GIMP 2.10 Layers and Layer Modes | Michael Davies | Skillshare

GIMP 2.10 Layers and Layer Modes

Michael Davies, GIMP Photo Editing Tutorials

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
22 Lessons (2h 38m)
    • 1. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Creating a New Composition and Layer

      5:27
    • 2. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Composite Modes

      5:00
    • 3. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Layer Opacity and Size

      3:46
    • 4. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Layer Offset, Fill With, and Switches

      4:39
    • 5. Layer Stacking Order

      5:24
    • 6. Create New Layers From Images

      7:50
    • 7. Layer Transparency

      9:09
    • 8. GIMP Layer Masks Introduction

      5:28
    • 9. Layer Mask Effects

      7:29
    • 10. Using Gradients with Layer Masks

      10:03
    • 11. The Layer Context Menu for Layer Masks

      8:09
    • 12. Layer Mask Types

      17:08
    • 13. Layer Groups

      10:01
    • 14. Intro to Layer Modes in GIMP 2.10

      4:53
    • 15. Normal and Dissolve Layer Modes

      3:28
    • 16. Color Erase and Erase Layer Modes

      4:24
    • 17. Merge and Split Layer Modes

      1:33
    • 18. Lighten Layer Mode Types

      9:04
    • 19. Darken Layer Mode Types

      5:43
    • 20. Contrast Layer Mode Types

      11:46
    • 21. Inversion Layer Mode Types

      7:30
    • 22. Component Layer Mode Types

      9:41

About This Class

In this class, I provide an in-depth look at Layers and Layer Modes in GIMP 2.10. I start with an introduction to Layers, followed by a more advanced discussion on this topic in the first lecture. Then, in the remaining lectures, I provide an introduction to the concept of Layer Modes and go through each of the 38 Layer Modes found in GIMP in detail. 

Layers are perhaps the most important and most commonly used item in GIMP, and Layer Modes help improve the functionality of GIMP while taking your compositions to the next level.

