some kind of act trajectory. So in game animation, this is a lot more important to make things feel smooth without the animation feeling. Jerk it Now accident this track the men on a mission. There's a lot to track when it comes to axial track. Hand position, your track Foot position, head position. All these parts should follow some kind of arc. However, to keep it simple today are prepared the best example with once again the bounce involved. It's always after end at this point to show you what we mean by ox. So if you look in the graph editor, I've just kind of laid out so you could see the graph editor on the animation at once. However, if you want to remember how to get to the graphic, er you select the control object you want to view. So in this case, it's the movement controller best on this ball rig. So you'd click that press window, goto animation and go to graph editor and you'll see the graph editor. We all they want to worry about translate why at the minute. So then you can see as the ball comes down. It's very sharp here because a ball are anything that bounces will generally move off, the same trajectory entered, and then it comes up on arcs around. It looks very weird in full screen, however, if you show in the panel here, it looks a lot more deal Herbal. It looks a lot neater, so today we are the translate why it shows your mark a bear example of what move naturally is doing. So as you travel along the time line, you'll see the graph goes along with it, and you'll get a visual representation in the graph of what's going on on screen. It makes the without Axl. Let's as an example. If I mess this one up on, just pull this off, Miss the Occupant Tyler. You'll see straightaway weapons. They just kind of starts to slow down and then speeds up again. That doesn't look right, said, if I did it the other way to go like that. The axe. Very rough and just not missing on arc anymore. He'll say it just doesn't look right. Pops up. Instead, you'll find that using axes extremely important. It can be quite hard to track a lots of acts at once. So it's say you had a walk cycle. It's always best to break things down, look at your shoulder and then look, er, Elber than lucky arrest. It's always good to work down the burn hierarchy so you don't get confused. As I've mentioned, this is a very simple example, so we don't have to worry about one control. So by now you should have got basic understanding of what arcs are and why we use them. It basically helps things feel more natural. If you have, Messi acts ill. Sure, you'll be able to feel in the animation something your pops of mingle speed up when it's not the poster. So always remember to keep practicing. I've give you the ball rig to play with. You should know how to set your case by now, so try the bounce involved. You'll be. You've also just got small glimpse of a potential project you may have in the end. This is only one example, however, we'll get to that stage when we get there. Thank you for watching and we'll see you in the next lesson 10. Lesson 9: Secondary action: hi there and welcome back. So today we're gonna be looking at the principle of secondary action. So basically put, what second reaction is is any movement on the character which adds that character. It makes the character Camara live. Rather than just being a basic animation. You add second reaction to then at more life to the animation. It couldn't be something cause. Simple as a bit of hair movement are facial movement. That's all across the second reaction in walk cycles. Second reaction would be the where somebody moved arms. Like if it's a bouncy walk, the way they move their arms will help push that idea across. Think about second reaction is it needs to emphasize what's going on rather than take away from the animation. So if you have so much going on at one sick and start becoming very noisy, like if there's a lot of movement, you don't know where you I supposed to land. So I prepared a quick example here. You've seen this character a few times now, so in this animation she gets ready issue fires a good inside side in the sweeping motion on, then recovers. So the second reaction in this animation would be the items of clothing, so she has her tie, which reacts when she moves. Then you'll see also all the hair. He's all hand on the maid. Teoh React two direction. Change Yala's follow through and overlapping action. Apply to it and you can see from this. It just makes the character a lot. It just makes it a lot more appealing to look at without taking away from the main action. You still nerve that she's firing the gun is the primary girl here all the way if it has just a reaction to what's going on, Other examples of second reaction would be props. So if the character is designed with props in minders, say they have a rucksack or a backpack or a satchel. Are they have hanging chains? All the adding. All the motion of these items is once again classes. Second reaction. You'd still be able to see what the prime reaction is without these moving. However, having the move makes the animation much more appealing to the viewer. Bear in mind when you're using second reaction what's going on at the time, so if you have a really fast action such as a tell apart or a dash forward. You'll have a bit of second reaction. However, you may want to put the second reaction when the animation is a slowest purse. Rather, in the middle of in the middle of the animation is his quickest, and the second reactions of problems are totally nice to the human eye unless you really have a close look. So hopefully by the shot lesson, you've understood what second reaction is, how to use it and why you need to use it and we'll see you in the next lesson. 