Transcripts

1. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Creating a New Composition and Layer: hello and welcome to yet another tutorial by Davies Media designed. My name is Michael Davies. In today's tutorial, I'll be showing you how to create a new layer using gimp 2.10 and to start, we do need a new document or a new image open, so go to file new. You cannot create a new layer when you do not have an image open. So if you've been struggling to create a new layer and nothing's been happening and you haven't had a new composition open, that's why so for starters, you can set your image size here. I have the sense in 1920 by 10 80 which is thes standard high definition size, you could change this toe whatever value you want just by typing it in. So I'll put 12 80 by 7 20 And if I come down here to the advanced options, you'll see I also have X and Y resolution. Just know for that 300 is going to be usually for print, and 72 is going to be for Web. So, for example, if I change this to 72 hit the tab key, that'll change both of the X and y to 72 and then the only other thing I'll cover in this tutorial for now is going to be the fill with. And right now this is sent to background color, which means this is going to fill this with black, and the fill with option is going to create our very first layer, which is going to be our background layer. So you always need a background layer to be able to create new layers as you go on and by default it's going to show up as background, and we can always change the name of that layer a little bit later on. But for now, I'm gonna come over here and just change this to fill with White, and that's just going to create a background layer with White and I'll click. OK, so here you'll see. We now have our background layer over here. This is called the Layers panel right here. This is one of the five main areas within gimp, so this is the layers channels paths in undue section. I have my pads in my undo history. Options switched, but usually it's about right there, so layers, channels, pads undo. So the layers panel is a doctoral dialogue, which means we can click and move this around. I'm not gonna get into that too much for this tutorial either. Just know that the first layer you create is going to be your background layer. And now we have a few tools open over here in our layers panel. So we have the create a new layer option. We have the layer group option. These two are grayed out. We have the duplicate layer option. This one's great out, and then we have the ability to add a layer mask and the ability to delete our layer. So I'm only going to cover this option right here for this tutorial. And this is the create a new layer option. So when I click on that, that is going to bring up the create a new layer dialogue box. And the first option here is the layer names. So this is going to be this right here. This name that's shown up for our background layer, That's your layer name. So for this one will just name this new layer, and I'll just create this layer real quick just to show you What happens? So now we have a layer over here in its name. New layer. Let me delete that layer using the delete this layer icon and just go back to the create a new layer option. So our layer name is new layer and this is always gonna show up as the last letter name you created. The next option here is a color tag. So this allows you to add like a color label, and it's gonna place it right here over the show hide icon. So if I come over here and I set my color tag to something like Maroon, I think that's more of a brown color or red. So let's go with red and click. OK, you'll see. Now we have a color tag over here to the left of our layer, right where the show hide icon is. Just delete that layer again. So that's what the color tag option does. If you click this first option here, that's just going to set this without a color tag. Next is the mode, and this is going to allow you to set the layer mode of your new layer, so there are 38 layer modes found in gimp, and that's actually more than photo shop in case you're wondering. But I do recommend when you're creating a new layer that unless you really know what you want, your brand new layer blending mode or your layer mode to be, you just keep it set to normal. That's just going to allow your layer to be a normal layer when you first created. But if you click this drop down, you'll see that you do have all 38 layer mode options in here that you could set this to. And you could also come over here. And you could change this to the default, which is going to be the latest set of layer modes found in game 2.10 point 10 or whatever version you're using. And then the legacy option allows you to choose older layer modes found in older versions of gimp. So I'm just gonna keep this set to default, and I'm also going to set the layer mode to normal. The blend space will always be great out here, so this is just always gonna be set to auto. Next up, you have the composite space so if I click the drop down here, you can see we start with auto and then we have RGB linear an RGB perceptual. So a composite image is in its simplest form, just the red, green and blue channels, as well as the Alfa Channel, which represents transparency, all blended together to create the image that you see while you're editing in gimp. So it's basically just the normal image you see with all the colors together. So what the composite space does is it allows you to display how the light in your image is displayed. So RGB linear is going to display the lightness in your image or the way the light is displayed in your image, the way that light would be displayed in the real world. So it's more of like a mathematical concept, really, whereas RGB perceptual is going to display the light in your image the way your I see the light in the world. So that is going to be more so. How were used to perceiving light and therefore, when you go with RGB perceptual, that's typically going to create the better image. So I typically always go with RGB perceptual and I recommend you guys do the same. So go with RGB perceptual here, or you could just go with auto. 2. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Composite Modes: next up, we have composite mode, and this has to do with whenever you're using a layer that has a blending mode or layer mode set. Remember, appear we have the option to set a layer mode. You also have the option over here after the layer is created to set a layer mode. But the composite mode is going to determine how the two layers that are interacting with one another using a layer mode are going to basically create a final result. So usually when you have a layer mode, you have the top layer, which is just known as the layer, and you have the bottom layer known as the backdrop. These two layers are interacting with one another and creating an effect based on the layer mode you have set. Usually that effect creates something called a union, which is going to be a combination of the objects in the layer and the backdrop. However, you can change the composite mode, or, in other words, you can change what the final result is going to be between those two layers interacting. So for starters, it sets auto, which means whatever the automatic setting is for the Lay Ramon, you select is going to be the composite mode that ends up showing up as the final result. So the first option here below auto is going to be union. This again is going to be the most popular composite mode because this is typically what layer modes use. It's going to use the blended result from the pixels in your layer or the top layer with the backdrop or the bottom layer. And so therefore, if you have two objects on, you know, one on each separate layer than both of those objects, they're gonna show up with a blended result. And I know you guys might be a little bit confused right now. So let me demonstrate with an example. So I'm gonna set my composite mode for my first layer toe auto, and let me actually rename my layer name to Backdrop, because this is going to be the bottom layer, and I have the layer mode sets normal, so I'll click. OK, I'll come over here and create another new layer, this one I'm gonna name layer because the top layer, whenever we are blending two layers, is just called the layer. I'm also gonna come down here and change the layer mode to overlay, And now we'll change the composite mode here to union and I'll click. OK, I'm gonna also hide the background for this example because actually, the composite mode on Lee really takes effect when there is transparency set up as the background. So both of our layers were created with transparent backgrounds and we've hidden the background layer. Now what I'm gonna do is click on the backdrop layer and I'm gonna come over and grab my paintbrush tool. I'll change the color of this to a blue color and click OK, and I've got the opacity set up all the way to 100 for my brush. The size is just a Raynham size I picture you can always adjust it and the harness is set to 10. So this is a fairly soft brush. Now I'm just going to draw a circle here with my paintbrush. So here's a blue circle. Now I'm going to click on my layer the top layer here, come over here and change my color to green and click. OK, and now I'm going to paint a green circle and you could see its green on the right, where it doesn't intersect at all with the pixels on the backdrop layer. And it's a lighter blue anywhere where the pixels from the two layers intersect. But the main point from this is that both objects are going to be here, and that's what the union composite mode does is it keeps the pixels from both layers here and therefore keeps both objects. On the other hand, when we are creating a new layer, weaken set the composite mode to something else. So let me come over here and create a new layer again. And this time the composite mode you could set to clip to backdrop. So remember, the backdrop is going to be our bottom layer, so clipped a backdrop basically means that only the pixels from the bottom layer and the overlapping pixels from where the top layer in the bottom layer intersect are going to be kept. So it's only the backdrop layer pixels in the intersected pixels, and I'm actually gonna hit cancel because we can come over here to our layer, right click on it, go to composite mode and you could change the composite mode from here. So now change this to clip the backdrop. So here you'll see only the pixels from the backdrop layer and the intersected area are kept. So the next composite mode, if I right click and go to composite mode, is going to be clipped a layer. So that is only going to keep the pixels from the top layer and the portion where the two layers intersect. So let me click on Clipped a Layer, so there you could see the pixels from the top layer and the intersecting pixels are kept, and the last composite modified right click go back to composite mode is intersection. So that's only going to keep the pixels from the intersecting area right here. So a quick intersection and those are the only pixels kept. So there are your composite modes. Let me just delete these two layers that we created, and we'll start back with the background layer. So, um, hide that and come back here to create a new layer, and I'll just rename this new layer again, set the mode back to normal, and that will automatically shift the composite mode back to auto. So that was all of our composite modes 3. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Layer Opacity and Size: the next option here is the opacity. So this is how opaque or transparent your new layer is going to be. And the best way to tell whether or not your layer is transparent or opaque is toe have some sort of pixels on that layer. So for this example, I'm going to change the fill with here to our foreground color, which is going to be this green color right here. Right now, this is set to 100% which means this is going to be fully opaque or will not contain any transparency. So you guys can see this is set to 100% up here and we could see all of the green if I delete this layer and go back to create a new layer and we set the opacity slider by clicking on it, you can see an arrow right here, and I can drag this to something like 50%. And we still have this said to fill with foreground color and click OK, now our opacity has turned down to about 50% so we can't see as much of the green, which means some of the white layer below that is showing up. And of course I can control the opacity of the layer from right here inside the layers panel. But I'll come back over here and delete this layer and come back to create a new layer. And you can actually manually set the opacity value here. So I just type in 25 that will set the opacity of 25%. I'll just turn this all the way back up to 100. For now. The next option is the width and the height, so you can actually make your layer a different size than the boundary of your overall image. So you can make the layers smaller than the overall composition. Or you could make it larger than the overall composition. Let me show you an example where it's larger. So if I come over here and make this 1920 by 10. 80 and of course you could change the units right here. But I'm just gonna keep these sets of pixels and I'll click. OK, so hold control, Zoom out a bit. You could see that my layer is larger than the overall composition, so it goes a little bit off the page let me switch my color over here to black and turn down the size of my paintbrush so you'll see that when I paint on my new layer here, which is the larger layer, the black is going to show up right here where the layer is inside of our composition. But if I start to paint my layer and it goes off the composition, you'll see that'll disappear. So these pixels will not show up. And if I go to export this, the pixels outside the composition boundary will not show up. If I hit the M key to grab my move tool, I could move this layer so you could see that all those pickles that I was drawing on this layer are still here. I just have to drag them so that they're inside of my layer boundary or my composition boundary here. And you can always tell where your layer boundary is by these dotted yellow lines right here that go around the outside of your layer, and that's going to show up on the layer that your clicked on or your active layer. So right now our new layer is our active layer. If I click on the background layer that will be our active layer. And you can see the yellow dotted lines or the yellow dash lines show up here. So whatever layer you have as your active layer is going to be the layer boundary that shows up here. So let me just delete that layer. I'll come back here to the create a new layer icon again. This time I'm going to create a layer that is smaller than the overall size of our composition. So I'm gonna create a 500 by 500 layer and click OK, so you can see our layer right now is smaller than our overall composition size. This one is black because I have the fill with set to foreground and that's our foreground color. So again, I can use my move tool to move this around. Inside are composition, or I can move it off the page if I want. But as you can see, the layer can also be smaller than the overall size of our composition. So delete that layer. I'll come back here to create a new layer 4. Create a New Layer Dialogue: Layer Offset, Fill With, and Switches: so the next option here, below our with an hour height is going to be the offset options. So usually when you create a new layer, it's going to be perfectly aligned with the top left portion of your composition. That's just where gimp automatically places the new layer once you created when you use the offset X and Y options that allows you to offset either vertically or horizontally from the usual placement of your new layer. So, for example, if I offset the X that is going to offset the horizontal access or the access that's going from left to right. And if I set this to 200 for example, this is right now, said two pixels. You can, of course, change the unit here that is going to offset our new layer by 200 pixels from the X axis. So if I come over here and click OK, you'll see our new layer is 200 pixels to the right. You can use the rulers up top here to see, or you can come down here, and wherever your mouse is going to be the unit so you could see this is about 200 pixels to the right. Let me delete that layer. Click Create a new layer again. I can also offset based on the Y axis. So that is going to be the up and down access. And for this one, let me change this to 200 pixels and click. OK, so once again, this is offset by 200 pixels. So this is 200 pixels down from the top portion of our image. So I'll just delete that layer once again. And the last option here is one we went over when we first started this tutorial. And that is the ability to fill this in with either transparency or what the color. So you can go with your foreground color that's currently selected, which is how we have this set up now. That's why the layer we just created in my offset example was black because that's what our foreground is set to. You can also change this to background color, so that'll create our new layer with this green color. Or he could set this to white. So that will just fill this in with this white color here transparency, which of course, means the layer will be entirely see through or pattern, which means whatever active pattern you have set up will be what the new layer you create is filled with. So let's go with pattern here just as an example, and you could see our brushes, Grady INTs and pattern stock over here. Of course, if you don't have any of these dogs, you can come over here and go to Windows, Dr Bill Dialogues and you can choose any of the docks here within gimp. And up here is the pattern stock. So let's just set this leopard pattern here as our active pattern and I'll click. OK, so now our new layer created has this leopard pattern. So as you guys saw with the composite mode, a lot of these settings can be changed directly on the layer just by coming over here in the layers panel and right clicking on the layer so you could see here you can edit the layer attributes which is basically going to bring up that create a new layer dialog box, although this option is going to have a little bit less options. So let me exit out of that. I can right click and I can change the composite space, I can change the composite mode. I can add a color tag and I can perform a series of other actions here which I'm not gonna go over for this tutorial. But actually, one last thing I want to show you guys is if I come back here to create a new layer icon. There's something over here called switches. So by default, the visible option is going to be checked, which means when you create a new layer, it's automatically going to be visible. This is the show hide icon here. So if I uncheck this option and I create this new layer, you'll see that by default this is going to be hidden. But I can always and let me hide this bottom layer here I can always unhygienic snu layer we created, but by default this will be created hidden. Let me delete both of these layers and create a new layer. He also has some other options here, so linked is going to enable something called the transform lock icon. So that just means that if you have another layer or multiple layers linked together in your composition any time you perform a transformation on one of those layers, so something like the scale tool it's going to perform that scale on all of the layers that you have linked, so this automatically links your layer to start when you create it. You can also lock pixels, which means you won't be able to paint anything on that layer. You can lock the position in size, which means you won't be able to perform any transformations on here where you won't be able to move that layer. And you can lock the Alfa, which means if you try to do anything to the transparent portion of the layer. In other words, if you try to use the eraser tool or something, it's not going to have any effect on the Alfa Channel or on the transparent part of your layer. But by the fall, I'm going to uncheck all these and only keep the visible switch option checked here and once again I can click OK, 5. Layer Stacking Order: in this lecture. Are we talking about the layer stacking order? And this is a basic but very important concept in gimp. And that is because any time you are working with the composition that has multiple layers , you're going to be using the stacking order in some way. Whether that's just two layers you're working with or thousands and theoretically, in gimp, as I've mentioned before, you can really have unlimited layers inside of your compositions, so long as your computer can handle it. That's actually sort of debatable, because gimp does slow down once the overall composition size gets to a certain point. But theoretically you can have unlimited layers. But regardless, the layer stacking order is definitely a concept you should know. So let's dive in here and up to this point, we have two layers in our composition. We have layer one, which is a transparent layer, and you can tell it's a transparent layer because right here in the layer preview, you could see that there are these checkerboards here. There's no design on this layer, so when I show and hide this layer, you can't really tell a difference on the image window or the can this itself and then below that layer, we have the background layer, so this is just a layer that is entirely covered by white pixels. And if I hide that using the show or hide icon, you could see here are the checkerboards from our transparent layer and layer one and I can show that again. And now we have our white background because we have two layers in this composition, there is a stacking order and it's also referred to as the layers stack. So right now, in our stacking, we're looking at our layers panel layer one is the top most layer in the stacking order. In the background layer is the bottom most layer in the stacking order and we can change the stacking order. Let me click on layer one as an example, but we could change the stacking order by using these icons down here. And these icons will only show up when we have more than one layer. So let me just to demonstrate delete that layer one. Now you can see these icons air totally great out. We cannot use them right now, so let me just create a new layer and I'm gonna name this one layer one again and let me make sure I don't have any typos and click. OK, so we're back to two layers and here are icons are showing again. So I can actually change the layer stacking order. I could make layer one the bottom, most layer in this stacking order. Or basically, I can move it below the background layer. All they have to do is click this icon here, which is label lower this layer one step in layers stack. So if I click that now, we have swapped our layers stack here by moving layer one below the background layer. So now this is our bottom. Most layer in the layer stack or the stacking order in the background is our top most layer . So now that we have the layers stacked the way they are, I want to demonstrate something real quick, a problem that is pretty common that can cause a lot of frustration. But that is very easy to solve. And that is and I'm gonna come over here and grab my paintbrush tool, and I'm going to change the color here to this blue color. So I'm changing my foreground color to blue, and I'll click. OK, so that is when we are trying to paint on our campus, but nothing is showing up. So if I use my paint brush tool here and I start to paint right now, something is showing up. But it's on our background layer, so the reason this is showing up is because we're painting on our active layer. But if I hate Control Z, if I am over here on my layer one layer and I don't realize it. But this is my active layer, and now I'm trying to paint something. Nothing is gonna show up here, and that could be really frustrating or confusing, especially to new gimp users. But if I come over here and look at my thumbnail preview four layer one, you could see our pixels have actually shown up here. They have been painted on the Slayer. We just can't see it because layer one is below the backward on layer in the stacking order and the background layer has full opacity. So is 100% opacity. There's no transparency here, and it's full of white pixels, So all of those white pixels are obstructing our view of the blue pixels on layer one. So to fix this issue, all we have to do is change the stacking order once again if we want our blue pixels to be on layer one, that wasn't an accident. That's exactly where we wanted those pixels to be. So if I click on layer one, I can use my arrows now to move this up in the stacking order. And the squiggly blue lines I painted are now showing up here on our composition as well is over here in our thumbnail preview. So one last thing I want to demonstrate about the stacking order before I finish up this lecture is that we can actually click and drag the layers in our layers panel to change the stacking order as well. We don't have to use those icons at the bottom of the layers panel. So this is what I more commonly do If I click on layer one and I then dragged my mouse, you'll see a little arrow will pop up and layer one is now grabbed by our mouse here and now there's a line that shows up here, and that line is indicating where we're going to place this layer. So in this case, there's only two layers in the stacking order. If I release that will now place my layer one back down here in this stacking order, and I can click and drive this upward and the same thing will happen here. We have a line showing us where we're placing the slayer and I can release and now are layer has been placed above the background layer. So that's it for this lecture on the layer stack or the layers stacking order. 6. Create New Layers From Images: in this lecture, I'll show you how to create a new layer from an image. So up until this point, we have created a new layer in two ways. We have created a layer by creating a new composition, and that automatically gave us a background layer. And we've created a new layer by going to d create a new layer icon within the layers panel . But this third method, now for creating a new layer, involves bringing in an image into your composition. This, of course, is a very common thing to do in gimp, with Gim being a photo editor. So sometimes you want to bring a photo into a composition that already has layers, and maybe it already has designs on those layers or whatever it is, but it's actually really easy to bring in an image as a layer. There are three different methods. I'll be showing you here in this lecture. For the first method, you're going to use your regular file menu, so I'll come over here and go to file open. This is gonna bring up our open image dialog box here, and I'm actually already in the folder where I want to use my image. But if you're not, you can just search over here in the places section for the location of the folder where your file is. So in this case, I know it's on my D drive, so I click on my D drive and then I know it's in the downloads folder. So double click on that, and now I can scroll through and try to find my image. But right now there's all these different file types in this folder, So what I can do is I can actually come down here to select file type, automatically detected. So click on that. And this was a new feature that was actually added with one of the later versions of Gim. So it's one of the game to 10.10 updates. I recommend using the latest version again if you aren't using that already. But with this option, I can scroll down, and I can say that I only want JPEG images to be shown in my search box here. So if I click the jam peg option that is going to sort everything here inside of my search box so that only the J Peg images air shown as well as the folders. So now I can more easily search through the JPEG images and right here is going to be the image I want to use. When I click on it, it will generate a preview over here in the previous section. If your preview isn't generated automatically, you might have to click right here to have that preview generated or have the preview updated. Over here we have the name of my photo, which is cut off because it's too long. We also have the size of the photos, and this one is one megabyte, and we also have the dimensions, which are going to be 1920 by 12 80 pixels. We have the color space this is in, which is going to be RGB. And then we have the number of layers that this contains, which, in this case, because it's a J peg is always gonna be one layer. J. Pegs are going to be compressed files, so if you create a J peg from a file that contains multiple layers, it's always going to be compressed down one layer. So keep that in mind when you are working with J Pegs so I know this is the photo I want to use whole click open. Now we have our file open in its own composition. So in order to bring this into our current composition as a new layer, what I have to do is click and drag on the tab here and I'll come over here and that will open up this tab from our original composition. And now I can drag my mouse on top of the campus is important that you are on top of the canvas here and then release. And when I release my mouse, this will create what's called a dropped buffer layer. I can double click on this and rename this all name it model in red chair, and they will hit the enter key toe. Apply that name and you'll see that this is at the top of our layer stacking order or our layer stack. And that's because this is going to be created as a new layer on top of whatever our active layer is. So in this case, I was clicked on layer one that was my active layer, and therefore the next layer up from that is going to be this layer right here in the layers stack. So that's why this was created as the top most layer in our stacking order. So that was the first method, and that was the most difficult method, really, In my opinion, let me come over here and delete that layer and start over, so I'll show you now these second method, which is going to be a lot simpler and that's using the file open, is layers option. So if I come over here once again, I'll go to file. But this time I'll go to open his layers, and you could see there's a short cut key holding down control Ault and the okey. So click on that and that will bring up my open image as layers dialog box. And again, I'm in the D Drive and the downloads folder here. So here it says, model in red chair. I'm just going to click open, or you can always just double click on the file, and that will also open that up. So this time this is already going to open up My image as a layer in our current composition is going to name it based on the name of our J pay here. So this was the name of our file. And sometimes this can get really long. If you're file, name is long and I'll just come over here and erase the J peg portion of that. But once again, this is placed on the top of our layers stack. And that was because again, I was clicked on layer one as my active layer. So that just created this on top of my active layer, making it the top most layer in the stacking order. I can, of course, drag this down and you could see that line right there, and I'll release. So now this is blow that layer one in the stacking order, which means we can now see the blue squiggles that I created. If I drag us all the way down below the background layer, the background layer will actually entirely cover our image layer. And so we won't be able to see that. And of course I can click and drag, or I can use the icons here to change the stacking order. And one of the thing I want to point out here is that the size of our image is actually larger than our canvas. So you'll remember that our campus is going to be outlined by these yellow and black dotted lines here. So you can see here that this one goes a little bit outside the canvas. If I want to export this composition on Lee, what is inside the actual campus window, which is going to be right here where the gray portion starts? That is going to be the portion that shows up in the exported file. Anything outside that area will not show up. So come back over here and just delete this layer once again. And just take note that right now my active layer is going to be the background layer. So the third and final method for importing an image as a layer is to use your file explorer if you're on Windows or your finder window. If you're on Mac and then you can just click and drag your file into the gimp window here. So if I come over and open up my file Explorer and of course, you could search through your computer and try to find where your file is located in this case, once again in my D Drive and the downloads folder. Now I can search through here and try to find that image I want to use. So here it is, right here. Now, if I move this a little bit over, all I need to do is click and drag this anywhere on my canvas, and I can click it over here appear. But really, I just need to be over my canvas for the most part, and then I release that will load up my model image as a new layer and you'll see right here it takes on the same file name, so it takes on the name of the original file. I can once again double click on that and just erase the J peg portion and hit the enter key. And another thing to note here, if you'll remember, is that the background layer was selected as my active layer. So when I brought in that new layer, it placed it on top of my active layer, which was my background layer, making this the second layer in the stacking order as opposed to the top layer in the stacking order. So just keep that in mind Whenever you are importing images as layers, it's just going to place that image as a layer on top of whatever your previous active layer was in this case, that was the background layer, making this the middle layer in our layers stack. That's it for this lecture on how to import an image as a layer. 7. Layer Transparency: In this lecture, I'll be covering an important topic in gimp, which is going to be layer transparency. So right now in this composition I have three layers and this is sort of a continuation from the previous lectures and at the very top here I have layer one. And in the previous lectures, this had a blue squiggle in it. I've just used the eraser tool here to get rid of those blue squiggles. But I created this by just hitting the new layer icon and name this layer one and then came down here and under filled with chose transparency and clicked. Okay, so that created layer one. Here we have an image layer which of course, we created in the how to open an image as a layer lecture which was the previous lecture. And then below that we have our background layer, which is just another standard layer. But we filled it with white instead of transparency. So the important thing to note here is that only the top player in this composition layer one, contains transparency. And you can see that up here in the layer thumb. Now, there is this gray and dark raid checkerboard background that indicates transparency and gimp. These other two layers do not contain transparency. They are totally opaque. So at the very basic level, there are a couple of standard ways of controlling the transparency of your image, and the main way is going to be through the opacity slider at the top of the layers panel. So if I come up here to the top of the layers panel, you'll see we have this capacity slider here in a Mexican and click and make the model in red chair layer in my active layer. So there's a few ways of adjusting the opacity. Using this capacity slider for one, I can click and just drag this around so you could see now that is adjusting the transparency of this layer, the model in red chair layer. So I'll drop it right here a little bit above 50 and this is going to be a percentage. So this is 50.5% opaque, and that's why now you can start to see some of the white background layer below, which makes this layer look a little bit lighter. This model in red chair layer, so these pixels air, now 50% transparent or a little bit above 50% transparent, revealing the white below. That's one method. The other method is I can come up here and manually type in a value. So if I come up here and click and select all these numbers here, I can type in my own value like 23 for example, and hit the enter key. That makes this 23% opaque, or 77% transparent. So I'll take a minute here on this important point, which is that opacity and transparency have what's called an inverse relationship. Both of them are going to be subtracted from 100 meaning if you're opacity, which in this case is 23% then you're transparency is going to be 100 minus whatever your opacity is, so 100 minus 23 is going to be 77%. If I come up here and manually type in, let's say 75 hit the enter key. That means that our layer is 75% opaque, or 25% transparent. So again there's that inverse relationship where you are. Transparency is going to be 100 minus 75 which 75 is going to be, or opacity the third and final method for adjusting the opacity of your image. Using this slider is going to be using these up and down arrows here, and if I click the up arrow, you'll see that this is going to increase the capacity of my image in increments of one. So this is going up by 1% each time I click it, and on the other hand, I can click the down arrow, and that is going to decrease the opacity by 1% as well. Or, in other words, it's going to increase the transparency. So just going to reset my opacity slider So it's back to 101 100 is going to, of course, be 100% opaque or 0% transparent. And if I slide it all the way down, our layer is now 0% opaque or 100% transparent, and that means that the entire image is going to be totally see through. So if we have a layer below our image layer, which in this case is our background layer, then all we're going to see is the layer below. We aren't going to see the active layer we are on that. We decrease the opacity of using this slider. Let me just reset this back to 100 bytes, sliding this all the way back up. So the next concept I want to talk about in this lecture is the ability to erase a certain area of your image or to basically create selective or isolated areas of transparency. And so as it stands right now, we cannot do that. We can only turn up or down the opacity of the entire layer. That's what we were accomplishing with the opacity slider. But there are plenty of tools in gimp including, for example, the eraser tool that allow you to create isolated areas of transparency. And this is very useful for common tasks, such as erasing a layer background or an image background. But in this case, you'll see. Right now I have my foreground set toe white, and my background is said to black. And when I try to use the eraser tool, let's say I want to erase the background of this image here. Whenever I race, you'll see it just shows up is black, so It's just showing up as my background color. And if I change my background color, it is something like a red you'll see. Now it'll show up as a red color when I try to erase so hit control Z undo that. This is just proving that we don't truly have transparency on the Slayer. We can only adjust the opacity slider, and we cannot create isolated areas of transparency. Well, the way to add a true transparency to this image is toe add what's called an Alfa Channel, and for those of you familiar with colors and Gamper, gimp works in an RGB color space. RGB stands for red, green and blue, and each one of those colors is going to have its own channel. So if I come over here to the Channels tab, you'll see we have the Red Channel, the Green Channel in the Blue Channel. But we also have 1/4 channel here, which is called the Alfa Channel. So the Alfa Channel represents transparency and gim, and the reason we have an Alfa Channel on here is because one of our layers does contain an Alfa Channel. But this does not mean that all three of our layers in our composition contain an Alfa Channel. So if I come back here to my layers panel, only Layer One currently has now for channel. And that's why we have an Alfa Channel here in our channels dialogue. So coming back to the layers tab in order to add Alfa channels to these other two layers. What we have to do is right. Click and come down here to the option to add Alfa Channel and you'll see it has that little gray and dark grey checkerboard there. So if I click on that one subtle change, you'll notice that happened here is that the name of the wear is no longer in bold. So if I click on the background layer, you'll see that this is bold and just slightly, whereas up here, this is no longer in bold. So that is a sign that your layer has an Alfa Channel or you can right click on this. And if you try to go back down at Alfa Channel, this is now great out because we now have an Alfa Channel on here, and if I right click on layer one, you'll see that this one also has an Alfa Channel, so that option to add an Alfa Channel is not available. On the other hand, if I right click on the background layer, this one does not have an Alpha Channel, so we do have an option to add now for Channel two. This one, and I'll click on that and you'll notice that the layer name is no longer and bolt. So now if I come back up here to the model in red share layer and we have our eraser. When I erased this background just by clicking my mouse and moving it around, this will reveal the white background layer below. So if we had a different layer underneath here, it would reveal whatever that layer waas. So I'm just kind of sloppily erasing the background here. But something else I want to demonstrate is that if I hide the background layer by clicking the show hide icon now, you'll see we have that gray and dark grey checkerboard background, and that indicates that this is totally transparent behind here. So if I went ahead and export of this as something like a PNG file which does support transparent backgrounds, this would just be, Ah, hole in our image that would be saved here. There wouldn't be any colors here and then, if we brought it into another composition, whatever was behind that transparent hole or whatever you wanna call it when now show up in that area. So this layer now supports transparency. And if I hide that and just show my background layer, this layer also supports transparency. So when I erase it using the eraser tool that will also display the checkerboard background , and you may have noticed when I was switching between the model and red share in the background layers when both of these were hidden, we did only have the transparent checkerboard background here, and that's because layer one is also transparent. So whenever only layer one is displayed, it's going to display only the checkerboard background because there's nothing on this layer except for pure transparency. So let me just back up a little bit by hitting Control Z and unhygienic model in red chair layer. One last thing I want to point out for this lecture is that any time you are erasing directly on an image layer or any layer for that matter. You are performing what's called destructive editing because you are erasing the pixels directly on the layer and you can't go back if you perform a bunch of actions and undo that action. However, there is a nondestructive way of erasing pixels on a layer, and that is using something called a layer mask. Some of you may have heard of this. This is a very important concept in gimp. We're gonna cover it in the next lecture, but that's it for this lecture. 8. GIMP Layer Masks Introduction: in this lecture all be covering layer masks and specifically an introduction. A layer masks. This is going to be a series of lectures for this topic because this is a pretty advanced, an important topic for gimp. Layer masks are going to really take your photo editing in your compositions to the next level, in my opinion. But layer masks are a nondestructive way of adding transparency to your images or your layers. And the game team has an official definition for layer masks, and by their definition, layer masks allow you to selectively modify the opacity or transparency of the layer the layer masks belonged to. This differs from the use of the layer opacity. Slider as a mask, has the ability to selectively modify the opacity of different areas across a single layer . So you guys will remember from earlier lectures where I covered the opacity slider that that was only allowing us to adjust the opacity of the entire layer as a whole. Layer. Masks allow you to selectively control the transparency or opacity of a layer, and that allows you to create effects, to blend multiple images together and to do a variety of other really important in awesome things inside of gimp. But here is my composition opened up in gimp. And for this composition, I have two different layers. I have the model in red share layer, which we've been working with a little bit throughout this lecture Siri's. And then I have these ion layer below that which you guys haven't seen yet. But here is that photo. So this is just a photo from Zion National Park here in America and let me unhygienic model in red share layer. So for starters, of course, I need to add a layer mask to my layer. And to do that, all I need to do is right Click on this layer and go to add layer mask That's gonna bring up the add layer mass dialog box here, and you have options under initialized layer mass to I'm gonna go over all these options in detail a little bit later on in this series. But for now, I'm just gonna go with white full opacity, and I'm going to make sure my invert mask option is unchecked. This is another feature. I'm gonna go over in a later lecture, but then I'm gonna click, add and that will add a layer mask to my layer. So you have to thumbnails here. Now you have the image thumbnail on the left and then on the right. You have this plain white thumbnail. This represents the layer mask, and you can always change the size of your thumbnail previews by coming over here to this little menu, this triangle menu, and come over here to preview size. Right now I have this set to medium. You can, of course, go a little bit larger or you can go smaller. So, for example, if I go with extra large now, we have some larger icons over here. So this white thumbnail over here is my layer mask. And right now you'll notice that when I added this layer mask, nothing really happened to my original model in red share layer. That is because a white layer mask is going to represent what's called full opacity opacity , meaning that all of the pixels on the layer are going to be displayed. So in this case, because the entire layer mask is white, that means every pixel from our original layer is going to be displayed on the other hand, if I hit Shift B, which is going to bring up my bucket fill tool, and I'm gonna switch my color here to black my foreground color. If I click on this layer mask and paint black on the layer mask, you'll see that now our entire image will disappear. And that's because black on a layer mask is going to represent full transparency. So that means wherever there is black on your layer mask, all of those pixels are going to be fully transparent or in other words, they will disappear. So if your entire layer mask is black, like in this case, that means the entire image or the entire layer is going to disappear, as has happened here. And one other thing, I want to point out. So when I clicked on here and I painted black on my layer mask, I knew I was on my layer mask because the outline of the layer mask is going to be this green dotted line instead of the traditional yellow dotted line that goes around a normal layer. So you'll see here. This layer, when I'm clicked on it, is going to be yellow. And when I come over here and click on my layer mask. My layer boundary will now turn into this green dotted line so we know that there could be white on a layer mask and black on a layer mask. There can also be 1/3 color, and that is going to be gray. And whenever we add gray to our layer mask that is going to create areas of partial transparency. So if I come over here to my foreground color and let me just change this to a gray color and I'm just gonna type the HTML notation for a gray color. So all sevens here you'll see. Right now, this is a great color. All click OK if I paint this gray color on my layer mask using this bucket, fill tool. You'll see that now that creates a layer that is partially transparent so you can see some of the original model in red share layer and then behind that. Obviously you see the Zion layer. So this great color has created partial transparency. And that brings me to this final point, which is that layer masks can contain any of three colors, and that is going to be white, black or gray, and it can contain just one of those colors. Or it can contain any combination of those three colors. And that's where you start getting into some pretty cool layer mask effects when you combine those three colors as well as various shapes. All right, so that's it for this lecture coming up. Next, I'll dive a little bit deeper into how to create effects using your layer masks. 