11. Lesson 10: Timing: Hello there, everyone. Welcome back, sir. Today we're gonna be looking at the principal off timing, which is pretty much exactly what it says on the tin. However, in traditional two D animation, the timing is dictated by the amount of drawings per election, which then translates up to speed. However, the basics of timing is it makes the character are the object that you are on a maring feel like it's bound by realism, so it's affected by gravity, is affected by dragons affected by wind resistance. It gives it a sense of where, rather than just going at one constant speed, which then makes an animation look very flirty and unrealistic. It's very rare. You'll have an action that goes to the exact same red once again. As I've said in multiple lessons now on, this is like mechanical. If the mixed mechanical, it's generally made to do something in the quickest way possible in the most efficient way . So that point. The timing may be pretty similar, however, for most. For most characters are most objects time, and they'll be extremely important to make that animation a bit more grounded in reality, even if it's a cartoon animation, it still makes it look like it's of being our laws of physics. Timing is also very important for immersion. It can show you a character's mood if characters walking very slowly dragging his feet. You'll get an idea of characters very sad if the characters surprised, generally a surprise that comes with the job. So you kind of react to whatever you surprised that quite suddenly so than officer timing is important toe push the action. So here's an enemy that have created well animated far projects I'm currently on, and I'm gonna break down the timing with you so you can get a better idea of what's happening. So I'll quickly show you the animation. The lift about throws picks up the box and then throws it, which is gonna be the guys ranged attack. So, as you can see it, text around 12 frames to pick the boxer, so it's quite a slow action. It gives the box a little bit where, even if it is mechanical, it built handle that way. Boy still adds a bit of resistance, and then as it primes the box, it takes about 3 to 4 friends because he's now got the Where is the robot? Those men purposes toe lift boxes. So it primes himself, Raita and the force of that prime. Because it's such a quick action because the timing of it so certain it forces the robot back. And then he uses that fast of a twofer in period from 20 to 25. It's just a twofer. Impair it where the first person, the second pause to connect. And then he releases the box. Now that the actions happened, the force of it pulls it forward a bit. I've made that quite long to kind of have a bit sell to the attacks so we can just keep throwing this out over and over, and then it comes down and then back. So you conceal it clearly. See the breakdown of the timings on this animation. I've just gone through with you and you can see the effect. You get the beginning, start a bit slower, and then he snaps, snaps and then slow again. The timing off their two friends really sells the action of the force days. Read it himself up is take using the farce of the coming back, and that is really powering forward. Tow her that box with a lot of power. From this lesson, you should have learned that timing is an extremely important principle to follow without timing. Your animations just not going to look that good. So you need to always keep timing in mind when you are setting your keys. Timing is usually done towards the beginning of an animation. When you start blocking animation out, that's when you start hitting the timings. If you have bad timing from the beginning, it will carry over for the rest of animation of how much you tweak it. So it's always best to keep getting feedback on your timing's. Always think of the action you're trying to achieve. Do you want to exaggerate quite a lot. I wanted to make it realistic. You've always got keep these things in mind as you go through an animation, so thank you for watching and we'll see you in the next lesson. 12. Lesson 11: Exaggeration: Hi there, everybody. And welcome back today, we're gonna be taking a look. Exaggeration. So what exaggeration is a is pushing something beyond its limits. If, um, for 100% or realism, it can make another measure look pretty static and dull. If you use a bit of exaggeration, will help bring the animation toe life. L help push inaction past its bounds. If you are doing cartoon animations, you'll find that exaggeration is used a lot more. You can break bones. You can Mick spend in different directions. You could do a lot with exaggeration when it comes to Cowan's, because they're not grounded in reality. You can, however, over exaggerate. In games, it's always best to over exaggerate something, and then, if needs being, you can bring it back a touch. So I have a quick personal example here for you. In this animation, he has a tell apart slasher than telepaths back into his original position. The exaggeration from this comes from the hip poses, as you can see is backs very straight is like very strict. In reality, it would be very, very difficult to do, but because it's a game and it was a cat even again. This kind of action, this kind of body ship is quite doable. He and then this post here is also a very over exaggerated. I've really kind of gone to to show the Farsi after, used to stop himself to turn around. Then he tell apart again, Absolute. In real life, this person bid nigh on. Impossible because, officer, the way I just go straight down, you fall over and then he snaps back in. And then the second hit parts once again a nice ah nice icon. His back. Keep his back nice and strip there's like stretched out. Once again, this pose have been very difficult to do in real life because wouldn't work out, tell apart on their need, hits again and then tell apart back to his original position. So you can see from the exaggeration of that, you kind of get a really snappy looking attack because the nice straight back it's a decent pose. You can see what's happening. The action is very readable. The amount of exaggeration that you apply it to any character is usually dictated by the game style are the in film style. If it's love once again. If it's cartoon, you usually have a lot more Lee, where to how much? You can exaggerate, however, if you are best in reality. If you are trying to go for a hyper realism, you're going for something that's really realistic. You were exactly as much, but it is pretty impressive how much the human body can be exaggerated. The face is a very good example. The faces a very malleable and it could be squashed and stretched, and you can get some very impressive shapes with your fast. Sometimes you can exaggerate to