9. Layer Mask Effects: in this lecture, I'll be showing you guys how to create effects using a layer mask, and you'll remember from the last lecture that I said that you can use one of three colors on a layer mask so white, black or gray. And I showed you how those three colors worked as solid colors on the layer mask. And so when I ended here with the last lecture, my layer mask was filled in with this gray color. So I'm going to shift back over toe white here as my foreground color and with my bucket fell tool selected. I'm just going to fill this layer mask back in with white. Of course, white is full opacity. Black is full transparency, and gray is partial transparency. So give I can use any of the pain tools available to me inside of my toolbox to paint on the layer mask. But one thing to keep in mind with that is that if I try to paint a color on the layer mask like a red or a blue, it's just gonna show up as gray, black or white. It's never gonna show up as that actual color on the layer mask. So I'll demonstrate using one of the pain tools here for this lecture. And I'm gonna come over to my toolbox and grab my paintbrush tool. And for this, I'm just going to switch my brush to a hard brush. So this is a hardness of 100 here and you can see down here, my hardness is turned all the way up to 100. My forces turned all the way up to 100. And I'm also going to click this icon here to reset my colors to black and whites of my foreground. Color is black. My background color is white. Remember that right now I have my entire layer mask filled in with white, and you could see that over here in the layer mask thumb. Now, anywhere that I paint black on this layer mask is going to reveal the layer below. So for this example, let's say I want to erase the top portion of my image here and revealed his eye on layer below so that it looks like the girl sitting on this chair here actually is sitting in Zion National Park. I'm gonna increase my brush size to start here But now anywhere I paint black on this layer mask is going to reveal the Zion layer below and you'll see that it only pain in the top left corner here. And if I come over to my layer mass thumbnail, you'll see that now all those transparent areas are showing up as black on my layer mask. So now we have a combination of white and black, not just white on here, you know, just continue painting so you guys can see what this looks like as I add more and more black to this layer mask. So you'll see. The more I paint on here, the more black shows up over here in the thumbnail. But one thing you'll also notice is that as I'm painting, the edges of this are really sharp. So you'll see There is, you know, the original image here. And then it just abruptly switches over to the Zion image as the transparency starts to take effect over here. So what I can do to mitigate this effect is I congrats. A softer brush. So right now, remember, I have a brush with a hardness of 100 so the brush head is just filled entirely with black , and it has really hard edge. But if I switch over to a softer brush here, so I'll click on my brush is and let's go with a brush with a hardness of 0 to 5 so you could see my harness, which is over here. So this is a much softer brush. Let me increase the size of this brush head. Now, when I paint, you'll see that it is a much smoother transition from the areas of white to the areas of black or in other words, the areas of full opacity to the areas of full transparency in that transitional area is called the partial Transparency Areas. So in other words, what's happening here is we have full white right here so we could see the top image than we have full black over here so we could see the bottom image or the bottom layer. And then in between is this partial transparency and that's going to be your gray color so you could see what's happening here. When we combine, the three colors were able to start creating these effects where, for example, here we are blending one image in with another. So hold control and zoom out, and it's just creating a slightly more realistic effect. So now you'll see as I pain, it's creating a much more blended results and, ah, hold control and zoom in. And I'm just going to sort of roughly create this effect here. This transition between the two photos. Obviously, the more time you spend on things like this, the better they will look. And as I'm painting in transparency here and painting away the opacity, one thing I want to know is that if I ever wanted to go back in and in opacity again, I can always switch my foreground color back, toe white and paint over those black areas with that white. So right now I'm painting black on top of the white. But if I hit the X key on my keyboard and switch toe white as my foreground color, I can now paint white back in here in any areas that maybe were painted black that I didn't want to be painted black. You can see that this is painting those areas back in, and then, of course, I can hit the X key again. Switch back over to black and paint out any areas that I don't want there. So I'm hitting X again. Switching the white hitting X switching to black Hold control. Zoom out, and I can always decrease or increase the size of my brush. And whenever we increase the size of the brush, that is essentially going to increase the size of the area where the transition is occurring. So when we're transitioning from the black color into gray and then into the white color, if we increase that transition area, it will be a slower transition from the areas of opacity to the areas of transparency. And that can help. If you're trying to blend things over a larger space, versus in this case where I have a smaller brush, the blending is occurring in a smaller amount of space, and so the variation in the size of the brush is just creating different effects. So I had the X key to switch back over the white and paint some of these areas out cause I painted too much transparency here. Hold controlling zoom out. So now you could see by painting black on this layer mask and only painting black and selective areas. I've managed to get rid of the top part of this image here, revealing these ion image below. And if I come over here to my layer, mask them now, you'll see that the shape that I drew with the black is outlining our main subject in the photo here. And then the bottom portion, which is still opaque or were still able to see that area is painted white on this layer mask thumb now. So that's it for this lecture. Next up, we're going to stick with the pain tools and creating effects with pain tools, but we're gonna cover the Grady and tool for creating effects on your layer mask. 10. Using Gradients with Layer Masks: in this lecture, I'll be showing you how you can use grade ings with your layer mask. And as I mentioned in the last lecture, you can use any pain tools found in gimp on your layer mask. Of course, those pain tools are only going to produce one of three colors, and that's going to be black, white or gray black being full transparency, white, full opacity and great partial transparency. Well, the paint tool rule is going to also apply to Grady in, so you can draw Grady INTs on your layer mask. And here we have our composition we've been working on throughout the past few lectures, the top portion of which is massed out, and you could see that over here in the layer mask thumbnail. All the portions that are transparent are marked with black, and everything that is opaque or fully visible is marked with white. Of course, the first thing I want to do in order to draw Grady and on my layer mask is I'm going to need to grab the Grady and Tool. This used to be called the Blend tool and older versions of gimp in Game 2.10 and newer. For the most part, it is called the Great Ian Tool. So come over here and grab migrating tools from my tool walks. You could see that the shortcut key for this is the G key. And I also want to make sure that my colors are set to black and white. So again, full transparency, full opacity. And here in my grade ian options, I'm going to select the Grady int foreground to transparency so you could see this option right here we have black as thief foreground color, and that it fades to this Alfa Channel, which is denoted by the great checkerboard. So foreground to transparent is Argh! Radiant! I want the shape of the great and to be set toe linear. Next, I'll come over and make sure I'm clicked on the layer mask itself and not on the layer. And now I'll come down here towards the bottom and I'm going to click and draw my Grady int . And I'll hold the control key to draw my Grady and straight line mode. And when I release, I want to point something out. So everything that you could see down below here is going to be the transparent area. So because that area was white originally, you could still see that area. Everything up top here that has disappeared is black. So all this is now transparency. What I'm gonna do is come over here and click this icon to reverse the Grady int. So now we have the transparency on the top portion here, which is this little plus sign. This is called an end point, and then the bottom end point is going to contain the color black. So basically, what we have is transparency on the top half. It's gonna hit this midpoint here, and then that's going to shift over to the color black. So it's shifting from transparency toe black, And I don't want you guys to get confused Transparency when it comes to drawing a great, it is just basically the equivalent of not drawing any color. It's not the same as transparency on a layer mask being black. So I know this might be a little confusing right now, because black is transparency on a layer mask and transparency on a Grady, it is actually just nothing. So what we have here, in other words, is we're painting nothing up top here where the starting endpoint is and where the ending endpoint or the bottom end point is we're painting black. So everything down here in the bottom half of the grading is going to be painted black. Of course I can move this starting endpoint or the top end point. So if I shift this upwards, you could see the Grady int that goes from transparency to black is starting to spread out a little bit more. And so that black effect is starting. Teoh come into play here a little bit earlier in our composition so you could see there's more of the upper portions of our photos starting to fade. But for now, I'm just gonna draw this down here and I'm gonna have it stop around where the chair is. Maybe a little bit below that. And now I'm gonna hit the enter key. So over here in our layers panel, you could see our thumbnail for the layer mask. And of course, I can make this thumbnail a little bit larger so you guys can see it better. So let me come over here and just change it to enormous. So here in our layer mask thumbnail, you could see the very bottom portion of our layer mass contains black, and so that's transparent. And that's revealing thes ion image below, as well as all these portions right here that are still black from the layer mask that we drew earlier. So these portions are also transparent. The main take away from this is that whenever you have a great and going from a color to transparency, it's going to keep any of the previous colors that you painted on that layer mask. So either black or white is not going to replace those, and you'll see why that's important in a second. So here, basically, we've added this new Grady in on top of the original painting we did with the paint tool in the previous lecture, and that's created a compound effect here on our layer mask. I'll take control Z Undo that, and now we'll do is come over and change the grade ian type. So instead of it being foreground to transparent now, let's do foreground background RGB. So our background color, of course, is white, and now I'll demonstrate the difference here between using foreground background and using foreground to transparent. So I'm going to draw in the same area, so click and drag and I'll hold the control key. So now, instead of this only drawing transparency in the bottom portion of our layer mask, it's drawing transparency there. But it's also erasing all of the previous painting we did in the previous lecture. So all of this is now opacity, and that's because all of this in the Grady it is white. So if I grab this end point here, hold control of state and straight line mode, and I dragged upwards, you could see what happens. So the white is up top here, and the fading into transparency is starting a lot sooner. But let me just grab this and still holding the control key. I'm gonna bring it down here just so you guys can see what happens. I'm gonna hit the enter key. And now, if you look over here at my layer mask, you'll see that all this top portion is now white. So the Grady and painted over everything that we painted with the brush tool earlier, and the bottom portion here now fades in the black. That gray part in the middle as the fading is occurring, is a gray color and gray, of course, is partial transparency. So that's why this part is partially seeing through. Let me hate control z again to go back to where we were. And now I'm gonna come over and change the shape to radio. So we still have foreground background RGB So this is still going to go from black to white and remember that we still have the reverse option checked here so you could see that I can switch this back to our original foreground color, which is black. And now I'm just going to click and drag this great and from the center or somewhere near the center of our image and you guys can see what happens. So now we're going from black, which is our foreground color at the starting endpoint, and you could see up here it's labelled start endpoint one were clicked on it and we're fading over here toe white, which is our ending endpoint. And so we're going from transparency to opacity. So the transparent parts are revealing the image below, which is ours. Ion image and the opacity is keeping that top layer intact, which is the girl on the red chair. Of course, I can come over here, and I can either click the reverse button, which is going to switch my foreground color, effectively toe white. Or if I switch that back, I can come over and actually switch my foreground and background colors. That's going to perform the same thing as clicking that reverse icon. Now, if I come back over here to my Grady in line and, by the way, a quick note. If you're using an earlier version of Gimp before Game 2.10 you're not gonna have the option to live. Edit your Grady in on the campus directly. So if you're not seeing this line here with the option to be editing these endpoints and the mid points and everything, that's why. But I do want to hover over this line and you'll see the midpoint here. So this is the point where basically the colors are shifting. So at the start endpoint, we have white and it's going to be dominated by white until we get to the midpoint, and then it's going to start being dominated by black until we reach 100% black here at the ending endpoint. And the reason I mention the midpoint is weaken dragged the midpoint out. And that allows us to change the amount of partial transparency happening right here. So you could tell that as of dragging this midpoint here, it's either becoming more transparent throughout the entire top image or is becoming less transparent, as you can see here. So it's revealing more of that image. Of course, I can drag the starting endpoint here, and that's going to change the center of our radio Grady int. For now, I'm just gonna keep it towards the center of the actual image. Something else I can do is hover over the great line and I can click, and that's going to add what's called a stop. And so, basically, that's just another color change. For example, let me drag the stop outward, and I'm going to also make sure that the left and right colors of this stop So that's the color to the left side of this stop into the right side of the stop. I'm gonna make sure both of those colors are white instead of the great colors that they are now. So now I'm going to click on that left color changing toe white, and you could see what happens there and the right color as well. I could do the same thing, change its white click. OK, so what that's doing is it's revealing more of the girl in the middle, and it's just allowing that portion to be a little bit more clear. And, of course, I can control where that stop is here, so that just allows us to get a little bit more creative with the transparency in the opacity. So if I hit the enter key to apply this, you'll see our radio Grady in shows up over here in the thumbnail for our layer mask. Of course, the parts where you could see the top image or the girl sitting on the red share are going to be white, and the parts that fade out to the image below are going to be black. Of course, there are also a bunch of different shapes you can use with the Grady and tools, so we just covered linear and radio you have by a linear Square co Nicole shaped spiral, etcetera. So let me just show you one example. So let's go with the conical symmetric. So if I click and drag that out here, you'll see what happens when we use this and I'll come over and reverse the Grady int. So we just get different effects when using different shapes with our Grady and tool. I hit the enter key to apply that, and you could see what that looks like over here on the layer mask thumb. Now control Z and just back up to the radio layer mask the radio. Grady in, I should say. All right, so that's it for this lecture on using Grady INTs on layer masks up. Next, I'm gonna be showing you the layer context menu as it relates to layer masks. 11. The Layer Context Menu for Layer Masks: in this lecture, I'll be going over the layer context menu as it relates to layer masks. So the layer context menu is just a fancy name for the menu that pops up when you right click on a layer. So this right here is the layer context menu, and I'll just click to get out of that. And I just want to point out here that I hate control Z. So I no longer have my radio Grady in as my layer mask shape. Here. It's back to what it was when I painted it with the brush, and that was about two lectures ago if you're following along in sequential order. But if I come over to my layer mask and right click to bring up my layer context menu again , we have seven different options here for the layer mask inside the Lair Context menu. It starts with the ad layer mask option at the top, which is great out right now, because this layer already has a layer mask and it goes down to the mast to selection option. I'm gonna go over each one of these layer context menu options now, so let's start off by clicking off here of the layer context menu. If I'm clicked on the Zion menu, which does not have a layer mask, I can right click and go over here to add layer mask. In fact, that will be the only layer mask option that has enabled here inside of the layer context menu until I enable that layer mask So you'll see here that all of those other options air great out right now. If I click, Add layer mask is going to give me an option to add a type of layer mask. Let me just go with white full opacity for now and click add. Now if I right click on here that will once again bring up those options. So let me hit Control Z, and I'm gonna come back, appear to the original layer mask to go through the remainder of the context layer mask options. So all right, click on here. The next option is to apply layer mask, and I will say that this is my least favorite option. The reason being that layer masks are supposed to be non destructive, And what that means is that by editing on the layer mask and creating transparency were not affecting the original image. But the apply layer mask option is going to do away with that because it's going to merge the layer mask with the original layer. So let's click on that, and you guys can see first hand what I mean. So quick. Apply layer mask. And there it has merged my layer mask with the original layers. So the transparency that the layer mass created is now applied directly onto this layer. If I hit the M key to grab my move tool, I can move the layer around and you'll see that those layer mask changes have been applied like control Z and control Z again until I get my layer mask back. So that's all apply layer mask. Does it just merges your layer mask directly with the original image? So now all right, click again to bring up the layer context menu. The next option is to delete the layer mask. That's exactly what it sounds like. It's just going to remove the layer mask from your layer, but it's not going to merge it onto the original air. It's just going to get rid of it all together. So I'll click delete layer mask and now are layer. Mask is gone. And as you could see because it is nondestructive, our original image is intact. So basically just reverts back to that original image. And no changes have been made here. All the controls you to back up. So we have our layer mask back again, right? Click on that to bring up the layer context menu. The next option here is to show layer mask, and if I click on that, you'll see what that does is it takes whatever you see here in the thumbnail. So the layer mask itself, and it only shows that layer mask. So now it is totally covering up our original image. And what this does is it allows us to edit our layer mask at a larger level. So if we were racing something and we missed a few specs like we did in a previous lecture , now we can come in here and we can paint out those specs that we missed, allowing us to sort of clean up the layer mask. So I'll come over here and grab my paintbrush tool and I'll switch over to black for this example. Let's say there's just parts over here. I want to paint black. Now when I paint directly on here, it just allows us to see a bit more details as we're painting on the layer mask. And then whenever I'm done, I can come over here right. Click and click show layer mask again, and that'll hide it back here to show our original image with layer mask applied. So, in other words that no longer shows the black and white and gray colors of our layer mask. It goes back to showing either transparency or opacity or, of course, partial transparency for our layer mask. I'll come back over here in right click. The next option is Edit layer mask, and when this option is checked, it just means that you are currently editing your layer mask. So if I come over here and click off of the layer mask and click on my original image, thumbnail instead and now I right click, you'll see that that option is no longer checked. If I check it from here, it'll just switch from my original image, being selected now to my layer mask. So right click on that again. The next option is to disable layer mask, and if I click on that, you'll see that that is going to add a red border around our layer mask thumbnail. And so what this is doing is it's temporarily turning off our layer mask so we could see the image below without the layer mask. And instead of deleting layer mask, it's just again temporarily hiding it were disabling it that way. Once we're done doing whatever we need to do with our original image, we can just turn it back on. And basically there won't be any changes made to layer mask, so we'll still have our layer mask after I turn this on. So all right, click and make sure that I click on Disable Layer mask again. And now the layer mask is enabled, and I do want to point out that there was a red border around the layer. Mask them now for that option. If I right click on here and go back to show layer mask, you'll notice that there is a green border around that thumbnail for that option. So just keep that in mind when you're working with this All right, click and check the show layer mask option again to get rid of that. The next option here is going speed to mask to selection, and what this option is going to do is draw a selection area around any parts of your layer mask that are 50% opaque or greater. And there's a technical reason for this selection. Areas are always drawn around areas of 50% opacity or more, so anything 50% transparent or less will be excluded from a selection area. It can still be drawn outside the selection area as a feathered edge, and that again is just something more technical than I'm not gonna get into right now. But all you need to know is that when you click mass to selection, you'll see that anything that has 50% opacity or more is now selected here. And if I hold control and zoom in these areas right here, have 50% transparency or more. So in other words, there 50% or less opaque and therefore they are excluded from the selection area, toehold control and zoom out. So it's to simplify everything. I've just said all the mass to selection option does is it draws a selection area around the opaque parts of your layer mask, and the benefit of this is I can come over to another layer. So, for example, our Zion layer I can right click on here. And when I come over to add layer mask, I can come down here to initialize layer Mass to selection, and now that is going to add a layer mask in the same shape as a layer mask up top here. So it's essentially allowing me to copy the layer mask for one layer to another layer and take control. Zita. Undo that. And like any other selection area, Aiken de select this by going to select none. Or I can hit control Shift A and that will also de select my selection area. One last thing on a point out about these options in the Layer Context menu is that you can access them via shortcut keys. So, for example, if I hold control and click on my layer mask that is going to disable the layer mask. If I click on it once again, that will enable it. If I hold the old ski and click on the layer mask. You'll see that we'll go ahead and show the layer mask so that is outlined with the green around the thumb now, and if I click on this again, it will hide layer mask. So there's a couple of shortcut keys for those options inside of the layer context menu for your layer masks. All right, that's it for this lecture coming up. Next, I'll go over layer mass types found and gimp. 12. Layer Mask Types: in this lecture, I'll be going over layer mask type. So these are all the different types of layer masks you can add to your images in gimp. So for starters, I'll come over here and I'm just going to hide my model in red chair layer because I'm just going to demonstrate adding layer masks on my Zion layer. So this is the same set up we had in the previous lectures, and there's two options for adding a layer mask. You can do it via the layer context menu by right clicking on your layer and going to add layer mask, and you could see this little icon right here, next to add layer mask. If I click off of this, that same icon is right here in your layers panel, so this will also add a layer mask, and I'll just click on that. So here we have the option to add a mask to the layer and you'll see here it says initialized. Layer mass to that just means basically select a type of layer mask you want to add to your layer, and at the very top is the white, full opacity option. This is an option I've covered in the previous lectures. So I'm not really going to go over it again in this lecture, at least not in detail. But all you need to know about the white full opacity layer mask option is that this is going to add a fully opaque layer mask. Or, in other words, when I click add, it's going to add a white layer mask and everything on our image. All the pixels and our image are going to remain fully opaque. So in other words, nothing really happens. When we add a white layer mask, I hope control Z, and I'll click to add a layer mask again. The next option here is going to be black. Full transparency. So this is going to be the opposite of the white layer mask in that is going to hide all of the pixels on our layer or make our layer totally transparent. So if I come over here and click add, you'll see now that we have a black layer mask based on the layer mask thumbnail right here and all of our pixels are hidden. And since there's nothing below our totally transparent image, all you can see display here is total transparency, and that is always represented by this gray checkerboard here. And you might remember that from the Transparency Lecture that I did earlier if you watched that lecture. But you can bring pixels back when this is a totally black or transparent layer mask. And the way you do that, of course, is by adding white to this or even a gray color, which would be partial transparency. So if I come over and grab my paintbrush tool here and I switched my color back to black and white. So this is my foreground. Color is black, background is white, and I'm just going to switch so that my foreground color now is white. So I now have this paint brush tool that is painting white on this black layer mask, and you want to make sure that your layer mask a selected here. You could tell that it selected because there is this green dotted line around our layer instead of the traditional yellow line. So I'll make sure that my layer mask is selected here and anywhere that I paint white on this black layer mask is going to go ahead and create opacity on our layer, so it's going to show those pixels that were painting on. So if I look over here at my layer mass thumbnail, you could see the areas I painted white and relative to the original image. Here, you could see those pixels are showing up, and painting on your layer mask also applies to the white layer mask. So you'll remember in the last step that the white layer mask just totally showed all the pixels in the layer. If you were to paint black on that layer mask, it would go ahead and hide those pixels or create transparency in those areas. And let me just demonstrate that real quick to keep you guys from getting confused here. So right click. Delete the layer mask. I'll come over. Add layer mask If I select white, fill opacity and click add. Nothing happens. But if I hit the X key to switch my foreground color back to black, wherever I paint black on this layer mask. So I'm painting on the white layer mask with this black color that is creating transparency . So if you're wondering what the purpose of a white layer mask is this is the purpose right here. You can keep everything opaque to start, and then you can go back and paint transparency on any of the pixels. You want to be transparent, but I'm gonna right click and delete the layer mask. So next up when I click to add a layer mask is the option to add a layer mask based on the layers Alfa Channel. So as I just mentioned, and as I also talked about in the Transparency lecture, the Alfa Channel is just going to basically be anywhere where there is transparency on your image. Right now, we do not have any sort of Alfa channel on here because all of the pixels are currently opaque. So let me just hit, cancel, And I'm just gonna create a quick example by using my eraser tool over here in the toolbox . I'm just gonna increase the size of my brush using the right bracket on my keyboard. So let's say we go in here and we just erase rain in parts of our image. So all the grade checkerboard areas are going to be transparent pixels or the Alfa Channel . So let me just erase the sky roughly here like So now if I right click on here and go to add layer mask and I initialized later mass to my layers, Alfa Channel and Click Ed. This is going to create a layer mask based on my often channel. So remember, the Alfa Channel is up top here, so everything that is transparent will show up as black on the layer mask now, and everything that was opaque will show up as white. The problem with this option is that layer masks are supposed to be more nondestructive, or, in other words, you're able to create areas of transparency off of the original layer. With this option, the transparency that you created on the layer stays on the layer and then is copied over to the layer mask. So it has both the layer mask with the areas of transparency, and it has the layer with areas of transparency. So, really, we're not being nondestructive at all because the changes are not taken from the original layer. So let me just demonstrate by coming over here right clicking and going to disable layer mask. You'll see that when I disable a layer mask, the transparent areas are still visible here on our layer. Luckily, the next option in the layer mask menu fixes this. So let me just back up a little bit here. I'm gonna take control Z until we get rid of our layer mask. So now that's right. Click and go to add layer mask, and the next option is to transfer layers Alfa Channel. So click on that, and what that's going to do is it's going to lift the transparency that we created with the eraser tool directly on the layer, and it's going to place it then on the layer mask. So is going to remove the Alfa Channel from the image and place it on the layer mask. So if I come over here and click add, you'll see the image looks the same and the layer mask looks the same. The main difference, though, is you could see it in the thumbnail here. The transparency has been lifted from here, and it's been placed entirely on the layer mask, so the transparent areas are black, the opaque areas are white, and if I now right click and go to disable air mask, you'll see that transparency is now gone from the original image. So this now falls under the category of being nondestructive because it's lifted that erasing we did off of the original layer and put it on the layer mask. So, in my opinion, this is a very useful option for the layer masks. So let me just right click, and I'm just going to delete this layer mask now, and once again, I'll click to add layer mask. The next option here is selection. This will create a layer mask based on any active selections you have in your current composition. Right now, we do not have any active selection area. So what it will do if I click the add button is it will just create a black layer mask, which, of course, is full transparency. So let me back up by hitting Control Z and let me create a selection area for us to work off of. First, let me hit em to grab my move tool because I don't want my eraser selected right now. I'll come over here to the model in red chair layer, and even though this is a hidden layer, I could still create a selection from the layer mask. And, of course, all I need to do as I covered in previous lectures is right Click and come down here to mask to selection. So that was from our last lecture on the layer context menu for layer masks. So now we have a selection area in the shape of our layer mask. And now, when I come over here and right, click on my eyes, I on layer and go to add layer mask and make sure that selection is my option here and click. And now you'll see the layer mask is created based on the selection area that we created above here, so it's the exact same shape as that top layer mask. Everything outside these selection area is black, and everything inside the selection area is white or folio Pake. And as I mentioned in the last lecture, this essentially allows you to create an exact copy of layer masks from other layers. So this is another really useful feature here, so he controls you to back up here and hit control. Shift A to de select that selection. I'll come back over here to the add layer mask option the next option is to create a layer mask based on a grayscale copy of the layer. So gray scale is just a fancy word, basically for black and white. So black and white images are also called grayscale images. What this layer mask option does is it creates a black and white version of your current layer in places it on a layer mask. This creates some interesting effects, of course, because as you'll remember, as I've said many times in this lecture in previous lectures, black on a layer mask is going to create transparency. White will create full opacity, and any areas of gray will create partial transparency. So when you create a grayscale copy of Larry is going to have all three of those elements in there is gonna have black, white and gray. And so let me go ahead and create this layer mask to show you guys what this looks like. So I'll click, add, And as you could see now, we have areas of full transparency areas of partial transparency, and I'm sure there are areas of full opacity here, probably up in the clouds. But if I come over and look at my layer mask. You'll see. It's an exact black and white replica of our active layer that we're on right now, and we can get a better look at this by right clicking and going to show layer mask. So here's what are layer mask looks like right now. And if I hold control and zoom in with my mouse wheel, you could see here's areas of almost pure black. This area is a lighter grey. This is a darker grave, and then up here near the clouds, we almost have pure white. So the areas that are closer to white will be closer to full opacity in areas that are closer to black will be near areas of full transparency. So right click and click the show layer mask option again to hide that. And now you could see the effect of all those black and white areas on here. So now I just come over right click and go to delete layer mask. The next option, if I click to create a new layer mask again, is going to be to create a layer mask based on a channel. So just a quick review on color channels. Gipp is going to have red, green, blue and Alfa channels. That's because gimp uses the RGB color space, and then it also allows for Alfa channels or areas of transparency. So what this layer mask option does is it allows you to create a layer mask based on any of those color channels, and a quick thing to know about color channels that you'll see in a second. Here is that color channels and gimp are often represented as black and white images, and those images on Lee contained the colors from that color channel. So it'll be a black and white version of all the blues in an image, for example, for the Blue Channel. So let me just show that real quick. And right now there aren't any channel options because you do have to create a custom channel first to have that channel be available as an option here. So let's do that right now. Let me hit, cancel and we can come over to our channels tab. And if you don't have this, you go to Windows Doctoral dialogues channels, and it should pop up over here. Or if it doesn't, you can always click and drag this because this is a doctoral dialogue. Just drag it by the tab here on the top. But you'll see here we have red, green blue in Alfa. And as you could tell right here, these are just black and white representations of the colors in these color channels. You could see what happens when I hide one of the color channels. It just throws the colors off because, for example, were hiding the Green color Channel here, which is all of the greens in the image. And whenever you extract all the greens, you're going to get the opposite color, which is magenta. So this is creating more of a magenta image when I hide the Green Channel. But for this example, I'm just going to click and drag the Red Channel over, so I'm going to click and drag this to the bottom portion here. This is where you create custom channels, and I'm just going to release. So now we have a Red Channel copy. I can show or hide that, and this is going to throw the colors off because it's adding another layer of red to this , even though we already have a red. So I'm just gonna keep that hidden. But now, if I come back to my layers panel, I can come down to our Zion layer, right click go to add layer mask. Or, of course, just use the add layer mask icon right here and now under channel. We have the Red Channel copy available for us to use as the channel layer mask, so let's click. Add to see what happens. So it's very similar to the black and white or the grayscale copy of the layer. It's all right. Click on here, go to show layer mask. So this is a grayscale version over current layer or our image. It is a little bit different than the original grayscale copy, because this is only based on the Red Channel. It's not based on all three channels combined. So that's why this may be a little bit lighter in areas or even a little bit darker in certain areas than it was in the grayscale copy. But the same principle will apply to this as it did the grayscale copy, which is that anywhere that is dark grey or close to black will be almost full transparency or partial transparency and anything close to white will be close to opacity or some form of partial opacity. So keeping that in mind when I hide the layer mask again is going to be pretty much fully opaque here and partially transparent in these gray areas. So right click, show, layer mask and you can see that is the case here. I'm going to right click on this and go to delete layer. Mask those air all the layer mass types. But I do want to point out one last, really important feature when it comes to adding a layer mask. And that's the ability to check the invert box. And that is basically just going to invert any of those layer mask effects we just did where, in other words, create the exact opposite effect. So let me come over click to create a new layer. And, for example, if I click the white full opacity option and then come down and click invert mask, it's now going to create the invert or the opposite effect of what a white fellow pass a layer mask usually does. So if you think about that for a second, what effect do you think that's going to create well, it's going to create a black layer mask, so it's gonna create complete transparency here instead of complete opacity. So with the invert mask option checked and white full opacity selected, I'm gonna click, add, And as you can see, that's going to add a black layer mask. Hey, Control Z. Same thing applies to if we select black full transparency with the invert mask option check. Instead of creating black, it's going to create a white layer mask, which will create full capacity. So click and and there you can see. That's exactly what happened there. Hey, Control Z. So this layer mask effect applies to all the layer mass types, including the complicated ones like grayscale copy of a layer or the selection option. So let me just demonstrate this with the selection options. So once again, I'll come over to the model in red share layer and click on the layer mask, right click. Go to Mass to selection, come down here to the Zion layer, click to add a layer mask, and we'll choose the selection option with the invert mask option checked. So what should happen here is that everything outside the selection area should now be white, and everything inside the selection area should now be black. So this is the exact opposite of what happened earlier. So click end, and there you can see we have the opposite effect so they control Z to back up and control shift eight to de select that area. One thing I want to leave you guys with is that you want to make sure that the invert mask option is unchecked. When you're not using it, you do have to manually do that. Gimp is not going to reset your options in order to uncheck that automatically. So to do that, just come over to your layer mask option. And let's say you're creating a white full of passing a layer mask. Just make sure you uncheck that invert mask option, and when you click, add this will be back to normal, and they control Z when you come back into the layer mask options. The last option that you used when you applied a layer mask will now be saved, so as you can see, we have white full capacity and we have the invert mask option on checked. So just keep that in mind When you're working, you may be working with a layer mask, and it's not doing what you expected to be doing. That could be because you have the invert mask option checked and you need to have it on shipped. All right, that's it for this lecture Next up, all dive into the subject of lair groups. 