the point where it now becomes a smear. For him, smear frames in games is quite difficult to dio. Do you have to be a top quality animate to get away with this and to make it look correct? However, there are few recent examples and a couple of older examples, which I'll show you when the screen. Now that I've done smear friends very well, the exaggerate what's going on? The exaggerate, the scale of the character, the speed of the character you can see in this image here that if you pause it at the smear for him, it looks totally bizarre. There's nowhere. Anything, even in Cairo and should look like this. It looks quite scary and reality, but then, when it's in motion with the rest of the animation, you can't really see it unless you look for it. Boy adds that he adds that special something to an animation. So I hope in the project you're about to take part in the next couple of lessons that you think about exaggeration and apply it to your own work. Always remember, don't go too far with exaggeration, but it's always good to go a bit further and then pull it back in rather than not exaggerating often have to go back through your entire animation and tweak it, so I look forward to see you in the next lesson. 13. Lesson 12: Solid Drawing: Hi, everybody, and welcome back. So today we're gonna take a brief look at the principle of solid growing. So solid drawing is in two D animation, the idea that you can draw an object or a character within a three dimensional space. This gives the character volume. It gives the car to the feeling of wet. If you do a counter to de ships, two squares or circles, they'll feel like there's no volume to the character. Now in three D and Game animation, solid drying is a lot more difficult because the is modeled rather than drawn. However, you still have to use the sense of volume where you get that from having good persons. You get that from also having a good character to work with. Here is a brief representation of what it means in three days. So even this bear guys idle person you can see is where it's distributed is got all is where spread out because it's a top heavy guy. And then in this attack he slams down. So we'll go to the impact from in this you can see from all angles. The pose makes sense. His wet coming down from his heart arm and because it's a metal arm is gonna be a bit more wear on this side. So you needs toe. Use the extra wet to tell his body over to the side, and then his arm comes out to bounce himself out. It looks good from all angles. As I've mentioned, so decide, this is the idea of solid drawing applies to this person. To get better understand ago solar drawing, I would recommend looking at life drawings. You can help to your look at farms that helps you understand the human body a bit mark. Once you get an understanding of how the human body is drawn and how it works and Web key muscles are, you'll start getting a better idea of how. In your three D animations you could distribute balance. You could distribute wet. And I hope in this brief video we can go forward with the knowledge of what solid drawing is and how we can apply to three day. Thank you for watching, and we'll see you for our final lesson. 14. Lesson 13: Appeal: Hi, everybody, and welcome to your final lesson. So today we're going to be looking at appeal. Appeal is quite tough, one because it pretty much encompasses everything we've learned so far. Appeal also comes from modern. Just the animation appeal comes from a character design. So it's to go with the entire process, the textures theme model, but relating to an immersion the appeal generally comes from. Is the character likable? And now this doesn't mean as to be the hair or character, any character, the enemies, the bosses, just generic background characters. They all kind of their own appeal, depending on how the move, the appeal can come from a nice, solid pose, it can come from some amazing second reaction. It can come from some very nice follow through. It's a culmination of all the principles we've learned so far. Comic and appealing character. It's pretty simple toe having an actor in the film, like when you look at an active charity, you could describe them as charismatic in animation, its appeal. It's all about making the player off a viewer like the character, like the being shown. Does it feel like the characters real does the character seem interesting in animation. This is generally a case of having movement that complements what the character looks like it should be doing. So if you have a very bulky character who looks like he could be maybe a bit of a tank, does the movement come across this search? Do you get that sense of where? So here I have a quick character from once again, a previous project you built to see from this character. Despite the way it's modeled, what the where the appeal is, it's got some very basic equipment. It's using basic wraps detectors after their but outside leaves stuffed into the raps. So just from the look of the character, you can get an idea what the characters about then with the animation. I voted the appeal on the way the Feet cell, though the kind of comedy almost like death that this character has. So rather than just being a very quick death, think gets hit any stumbles a bit before he falls back, and it doesn't just follow kind of as a little hot. And then, as his feet sell the bounce off the ground so this animation helps push this character in the game. This is a very silly character. The way hacks these A very he has a little dances. Well, so from the animation get more of the character across. But I've chosen this one just just because I think it best demonstrates the appeal of his character. Even in his death, it's a little bit Sylar, so he falls with a long hop, and then his little feet just bounce. In general, the animation health complement the appeal of the character. As I've mentioned in the beginning, the appeal is a combination of textures, of models, of all the extra props that this character mayor have. All this helps the appeal, and animation is just another step towards adding that appeal to a character. So I hope from this very brief video that you have understood what appeal is, and we shall see you fire the class project