13. Layer Groups: in this lecture will be going over the concept of layer groups. So layer groups are a pretty important concept in gimp. It allows you to group multiple layers inside of a layer group, and that helps you either just be more organized in camp or add effects to all the layers in that layer group. So I'll start this tutorial off with a blank canvas here, and I'm gonna come over to my file explorer here inside of Windows or your finder window if you're using a Mac, and I'm just going to click and drag one of these photos into gimp, So just release my mouse right there. So now, of course, we have a brand new layer over here. I'm just gonna double click on this and rename the layers Sunflowers and hit the enter key . So creating a layer group is really simple inside again. All they have to do is come down here to the bottom of my layers panel and click the create a new layer group icon. So here we have a brand new layer group inside of our layers panel. And of course, I can double click on this to rename this just like a layer. And I'll just rename this nature photos just kind of random here and will hit the enter key . And by default, the Layer Group is going to have a photo of a folder icon as its thumbnail. And then so the left of that you're going tohave the show hide icon will get into that in a little bit. The real benefit of a layer group is actually having layers inside of it, so I'm just going to start by clicking and dragging a layer into the layer group. Of course, we only have one layer opening this composition our sunflowers layer. But I can drag this into our layer, gripped by just clicking and dragging the layer and hovering it over the layer. Group here, and you'll see this dotted line going around the entire layer group. And that's how you know that your first layer is going to go inside the later group. Now I won't release my mouse, and that's going to place our layer inside the layer group, and now you'll see that this has a little icon. Here is a minus sign. If I click on this is going to collapse the layer group, so my layer is still inside the labour group, but now it's just collapsed, and I can expand it by clicking that same icon. You'll also notice that when I have my layer clicks as usual, it's going to have a yellow and black dotted line around the edges here versus when I click on the layer group itself. Now that we have a layer in here, the Layer group is going to be surrounded by a blue dotted outline instead of a yellow one . So with my Larry groups still active here and let me just get the M key to grab my move tool, I'm now going to click and drag new layers into this composition because I really want to demonstrate how powerful a later group can be. And the best way to do that is toe have multiple layers inside that layer group. So come over here to my file Explorer and just going to click on one of these and then shift click on the other to select both images, and I can click and drive both of these inside a gimp and release that will add these two photos inside the Layer group. I'm just going to rearrange the so that the hiker photos on top because it's a smaller layer, so that just demonstrates how you can rearrange layers inside a layer group. I can also click and drag a layer outside layer group, and you can always tell where you're dragging it based on the line so you'll see a line right here and it's going from the far left of the thumbnail of the Layer group all the way to the end. Versace. If I'm trying to drag this inside the layer group, the line will only stop at the thumbnail here for the layer inside the Layer group. So it's not going all the way to the left with Layer Group thumbnail. And so let me just drag this outside the labour group there and one thing I want you to observe is that the Layer Group thumbnail is going to depict whatever is inside the entire layer group here. So the latter group thumb now will always display the final result of all of your layers being combined inside of the layer group. So the further demonstrate this, I'll click and drag the hiker photo back into the layer group, so I'm just going Teoh. Either drag it into a particular place here based on the line, or I can just drag it over the layer group itself. They don't give me that dotted line, and we'll just place this at the very top of the layer group so you'll see the thumbnail will update there. Because this photo is smaller than the two photos below it, you'll see that it only partially obstructs the photos, blow it and thats being depicted here inside of the layer group thumb now. And of course, I can show or hide any of these layers inside the layer group, much like I could do a regular layer. Or I can hide all of the layers inside the layer groups simultaneously by clicking the show hide icon, and you'll see here that all these have a little cross through on this eye icon here, showing that they've been hidden and I can come back up top here and on hiding everything, or I can hide these individually. You can add lair mass to each one of the individual layers inside of your layer. Group warning can add a layer mask to the entire layer group, so all we have to do to do that is click on a layer. So in this case, let's start with the hiker layer, which is already our active layer. And let me actually just change this real quick toe hiker and will change this one to wheat . So come up here to the hiker layer. I'll come down and click to add a layer mask, so this is just like adding layer mask, which we've done for the past couple of lectures. And I'll just start by going to white full opacity and I'll click. Add. So now our hiker layer has this white layer mask on it. And, of course, when I had the layer mass elected, you'll see that the outline around the layer is going to be great now instead of the yellow color. Now I will come over and I'll grab the Grady in tool, and I'll come down to the shape option, and in this case, I'll just go with by linear. This is a little bit of a review from one of my previous lectures, but I just want to demonstrate how we can have multiple layer masks here inside the layer grip, and I'm just going to click and drag this radiant. So hold the control key to drag it in straight line month. And this is not what I want right now, So I'm going to come over here to the great and type. Let's go with foreground and background, so that looks pretty good. My foreground color is set to white and my background color set to black, and I'll just drag this out a little bit here, and I'll click along this line to create a new stop. And I'm just going to change the color of the stop toe white. That way we could see a little bit more of our image here, and we'll just this all right, So once we're done with that, I'll hit the answer key. So now we have a layer mask on this hiker layer inside of the Layer group. I'm gonna add a layer mask to this layer as well, and then I'll add a layer mask to the entire layer group. So now on to the wheat layer. I'm going to create a new layer mask, and we'll initialize a layer mask toe white, full capacity and click add. And with migrating tools still selected, I'm gonna change the shape to just linear. And let me actually just hide this hiker layer here and come back here to the wheat layer mask. And now I can draw on the whole the control key to draw this in straight line moan and I can adjust. The sitting here may actually go a little bit to the right ourselves. Pretty good. So I hit the enter key. So now we have to layer mass on here. Let me just run hide this layer. So finally, I want to add a layer mask to our layer group. So I'm going to start by coming over here and grabbing my rectangle selectable. I'm just gonna mask out everything outside of this portion of the photo. The smallest photo. Now where we don't have all of this overlap going on. So just quickly draw a square hair. It was gonna move this up, this down all they control I and that'll invert my selection area there. So now we're selecting everything outside of our rectangle and then I'll come over right Click on my layer group, go to add layer mask and go with initialized lower mass to selection. I'll choose the invert mask option here and click ed that's gonna mask everything out outside of our rectangle that we drew control Shift A. And now you can see by adding a layer mask Tour Layer group and to a couple of the layers inside the Layer group. We've created a compound effect, and so essentially some of our layers are now going to have to layer masks. And this is one of the huge benefits of layer groups is you can compound layer mask, and that, in turn, is going to allow you to have more complex compositions. So because this is now a transparent background, I'm just going to create a background layer, and we're gonna fill it in with the color. So I'll click to create the lair, and I'll name this background hit the enter key. I'm going to click and drag this outside of the layer group, and then I'm just gonna come down here and click this icon here toe lower This below the layer grip. Anil had shift be on my keyboard to grab my bucket fill tool. We'll hit the X key to switch over to my black color, fill in that background layer and now we have a nice background. Of course, these photos are overlapping each other. So I'm going to hit the M key to grab my move tool and was gonna move these photos around a little bit. So I'm gonna come up here to my wheat layer and was gonna drag this holding the control key . So dragon over so we can see the model a little bit better and same with the sunflowers layer. So I'll just dragged this over and there we go. The last concept I want to cover is nested layer groups. So this is when you have a layer group within the layer group. You could do this really infinitely number of times within gimp, so there's no limit to how many layer groups you can have within another layer group. Of course, the performance of gimp, once you do that will depend on the power of your computer. So you don't wanna overdo this, but you can create even more complex compositions by creating nested layer groups. So here we have our original nature photos layer group. I can come down and click to create a branding layer group, and that's going to add a layer group inside of this existing layer group. So if I wanted to, I could then add new layers inside of here like also right click and add a layer mask inside of here. Or I can add another layer groups. Now we have two nested layer groups here inside of our original air group. I just delete That was so that's it for this lecture on layer groups. 14. Intro to Layer Modes in GIMP 2.10: hello and welcome to yet another tutorial by Davies Media Design. My name is Michael Davies, and in today's tutorial, I'll be going over a comprehensive look at all of the layer modes found a gimp. So there are currently 38 layer modes found in the latest version, a gimp. 12 of these layer mounds were added with gim 2.10. So if you're using a version that's older than given to 0.10 you won't have access to these layer modes. And I will, of course, be going through all of these layer modes founding gimp in today's tutorial. So when you're working with Layer Mo's, you're typically working with two layers or you're working with a tool within gimp, so layer modes do work with layers or tools in gimp. But think of the top layer as the blend layer. It's also called the active layer and the mask layer. The top layer is instrumental in how the layer mode causes the two layers to interact with one another, although in some cases in what is called a commune Tate of layer mode, the order of the layer most doesn't matter. So the top and the bottom have the same significance. The bottom layer is typically known as the base layer or the image layer, and this layer is typically where the final result of the layer mode interaction between the two layers is going to reside. So from a technical standpoint, layer modes work because pixels are assigned a value. Every single pixel in each layer within gimp are assigned a value, and those values, then when using a layer mode, are plugged into an equation. So you have the pixel value from your top image and your pixel value from your bottom image . Both of those air plugged into some sort of equation that produces a new pixel value, and that new pixel value is then displayed on the blended layer. So the final result, basically is displaying the pixel value created from plugging those two numbers into the equation. Pixel values in gimp are between zero and 2 55 0 being black and 2 55 being white. So typically, when the pixel value is closer to zero, it's a darker pixel. When it's closer to 2 55 it is a lighter pixel, and when you're plugging these numbers into the formulas. If the pixel value that comes out is a negative value, so let's say it comes out is negative. Five. That pixel will typically be displayed as a black pixel unless the formula states otherwise . The same applies to the white pixel, so of value exceeds 2 55 That pixel is typically displayed as a pure white pixel, unless again it is specified in the formula. That it's to be displayed is something else. So another way to visualize how layer Mo's work from a technical standpoint. And this might just be confusing you guys, but it is good to know the technical side of things. Pixels on a top layer in the bottom layer have a location, and typically in these layer mode formulas, the pixels that are being combined are the two pixels, one of the top layer, one of the bottom layer that are both in the exact same location in the respective layer. So basically, the pixel values from the same locations are always being added into the formula from the top layer and the bottom layer. If none of this is making sense to you, by the way, don't worry. I'm gonna explain all of these concepts in a lot simpler terms as we get through this tutorial. So let's dive into our gimp now and later. Modes can be found up here in the layers panel. If you don't have your layers panel open, you can go to Windows recently closed docks and we'll be right here or if it's not there, you go to Doc Bull dialogues. And right here you have your layers panel. So again, right here at the very top your layers panel, you have your layer modes, and the default is gonna be set to normal. You also actually have layer modes in some of your tools and gimp. So right now I have one of my pain tools, which is the great and tool open, and you'll see I have a layer mode here, so this allows you to just apply a limo to the tool as you're using it versus waiting to apply it to the entire layer. So this is obviously helpful if you just want the layer mode applied to the tool and not the entire layer. Although if that's the case, I do typically recommend just painting with your pain tool on an entirely separate layer. So pretty much all of the pain tools would think gimp are gonna have the layer modes. But I'm mostly going to go over the layer modes within just the layers panel for this tutorial, as that is the most common use. And that's the most common way to explain how layer modes work. You can combine layer modes with the opacity slider here to compound effects and produce different results as well as use them with layer masks and layer group masks who also achieved different results. And we'll get into some of that a little bit later in this tutorial, so clicking on the layer mode drop down, you'll see. Here are all 38 layer modes. There's actually seven different layer mode types, at least that I know of, so you have normal lighten dark. In contrast, inversion, cancellation and component and for the most part of these different layer mo types are separated by a line here. And of course, I'll go into what each of these different layer most does, and that's gonna help simplify what those layer mode types actually are. 15. Normal and Dissolve Layer Modes: So right now I only have one image within my composition. And as I mentioned at the beginning of this tutorial layer modes typically are an interaction that takes place between multiple layers. So what I'm gonna do is bring in another layer here. So I've got another image right here, and all I have to do is click and drag this tab and then drag over this tab here, drag over my composition and then release. And now I have two different layers and for simplicity. I'm gonna name this top layer and this is the bottom layer. So I'm gonna start with the normal layer mode, which is what this is set to by default. All this means is that the layer on top covers the layer on the bottom. So as you can see, when I clicked and dragged this image into our composition, it created a new layer and it put it at the top and it covered up our bottom layer so I can show or hide this layer, and now you could see the bottom layer below. So all the normal layer mode setting does is it basically doesn't affect this layer at all and it causes thelancet stacking order, which means the order in which these layers are stacked on top of one another is going to favor the very top image. So it's only going to display the top image first. And then if you do anything to this top layer like decrease the opacity, then it'll start to display the layers below. Or if the layer above is smaller than the layer below or has any sort of transparency. Then you can see the layer below in the stacking order. But just for the sake of simplicity. If the two layers are the same size, like in this case, when you have this set to normal, this is going to cover the bottom layer, so that's pretty simple. I'll move on to the dissolve layer mode, so click on here and go to the next one. Dissolve. So right now that doesn't do anything. In the reason is that this layer mode dissolves the upper layer into the lower layer via a random pattern of pixels drawn in areas of partial transparency. So right now there is no transparency here, and that's why we don't see any effect. But if I do something like Grab my eraser tool, and I have this said to a pretty soft brush here. And here's the hardness. It's set to 25 so this is a pretty soft brush. And let me just increase the size of this brush as well. Maybe a little bit more so because this is a soft brush is creating partial transparency. So if I said this to normal, you'll see usually this is causing the image to fade into the image beneath it. So this transparency is fading. It zero transparency here. Ah, 100% here and then it's fading right here, where I used the eraser around the edges of my eraser. So when I sent this to dissolve, you'll see that partial transparency is converted into this pixelated look. And you could get a better look at this if I hold control and zoom in with the mouse wheel . So here you'll see that there's a bunch of pixels here, and you'll notice that none of these pixels have a smooth edge. They all have hard edges, and the reason for that is that this layer mode does not have anti Elias ing anti Elias ing is an effect within gift that smooths rounded edges. Eso it smooths pixels to make rounded edges look smoother. And in this case, it doesn't do that. So all these pixels are square, so just creates this look like this photo is dissolving into the next photo. And that, in a nutshell, is the dissolved layer boat. So they control Z to back up to before we use that eraser and use my mouse field of zoom out. 16. Color Erase and Erase Layer Modes: the next layer mode is color race. So let me actually just switch over to my move tool, and I'll come over here to mode and I'm a changes to color race. So basically all this does is it takes the colors from the top layer, and it erases those same colors from the bottom layer. In this case, we have a lot of different colors because we have two images, so it's kind of hard to tell what exactly this layer motors doing. But let me change this top layer moved back to normal and let me grab my foreground color. Here, grab my color picker tool and I'm gonna just select a color from this image. So let's go with the color from her lips here. So this sort of pinkish color and I'll click OK, and if I create a new layer and I'll just name this color, fill it with transparency and set the layer mode here to color or race click. OK, right now, nothing will happen because we don't have a color on this layer. But if I grab my bucket filled tool and I paint this color on here, it's gonna erase all instances of that pinkish color. So now all of that color is gone from here. I hate Control Z. I can also do this with the paintbrush. So let's say I take a paintbrush will decrease the size, and I'm going to paint on this layer. Just with lips. Are you'll see now the color in the lips that we selected with our color picker tool has been erased. So that's what the color race layer mo does. We'll head control Z. So that was the color race mode used on a layer. If I delete this layer here, I can actually use the color race just with the paint brush tool by itself. So change the mode to color race and instead of the paint brush painting this color on our composition now, it'll erase that color from our layer here. So he controls E. By the way, That layer mode type is a cancellation layer mode because it does cancel out colors within the layer. The last two layer most that we went through, including the normal and the dissolve layer modes are both considered normal layer modes, so the next layer mode is going to be the race and what this does is it just erases pixels from the top layer from the bottom layer. So if I said this to a race is going to erase everything within the bottom layer because there's the same number of pixels in the top layer as the bottom. So come over here and choose a race and you'll see that the only thing left is transparency . Let me take control Z. If I hide this layer, create a new layer and I'm gonna set this mode to erase, and I'll fill it with transparency. Click. Okay, Nothing will happen right now because there's no pixels on here. Let me change the mode of my paintbrush back to normal. So now if I paint any pixels on my color layer, which is set to the race mode, is going to erase any of those pixels that I draw from that bottom layer. So you'll see as I paint on here. It's basically acting like an eraser and just erasing those pixels. So that is also a cancellation layer type. And one thing to note here I'm going to delete this layer and unhygienic is top layer. If I use this layer mode, the Roesler mode with a layer mask. It'll actually invert what's going on with a layer mask. So remember, layer masks are a nondestructive way to delete pixels from an image. They add transparency to the image using black and white. I'm gonna go through that in a second. But because layer masks do work with transparency, which is an erasing property, when you add this erase layer mode to that, it's just going to invert it because basically the layer mask is already erasing things. So basically, it's like creating a double negative here, and it's going to invert whatever is happening on the layer mask, I'm gonna come over to my top layer, right click and go to add layer mask and under initialized layer mask to I'm gonna choose white full opacity and make sure my invert mask option is unchecked and I'll click. Add so usually white on a layer mask would totally reveal the image, but in this case, you'll see that when we add white to this layer, it hasn't done anything. And now what I'm gonna do is pay black on the layer mask that usually adds transparency to the layer where you have the layer mask on but in this case is actually going to reveal pixels. Eso Let me just demonstrate that real quick. So grab my paintbrush and I'm just gonna paint on my layer mask and you'll see it's actually going to reveal the pixels of the bottom layer. So let me come over here and right quick and delete this layer mask and then change the mode here back to normal. 17. Merge and Split Layer Modes: So for my next layer mode, I'm gonna come over here to my other image. And here we have two images that are actually from my heart, a blend, two images together tutorial. And what I've done is I've basically created them so that they're still blending into one another. But there's just this little gap between the two of them. So there's some missing pixels here, and this is all from one image. So these air two parts toe one whole image, one part of the images, the winter image, and that's on the top. The other part is the mountains image, and that's on the bottom. So I want to merge these two together, but I don't want there to be any pixels missing in the middle. So if I come up to the top layer and I change this layer mode to merge, you'll see this has gone ahead and merged these two photos together, and it's also filled in the missing pixels here and now, the two parts of the image have become a single whole image. If you wanted to actually emerge these two layers together and just create one single layer from it, you can right click on here and go to merge down and that all merger two layers together now and it's become one image and it's become one whole image. I'll have control Z and just back up. So the next layer mode is called Split, and that just subtracts the top layer from the bottom layer. And so let me just demonstrate by coming over here to the layer mode and I'll change just to split. And so now you'll see that top layer has disappeared. So, in my opinion, this layer mode is almost exactly the same as the erase layer mode. I'm gonna change this back to normal. 18. Lighten Layer Mode Types: So next we're gonna get into the lighten layer mo types, and this does exactly what it sounds like. It's going to create a lighter image between your two layers that you're using. So the first layer mode I'm gonna use is the lighten layer mode. I'm gonna come back over here to our original two layers that we've been working with, and I'll come over here to mode and changes to lighten. Only what this does is it keeps the lighter pixel values between the top and the bottom layers. So looking at this image, after we've applied the layer mode, you'll see that it kind of creates this spliced composition. And the reason it looks like this is because it's taken the lighter pixels located throughout the image has only kept that pixel between the two. So remember both the top and bottom layers both have their own pixel values, so there are two pixels assigned to the same location when stacked on top of each other like this. And what this layer mode does is only keeps the one pixel in that single location that is the lighter of the two pixels. And so that's why in some cases, you've got some pixels from the top image here, like the girl's face. So this part of the girl's face was brighter because of the light that was hitting her face and the wall. Same thing. The pixels in this wall were lighter than the pixels below. So if we hide this layer, you'll see the pixels in this lower layer are still pretty bright, but they're not quite as bright as this wall right here. On the other hand, her eye right here is brighter than the girl on tops hair. So if I hide that bottom layer, you'll see the hair pixels are pretty dark, whereas these pixels all right here are pretty light. So it only kept the lighter pixels right here. If I were to perform this with an all black layer. So let me create a new layer. I'll set the mode here to lighten only, and I'm gonna fill this with my foreground color, which right now is set to black, and I'll click OK, and then let me come over here to this layer and changes to normal. So because every pixel in this layer is dark, they're all pure black Basically, it's just going to cause this entire layer to disappear when we use the light on Lee mode on here. Now, on the other hand, if I change this color, the white and I feel this with all white. What's gonna show up is pure white because pure white is the lightest pixel you can have in gimp. I'll just fill this with white and now you'll see that with layer most set to lighten, only the only thing that shows up is thebe, pure white layer. So just exit out of that lightened only is actually our first commune, Tate of layer. And that means that when I add lightened only to this top layer and lighten only to this bottom layer here, it actually doesn't matter which layer is the top layer is going to produce the same result anyway. So if I move this to the top, you'll see nothing has changed about this. If I move this back up to the top, you'll see again. Nothing has changed. So as long as both of these have the layer mode set to lighten, only it doesn't actually matter which one is on top. But if I change this one than normal. You'll see. There's no change here, but if I move this to the top, you'll see that now that's disappeared. So both of these have tohave the lair mode set to lighten only in order for the commune Tate of principle toe work and again, ca mutate of just meaning that the order of the layers doesn't matter. So let me changes back to lighten only so that both layers have the lightened only layer most selected. So again, no change here and let me now actually switch this to a layer mo that is not communicative just for demonstration purposes. So must wish this to dodge, so both of these will be set to dodge. Now, if I switch the order of the layers, you'll see the final result is slightly different. And so that's why the Dodge Lair mode is not communicative. I'm gonna get more until what the Dodge later mode is in a second. But I just wanted to demonstrate what a noncommunicative layer mode waas. All right, so now that I've demonstrated that I'm going to switch this to the next layer mode which is actually loom a or luminous lighten on. Lee Emma. Switch this one back to normal. So loom. A luminous lighten on Lee is actually very similar to lighten on Lee. The result is almost exactly the same, except it's keeping the lighter pixel value between the top and bottom layers based on the loom a or luminous value of the layer, as opposed to just using whatever pixel value is lighter, so the difference between luminous and lightness is very minute. Luminess is actually a unit of perceived brightness, and that is taking into account both hue and lightness. So color is factored in here as well as lightness. Whereas lightness itself is obviously just lightness, it's only one variable, so you'll see. The main difference here is that luminous is also taking into account the brightness of a color. Hopefully, that makes sense for you guys. So to sum that up a little bit more simply, the layer mode is still just picking out which pixel is the brighter of the two pixels from the top or the bottom layer. But it's also factoring in the brightness of the color as well. So the next layer mode is screen, so I'm just gonna change this to screen, and I think it's important to go through the equation of this lawyer mode because it does play a pretty big role in how this effect is created. So bear with me hear screen inverts the value of all pixels between the two layers that are being blended so it takes the pixel value from this top layer and then multiplies that value by the inverse of the pixel value of the bottom layer. So after it multiplies, those two values then takes that value and divide it by 2 55 and you'll remember to 55 is the value assigned toe white, and the inverse is then taken from that final value. To simplify all that craziness from that formula, the values are inverted, divided and then inverted again. And the final product is an overall lightened image because basically what happens with all of that is that most of the dark pixels or the black pixels are taken out of the layer. So you'll see here. After we applied that screen layer mode to this top layer, pretty much all of those dark pixels have been removed, including the black pixels from here and what you're left with is an overall brighter looking image. So if I set this back to normal, this was a pretty dark image compared to what the final result was and let me set this back to screen. So that is screened out all the dark colors, and I've used this layer mode in other tutorials where I'm trying to get rid of the black background out of an image, this quickly will remove a black background from an image. This is another commune Tate of layer mode, which means if I add this layer mode screen to the bottom layer and I switched the order of these, you'll see that the final result is the same. No matter what order they're in, I'll change us back to the normal layer mode. Same with the bottom layer. Our next layer mode is dodge, So let me click on our top layer and change the limo to Dodge. And this was the example we used as the noncommunicative layer mode because the order of this does matter for the final result. But Daja lightens or inverts colors on the layer, and we're gonna get into the formula here briefly so the Dodge layer mode lightens or inverts colors on a layer by multiplying the pixels on the bottom layer by 2 56 and dividing that number by the inverse of the top layer. So give actually admits that the Dodge Layer mode actually works a little bit better with something like the paint tool. There also is a Dodge burn tool, so there's a tool dedicated to dodge, and then burn is Thea counterpart to Dodge. It actually does the opposite of Dodge, and we're gonna get into that a little bit later. But just keep in mind that you can use this as a layer mode, but gimp actually recommends using it in a tool instead. So essentially all you need to know about the Dodge Layer mode is that it is going toe. Lighten your image overall, so dodging was used in dark rooms to brighten areas of an image by decreasing the exposure of the film negative. And that sounds like a mouthful. But basically all you need to know about film negatives and how it relates to gimp here is that a film negative produced the opposite in the actual photo, So if you decreased exposure in a film negative. It would cause an increase in exposure in the final photo and hearing gimp. They're trying to emulate that dodging process by brightening your photo right. So moving on to our next layer mode, I'm going to add addition to our top layer. So let me change the layer mode from Dodge to addition, and you'll see this also lightens the layer. This is the last of our lighten layer types, and what this does is it's adding the pixel value from the top layer to the pixel value from the bottom layer. And any pixel values from that equation that exceed 2 55 are going to be turned into a pure white pixel. And this is going to brighten our image overall, because if you think about it, remember, pixel values that are closer to zero are going to be darker, and pixel values that are closer to 2 55 are gonna be white or they're gonna be lighter. So by adding the pixel values from the bottom and the top layer, you are essentially increasing every single pixel value across the board. Unless, of course, it's a pure black. So if you have pure black on pure black. It's just going to stay black 0.0 And this layer mode is also a commune Tate of layer mode . So again, if I add edition to the bottom layer as well, and then I swap these, you'll see there's no change to this, so it doesn't matter. The order of the layers here is going to produce the same effect no matter what. 19. Darken Layer Mode Types: all right, so next we're going to get into the dark and layer mo type. So all of these layer modes were about to go over are going to dark in your image. Overall, I'm gonna start with the 1st 1 which is probably the simplest, and that is the dark and Onley layer mode. So let me come over here to our top layer and change the layer mode here too dark and only so you'll see That's obviously a lot darker oven image. Then the lightened only so there's lightened only here's dark and only so this layer mode is actually the opposite of the lightened only lair mode. Because instead of keeping the lighter of the two pixels between the top and bottom layers , it's only going to keep the darker of the two pixels between those two layers. So if I hold control and zoom in with my mouse, all of the leftover pixels here from this equation are the darkest of the pixels, and let me just do the comparison. So if I switch this to normal and then hide this layer, you'll see that these pixels are pretty dark. Thes pixels here are pretty light And then if I, um, hide this layer, these pixels are pretty light. Most of these pixels are fairly dark here. Thes pixels right here. Fairly bright where you see some white here. So when I add the dark and Onley layer mo to this, you'll see the lips. The pixels from the lips here are darker than the pixels from the knows that we're right here. But the pixels from the shadow of the nose or actually darker. So those are what were kept right here. So that's what the dark and only later mo does. It does create kind of a weird, spiced final image if I put an all white layer here. So if I create a new layer, keep the name color and I'm gonna change the fill with theaux white and click. OK, so right now, this layer most set to lighten only if I select dark and only here it's not going to keep any of the pixels from this layer because all of the pixels from the white layer are white . And that's obviously the lightest a pixel can be. And this layer mode is only keeping the darkest pixels. You also see here that I have three layers stacked, and they are all actually interacting with one another. Technically speaking, a layer mode is only going to interact with the layer below it. But if that layer below, it also has a layer mode that is going to interact with layer below it. And so that's how you're going to get all three of these to be interacting with one another . So let me just delete this layer. The next layer mode is essentially the same, and that is the Lumen Luminant Stark and Onley layer. So you'll see that that created almost the same exact result. Except that is producing the darkest pixel between the top and bottom layers based on the loom a or luminous value. So it's not just taking into account the lightness or brightness of a pixel. It's also taking into account the perceived brightness of a color within that pixel. So it does just produced a slightly different effect, although the effects are very similar. So next I'm gonna change this to our layer mode, multiply so this multiplies the pixel values of the upper layer with those of the layer below it, and then divides the result by 2 55 So if you think about what this lair mode is doing from a mathematical standpoint, let's say your top pixel value is 10 and your bottom pixel value is 25. So it's multiplying these together, which is going to give you 2 50 And then you divide that by 2 55 and that's gonna give you a little less than one, and a little less than one means it's very close to zero. And remember, zero is black. So what it did is it took these two pixel values. 10 and 25 plugged him into this formula, and it created a lower number. So between 10 and 25 you get a little less than one, which is less than both of those values we just plugged in. So what this equation is doing is is creating darker pixels overall across the board because it's shrinking the value of all of these pixels, and the smaller the value of the pixel is the darker that pixel is gonna be. So an important thing to know is that if one of these layers is black, so let me just add a new layer here, and we'll set the name to color will fill this with transparency for now and let me grab my foreground tool. Choose black and fill in this layer with black, using my book it fill tool and let me change the layer mode of this over to loom alumina and stark. And on Lee, you'll see the final result is gonna be all black whenever we as black as our layer. And that's because every pixel value of the black layer is going to be 00 times. Anything is zero, and you can't divide in zero. So basically, you're just always left over with black for every pixel between both images. White, on the other hand, so I'll just turn this value over the white. You'll see that's just going to create basically a completely transparent layer. We'll just go ahead and delete that layer, and the next layer mo we're gonna use is burn. And, as I mentioned, Burns the counterpart to Dodge and so pretty much all the same rules apply to burn, except it does the opposite as to what Dodge does. So instead of brightening the images going to darken it so again. This limo was born from the technique used in the dark room film days when you were trying to in this case, decreased the exposure in your final image by increasing the exposure in your film negative . And so basically, the burn tool is emulating that through its formula, and the final result is going to be an overall. Dark and image are so moving on our next layer mode is the linear burn layer mode. So let me switch my layer mode here toe linear burn. This is actually very similar to the multiply layer mode, so you'll see the difference is only a very slight here between the two. Linear burn takes the bottom layers pixel value plus the top layers pixel value, then subtracts 2 55 So instead of multiplying the two pixel values together from the top and bottom layer and then dividing by 2 55 you're adding those to pixel values together and then subtracting by 2 55 you're getting a slightly different final pixel value. But in essence for both the multiply and the linear burned lair modes, you are getting a darker image. Overall, 20. Contrast Layer Mode Types: All right, so next we're gonna get into the contrast layer types. So I'm gonna start here with our top layer and would change the MO to overly. So what overlay does is it uses a lengthy equation. And this equation is a combination of multiply and screen. And the result of this is it makes your lights lighter. And to make sure dark, starker, it's gonna make your mid tones basically unchanged, So this is mostly going affect the contrast of your image. Hence whites in the contrast layer type. But you'll see, like in this case, that it's also affecting the brightness of the image. So the image has become a little bit brighter overall. And I think the overall look of your final image that's being produced is going to depend on how maney dark pixels air in your image and how many light pixels. Aaron your image because again it's making those dark starker and those lights lighter. Next is the soft light layer amount. So let me change this to soft light. So this layer mode is actually very similar to overlay on. Lee is going to make your final image look a little bit softer and a little bit less bright . The equation for this layer mode is pretty complicated because it uses its own lengthy equation and then adds to that the equation from the screen mode. When you're using a color like white with this limos, let me add a new layer here. Change the layer mode too soft light. And then I'm gonna fill this with white, and I'll click OK and let me change the layer mode of this top layer that normal. So when you're using a color like white, it's essentially creating a diffused light so you'll see that. Let me just turn the opacity down on this so you'll see that the overall photo here looks a little bit softer, but it's also a little bit lighter. So it's sort of like using a diffused light on your subject and let me hide this layer so you could see this in action with lower layer. So if I hide this white layer, you'll see that the photo is a little bit darker. And then if I just unhygienic layer, you'll see it's a little softer and a little bit brighter here, so it's almost like we had a very bright, diffused soft light going on in the photo, so I'll just delete that white layer and then untied that top layer. So I should mention that overlay and soft light actually used to be the same exact Lerma. They produce the same exact effect in older versions of gimp, but they updated these two layer most for game 2.10 so that the effects between the two are now slightly different. So our next layer mode in gimp is called hard light, and it actually uses to separate methods, depending on the pixel value within the image. So if the pixel value of the top layer is greater than 1 28 so this is all the brighter pixels, it's going to use one equation. And then, if the pixel values are lower than 1 28 in that top layer, it's going to use another equation. So basically, it's going to depend on whether it's a brighter pixel or a darker pixel. The type of equation that's used and what this ends up doing is it makes the darker pixels even darker, and it makes the brighter pixels even brighter. So this layer mode is very similar to overlay in that it uses a combination of multiply and screen. Except the final equation for hard light is a little bit different than overlay, so it's going to produce a slightly different result. But what it's going to do is it's going to either add shadows or highlights, steer image again, depending on that pixel value. And when your top layer is a color other than black and white, let's say like an orange or something, it's going to produce what looks like a hard spotlight. Hence the name hard light for the Slayer mode. So let me go ahead and demonstrate here. So start by setting this top layer to the hard light layer mo just so you guys can see. So as you can see the lighter pixels here, the pixels with values above 1 28 have been made even brighter. So that's made her forehead really bright here and then the darker pixels, which would be like her hair, have become even darker, and that just applies across the entire image. Here, let me set this back to normal, and I'm actually going to create a new layer, and I think it's going to be more efficient to demonstrate this with a color. And I'm gonna change the mode here too hard light. And I'm just going to fill this with transparency for now. Click. OK, so let's start with ingredients. So I have my Grady and Tool selected here, and I just click this icon to reset my colors to black and white. And now I'm going to draw this grading from the top left to the bottom, right. So the top left had black as my color in the bottom right had white. I'll hit the enter key so you could see that the pixels got darker, where I had the black color and where it's pure black in the Grady int. The colors just turned up your black and then same over here with white. And then the mid tones over here sort of almost disappeared or just really don't have much effect, and Aiken decrease the opacity, so this is decreasing it all the way to see it before. And then if I slowly increase that, you can see what this is doing, so that's using black and white. But let me get rid of that color layer and create a new one, so I'll keep the same settings. I'll set the Moto hard light again and click OK this time. Let's go with the bucket fill tool and let me just choose a color. Let's go with blue for now and fill this in. So this is making this layer look as if it has a spotlight that is a blue color light on the photo. Let me take Control Z. I think it actually might be better to demonstrate with the greedy and tool again and let me change the color here to foreground transparent. So that way we have a blue going into a transparency and I'm gonna change the shape here. It's a radio, and now you could see our spotlight here looks like a blue spotlight on our image wherever we move this and I could try to change the color here, So let's go with more of an orange. So same thing here just looks like a pretty harsh spotlight. It actually eyes easier to tell with this warmer color here, and I'll hit enter. So that's what the hard light looks like here. And let's just go back and compare that to the soft light real quick. So there's the soft light, much softer, more diffused look. And here's the hard light, much harsher light, and it looks more like a spotlight there. So our next layer mode, which is vivid light, is actually similar to hard light. Except that's going to apply a color dodge two colors that are lighter than 50% great, or just the lighter colors, lighter pixels and our image, or is going Teoh. Apply a color burn two colors that are darker than 50% gray, so that's just the darker pixels in our image. So whenever the color dodge is applied, that's going to decrease the contrast in your image. Whenever the color burn is applied, it's going to increase the contrast in our image. So this is just working on the contrast of our top image here, and it's going to blend that into the bottom image. So let me demonstrate, so I'll just delete this color layer, and I'm on my top layer here. So let me come over to mode and change the mode of this too vivid light. So as you can see similar to the hard light, the lighter pixels have taken on a lighter value, and in this case they just turned almost two pure white. And then the darker pixels have just become darker. Except in this case, it is more applied to the contrast of these colors. So there's a lot more contrast in the darker areas and a lot less and lighter areas. So our next layer mode is penlight, and that's going to apply the darken and lighten layer modes to our pixels, depending on whether or not it is again a lighter pixel lighter than 50% great or a darker pixel darker than 50% gray. So the lighter pixels will receive the lighten layer mode, and the darker pixels will receive the darkened Lemos, so again making our lights lighter in making our dark starker and the mid tones or the middle gray parts of our image. So those air the pixels that are right at 50% gray. Those are just going to disappear altogether. So let me come over here and change the layer mode of the top layer, and I'll change this to pin light. So again, our lights are lighter. So the lighter part of her forehead is much lighter now. The darks are darker again, looking at the hair, and in this case, with this layer mode, all of the middle great colors have been removed. And let me change is back to normal, and I'm going to create a new layer. And this time I'm going to change the layer mo to pin light, and I'll click OK and using our blend tool with black and white selected. And let me make sure that I change the blend mode here to foreground a background. And so now I'm going to draw this and you'll see our darks get darker wherever there's black, the middle gray part of the image. So that's the middle of the blend. Wherever black is turning, toe white just disappears altogether. And then as we get towards white again, it's going to use that lighten layer mode. So hit enter. So this is the effect created by this greedy in using this pin light layer mode and actually let me just demonstrate this with the vivid light layer mode since I didn't do that before, So here you'll see the bottom right corner. There's a lot less contrast, but its a lot brighter. And in the top left corner where we had black, there's a lot more contrast, but it's also a little bit darker, So let me change this layer mode back to pin light. The next layer mode is linear light, and this again is very similar to the other layer modes we've been going through. And that is that It makes our lights lighter in our dark starker. Except this time, whenever the pixels are lighter than middle gray, lighter than 50% middle gray, it's going Teoh use linear dodge. And whenever our pixels are darker than 50% middle gray, it's going to use linear burn. And this, of course, is either going to lighten or darken our existing pixels in that top layer that we're blending. So let's come over to our composition and for this one, I'm just going to keep this color layer here, and I'm just going to change the layer mode to linear light. So up here in the top left, we have linear burn, and down here we have linear dodge, and that's making our darks less bright and making our lights more bright. And I can hide this color mode and apply the layer mode to our top image here just to see what this looks like. And we've got pretty much the same thing. Brighter pixels wherever we had, pixel values that were greater than 50% middle gray and less bright pixels wherever we had pixel values less than 50% middle gray, and I'll just change this layer mode back to normal. So the last layer mode for this section of the lair Mose is called hard mix, and what this does is it adds all of the pixel values between red, green and blue of the top pixel and the bottom pixel. And if that value is greater than 255 it's going to just set that value at 2 55 And if that value is less than 2 55 you'll just set that value to zero. And what that's going to do is it's going to make all of your red, green and blue pixel values set to either to 55 or zero, thus making all of the pixel values in your image what's called a primary additive. And that's really like a pure form of red, green or blue. So let me demonstrate. This year, if I come over here to our top layer and I changed this too hard mix, you'll see that our colors here have become either a pure white or you could see here. There's like pure blue, pure teal, a lot of pure colors in here, reds, oranges, colors of that nature. And if I just changed this back to normal and let me just delete this color layer here and create a new one so we'll just again said this to color. But we're going to change the layer mode here too hard mix and click OK, and now let's change our blend here or our foreground in our background color. So we've got blue and let's go with a contrast in color. So let's go with more of an orange or an orangish yellow. I'll click OK and using a blend tool again and making sure this is set to fade to our foreground to background colors. I'm just going to draw this Grady it now, and you'll see. Remember, in the top left, we had that blue color, so now these have become pure blue, and then the middle graze have become sort of a pure white when they're mixed in with the very bright pixels of this original image, the top layer image. And then down here, everything starts to become a pure yellow, pretty much or pure red, so basically tones of this orange or just colors that are nearby on the color wheel. So I hit enter, so that just creates a very interesting mix of colors there. So now I'm just going to delete this color layer. 21. Inversion Layer Mode Types: as we head into the next section of our layer modes. And that is the inversion section, starting with difference and what this layer mo does and bear with me on the explanation here is it's going to take the absolute value of the top pixel layer values minus the bottom pixel layer values. So what that's going to do essentially is it's going to take the top layer minus the bottom layer, and then it's going to just make that number a positive, even if that's a negative. So let's say that you do you know 1 50 minus two fifties to get negative 100 as the final pixel value. By taking the absolute value of that negative 100 number, you're going to get 100. And what this layer mode does essentially is it's going to invert a lot of the colors, if not most of the colors so coming over here to our composition. If I change the mode of this to difference, you'll see we have a lot of inverted color. So wherever we had dark pixels and pixels that were black or close to black, we now have white or close toe white and then same with the brighter pixels. Those now become closer to a black color, and this layer mode could be useful. Let's say when you're trying to realign an image, So let me set this layer mood back to normal and duplicate this layer. And now I'm going to change the layer mode of that top layer to difference. So when all of the pixels are aligned, it's just going to create a pure black image. But if I grab my move tool and I move this image a little bit to the right, you'll see that some of the picks will start to show up again. So this is how you'll know that this image has been aligned using this difference mode, and I don't recommend trying to align images by handless. You absolutely have to. You can always use the alignment tool here so I can just click on this top layer and just a line relative to image and align these images up with one another. And now this comes back to black, so I'll just delete that top layer the next Layer Motors called exclusion, and it's almost exactly the same as difference. Except it's just a more mild form. So, like difference, it's going to create inverted colors. What? The colors are just not gonna be as intense. So if I come over here and change the layer mode to exclusion, you'll see we still have inverted colors here. They're just not as intense. And let me just change us back to normal again. Duplicate this and change the layout mode of the top two exclusion. You'll see that this technique doesn't work really with this layer mode here because we don't produce an absolute black. So let me just delete that. So our next layer mode is subtract, and as the name implies, it does pretty much the exact opposite of the addition layer mode. So it's going to subtract the top layer pixel value from the bottom layer pixel value, and any pixel that is less than zero is just going to be set to black. And so this is going to create a darker image. But it's also going to invert the image. So coming over here to our composition, I'll set the top layer here to be subtract layer mode. And as you could see, it not only makes the composition darker overall, but it also inverts a lot of the colors here, and that's why this is within our inversion layer. Modes are next layer mode is grain extract, and this layer mode subtracts the pixel value of the upper layer from that of the lower layer and then adds 1 28 to that. So this produces an image that is pure grain or, in other words, is all of the film green extracted from the top image. So if I click on grain extract, all that is left on that top layer is going to be the pure grain. And when using two different images, like in this case, you could see it's going to create an inverted effect. Hence why this is within the inversion layer modes. But if we use the same image, so let me just duplicate this top layer, and I'm going to change the original layer back to normal. At first, this is going to create more of a great image. You could see when I move this top layer over a little bit is going to definitely show the graininess created by this layer moan, and in fact, this looks very similar to the high pass filter, which is found by going to filters enhance high pass. This is sort of the look that you're going to get using that filter so our next layer mode is called grain merge, and it is similar to great extract. Except instead of adding the top and bottom layer pixel values and then adding 1 28 to that , it's going to subtract the top and bottom layer pixel values and then subtract 1 28 from that final value. So this limo really works best when you take a composition such as this one that we created using the green extract layer mode and you add that on top of an image and then apply the grain Mergel Eramo to this composition here or this top layer image. And let me demonstrate that for you real quick, cause that's kind of confusing. So here I've got our composition that has the green extract applied to it. If I click and drag this over here to our original image and just dropped this on top of the image, you'll see our top layer is now that grain extract layer. And so I can just rename this green extract layer. So if I take this layer that has the green extract on it and I changed the layer, motivate to grain merge. It's going to merge this grain extract layer with the original bottom image layer, and that is just basically going to create a grainy looking image. As you can see, this image looks a lot greener than it did before. So here's the before, and here's and after, and this almost gives this image like a 19 seventies vintage film look. So I suppose that's one application for this. If you want to make photos, look a little bit aged or almost like they were taken on a film camera aren't so navigating back to our original composition here. I'm just going to delete this top layer copy. Our next layer mode is divided in this multiplies each pixel value in the top layer by 2 56 and then divides that by the corresponding pixel value of the lower layer plus one. So this is all a very complicated equation, but at the end of the day, all it does is it creates a burned out looking image or what it also does is it will take a color tint that's in your image and go ahead and minus that. Cullerton's out. So it effectively removes Cullerton's from your image, and I'll demonstrate that here with our top image. So using this top layer as a reference, I'm gonna create a new layer, and I'll change the layer mode of this to divide. And I'm just gonna fill this with transparency for now on click. OK, now I'm going to take my foreground color, grab my color picker tool, and I'm just going to choose a color from the wall back here and you'll see it's sort of an off white color. And let's say that the reason I'm doing this is I want the wall toe look a little bit more like a pure white, so I'll click OK here, and then I'm gonna use my bucket filled tool and just fill this color layer in with that off white color and you'll see that what that's done, since every color layer is set to the divide mode is it's removed that tint from the back wall there, and so it's made our whites look more like a pure white and So this is just improved the color of the image overall, assuming you want to get rid of a certain color tint in an image and let me hide these two layers and perform the same action with the bottom layer, so create a new layer. Keep the layer mode set to divide and click OK, and let's say I want to remove the bluish tint. From here, I can grab my foreground color and with my color picker tool. Just choose the white in here by the ocean or whatever body of water this is. And so what this is going to do, essentially is it's going to take this off white color, and it's going to make it a more of a pure white color. And I think the color I grab was a bit too. Yeah, it looks like I grabbed if you're white, so let me just grab a car that's got a little bit of blue in it and using my bucket fill tool. Fill this in and you'll see that's remove some of the blue tint from this bottom image here . So now just delete these color layers and on hide our top layer 22. Component Layer Mode Types: all right. So finally, with our layer modes, we're getting into the last section, and that is going to be the components section of our layer modes. And the first layer mode in this section is going to be HSV Hugh, and what this is going to do is take the hue from our top layer and combine it with the saturation and value of the bottom layer. So in layman's terms, this combines the color of our top layer with the intensity and brightness of the bottom layer. So coming back to our composition, I'll create a new layer of course named Color, and I'm going to come down HSV hue and I'll click OK, and let me just change this to a random color. Let's go with this red color here, so in theory, it should make everything a sort of red tint while keeping the brightness and the intensity of the colors below. So I'll fill that in with red. So as you could see, everything's got a red tint here. Her skin is looking a little bit more. Read the wall. Everything has a red tints, but the intensity of the colors and the brightness of the colors have remained the same. So this is one effective way to re color our photos or our artwork within gimp. So some of the layer modes within the component section are going to re color your work, whereas other layer modes in this section are simply going Teoh, adjust the intensity or the brightness or the purity of our colors. And, of course, you're going to see that as we get into this One last note about the HSV Hugh, is that this is useful when you just want to change the color of your image or your layer, and you don't want to change any other properties within this image or layer. I'm gonna keep this red color here for our next layer mode, and that is going to be HSV saturation. So what this does is it keeps the saturation of our top layer while keeping the hue in the value of the bottom layer. So, as you could see, what this does is it intensifies the saturation of all of our colors across the board in this image, and that can create some funky results here. So anything that had a tint, for example, this had, I guess, a yellowish tint to it. This one had a bluish tint and just so on, with the colors throughout its going to intensify, The saturation of those tends to make them as saturated as the colors and the layer on top . So in this case, since we had a very saturated red as our top layer, it's just gone ahead and made everything supersaturated in the layer below. And if I hide, this top layer is going to blend with this bottom layer here, and same thing applies here. Everything just becomes a very saturated version of itself. So this layer mode is useful when you want to change the intensity of the colors within the image without changing the actual colors or the lightness or darkness of the colors within that image. So next layer mode is H SL color, and it's easy to overlook the fact that this is a chess L color, not HSV color. So the L stands for lightness, so this takes the hue and saturation from your top layer and combines that with the lightness of the bottom layer. And this is useful when you're re coloring black and white photos So a lot of those tutorials on how to re color a black and white photograph are going to use this letter mode . Or at least it should in some way. So let me demonstrate here on a black and white photo I'm gonna go to file and in my case, open recent because I opened this photo recently. So this is just an image of an old Mercedes. Obviously, this has color to it right now. So not super effective in what I'm trying to demonstrate. But I'll just turn this into a black and white image by going to color's de saturate de saturate and I d saturate this based on luminous and click. OK, so now we have a black and white car here. Let's say I want to make this car the red color we've been using so created new layer and I'm going to change the layer motive this to h sl color and I'm going to fill this with our foreground color, which is going to be our red right here, and I'll click. OK, so now you'll see our entire car has turned into this red color. If I wanted to just color certain parts of this car. I could right. Click and add a layer mask and under initialized layer mask to I can click black and then make sure this invert mask option is unchecked and click Add. So now that's completely hidden. Our red layer and I can grab a paintbrush here, switch the colors the black and white and switch my foreground color toe white. And now, wherever I paint white on this layer mask is going to paint our car red. And, of course, this car was already read in the original image, So maybe it's not as exciting. So let me change this, actually to green, grab our bucket, fill tool click on our original layer and Phyllis in with green instead. And now our red Mercedes is a bright green color. So grab our paint brush tool again. Switch the colors back to black and white, switch the foreground color back toe white and continue painting. All right, so I'll just leave that, as is for now, just for the sake of time. But you could see how useful this H SL color layer mode can really be when you're trying to re color your black and white artwork. So let's move on to HSB value, which you'll notice is switch back to HSB from HS. Also, we're dealing with hue saturation value again. What this will do is it will take the value of the top layer and combine that with the hue and saturation from the bottom layer. And so I'll show you what kind of effect this will produce by coming back over to our original composition. So I'll change this color layer Teoh the HSV value so value is basically the lightness of the layer. So because this is a very light color, it's turning our bottom layer here to a very light image, while so maintaining the overall hue and saturation of the image. And if I run, hide the top layer, you'll see it will perform the same thing. So let me hide this. Here's a before here's an after so this is a much lighter image, but the hues and saturation is overall are still pretty much the same. So the next layer modes on Here are the LCH lair. Most these ey're still component layer modes. The difference is that they use a different color space, so instead of using hue, saturation value or hue saturation lightness. They're gonna use lightness, Kromah and Hugh. So lightness is most similar to value Chroma, most similar to saturation and hue is, of course, the same. It's still Hugh Kromah and saturation differ because chroma is more of the purity of the color, and it also incorporates the saturation of the color, whereas saturation is more so just the intensity of the color. And so these air going to perform the same things as the hue, saturation value layer modes. Except, of course, it's going to affect the lightness Kromah and Hugh values of our layers. So let's dive into the first layer mode, which is the LCH you. So this is going to keep the hue of the top layer while keeping the lightness in the chroma of the bottom layer. So as you could see, it still has a red tint, much like HSV Hugh did, except the tents are different. So here's HSV Hugh, so it's almost like a darker red. And then here is the LCH. You so still a red hue, but it's just a slightly less intense Hugh there. So here's before without the tent at all. And here's after and now let's switch this layer mode to LCH chroma so very similar to HSV saturation. Except instead of keeping the saturation of our top layer, which is our red color, it's going to keep the chroma or the purity of that red color. And it's going Teoh, sign that purity value to the hue and the lightness from the layer below. So you get those very pure yellows and blues, since there were tense of these colors before. And of course, the more pure colors here in the skin tones. And then next we have the LCH color. So this is going to be similar to hs l color except instead of hue, saturation lightness were using lightness, Kromah and Hugh. So the main difference is going to be using chroma instead of saturation for this one. So here it is, applied to our red layer on our top layer. And if I come back over here to our black and white Mercedes, this layer mode is actually used for the same purpose as H SL color, so it's great for re coloring black and white photos. You're just going to get a slightly different color out of it. So I'll come over here and change the layer mode to LCH color. So here we're going to get a sort of a darker green here, as opposed to that lighter green when using h sl color and let's come back over to our original composition. And we're gonna change this now to LCH lightness. So we are keeping the lightness of the top layer with the chroma and the hue of the bottom layer. So in this case, the effect is kind of strange, and that's because the lightness of this red, I suppose, is not super light. If I change this to our white color hair, so a pure white, you'll see it's going to be a lot lighter. And so it's combining this very light top layer with our Kromah and our hue from the bottom layer. And last but not least, we have our lair mode, Lew Minutes, so this uses the luminous from the top layer and combines it with the hue and chroma from the bottom layer, and this will actually create an inverse result, as would the LCH color layer mode. And I'll demonstrate that in a second It's also going to be only a slightly different result from the LCH lightness layer mode, the reason being that lightness and luminous are actually very similar. But if you'll remember from earlier in this tutorial, Luminant is actually a unit of perceived brightness, whereas lightness is basically just going to be brightness. Those were almost anonymous terms there, but Luminant is also going to use a little bit of a hue value there, since Hughes do have naturally a little bit illuminates to them. So luminous again is perceived brightness, so it's going to differ only slightly from lightness. So let me come over here and demonstrate all of those. So here we have our white color layer and I'm just gonna change the mode from ruminants to LCH color. So you could see that the LCH color is an inverse lair mode to the loom in its lair mode. And now I'm just going to change this to LCH lightness. So there's lightness and there's limits and the results are different. But they're just slightly different there, so hopefully that helps you distinguish the different LCH limos from one another, especially comparing lightness to Lou Minutes and luminess to LCH color